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Milan Bjelogrlie Electric Power Board of Serbia Belgrade, Yugoslavia Milan S. CaloviC Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Belgrade Belgrade, Yugoslavia Petar RistanoviC, member IEEE Institute Nikola Tesla Belgrade, Yugoslavia Borivoje S. BabiC Electric Power Board of Serbia Be 1grade, Yugoslavia

Abstract. This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It i s characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed.A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy i s also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This proces based on the sensitivity theory applied to the dure i determination of zones for the secondary voltage/ reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states. Keywords: optimal power flow, voltage control, reactive power generation dispatch, reactive security.

The complexity of the voltage/VAR control in the extended and basic real-time, requires both the space and time decomposition of the overall voltage/VAR control problem. The space decomposition follows the natural multi-level hierarchy of a power system and the predominantly local nature of the voltage/VAR control problem, while the time decomposition performs the time separation of various control mode responses attributed to the particular system hierarchy levels. There is a good three-level matching of the natural hierarchy of the voltage/VAR control in a power system from both the time-scale and space decomposition point of view, as illustrated in the following table: Control action Characteristic mode Attributed to Primary Fast Resource unit Secondary Slow Part of the network Tertiary Very slow Entire network


The control of voltages, reactive generations/consumptions and line flows represents one of the most important activities in the operation of modern power systems. This control is known as the "voltage/reactive power" or "voltage/VAR" control. The main objective of this control can be generally regarded as an attempt to achieve an overall improvement of the system security, service quality and economy. System security requires adequate voltage levels and reactive reserves in order to prevent voltage stability crises and to maintain the system integrity when critical contingencies occur. The service quality and economy require appropriate voltage control at all system nodes and consumer terminals within tolerable limits, in order to insure adequate reactive line flows which result in minimal active transmission losses. Two principal aspects of the voltage/VAR control problem are related to the power system planning and operation. The former includes the planning of system reactive demands and control facilities as well as the installation of the reactive power control resources, while the latter encompasses the operation of the existing voltage/VAR resources and control devices. In this paper we consider the second aspect of the problem, namely the voltage/VAR scheduling and dispatch.

Three hierarchical levels of the time-decomposition are aimed at coordinating the control of the local, subsystem and overall system disturbances, having different response times. The primary control compensates for small and fast local voltage and reactive power disturbances, and i s performed through automatic voltage regulators (AVRs) of the primary control resources. The secondary control i s the slow control superimposed on the spontaneous primary action of AVRs of synchronous machines and ULTC transformers. It acts through the modification of input reference values on AVRs in order to achieve a satisfactory coordination of regiona l voltage/VAR controls. The very slow tertiary control deals with the coordination of decentralized secondary controllers, made for the whole power system. It should be pointed out that the secondary and tertiary controls can be carried out as a unique central control, opposed to the local primary control. Such an approach has been suggested in this paper. From the practical standpoint the voltage/VAR control at the second and third level can be performed according to three basic approaches [11 as follows:
- decentralized control - centralized control - hierarchical control

The hierarchical control [1,21 is best suited to insure the necessary coordination requirements of the local and/or regional voltage/VAR control regulators. In that respect, two important questions arise:
1. Reference-input values determination on local

AVRs, according to the requirements of security
and economy of the system operation. 2. Realization of an automatic voltage/VAR control maintaining these desired references. This paper deals with the first of the above mentioned problems. The second one is considered in detail in [1,21. The concept of modern computer-based energy management systems (EMS), with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and state estimation (SE) functions, enable the application of up to date software systems aimed at the support of the real-time voltage/ /VAR control, being assisted by new mathematical algorithms and practical optimization procedures that satisfy requirements of the real-time voltage/VAR control functions [3-81.

