You are on page 1of 70

Al-Azhar University Assiut Branch Faculty of Science Geology Department

The Geological Interpretation of Reflection Seismic Data
Prepared by

Research on

1. Abdelrhman M. Abdelftah Selim 2. Ahmed Abdelhamed Ali 3. Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelsalam
Essay Submitted for Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for B.Sc in Geology


Dr. AbdelSattar A. Abdellatief
Lecturer of Applied Geophysics 2008/2009

Firstly thanks to "ALLAH" who give us the health and life to finish up this work. We’re grateful to the people who helped with this Research, and to the students and colleagues who have, whether advertently or inadvertently, introduced us to many new learning experiences. We’re particularly grateful to Dr. AbdelSattar for his help. (All candidates) Amid such a mass of small letters, it will not seem surprising that an occasional error of the press should have occurred. But I hope that the number of such errors is small. And special thanks to my mother and my uncle Rabih Elabasere. (Abdelrhman)


Acknowledgements List Of Figures List Of Tables and Boxes Abstract Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Milestones in Seismic Industry 1.3 Principle of Seismic Survey 1.4 Modern Seismic Data Acquisition 1.4.1 Land Data Acquisition 1.4.2 Marine Data Acquisition 1.4.3 Transition – Zone Recording 1.5 How Are The Seismic Data Collected? 1.6 What Is The Interpretation Mean? Chapter 2 Fundamentals Of Seismic 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The Seismic Wave 2.3 Types Of Waves 2.3.1 Compressional Waves (P-waves) 2.3.2 Shear Waves (S-waves) 2.4 Characteristics of Seismic 2.4.1 Reflections 2.4.2 Critical Reflection 2.4.3 Refractions 2.4.4 Diffractions 2.4.5 Multiples 2.4.6 Seismic Noise 2.5 Seismic velocities 2.6 Seismic Receivers 2.6.1 Geophones 2.6.2 Hydrophones 2.6.3 Dual Sensors 2.7 Seismic Data Processing 2.7.1 Migration

ii v vii viii 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 12 12 13 13 13 14

5 Unconformities and Seismic Facies Patterns 3.5 Summary And Conclusions Bibliography iv 14 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 22 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 29 31 32 33 35 36 36 37 38 43 47 47 50 52 .1 Geological Background 5.1 Correlations 3.9.3 Contour Maps 3.3.8 Hydrocarbon Indicators 3.4 Structural Interpretation 5.1 Introduction 4.4 Continuity 3.6 Naming 3.2 Geometrical Pitfalls Chapter 5 Case Study Evaluation Of Matruh Basin 5.2 Identification Of Reflections (Tracing) 3.2 Basin Analysis Picking And Correlation Of Reflections 3.1 Introduction 3.9 Mapping 3.6.8 Seismic Sections Chapter 3 Steps Of Interpretation Seismic Data 3.6 Pitfalls In Structural Interpretation 4.9.1 Construction Of Two-Way Time Map 3.4 Diapirism And Salt Domes 4.1 Construction Of Geo-Seismic Structural Contour Map 3.2 Anticlines 4.3 Seismic Data 5.2 Construction Of Isopach Maps Chapter 4 Reflection Data Over Geologic Structures 4.4.1 Fault Pattern Interpretation 5.7 Fault Pattern Determination 3.3.3 Faults 4.9.5 Basement Structure 4.1 Velocity Pitfalls 4.9.Contents 2.2 Construction Of Structural Cross-Sections 3.3.

e. Apparent anticline is actually a diffraction feature. Inc. 1. (Geocom.1 2. proprietary data.(Geocom.2 (a) 4.1 2. Calif. The migration has collapsed the 27 many diffraction patterns that concealed the actual structure.7 Distortion of sedimentary layers due to forces associated 34 with salt-dome buoyancy.1 4.Inc.) 35 4.g.3 3. Markings on lower section indicate interpreted structure. (Exxon.1 4.2 2.. 5 12 16 16 21 26 26 (b) immigrated section.9 v .8 4.: (a) section as automatically migrated by computer. (From Tucker and Yorston.List of Figures Fig.3 4.) 28 30 31 32 4.) Pattern of faulting Example of Salt Dome. Basement effect in a deep-sea area Identification of basement surface from diffraction patterns on section along traverse In deep water. Some of the structures shown.5 4. 1965) Terminology of wiggles Vertical trace Parallel other reflection Most type of reservoirs and traps Anticline from San Joaquin Valley. Inc.8) Bow-tie effect observed over sharp syncline in the Adriatic Sea.6 4.) "Anticline" cased by thrusting of high-velocity material over 34 monoclinal layers. (United Geophysical Corp.2 (b) Sketch of rays reflected from a bed to receiver Histogram of seismic wave velocities of various classes of rocks (after Grant and West. those below the piercement-type salt dome and salt pillows (like the deep one on the right) are not real but result from velocity effects.4 4.

North Western Desert. Egypt. Matruh Basin. Line "k" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). Matruh Basin.3 5.5 5. Matruh Basin.1 5. Egypt.14 5. North Western Desert. Interpreted line number "f" Interpreted line number"k" Interpreted part of line number"q" 42 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 50 5. Egypt. I. North Western Desert.16 vi . Arrows refer to possible hydrocarbon migration pathway (C.List of Figures 5.=200 ft) 36 37 37 40 40 41 5. Location the seismic lines Line "q" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). 41 North Western Desert. I. North Western Desert. Matruh Basin.10 5.6 Location map of the study area Basment tectonic map of the north Western Desert of Egypt (Modified after Sultan and Halim. The subbasins constituting the northren Western Desert Basin (Modified after Sultan and Halim.15 5. Egypt (C. I.=200 ft) Structure contour map of Bahariya Formation.9 5.=200 ft) Sand to shale ratio map of Bahariya Formation.12 5. Egypt (C. North Western Desert.11 5. 1988).2 5.13 5.4 5. Arrows refer to possible hydrocarbon migration pathway (C. Isopach map of Bahariya Formation. Egypt. Matruh Basin.7 Structure contour map of Kharita Formation. I.8 5. Sand to shale ratio map of Kharita Formation.=50 ft) Isopach map of Kharita Formation. 1988). Line "f" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). Matruh Basin.