CH2747-4/89/0000-0105$1 . O O O 1989 IEEE

It should be pointed out that the concept proposed in this paper incorporates only synchronous generators and condensers into the secondary voltage/VAR control. 2. with the description of the software package are presented in this paper. or on operator request in case of disturbances. 6.lll are applied. In case of large deviations of the actual regimes in comparison to the scheduled ones. Control resources are defined by using the sensitivity matrix of the pilot-node voltage to reactive outputs of control resources. periodic checks of security and economy requirements on system level should be performed in normal operating states. Certain simulation test results on the example of the Yugoslav transmission network are also included. b) The outputs of voltageNAR optimization simulations become practically usable schedules to be applied by the system operators in the real-time environment. It is described in the next section.It presents a new voltage/VAR control concept. Depending on the relative amount of the disturbance. This paper is meant to contribute to the aforementioned ideas. is included into secondary control inside each of the control zones. Also. the size of the zone that will participate in disturbance compensation can be flexibly defined. imply the hierarchical. The determination of the control zones is based on the w e g a t i o n of strongly coupled nodes into homogeneous groups in regard to the voltage/VAR performance. possibility of an adaptive and flexible zone sizing depending on the severity of the actual disturbance. by readjusting reference inputs on their AVRs. participation in the secondary voltageNAR control of the regulating facilities with prevailing influence on the voltageNAR conditions in a particular zone. with the basic size and the enlarged zone boundaries. The application of the structural analysis approach is also possible [121. multi-level approach to its solution. 2. otherwise not. in respect of the particular characteristics of the considered zone (network configuration. operating states. reactive resources and regulating devices. branches. rated capacities of control resources. If the sensitivity coefficient of a particular source node is greater than a previously specified value. It can be stated in the following way: Minimize scalar nonseparable objective function 106 . which leads to suboptimal solutions [91. requires that data be available for all network nodes. The elements of this matrix are the sensitivity coefficients of node voltages for changes in VARs injected at load nodes. by reducing the number of control variables within each zone to the resources included only into the secondary control.For the definition of control zones. this source should be included into the set of zonal regulating resources. the final step being when the zone encompasses the entire system transmission network. 2 . with scalar nonlinear nonseparable objective function and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. a large power system has to be decomposed into smaller regions.aries by changing these thresholds. assuming the availability of the primary voltage/VAR control only. For system operators in the large power systems it is almost impossible to perform all these controls in a satisfactory short time period. The local character of the great part of voltage/VAR disturbances enables their elimination by coordinating actions of regulating facilities in the part of the system where they appeared. This fact implies the reduction of the set of simultaneous controls to those having the dominant influence on the solution of the problem. according to a priority sequence. 5. A two-level hierarchy i s proposed here. under both normal and emergency The optimal reactive power flow problem can be expressed mathematically as general nonlinear programming problem. it i s possible to include these resources into the secondary control. A computer program has been developed to support the specified concept of real-time secondary vo1tageNAR control. division of the entire power system into control zones with their own secondary voltage/VAR resources and facilities. for the purpose of the secondary control. belonging to the zone characterized by this pilot node. heuristic approaches [21 and algorithms based on the application of the sensitivity theory [lO. made in the operational planning stage. This results in a double benefit: a) The decentralized voltageNAR optimization on the level of each zone decreases the required computation time. 4. assumption of the availability of SCADA and SE funct ions. type of regulating devices etc). having the dominant influence on voltageNAR conditions. supported by an efficient software package based on Newton's OPF. As the size of a zone depends on the specified thresholds of coupling coefficient of any node to the pilot node. called "zones". Good performances of the method and hopeful prospects for its further practical implementation are shown. periodical operation of the control algorithm in the normal operating stages. A model and algorithm of the proposed method. It uses the sensitivity matrix for determining the zone pilot nodes. In order to determine the control zones the algorithm proposed in Reference [lo1 is used. The local character of the voltageNAR control problem suggests that. Following these ideas the hierarchical concept of system voltage/VAR control proposed in this paper is based on the: 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE OPTIMAL REACTIVE POWER FLOW THE CONCEPT OF THE SECONDARY VOLTAGEnAR CONTROL The complexity of the voltageNAR control problem. Their control parameters are adjusted on the basis of off-line analyses. most of them being very small. 3.One of the basic problems in practical applications of optimization procedures in real-time power systems control is that they give a great number of simultaneously required changes of control variables at different locations. The final selection Of zonal regulating units participating in the secondary control is made heuristically. capable of participating in the secondary voltageNAR control. originating in the overall system security and economy requirements and a local character of the majority voltageNAR disturbances. with a cycle-time of 15 minutes.1. application of the Newton's OPF for the determination of reference input values on local AVRs within a zone. The first is a local level of AVRs on voltageNAR control resources. provided from off-line analyses. This procedure gives several levels of size for each zone and the set of corresponding reactive regulating resources. The software package supporting this concept. as well as at obtaining the decisions concerning the status of on-off local reactive compensating devices.A limited number of control resources. The heuristic judgment of the designer plays an important role in this process. Each zone should have a certain number of units. The remaining voltageheactive control resources participate in the primary control only. The second-level control represents the superimposed action on AVRs of zone primary control resources aimed at coordinating modifications of their reference is possible to define several zone bound. and the second one is the centralized zone level.