2 Average values approximating measurements on polycrystalline bodies velocities in non-porous sedimentary rocks Velocity in Porous Rock filled by fluids Stratigraphic column of matruh basin. North Western Desert. List of Boxes Box.3 5.1 5.List of Tables Table. 2.1 2.1 Why Processing? Tips for Correlation 13 19 vii . 1983).1 Box. 2. Page 10 11 11 38 Lithologic constituents of Bahariya and Kharita 39 formations. Matruh Basin.2 2. Egypt. Egypt (Modified after Medoil. 3.

Abstract This research consists of all these aspects in a brief. Chapter 4 is about the structure interpretation especially the common traps and reservoirs. The next Chapter 3 deals with the steps of geological interpretation to seismic data. This involves the natural or artificial generation and propagation of seismic (elastic) waves down into Earth until they encounter a discontinuity (any interruption in sedimentation) and are reflected back to the surface. Electronic detectors called geophones then pick up the reflected acoustic waves. digitized. One of the most common ways to generate acoustic waves today is an air gun. filtered to remove excess “noise”. Air guns viii . In Chapter 5 we’re showing case study of the interpretation technique from a Ph. We tried to give a brief introduction about the basics of the different types of waves. In the early days of offshore exploration. etc. On-land.D dissertation explained basic data and aid data used to complete the interpretation. a “Thumper” (a weight dropped on ground surface). where we described pitfalls in structure interpretation. and then transmitted to a nearby truck to be recorded on magnetic tape or disk. and fundamental of seismic data and it's definition like multiples. or a “Vibroseis” (which literally vibrates the earth’s surface). The signal from the detector is then amplified. processing. in Chapter 2. explosive charges suspended from floats were used to generate the necessary sound waves. a “Dinoseis” (a gas gun). Starting from the introduction to the seismic methods in Chapter 1. seismic “shooting” produces acoustic waves at or near the surface by energy sources such as dynamite. The geophysical method that provides the most detailed picture of subsurface geology is the seismic survey. This method is now banned in many parts of the world because of environmental considerations.

The speed of sound waves through the earth’s crust varies directly with density and inversely with porosity. some metamorphic rocks transmit seismic waves at 20. However.6 km/s. or slightly less than 4 miles per second.0 km/s. The data recorded on magnetic tape or disk can be displayed in a number of forms for interpretation and research purposes. When the gas is released under water. sandstone = 4. If the subsurface lithology is relatively well known from drilling information. low amplitude waves are unshaded and higher amplitude waves are shaded black. the only way of accurately determining depth is by correlating seismic sections to wireline logs. it is possible to calculate the amount of time it takes a wave to travel down through the earth to a discontinuity and back to the surface. Seismic waves travel at known but varying velocities depending upon the kinds of rocks through which they pass and their depth below Earth’s surface. Reflections are generated at unconformities because unconformities separate rocks having different structural attitudes or physical properties. limestone = 5. which trail behind the boat. particularly different lithologies. For example.2 km/s. and a common type of display called variable density. thus strong reflections will show up as a black line on the display. On the other hand. which is comparable to the speed of sound through air at sea level. including visual display forms (photographic and dry paper). Some typical average velocities are: shale = 3.contain chambers of compressed gas. it makes a loud “pop” and the seismic waves travel through the rock layers until they are reflected back to the surface where they are picked up by hydrophones.000 feet per second. the pulses travel as slowly as 1. The variable-density display is generated by a technique in which light intensity is varied to enhance the different wave amplitudes. These principles form the basis for application of seismic methods to geologic study. ix .000 feet (approximately 6 km) per second. the marine version of geophones. Through soil. This information is used to compute the depth of the discontinuity or unconformity. a display of the amplitude of arriving seismic waves versus their arrival time.

Chapter 1 Introduction .

the technique of using reflected seismic waves. 1. became more popular during World War II. because it aided delineation of other structural features apart from simple salt domes. known as the “seismic reflection method”. and coal and mineral exploration within a depth of up to 1km: the seismic method applied to the near surface studies is known as engineering seismology. Definition by Robert E.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. During 1960’s the so-called digital revolution ushered in what some historians now are calling the Information Age. This had a tremendous impact on the seismic exploration industry.2 Milestones in Seismic Industry As the search for oil moved to deeper targets. Investigation of the earth’s crustal structure within a depth of up to 100 km: the seismic method applies to the crustal and an earth quake study is known as earthquake seismology. The ability to record digitized seismic data on magnetic tape. Hydrocarbon exploration and development within a depth of up to 10 km: seismic method applied to the exploration and development of oil and gas fields is known as exploration seismology. b. Sheriff: Seismic survey is a program for mapping geologic structure by observation of seismic waves. then process that data in a computer. c. not only greatly improved the productivity of seismic crews 1 .1 Introduction The seismic method is one of the geophysical methods of prospecting It has three important/principal applications: a. especially by creating seismic waves with artificial sources and observing the arrival time of the waves reflected from acoustic impedance contrasts or refracted through high velocity members. Delineation of near-surface geology for engineering studies.