. 8-0 reduces the criterion (10) to the minimization of active transmission losses exhibiting satisfactory results. t is the relative value of the ULTC transformer J available reactive generation.. respect ive1y.. and l : Q where Po. the OPF results in high voltages in the network. the first effect i while the second one i s not. ULTC transformers with their A m belong to the class of discrete type. . : Q 5 S Q . It can be achieved by using the objective function of the type (9) Reactive resources participating only in the primary voltage/VAR control.2. N i s the total number of nodes. .". Fixed capacitor banks with on-off control achieved by mechanical circuit breakers. the choice u = l . For lowload periods. These encompass: vl. security point of view. (3) i s defined with following relations: - active and reactive node-balance equations problem is nonlinear and mainly depends on the network topology. Their voltages are defined in off-line analyses in the operational planning stage. in underexcitation regimes. 1 = 1. N NC (6) C Q . g(x.. . Q . 2.e. specified in off-line calculations during the system operation planning stage. PGs. Smaller generators connected to the medium voltage (MV) networks (110 kV and below) are electrically close to the load centers and exert little influence on voltage/reactive conditions in the high voltage (HV) transmission network.u) are vector functions of vector arguments.f (x. respectively.14] show that the practical criterion ensuring a satisfactory level of the system security is a uniform distribution of the reactive reserves to the generators operating in the secondary control. Except for the reduction of bus reactive loads. . reactive overloads appear at all generators electrically close to load centers. V and t are vectors of corresponding variables 6 i' OF CONTROL RESOURCES AND DEVICES Specific models are used for the representation of important features of control resources and regulating devices in OPF calculations. . U) subject to equality and inequality constraints (1) (2) (3) where x and U represent the state and control vector. i QCs - is a vector of the reactive injections of nodes participating in secondary control. WDELING ratio in the branch j. It i s desirable to combine the positive effects of both objective functions mentioned above. it i s possible to give the priority to economy (minimum active transmission losses) or security (uniform distribution of reactive reserves [ 1 4 1 ) ."~ . . index m represents the lower and index U the upper limit of the corresponding variable. the increase of reactive loads in the system results in an increase of the regulated bus terminal voltage. Q . 5 Q. . From the s favorable. It i s obvious that by the appropriate selection of weighting coefficients a and 6 . at the same time. the compensation should be canceled in order to avoid machine overloading and violation of system stability. These generators are modeled as PV nodes. Their control actions are much slower than . s the number of generators. The set of constraints ( 2 ) . All this pertains to overexcitation operation.. 6i are node i voltage magnitude and phase angle.. Q are active and reactive node i generations and loads. Also. slow-acting regulating facilities [ 1 6 ] . s the active generation of slack-node. ULTC transformers. The compensation according to the reactive component of the terminal current is introduced in order to maintain the voltages in the neighboring nodes without changing the reference values of those AVRs participating exclusively in the primary control. The use of this objective function in the OPF solution results in a decrease of reactive outputs of the generators participating in the secondary control. stated as the minimization of active transmission losses. PLl. This objective function in periods of high loads must insure the highest security level possible avoiding. it i these effects will be dominant. The effect of reactive current compensation i s modeled in such a m y that the reactance of the corresponding s decreased by the unit-generator step-up transformers i amount of compensation [IS]. respectively.e. defined as = . On the other hand. where Snlrepresents the rated apparent capacity of the generator "i" included into the secondary voltage/VAR control and NS the set of generators participating in secondary control. In the problem of optimal voltage/VAR control. i. NT i 6 . References [13. As the 107 All the available synchronous machines participate in the primary voltage control. This is possible by using the combined objective function of the type f(x. shunt capacitor bank outputs and reactive loads on all nodes where the voltages are not maintained by ULTC transformers.. t. This compensates for the voltage drop in the unit-generator step-up transformer. the violation of the economic criterion. if the objective function i s the minimization of active transmission losses. . Performance charts of synchronous generators. . it i s assumed that all active generations and phase angles of phase-shifting transformers are constant and known in advance. NC i s the number of ULTC transformers.u) and h(x. / C Q. The selection of an appropriate objective function in the optimal voltage/VAR cmtrol i s of a great practical importance. Static load characteristics. in spite of a constant reference at the input of i t s A m . (7) is the reactive output of generator "i" participai s its maximal ting in the secondary control. as constant voltage buses. The s a global reduction of voltage levels in consequence i the entire transmission network.. i.u) = a P + B (Q~~IQ.=12 (10) cs 1 lENS - upper and lower limits on system variables where a and f3 are weighting coefficients and FS i s the average reactive load of units participating in the secondary voltage/VAR control. all other effects have a negative impact on the system voltage profile. VI. the size of loads and their types and los difficult to predict in advance which of cations."l (11) lENS lENS v1 S 1 = 1. On the other hand. provoking the decrease of line reactive generations. .