so if the velocity and time are known. Now we record not just p-waves but also converted s-waves for a wide range of objectives. The seismic wave travels through the water and strikes the seafloor. we are now able to see through gas plumes caused by the reservoir below. we are able to detect the oil-water contact. Using the converted swaves. The time taken for the waves to travel from the source to the receivers is used to calculate the distance traveled . By measuring precisely the difference in arrival time of a given event from the nearer and further receivers groups. The strength of the reflected wave gives information about the density of the reflecting rock. The late 1970’s saw the development of the 3D seismic survey. In seismic surveys. In 1990’s depth section preparation got focused from the prevailing time section preparation after processing the data. in which the data imaged not just a vertical cross-section of earth but an entire volume of earth. As the seismic industry made one breakthrough after another during its history. Some of the energy of the wave is reflected back to the receivers. In 2000’s data is being acquired with an additional parameter of “time” as the 4th dimension of the existing 3D data acquisition system. We are able to sometimes better image the sub-salt and sub-basalt targets with the 4C seismic method. geophysicists can work out the depth of the event. commonly known as the 4-C seismic method. and the top or base of the reservoir unit that we sometimes could not delineate using only pwaves. the velocity of the rock material can be measured.3 Principle of Seismic Survey Seismic wave are used to give a picture of deep rock structures. for example from a shale to a sand layer. it also created new challenges for itself. This is called 4D data acquisition. The seismic measurements are made in time.hence the thickness of the rock layers. The rest of the wave carries on until it reaches another rock layer. This is called an event. Using the multi-component seismic method. part of the pulse will be reflected back to the surface. Modern Seismic Data Acquisition could not have evolved without the digital computer. leading to more accurate and realistic imaging of earth. 2 . Each time the seismic pulse meets a change in rock properties. The technology improved during the 1980’s.but also greatly improved the fidelity with which the processed data imaged earth structure. 1.

the receiver lines take the form of cable called Steamer containing a number of hydrophones. But because the environments differ.reflected sound waves. The majority of land survey effort is expended in moving the line equipment along and / or across farm fields or through populated communities.. The two methods have a common-goal. imaging the earth. 1.1 Land Data Acquisition In land acquisition. are combined and interpreted electronically or reproduced on graphic paper recorders. If a single streamer and a single source are used. Hence.e.4 Modern Seismic Data Acquisition Subsurface geologic structures containing hydrocarbons are found beneath either land or sea. orthogonal to the inline receiver-line). 1. energy is transmitted) and reflections from the boundaries of various Lithological units within the subsurface are recorded at a number of fixed receiver stations on the surface. This data gives information on the depth. a single seismic profile may be recorded in like manner to the land operation. called signals. the result is a number of parallel lines recorded at 3 .2 Marine Data Acquisition In a marine operation. The vessel moves along and fires a shot. with reflections recorded by the streamers. If a number of parallel sources and/or streamers are towed at the same time. a shot is fired (i.4. So there is a land data-acquisition method and a marine data-acquisition method. a ship tows one or more energy sources fastened parallel with one or more towed seismic receiver lines. so each required unique technology and terminology. If the source moves around the receiver line causing reflections to be recorded form points out of the plane of the in line profile. position and shape of underground geological formations that may contain crude oil or natural gas. These geophone stations are usually in-line although the shot source may not be. In this case. 1. then a three-dimensional (3D) image is possible (the third dimension being distance. When the source is in-line with the receivers at either end of the receiver line or positioned in the middle of the receiver line – a two-dimensional (2D) profile through the earth is generated. land operations often are conducted only during daylight thus making it a slow process.4.

The waves travel down through the rock formations. 1. since there is no need to curtail operations in nights. 4 . If many closely spaced parallel lines are recorded. and because land operations must terminate when the source approaches the water edge. Techniques have been developed to use both Geophones and hydrophones in the surface area where the shore line / water edge is likely to migrate towards land and sea depending on the tide of sea a day.5 How Are The Seismic Data Collected? As the vessel moves along the line. 1. usually every 10 seconds. More than one vessel may be employed to acquire data on 24-hour basis. computers control the simultaneous discharge of seismic waves from the sound sources. The combination of such hydrophone / geophones is called a “Dual Sensor”. a 3D data volume is recorded. When they encounter a boundary between different formations. transition-zone recording techniques have been developed to provide a continuous seismic coverage required over the land and then into the sea. Geophysicists then interpret the information to develop a detailed picture of the structures and rock formations. or shore lines.3 Transition – Zone Recording Because ships are limited by the water depth in which they safely can conduct operations. check and store the data collected. The advantage of why this is to see that either of the receiver of Dual Sensor pickups the surveyed from the slots recorded using a land or marine source and data gaps all along the coast within the area of prospect. The collected data go through several processing steps to improve the quality of the signals and filter out background noise. some sound waves are reflected back to high-capacity computers.the same time. Geophones that can be placed on the sea bed or used with both marine and land shots fired into them.4.

To some it is virtually equivalent to data processing and is tied inextricably to computer software. The selection of processing procedures and parameters is also an important part of the Interpretation if it is supported by the same considerations.6 What Is The Interpretation Mean? The word interpretation has been given many different meanings by geophysicists who handle seismic reflection records and by geologist's who put the information from them to use.Fig. 1. It can involve the choice of field parameters. To others it consists of all of the operations we considered as the mechanical transformation of seismic reflection data into a structural picture by the application of corrections. the geometry of source and receiver patterns. interpretation can begin with planning and programming a seismic reflection survey if they are guided by the geology of the area and by the economic or scientific objectives of the survey. and migration. Interpretation can be all of these things. as long as such choices are governed by the geological information desired.1: Sketch of rays reflected from a bed to receiver 1. time-depth conversion. and the settings on the panels of the recording instruments. By this conception. subject to the one inviolable condition that it involves some exercise of judgment based on geological criteria. 5 . such as the kind of seismic source to be used.

not interpretation. an important part of its interpretation is integrating the seismic data on it with geological information from surface and subsurface sources.Any purely mechanical operations not requiring discretion on the part of the geophysicist would come under the category of reduction. e. It is possible to make a seismic map.. 6 . particularly one in time. fault traces or geologic contacts. After a seismic map is constructed.g. The extent to which this can be done depends on the amount of geologic information available. a parameter that can now be measured because of the high dynamic range in modern recording equipment. Another property of seismic waves that has been employed for studying rock composition is attenuation of seismic-wave amplitudes between successive reflectors. The computer has made it feasible to use previously unexploited characteristics of seismograms to obtain geological information. without carrying out any real interpretation at all if every stage of its preparation is routine or automatic and no decisions have to be made that involve geological considerations. This involves identifying reflections and making ties to wells or surface features. Thanks to the computer technology. Under favorable circumstances. interval velocities can be determined from reflection records with enough precision to permit them to serve as a basis for identifying lithology.

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Seismic .

Chapter 2

Fundamentals of Seismic

2.1 Introduction A seismic image of the earth is formed by seismic waves reflected the transmission of energy into the earth can be explained by assuming that the Earth has the elastic properties of a solid. The Earth’s crust is considered as completely elastic (except in the immediate vicinity of the shot), and hence the name given to this type of acoustic wave transmission is elastic wave propagation. In this chapter we will define and explain fundamental of seismic waves, it’s velocity and how seismic cross-section made. 2.2 The Seismic Wave Several kinds of wave phenomenon can occur in an elastic solid. They are classified according to how the particles that make up the solid move as the wave travels through the material. 2.3 Types Of Waves 2.3.1 Compressional Waves (P-waves) On firing an energy source, a compressional force causes an initial volume decrease of the medium upon which the force acts. The elastic character of rock then caused an immediate rebound or expansion, followed by a dilation force. This response of the medium constitutes a primary “compressional wave” or P-wave. Particle motion in a P-wave is in the direction of wave propagation. The P-wave velocity is a function of the rigidity and density of the medium. In dense rock, it can vary from 2500 to 7000 m/sec, while in spongy sand, form 300 to 500 m/sec.


2.3.2 Shear Waves (S-waves) Shear strain occurs when a sideways force is exerted on a medium; a shear wave may be generated that travels perpendicularly to the direction of the applied force. Particle motion of a shear wave is at right angles to the direction of propagation. A shear wave’s velocity is a function of the resistance to shear stress of the material through which the wave is traveling and if often approximately half of the material’s compressional wave velocity. In liquids such as water, there is no shear wave possible because shear stress and strain cannot occur in liquids. 2.4 Characteristics of Seismic 2.4.1 Reflections The phenomenon in which the energy or wave from a seismic source has been returned from an interface having acoustic impedance contrast (reflector) or series of contrasts within the earth is called reflection. The amplitude and polarity of reflections depend on the acoustic properties of the material on both sides of discontinuity. Acoustic impedance is the product of density and velocity. The relationship among incident amplitude A i , reflected amplitude A r , and reflection coefficient R c , is: Ar = RC * Ai where, R C =V 2 p 2 -V l P l /V 2 p 2 + V l P l where, V= velocity; p - density Where velocity is constant, a density contrast will cause a reflection and vice versa. In other words, any abrupt change in acoustic impedance causes a reflection to occur. 2.4.2 Critical Reflection When an impinging wave arrives at such an angle of incidence that energy travels horizontally along the interface at the velocity of the second medium, then critical reflection occurs. The incident angle ic, at which critical reflection occurs can be found using Snell’s Law. Sin i c = (V1/V2) Sin 90o = (V1/V2) 2.4.3 Refractions The change in direction of a seismic ray upon passing into a medium with a different velocity, is called refraction. Snell’s law describes how

waves refract. It states that the sine of the incident angle of a ray, (sin i), divided by the initial medium velocity V1 equals the sine of the refracted angle of a ray (sin r), divided by the lower medium velocity V2, that is: Sin i c = (i/V1) Sin (r/V2) When a wave encounters an abrupt change in elastic properties, part of the energy is reflected, and part is transmitted or refracted with a change in the direction of propagation occurring at the interface. 2.4.4 Diffractions Diffractions occur at sharp discontinuities, such as at the edge of a bed, fault, or geologic pillow. When the wave front arrives at the edge, a portion of the energy travels through into the higher velocity region, but much of it is reflected. The reflected wave front arrives at the receivers get aligned along the trajectory of a parabola on the seismic record. 2.4.5 Multiples Seismic energy that has been reflected more than once is called multiple while virtually all seismic energy involves some multiples. The important distinction between long-path and short-path multiples is that a long-path multiple arrives as a distinct event whereas a short-path multiple arrives soon after the primary and changes the wave shape. 2.4.6 Seismic Noise The reliability of seismic mapping is strongly dependent on the quality of the records/data. We use the term “signal” to denote any event on the seismic record from which we wish to obtain information. Everything else is “noise”, including coherent events that interfere with the observation and measurement of signals. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), is the ratio of the signal energy in a specified portion of the record to the total noise energy in the same portion. Poor records result whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is small. Seismic noise may be either a) Coherent or b) Incoherent

16 P 26610 24220 21800 19870 20530 14060 14850 S 16990 13750 14120 13620 10640 7300 8580 10 . are dependent on the orientation of the crystal lattice relative to the direction of seismic wave propagation. The properties – coherence. Let us look first at the experimental evidence. Mineral crystals exhibit anisotropy. 2. 2.65 2. ft/s Mineral Pyrite Magnetite Haematite Quartz Calcite Barite Halite Density. Average values approximating measurements on polycrystalline bodies can be calculated from a Table. the elastic moduli.50 2. The wave is then propagating in a solid formed from grains of different minerals. with pore spaces between the grains which may be filled with liquid (brine or oil) or gas. g/cc 4. and therefore seismic velocities.93 5.12 2.5 Seismic velocities The extension of the simple theory discussed above to a seismic wave in a real rock is not simple. travel direction and repeatability – form the basis of most methods of improving record quality.1 compilation by Anderson and Lieberman (1966): Velocities. We can start by considering the velocities in various minerals individually.20 5.Another important distinction is between a) noise that is repeatable and b) noise that is non repeatable.71 4.