3 . When specifying a particular network zone. with inter-system s modeled as a set of PQ nodes. on the MV subtransmission or distribution buses. with zero active outputs.a2uahlaX1 jlJ= - a%ah. THE SOLUTION ALGORITHM AND PRACTICAL 1WLEHJNI"TTION - - - Interconnective ultra high voltage/high voltage/ /medium voltage (UHV/HV/MV) ULTC transformers. They are used to maintain the distribution bus voltages. The secondary voltage/VAR control should encompass only larger capacitor banks connected to higher subtransmission network voltages. i. Unit-generator step-up ULTC transformers. terminal voltages of reactive resources participating in the primary control only and bus voltages maintained with ULTC transformers. The ULTC load transformers used for coupling of the MV subtransmission and distribution networks take part in primary control only. Only the main features of this OPF algorithm when applied to the solution of the voltage/VAR control problem will be underlined below. the rest of the interconnected power system. Basic control variables here are the reactive outputs of control resources (generators. due to the reduced reactive line flows. VL(y. the extended Lagrange function is defined as L(y. The solution of the optimal reactive power flow problem in the proposed secondary voltage/VAR control concept. is an iteration index. the elements of which are jt1 = . The load dependence on the system frequency is not a subject of the voltageNAR control. synchronous condensers.2.Their role is to maintain the distribution MV-bus voltages on the desired (reference) values. the elements of which are hll = a2waxT J(x) h 1J = a2waxlax. an efficient 108 . hpl i hql. It is possible to introduce these transformers into the set of control facilities. used for connection of the MV subtransmission and MV distribution networks. the well known relation that defines the iterative procedure for the solution for variables y and A yields (16) Relations ( 1 5 ) and (16) can be written in a more compact form where A is diagonal NS*NS dimensional matrix of second or- der derivatives of Lagrange function a2Wa2QGs Vel) is approximated M in this paper with the third-order polynomial of the form l : Q is 2N*NS dimensional matrix.. This practice results in the decrease of the active transmission losses.AI = 01. The modeling of performance charts of synchronous machines is of great importance for the simulation of the real voltageNAF? regimes in power systems. This might become necessary in case of sudden and large changes in network topology. Here. x = ItT aT VTIT . V1. used for coupling of generators to the UHV or HV networks. Turn ratios of the ULTC transformers are modeled as dependent continuous variables with upper and lower tap-changer position limits. This matrix has the property of super-sparsity. capacitor banks) participating in the secondary control. used for control of the reactive flow exchanges between transmission networks of different rated voltages. constant. They have a great influence on the amount of active transmission losses in HV and UHV networks. each ULTC transformer turn-ratio should be rounded to the nearest discrete tap position.A) is 2N*2N dimensional matrix of second derivatives of Lagrange function. is based on the Newton's OPF. the static load characteristics QLl=f(F. . Ceneral policy tends to use their reactive capabilities in the high load regimes at maximum. The UHV/HV/MV transformers are included neither into the primary. specified in off-line analyses. The actual reactive generation of a shunt capacitor bank is also adequately constrained in OPF calculations. For the minimization of the objective function (9) or (10) subject to the equality constraints (4) and ( 5 1 .h) = f(y) where - XTg(y) (14) P hTlT q Y = [PGslQ:s xTIT . Their role is to secure the best possible use of generator reactive power capability. Shunt capacitor banks are usually located near the load centers.actions of the AVRs of synchronous generators and condensers. whose non-zero elements are defined as = iak1fl k=O (12) where the dependence of QE1 on VGl is neglected. for a set of possible operating states. Such capacitor banks are modeled as generators. The active tie-lines. where the value for k depends on the type of load. By grouping the variables al. so it is not taken into consideration in this paper. k = 0. ULTC step-down load transformers. obtained from the necessary optimality conditions (the gradient of the Lagrange function ( 1 4 ) at optimum is equal to zero. Finally.By applying the modern sparse matrix and vector techniques. that correspond to submatrices H and J are formed. The non-linear dependence l : Q = f ( the 4x4 block structures of the part of matrix V. with narrow limits of permissible is Jacobian matrix of nonlinear system of equations ( 4 ) and ( 5 ) . prior to generator reactive loadings. The unit generator step-up ULTC transformers are modeled as constant off-nominal turn-ratio units. i injections and voltages on these nodes are taken to be the actual tie-line exchanges and voltages obtained by the state estimator.1.three types of ULTC transformers are dist i nguished : changes. which is described in References [3-61.. nor into the secondary voltage/VAR control and their turn-ratios are specified in off-line analyses. h = [AT By applying Newton's method for the solution of the nonlinear system of equations.e. After the OPF converges to the final solution.Vl) are modeled as (13) H(x.