11 . and the pore space will be filled by fluids of much lower seismic velocity Table. Fig. it may be possible to predict. g/cc 1. the next step would be to look at velocities in non-porous sedimentary rocks.2: Velocities.85 It is not surprising that real rocks show a wide variation of seismic velocity.Logically.65 P 23000 21000 18500 S 13000 11000 11500 Real rocks will be porous. These are difficult to establish.00 0.1 is a histogram of measurements on various classes of rocks after Grant and West (1965). where borehole control is sufficient to allow one to study thy variation of velocity in a restricted area. sand-shale ratio in a specific environment. the range of seismic velocity associated with a given lithology is too large for lithology to be inferred from velocity.73 2. ft/s 5290 4590 4200 Liquid Water (20% NaCI) Water (fresh) Oil Density. for example. However. stratigraphic interval. 2. 2.3: P wave velocity. g/cc 2. because almost all sedimentary rocks are porous to some extent. in general. and depth of burial. 2.14 1. It is clear that.84 2. ft/s Rock type Dolomite Limestone Sandstone Density. Values estimated from the work of Anderson and Lieberman are as follows Table.80-0.

according to Faraday’s law. Moving coil geophone and 2. if the conductor is an element of an electrical circuit. a conductor and a spring which positions either the conductor in the magnetic field space (in moving coil geophone) or the permanent magnet in the electric field space (as in moving magnet geophone). The two types of geophones widely used in geophysical surveys are: 1. 2.Fig. The conductor’s or the magnet’s motion through the magnetic/electrical field.6 Seismic Receivers 2. 12 . causes an EMF to be induced that is proportional to the velocity of the earth’s motion. It is often referred to as the coil or element. Moving magnet geophone The essential ingredients to make a geophone are a permanent magnet.1 Histogram of seismic wave velocities of various classes of rocks (after Grant and West. such a geophone is called a velocity phone because its output is proportional to the velocity of the earth’s motion. 1965) 2. The conductor in reality is a length of copper wire wrapped into a cylindrical coil shape. The large amount of subsurface information carried by seismic signal would be fully available for interpretation only if the geophones follow ground movement faithfully with minimum distortion. Hence.1 Geophones Conventional geophones are based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.6. This law states that relative motion of a conductor through a magnetic field induces an electromagnetic force (EMF) which causes a current to flow through the conductor.

2 Hydrophones The hydrophone is an electro acoustic transducer that converts a Pressure pulse into an electrical signal by means of the piezoelectric effect. 2. 13 .1 Why Processing? Field record which we obtain contains: • Reflections. Digital recording along with the CMP multifold coverage was introduced during the early 60’s. and • Random ambient noise. Box. then electrical charges appear on some other pair of faces. 2. To overcome the disadvantage of using two separate sensors. Processing is required because the data collected from the field is not a true representation of the subsurface and hence nothing of importance can be inferred from it. combining the output of geophones and a hydrophone is now widely accepted technique for reducing the ghosting effect caused by the water/air interface. If mechanical stress is applied on tow opposite faces of a piezoelectric crystal.3 Dual Sensors For ocean bottom cable (OBC) applications. Turnaround times have therefore come down with lot of processing taking place in-field or onboard.6.2. it will produce a voltage proportional to that variation in pressure. 2.7 Seismic Data Processing The seismic method has been greatly improved in the both in the areas of data acquisition and processing. If such a crystal is placed in an environment experiencing changes in pressure.6. • Coherent noise. SV and SH waves. both geophone and hydrophone are available in a single unit known as dual sensors or the 4-component (4C) receivers consist of a hydrophone. With the advent of high end computing systems modern day processing has become a lot easier than it really used to be. Data acquired from the field are prepared for processing by the field party itself and then it is send to the processing centre. two horizontal geophones and a vertical geophone installed in a single water proof enclosure for recording P.

derived from essential wells. traces. especially structural relationships. Or it can be the information from a set of traces combined into one. that is. as on a monitor record. to Conversion of Reflection Times into Corresponding Depths. Or the traces may be variable density. variable area. just as monitor records are placed for inspection. VD. Seismic interpretation is the process of developing a geologic model to satisfy dx\dt. represent cross sections of the subsurface. as on a monitor record. wiggle-variable area. are applied by using velocity depth curves in order to get a better understanding of the subsurface geological conditions. They can be made from either 2-D or 3-D shooting. The terminology of the wiggles comes from early seismic exploration. It's just a graph of the signal amplitude against travel-time. vertical sections. It looked like a monitor record. are filled in (in data processing). conventionally displayed with the time axis pointing vertically downward.8 Seismic Sections Seismic sections. The average velocity values at tops of different formations. 2. It’s the most critical feature of a seismic interpretation is the rate of change of distance with time. If the wiggles to the right. just the fill-in without the wiggles forms VA. with the peaks and troughs (wiggles to the left) represented by narrow bands of alternating dark and light with gradations in between. dx/dt. They can be paper prints or displays on computer screens. The traces may be displayed in the form of wiggle traces.7. A trace can be the information from one shot that was received by one geophone group.1 Migration Migration is a part of Seismic Processing. 14 .2. reflection time read along successive shot point are converted into corresponding depth (migrated) using the average velocities determined through one or two wells along each seismic line. The word "trace" came from early earthquake seismographs a wiggly line was traced with a scriber on carbon-coated paper as the earth shook. seismic information from a shot was recorded on a piece of photographic paper. the peaks. Before magnetic tape recording was available. The sections are made up of traces. they are wiggle-VA. These early records were worked by laying them on a desk with the end representing the surface of the ground to the left and deeper in the ground to the right. that is. for the construction of geo-seismic structural cross-section.

There are usually hundreds of overlapping traces on a section. The horizontal scale is in distance. It also does not need a header. The names have stuck. The curvature is removed in data processing. It represents the amount of time it took the sound to get down to the reflecting surface plus the time to be reflected back up. information about the way the line was shot and processed. etc. to enable a person to read the reflection rimes. 2. A section displayed on a video screen does not need timing lines. but without the normal move out curvature of reflections on monitor records. 15 .2).01 second.3). looking like a sketch of mountains. also called two-way time. The scale of a seismic section is in two different measurements. A large number of these stacked traces are placed side by side to make a seismic section. and even though the trace may not be in the form of wiggles. Traces from a number of shots are combined by CDP stacking. so data from the section can be plotted on the map. Shot point numbers are along the top or the section. This is the reflection time. The upward wiggles. A conventional paper print of a section has timing lines. The reflections run across the section. the name of the area. even though sections are often viewed with the surface of the ground at the top (Fig. They can be matched with the same numbers on a map. It represents the length of the seismic line on the ground. and the downward wiggles troughs. Each section has a header a label chat gives line number. horizontal lines at intervals of typically . were called peaks. as the section is called up by line number and shot point numbers.So the wiggles of the trace were. Other header information is available if needed. seen in this position. wiggling up and down (Fig. 2. And the vertical scale is in time. as the computer can read any time automatically.

3 Vertical trace The reflections on a section more or less show the underground rock layers in cross section. and contoured. a person usually marks a reflection on it. along with times from other sections. The contours show the configuration of the rock layer. To use a section. 2. The limitations of the section in depicting the subsurface will be taken up in later parts of this book.2 Terminology of wiggles Fig. from which locations for drilling wells may be deduced. 16 . 2. the rock layers are shaped as the reflections indicate. With limitations. These times are plotted on a map. Then the times to the reflection are read at the shot points.Fig.

Chapter 3 Steps of Interpretation Seismic Data .

Such a boundary does not always occur exactly at a geological horizon of major chrono-stratigraphic importance. between basins either side of a structural high or between fault blocks beneath an unconformity.e. and synthetic seismograms have particular relevance to such studies. i. Seismic data have become the key tool used in the oil and gas industry to understand the subsurface.Chapter 3 Steps of Interpretation Seismic Data 3. He has to be able to correlate across faults and across zones where reflectors are absent because of geological discontinuity. The main value of seismic reflection in exploration is gain information on the relative depths of subsurface layers. 1976). This problem can be resolved by correlation of seismic and borehole data. such as the base or top of a System or Series. The aim of this chapter is to help geophysicists and geologists new to the technique to interpret data while avoiding common pitfalls.1 Introduction Interpreting seismic sections. Reflectors usually correspond with horizons marking the boundary between rocks of markedly different lithology. In addition to providing excellent structural images. for example. the reflection of a specific layer is recognized along seismic section through the reflected times determined at different point on the line (Fitch. the dense sampling of a 3-D survey can sometimes make it possible to map reservoir quality and the distribution of oil and gas. depth and isopach maps is a task which depends on the interpreter's ability to pick and follow reflecting horizons (reflectors) across an area of study. producing time. but may be simply a seismic marker horizon which occurs close to that boundary. 17 .

respectively. 3. reflections are identified through tieing the seismic lines to the wells. picking. (2) The available subsurface geological data are used to get information on acoustic characteristics of the subsurface formation in order to be able to determine the seismic responses of different subsurface rock units to energy injected as well as to evaluate the boundaries along which the acoustic impedance contrast will create good mapping reflectors. The identification of reflectors will be much easier is seismic section basses by a drill hole in which wellvelocity survey was executed using its time-depth plots. namely. while the sonic log and/or well velocity data are used for define the one way times at these formation tops. the discontinuity is referred to as a bad quality interval. the analysis of seismic records implies processes. The composite log is used to determine the depth to the tops of different formations. (ii) When the reflections are either displaced vertically or disappear. (3) Using the determined acoustic contrasts. identification. correlation and fault pattern determination. As mentioned above. and (iii) In case where the reflections either 18 . picking and correlation determination of structure from conversion of reflection time into depth. the different seismic sections are then analysed in terms of identification. the following sequence was taken into consideration: (1) The available velocity data will be used to convert the interpreted seismic section into depth of structural geo-seismic cross-section. 3. Then two way times are determined and used to define the reflector formation tops on the seismic sections. (i) When reflections on both sides of this gap appear on the same level along the seismic section. etc. the discontinuity is probably due to faulting and pinch-out.In analysis seismic data. correlation process is used to overcome any discontinuity of reflections across seismic gaps on the bases. This non-uniform vertical scale exaggeration arising from time scale presentation.3 Picking and Correlation of Reflections Once the reflectors had been identified on the seismic sections.2 Identification of Reflections (Tracing) When drilled hole data are available through selected seismic lines. interesting horizons are picked-up across the seismic lines.

1 Correlations “Correlation” is part of pre-mapping works of reservoir to locate and trace the lateral distribution. Correlation should be carried out based all the available data. fault’s depth etc. completion & prod. continuity. • Prepare a good tabulation (database) of geologic data such as depth of top & bottom of reservoir. markers continuity. emergence etc.Wireline log will be the basic data and will be calibrated and integrated with other data analysis results such as core analysis especially. etc. siderite etc. . interpretations are in terms of changes in acoustic characters or thickening or thinning of the formations. Indicates any missing and repetition section. • Start the correlation with the whole log section of individual well. a sedimentological and stratigraphic model of the area. testing notes. missing & repetition sections. which has good continuity and correspond to the geologic events such as maximum flooding. . geometry of reservoirs and it’s flow unit. sequences and sedimentary environment. Box.Vertical profile analysis of well data should be carried out previously to establish the facies. glauconite.1 Tips For Correlation • Stratigraphic Cross Section is the best demonstration of a correlation results. • Good markers can be organic shale. net & gross thickness. zone thickness (gross & net) etc. make zonation based on electro facies then define all markers and zones of interest.change their characters from high to low amplitude or furcate or combine together.Zonation of lithology and flow unit.3. 3. 3. respectively. limestone beds. and also marker Identification should be geologically sound. . coal/lignite.Define the zone top & bottom. Then carry out a detail correlation of objective reservoirs. • The section should show reservoir lateral and vertical facies changes. Some pre correlation works notes: . 19 .

3. are better. and changed as often as needed. a colored pencil mark can be drawn on the reflection from one end of the section to the other. As long as it is apparent that the same reflection is continuing without a break. Then if the reflection becomes poor on part of the line. and there aren't any complicated situations along the line. and reflections on the other side of the poor zone extended back toward it. either plastic or gum. continuing the same dip. The colored pencils with builtin erasers on the ends are the erasable ones. Then it may be found again farther along on the section. The interpretation problem comes in when the record quality is not good.1. or when there is faulting or some other complicating factor. 20 .4 Continuity Once a horizon has been selected for picking. the part of the reflection already picked can be extended with a straightedge. so it can be drawn parallel to them. The especially erasable colored pencils allow the interpretation to be made in distinctive colors for different horizons. making a break in continuity. Position on the section is useful in determining which is may same reflection after a gap. If there are some. There is a starting place the well location or other point at which the reflection was identified. the poor one probably conforms with them. if the uppermost strong reflection is being picked on the section. whether identified or not. it can be picked. a search can be made above and below it for better reflections. there must be some means of picking the same horizon throughout the area.3. or at least over some part of the area. A good meet of these lines extended from two directions indicates that they are probably on the same horizon. then after the gap me uppermost strong reflection is a candidate for being the same one. on a reflection that the drawn line meets or nearly meets Fig. A comment on the pencils. Also. But those erasers aren't good for use on sections they're too abrasive. Soft erasers. If the record quality is good. Naturally.