or by reactive resources not included into secondary voltage/VAR control can change in narrow limits. The criterion for leaving the trial iteration i s one of the following: 1. Calculation of the gradient VL'k' and the elements of matrix 3. . Calculation of a new trial solution and the continuation of the procedure from Step 2. Analyses are performed for various load levels and network topologies. If there are no changes. If not. by using trial iterations. The secondary voltage/VAR control should operate in the following cases: Outage of any network element within the zone. otherwise go to Step 5 . In case of an infeasible or unsatisfactory solution. until the level when the zone reaches the size of the entire power system. the simulation results for 1987 peak load condition are presented. 6. with 144 nodes. Reactive outputs of resources included into secondary control are modeled as explicit control variables.0 and the procedure goes to Step 4. 4. in future research of the problem they should be probably considered as part of the secondary control system. Determination of satisfactory set of binding constraints. The proposed concept of secondary voltage/VAR control is verified by computer simulation of Yugoslav 400 kV and 220 kV transmission network.1 was used coefficients defined a PP Pi (where S PP = AV /AQ P LP and S Pi = AVp/AQLI. Within this transmission network.19. 17 generators and 13 ULTC transformers. the normalized sequence indices for candidates for entering and leaving the set of active constraints according to the selected criterion (the value of the deviation from the limit. feasibility test If Kuhn-Tucker conditions are satisfied the calculation is finished. TESTRESULTS ' " should be adjusted. the values of the gradient and factors of the When the voltage disturbance i s detected. matrix U 5. the trial iterations should be left. Initialization k = 0. as well as the ineaualitv constraints-on state A d control variables are. 3. 4. in the first trial iteration the necessary modifications of factors in the matrix dk) are performed using the FCPMR method 1191. There are no new candidates for the inclusion into the set of binding constraints. but their time responses overlap with secondary control. 2. Unconditionally. V being the . Setting of k=k+l and the continuation of the procedure from Step 2. 4. with 34 plants and 13 ULTC transformers in operation. The determination of a satisfactory set of active constraints. or the amount of the variation in last trial iteration) should be calculated. 2. Verification of the validity of the test solution obtained as a result of primary iteration and detection of candidates for changes in the set of active constraints. 8. 5. including 110 kV network of the eastern region of the country.procedure for the solution of system ( 2 5 ) i s derived. otherwise go to Step 3. Unacceptable high/low values of voltages on certain buses in the zone. In this regime the network encompassed 209 nodes and 310 branches. the need for eventual changes in the set of active constraints is tested.VL(k). The verification whether all candidates for changes in the set of active constraints are taken into consideration. 3. 2. 1. Solution of system of linear equations W(k)Az(k) = . they can be separated in time and studied independently. The total number of zones and levels and sequences of the extensions depends on specific system characteristics. The functional equality and inequality constraints on generation of reactive resources not included into Secondary control. In each primary iteration. E vL'k' < test of the sign of variables A.enforced by penalty functions as described in References [3-61. according to the sequence of the elimination. where the trial iterations are made. The solution algorithm used in this paper consists of' the following steps: 1. the zone is extended to the first corresponding higher level and s attempted with the increased number a new solution i of control resources and regulating devices of a newly defined zone. The proposed concept of secondary voltage/VAR control is based on the steady state optimization of voltage/VAR conditions. Therefore. Test of Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions The programming code has ben developed using the latest achievements in sparse matrix/vector techniques [18. every 15 minutes [81. All the elements of the matrix of the linear system of equations are memorized in ordered lists. Choice of the set of active constraints. This assumption is not quite correct when the voltage regulators of ULTC transformers are considered. For candidates with sequence indices above the threshold value specified in advance (between 0 and 11. 2.201. Factorization of matrix U ( ' ) . as described in Reference [SI. In this zone 9 out of 1 109 . Calculation of the vector of unknown variables in the current iteration (k+l) = z(k) + Az(k). This enables fast calculation. was specified. dk'. For the separation of this zone the threshold of sensitivity s Th = S /S B 0. This i s also true for terminal points of tie-lines with neighboring zones and external systems. The strategy of the constraints enforcement on variables of different nature i s based on Judgments expressed in References [3-51. Hence. By nature they belong to primary control. This procedure i s continued if necessary. with minimum memory requirements. are reactive loads on pilot node voltage and Q W no- 7 available generators are des). the sequence index i s set to 1. owing to the overall voltage/VAR control i fact that time responses of primary and secondary controls are different. If the answer is yes.. it should first be eliminated by the local control resources within the zone where the disturbance happened. The sequence of elimination is defined according to the algorithm described in Reference [20]. The algorithm also encompasses the procedure for the detection of infeasible solutions and for the identification of corresponding infeasible constraints. 7. . by trial iterations i s made in the following manner: 1. z = z " ' . Bus voltages maintained by ULTC transformers. General two-level hierarchy of the s possible. The following trial iterations use the factor updating method [181. Operator request. the control zone of eastern part of Yugoslavian power system. For candidates from Step 1. Excessive unscheduled reactive exchanges with neighboring zones and systems. 4. Here. The number of trial iterations overpasses the value set in advance. encompassing the above mentioned 110 kV network. 5.

6 .88 AV1 10.69 410.5 .71 409.62 18.0 .67 234.32 119.8 .62 115.0 .8 .9 . R3 QP R2 V(kV) R4 QP FE Qr V(kV) R6 Qr V(kV) V(kV) V(kV) Qr .3 .1 .8 .9 .1 1191.1 .5 116.71 420.2 .3 10 114.3 .9 .0 114.63 .0 114.88 . where the voltages are not maintained at constant values.0 .66 419.0 242.3 .77 224.7 .68 .7 .69 AV2 13.8 .1 419.0 233. 10 11 12 1 3 14 for simulations whose results are given in Table I.0 235.0 114.0 407.67 418.72 115.5 .0 1.Optimal power flow with all available control R3 - R4 F E R6 PL QL GL - QGZ AV1 AV2 AV3 resources in the whole power system.3 158.26 242.3 . it could be said that requests for active transmission losses minimization and uniform reactive reserve dis- .6 .1 . The average time length of one primary iteration.0 .64 117.2 .44 419.69 420.74 116. where uniform distribution of reactive generation is achieved with only 2 MU increase of active transmission losses. for transmission losses (160. Table I11 Influence of the weighting factors values on the OPF results.1 .99 111.26 13.7 2146. Simulation results are shown in Tables I and 11. = = QLo(V/Vo)2.4 1203.62 117.0 232.97 19.9 115.38 .8 218.7 .77 .75 420. The reactive current compensation on AVRs of generators participating in primary control only was set in a way that voltage droops on the HV side of unit generator step-up transformers were of the order of 2-5 %.0 .0 . compared to the optimal regime (158.7 .67 231.0 .0 114.8 9 226.74 114.73 114.9 .75 116.13 20.1 12 117.69 233. with optimization criterion ( 1 0 ) and a = 1.6 .68 233.34 117.8 .9 s on the computer DEC VAX 11/785. with practically the same amount of active transmission losses guarantees much more uniform distribution of reactive source generations.2 MW 162.included in secondary voltage/VAR control.68 234.22 419.1 5 235.1 .65 420. Briefly.9 .0 .0 4 234.9 .26 242.5 . Average voltage deviation 400 kV nodes (kV).0 1.4 .8 1233.40 10.7 MW).67 419.7 .6 .8 .25.64 .65 117.53 418.45 AV3 i .68 234.70 117.71 406.77 217.76 234.25.79 217.0 . <.3 . The effects of weighting factors on the active power losses and reactive power dispatch have been fully investigated.62 114.5 .4 2069.68 117. The average time length of the whole OPF calculations for the entire network.75 115.78 221.2 . The same as in column R3.0 .9 .77 117.45 419.0 217.9 2071. All the ULTC distribution transformers were assigned to maintain the desired secondary (distribution) bus voltages by changing their turn-ratios.72 115.6 .9 . Average voltage deviation 220 kV nodes (kV).99 416.92 235.8 .83 234.2 163.76 .0 .68 233.7 8 414.77 115.8 .61 1.75 217.74 406.0 1.7.1 .8 .4 .68 406.0 .0 .75 116. without trial iterations for the complete network of 209 nodes and 310 branches was 0.63 115.6 .58 239.0 6 237.5 I I a = l j3 = 1 I I a = O j3 = 0.1 MVA~.6 .6 MW p < .0 .0 .69 232.95 111.1 .5 .6 2976.3 .5 1.61 119.9 .5 .6 .0 1.Standard procedure for the load-flow calculation.1 .5 .1 .4 2987. voltage deviation 110 kV nodes (kV).34 117. J B Y B Y J .42 419.68 232.07 238. optimality conditions.70 .6 .2 .0 . Total reactive generation of generators participating in the secondary control (MVAr).79 217.~QAI 0.2 159.11 21.6 2147. B = 0.68 235.89 220.4 .6 16 117.53 .1 .39 117.9 .77 234.72 116.1 .72 234.8 -58 114. Reactive transmission losses i n the whole power system ( M V A r ) .90 12.24 9.71 .0 .0 .2 .1 .7 1236.57 418.04 12.49 420.7 .4 160.0 1 PL QL GL R1 R2 R3 R4 FE R6 1 420.87 405.8 114. for v”-V in the zone.98 114. l 0.0 .4 3011.8 114.5 11 116.0 .93 114. R2 .55 117. depending on the number of iterations was between 12 and 18 s. even better results are obtained with 9 generators under secondary control.1 .68 417.43 21. The optimization criterion is given by expression ( 9 ) .0 .96 232.90 417.1 .65 116.0 .6 .0 .4 .54 .2 .67 418. In all simulation tests with the proposed objective function the program converged in 9 to 12 iterations.0 .9 1210.47 114.70 .OO 420.4 418.76 18.0 . In all simulations the convergence criteria were 15 16 17 PL .14 417.95 9.77 115.5 2922.66 234. Moreover.64 239.5 .68 231.8 9.89 236.8 156. For the peak load conditions we obtained the best results with values a = 1.6 .76 114.8 2078.75 116.65 242.67 418.72 114.5 1 I a = O j 3= 2 1 I BOL=’OtOl ___ .8 3007. with reactive resources as in column FE.67 418.71 .54 .9 . The optimization criterion is the minimization of active transmission losses.72 406.0 .1 .02.0 2 420.1 3 420.0 114.7 162.57 .75 114. The same as in column R4.59 113.0 .5 . for v”-V in the zone.84 1.62 1.0 7 237.1 17 419.0 1.29 Column and row headings in Table I have the following meanings: R1 .71 414.4 