Unconformities subdivide a section into depositional units that are often different from adjacent units and are distinguished by distinctive seismic character (seismic facies). They often are fairly easy to spot because of an angularity between families of reflections. 3. In either of these cases. Occasionally an area will be encountered in which no continuous rejections can be picked at all. a line can be drawn on the section paralleling the discontinuous bits of nearby reflections.5 Unconformities and Seismic Facies Patterns Unconformities are often among the best seismic reflectors. may be identified by the aggregate of subtle evidences. The nature of such a reflection may change laterally as different beds subcrop against the unconformity or onlap onto it. periods of nondeposition. or because the subsurface itself contains no continuous layers. From seismic facies studies one may be able to suggest the environment of deposition of the rocks and hence something about the stratigraphy.Fig. as in parts of the Gulf of Mexico.1 Parallel other reflections And if the horizons are not dipping much in the vicinity. periods of tectonic activity. An unconformity reflection may result from erosion or nondeposition. but just lenses of sand and shale. sandbars. foreset bedding. 21 . and consequently the reflection often changes character along a line. then one at the about same time or depth is likely to be the same one. and so on. 3. reefs. Usually seismic data of excellent quality are required for facies analysis. sometime even completely reversing the polarity. turbidite fans. and angularities may occur above and/or below the unconformity. Certain patterns characterize depositional environments so that deltas. This may be because record quality is poor.

The amplitudes of reflections. focusing. 3. but gas has a considerable effect. (d) Misclosures around a grid unit of seismic control beyond the probable limits of accuracy.7 Fault Pattern Determination Faults of large vertical displacements are usually recognized. (c) Variations between drill hole geological and geophysical dips. Hydrocarbons thus change the contrast in acoustic impedance 22 . and (f) Diffractions as a mask and a clue to faulting. 1985). Berg and Woolverton. 1980. or because of a change from clastic to carbonate rocks.6 Naming Naming is simple step it's segmentation of reflection vertically to give it a name related to its bed name or numbers depending on correlation. (e) Dip pattern along several lines of control. Strong amplitudes result from large changes in acoustic impedance. especially lateral changes in amplitude. Suitable faults with small displacements are traced on the basis of Campbell (1965) criteria. 3. (a) Correlation of reflection gaps.8 Hydrocarbon Indicators Hydrocarbons in the pore space of a rock lower the velocity and the density compared to water in the pore spaces. and other causes Gas accumulations may appreciably lower the density and velocity in porous sediments and hence may be located through amplitude effects. such as may occur at basement or an unconformity. namely. 3. especially from the abrupt stepping-out or breaking of reflections across their fault planes. Strong amplitudes may also be the result of interference. (b) Projection of shallow faults with correlatable reflections to deeper levels. provide information for stratigraphic interpretation (Payton. Oil lowers the velocity and density slightly. 1977. A small percentage of gas may lower the velocity more than either a larger percentage of gas or zero gas. Sheriff.

another HCI. the lowering of the acoustic impedance of a reservoir often produces a high amplitude reflection called a bright spot. cementation. Thus a bright spot HCI. The lowering of velocity also increases the travel time of deeper reflections. as in a limestone reservoir capped by shale.with the overlying and underlying rock and hence the reflectivity. producing gas-chimney effects. Sometimes immediately underneath a reservoir the dominant frequency is lowered. Where a water-filled reservoir's acoustic impedance is only slightly larger than the adjacent rock. by hydrocarbons may reverse the reflection polarity. HCI may be sufficiently weak that none are detectable. When the acoustic impedance of a water-filled reservoir is appreciably larger than that of the adjacent rock. producing a velocity sag. the lowering of the acoustic impedance by hydrocarbons produces a dim spot. especially where the reservoir is thick. The consequent change in amplitude (and sometimes of polarity) of the reflections from the reservoir rock often is large enough to be seen. consolidation. HCI effects usually indicate gas. such a reflection is called a flat spot HCI. or oil-water contact may produce a distinct reflection. which is the most common hydrocarbon indicator (HCI) Seismic sections are sometimes displayed with low gain so that only the bright sports stand out. Almost all section displays employ an equalizing scheme whereby the gain on a trace is adjusted so that its average is the same as the average for adjacent traces. 23 . gas-water. In general. Virtually all the HCI effects can be produced by situations other than hydrocarbons so that observation of any one HCI may not indicate a hydrocarbon accumulation. and most effects attributable to oil accumulation are too weak to be observable. In clastic sections. Gas leaking from a reservoir may permeate overlying formations enough to affect their velocities and transmission qualities. Overlying changes in gas column thickness may tilt a flat spot so that it is no longer horizontal. HCI are useful in young (Tertiary) clastic sediments and become less useful with increasing age. A horizontal gas oil. The case for an accumulation is strengthened considerably when several indicators are present. The increased amplitude of a bright spot which causes the gam of a trace to decrease lowers the amplitude of deeper and shallower reflections and produces an amplitude shadow. the lowering. or depth of burial of the rocks. a dim spot HCI. and a polarity reversal HCI all have the same cause.