2978.6 .67 115.72 235.5 .1 . including the verification of Kuhn-Tucker necessary 110 Selection of weighting factors a and j3 was performed experimentally through numerous simulations.73 416.9 15 115.2 . than the objective function proposed in Reference [141.54 116.61 242.7 MW).8 .69 237.0 .61 .0 .47 420.0 Table I1 exhibits voltages and relative reactive loads Qp = QG/Q: for particular generators within the zone.89 .8 14 114.46 112. fl-V in the zone.0 1. Optimal power flow.33 117.32 117.65 .8 .76 116. < 0.2 MW 160.71 114.6 117.8 . Active transmission losses in the whole power system (MW). I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a = l j3 = 0.1 .1 PIW.66 420.7 1.35 .67 417. Reactive line capacitance generation in the whole power system (MVh-1.24 16. It is also shown that the proposed objective function.0 .3 .5 233.98 10.8 1224.2 .1 .59 114.72 .Average - - 417.8 MW instead of 156.60 242.9 .9 QGZ 1838.0 1 3 114.8 158.68 415. with only 9 reactive resources within the zone included into the set of control variables.74 117.0 114.3 .55 113.3 1.9 . j3 = 0. reactive loads were modeled with static characteristics of the form Q .On all the load buses.5 .83 1.8 235.32 .8 420.8 .2 MU 161.93 232.99 114.1 117.3 . with reactive generator outputs taken as explicit control variables in the considered zone (17 generators at total).OO MW 157.9 .4 1.46 420.74 .0 114.1 .78 .0 114.36 419.79 .8 MW instead of 156.45 419.2 .6 . Results given in Tables I and 11 show that with a relatively small increase of active Table I 1 Voltages and reactive loads for zone generators obtained in tests described in Table I.76 418.71 412. the proposed objective function insures practically uniform reactive distribution on all 17 generators of the zone. The same as in column R3.

Final Report EL-4849. D. Test results obtained for the set of steady-state and emergency operating states have shown that Newton's OPF developed in the paper insures the uniqueness of the solution. San Francisco.F.H. New York. L. M. PAS-103. H. "Optimal Power Flow Functions: Application and Modelling Aspects".tribution are mutually opposed.C.the application of sensitivity theory and Newton's optimal power flow. Florence 1983. "Large Scale Optimal Power F1ow:Effects of Initialization. 20.Hughes. The base of the proposed scheme is the modern concept of secondary voltage/VAR control.D. and Ph.R. U. H.Garzillo. Vol. Automatic and Control Division. J. Vol. Oct. degree in electrical engineering in 1966 and 1980.Arcidiacono. while completely respecting the security criterion (uniform distribution of reactive generation reserves).Maxannino. S. Paper 88 WM 165-3. Dec.El-Kady. The table I11 shows the effects of some combinations of weighting factors values on the OPF results. P. Vol. BabiC. Innorta.Sabelli. 3. CIGRE Symposium.IEEE Transactions on PAS.Capasso.A. IFAC Symposium. V. "Reglage secondaire de la tension sur le resau electrique a tres haute tension francaise: bilan du systeme actuel et perspectives d' evolution( Reglage Coordonne1 E . J. bloviC got his B.P. F. IEEE Transactions on PWRS. Gomez.IEEE Transactions on PAS. 1988. E. "Assessment of Real-Time Optimal Voltage Control". "Optimal Power Flow by Newton Approach". Yugoslavia. 6. Since 1982 he has been working for the Electric Power Board of Serbia. "Modeling and Analysis of ULTC Transformers in Voltage and VAR Control Applications".Huang. 1981. B. IEEE Transactions on PWRS.Sun. Electric Power Board of Serbia. 4. it i s shown that it is possible to treat a large power system as a set of independent zones when solving the real-time voltage/VAR control problem. 19. C.Vierath. Belgium. His current research interests include real-time preventive control of electric power systems and optimal power flow analysis.BabiC was born in Bileca.Leost.Sapora. "An Efficient Ordering Algorithm to Improve Sparse Vector Methods". M. Such an approach significantly decreases the calculation time without reducing the quality of control. 15. both from Belgrade University.Sabonnadiere. 1988. 1986. Pretoria. Lin. OR. M.C. J. 1984. He is currently professor at the University of Belgrade. S.Mariani. "Improvements in Sparse Matrix/Vector Technique Applications for On-Line Load Flow Calculation". 10. IEEE PES S r Meeting.Bel1. "Optimal Power Flow: Research and Code Development".Bright. C. 1984.optimal power flow analysis and expert systems for real-time optimal voltage control. New York. Proc. PWRS-1.Carvalho. 1948.Demaree. May 1987. "Control of Reactive Power and Voltage in Emergencies". T.S. D.P.S. Paul. His current research interests include power systems operation planning and real-time control.D. REFERENCES 1. He received the B. R.Zaborsky. V. Vol. D.Tinney.a hierarchical scheme of system voltage/VAR real-time control i s developed. 8. May 1986. encompassing effectively the security and economy of power system operation.S. I.Paul. Belgrade. Jugohemija. than the 15 minutes proposed in the paper. both from Belgrade University. Petar RistanoviC was born in Belgrade. PWRS-1. CIGRE-IFAC. Since 1984 he has been working in the Electrical Engineering Institute Nikola Tesla.Arcidiacono. His current research interests include real-time security analysis.S. D.S . July 1987. Automatica. Brussels.IEEE PES Sumner Meeting.Vierath. with appropriate mathematical models and constraints on all resources and regulating devices influencing the system voltage/VAR conditions. Today he works as a head of Studie and Research Department.Schellstede. 1988. Belgrade. Proceedings 7th PSCC. Test results obtained by the simulation of the Yugoslav transmission network and one secondary control zone within this network show promissing prospects for the application of the proposed concept in the reals shown that -time power system voltage/VAR control.Tinney. participating in system's voltage/VAR control is defined.Sabelli. Report 32-77-66.July 1988. CA. which is practically independent of the initial guess. 1977. of Electrical Engineering. 1958. "Quadratically Convergent Optimal Power Flow". NY.Corsi. 5 .S.. BjelogrliC. L. Chan. July 1988.S. IEEE PES Sunmer Meeting. From 1980 to 1987 he has been working as a head of Electronic Data Processing Sector. U. IEEE PES Winter Meeting. V. Mocenigo.Y. F. 12.K. For secondary voltage/ /VAR control needs. PAS-103.EPRI Research Project 1724-1. Decoupling and Discretization". A. "Coordination of Voltage Compound and Reference Values in the AVRs of Generators of a Production and Transmission Network". "Partial Matrix Refactorization". respectively. Feb. Dept. J.D .S.G. 111 . PAS-102. A. Y.Sabel 1 i. C.Hu. Montreal. IEEE PES Winter Meeting. V. University of Illinois. B.Lin. M.1983. B. Report # PAP-TR-83-3. in Bel grade. Bulletin. B. Paper SM 734-6.Burchett. "Studies on Area Voltage and Reactive Power Control at ENEL". Oct. 18. Portland.Happ. Hercegovina. D.Franquelo.Papalexopoulos. No. P. respectively.RistanoviC.B. J.C.Brewer. From 1971 to 1982 he was working for the Electric Power Board of Yugoslavia. and M. P. 16.A.F. Brandwajn. 1966 and 1973. 1986. IEEE PICA Conf.Wu. Feb."Automatic Voltage and Reactive Power Control in Transmission Systems". He received B. The location and role of all control resources and regulating devices."Experiencies with Implementing Optimal Power Flow for Reactive Scheduling in the Taiwan Power System".F.Ashley.J. The speed of execution of the proposed program enables the realization of shorter start-intervals of the secondary voltage/VAR control.Sun.J. Imparato.Lagonotte. He received the B. Paper 88 SM 670-2. C. P. Sep. R.Happ. on june 27.Franchi. Belgrade. in 1941. U. respectively. D.Tinney.Also. D. on august 1 .Franchi. S .It i the suboptimal solution based on the reduced set of control variables insignificantly deteriorates the economic performance index (minimum active transmission losses). M. Hercegovina. F. C. "Evaluation of Economy and/or Security Oriented Objective Functions for Reactive Power Scheduling in Large Scale Systems". A. 7.Burchett.Chen. 1980.Mariani. Paper 38-83. 11. Canada. and M. IFAC Symposium. Innorta.M. Paper 87 SM 505-1. Milan S. I. 13. degree in electrical engineering from Belgrade University in 1983. H. 1985. CONCLUSION In this paper. Vol. 3.Hughes. B.Eichler.Y. 21. Serie B. 1987. "Structural Analysis of the Electrical System: Application to Secondary Voltage Control in France". 'I. Feb.R. Vol. CaloviC. Yugoslavia. E. 1983. Oct. Portland. 14. 5. OR. 9. degrees from University of Belgrade in 1957.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1971 and 1983. an appropriate objective function is proposed. I.Sun. J. R. L. "Optimal Short-Term Reactive Scheduling for a Large Power Systems". Lausanne. NY.M. F. A.Leost. 17. An efficient computer program for the optimal power flow has been developed based on Newton's method. Tesseron. G. M. From 1966 to 1980 he has been working in the Electrical Engineering Institute Nikola Tesla in Electric Power Systems Analysis Division. P."Some Deficiencies in Optimal Power Flow". S. A. 2 . G. Paper UM 203-2. IEEE Transactions on PAS. Feb. Dortmund.Marannino. M. Milan BjelogrliC was born in Gacko..M.Marannino.F.S.H.