Constructed structural sections commonly use sea level as the plane of reference (Moody. 3. the two-way time maps can show the downthrows of faults and uplifted areas.9. 1961).3. This is accomplished by means of contour lines passing through points on the same stratigraphic horizon and having the same depth below selected datum plane. and gives much higher success ratios.3.1 Construction of Geo-Seismic Structural Contour Map A subsurface structural contour map is constructing to show the configuration of its surface and distribution of structural features within it. 3. These maps show thickness variations of some stratigraphic units from place to place within an area. Also.3 Contour Maps 3.3.2 Construction of Isopach Maps An isopach is a contour line drawn through points of equal stratigraphic thickness. by means of contour lines passing through points on the same stratigraphic horizon and having the same time below the sea level. they help in restoring the depositional edge of stratigraphic unit when the Isopach line attain a zero value (Moody .9.2 Construction of Structural Cross-Sections Cross-sections are usually constructed to show the vertical and the horizontal relationships among the different rock units. 3.9. 1961). commonly sea level.9 Mapping Mapping is part of interpretation.9. Also. 3. Predicting the positions of structural features at depth leads to more understanding of the subsurface conditions and substantial saving in drilling costs. therefore the results of which very depend on the expert’s working knowledge in applied geologic models.9.1 Construction of Two-Way Time map Construction of two-way time maps is usually undertaken to illustrate the increase or decrease in time and correlate this with increase or decrease of depth. They are useful in evaluating areas with maximum subsidence during an interval of sedimentation. 24 .

Chapter 4 Reflection Data Over Geologic Structures .

Chapter 4 Reflection Data Over Geologic Structures 4. Corrected record sections.1. and faults of more than marginal displacement should be discernible. although some types are more readily recognizable than others. They are particularly helpful in resolving complex fault patterns. Migrated record sections often improve the definition of complicated structures from areas where there has been major tectonic disturbance. The most common structural targets associated with oil entrapment are anticlines and faults appear in Fig.1 Introduction The reflection method has been used in exploration it has been possible to obtain useful information on many types of structural features which might be responsible for the entrapment of oil. 4. particularly those presenting data obtained with modern field and processing techniques. often make the presence of such structures obvious to the eye. Structural deformations caused by salt domes and other intrusive can usually be mapped as well. 25 . In the paragraphs to follow we shall consider the interpretation of many such structural features and present examples illustrating their appearance on seismic sections. Anticlines are generally easy to see on record sections.

2 (b). 26 . does not show a very meaningful picture. 4. The corresponding unmigrated section. Fig.Fig. 4.2 Anticlines Anticlines can easily be mapped by reflection if the data are of good quality and if the closure is greater than spurious irregularities in apparent structure such as are caused by lateral velocity changes.1 Most type of reservoirs and traps 4. Oil-bearing anticlinal structures may be associated with tectonic forces as well as with deformations due to the upward push of rising salt domes or other diapiric features underneath. shown in Fig. 4.2 (a) illustrates an unusual kind of anticline as displayed on a migrated record section.

) 4. 3. The migration has collapsed the many diffraction patterns that concealed the actual structure.Diffraction patterns. Calif. Often. (Geocom. the techniques for finding and map them have considerable practical importance. however.Miss closures in tying reflections around loops.Distortion or disappearance of reflections below suspected fault lines. (a) section as automatically migrated by computer. The principal indications of faulting on reflection sections are the following: 1.Fig.3 Faults The detection of faulting on seismic sections can be quite easy under favorable circumstances. 4. 5. 2. 27 .2 Anticline from San Joaquin Valley.Discontinuities in reflections falling along an essentially linear pattern. 4.Inc. and the identifications and delineation of such features can be quite challenging. (b) immigrated section.Divergences in dip not related to stratigraphy. particularly those with vertices which line up in a manner consistent with local faulting. Because of the role faults often play in the entrapment of hydrocarbons. the indications are subtle.

Sometimes fragmental portions of a pattern can be fitted to an appropriate curve of maximum convexity based on the known velocity for the area concerned and the curve can be used to project the position of the vertex even when it is not actually observable on the section.Where discontinuities are well defined. The best way to determine whether a suspected feature on a section is a diffraction pattern or a true structure is to calculate the time-versus-horizontal-distance relationship for a diffraction that 28 . Diffraction patterns need not be complete to be useful in this way.3 Pattern of faulting An important aid to identifying and tracing fault surfaces is the family of diffraction patterns that originate from the edges of beds disrupted by faulting. 4. A number of such patterns originating from different points along a fault should make it possible to locate the fault edge even in the absence of reflections yielding such information. the position of the fault trace may be highly evident on the record sections even to someone entirely inexperienced in seismic interpretation. Such an edge can often act as a point source for returning seismic energy by diffraction of the type. Fig. The resulting pattern will have an arcuate shape like the trace of a surface of maximum convexity. they might be interpreted by the unwary as reflections. A diffraction observed on both sides of its source can look deceptively like a reflection from a symmetrical anticline. The vertex of the diffraction pattern shows the position of the diffracting edge on the section. Unless diffraction patterns are recognized as such.

domes. Diapirs are said to have formed when this process leads to intrusion of the migrating plastic sediment body upwards through overlying strata to a level of equilibrium higher in the rock succession. In the case of salt tectonics.would originate from the vertex of the feature using the best velocity information available. 4. primarily salt and clay have the property that. synclines. and migration can take place both vertically and horizontally. or in some cases to extrusion at the earth's surface. 29 . and clay migration usually takes the form of How into anticlines as a result of folding associated with compressive tectonic forces. It is often possible to recognize faulting from divergences of reflections below the fault plane or from disturbances in the quality or character of reflections originating beneath the suspected fault that appear to pass through it. bodies of such rocks will deform by plastic flow. faults and overthrusts. The closer the fit the greater the likelihood that the feature is a diffraction. strata overlying the salt may be deformed into anticlines. preferably by the use of a transparent overlay. The structure of underlying formations will be seen to be relatively undisturbed and largely independent of the structure in rock units overlying the deformed clay or salt. Clay diapirs are less common. Rock flow structures are most easily recognised on seismic sections where horizons can be mapped at levels below the rock units which have been deformed by migration. under certain conditions.4 Diapirism and Salt Domes Some sedimentary materials. Then one compares the predicted and observed patterns. whereas beneath the salt layer the beds can be undisturbed and flat-lying.

salt movement has not only caused deformation of the overlying strata but has also strongly influenced the deposition of sediments during periods of structural growth. Halo-kinetic structure can only develop where salt layers have been buried to such a depth that loading causes the salt to deform as a plastic (as opposed to elastic) solid. domes. Both faulting and folding are associated with the deformation. pillows and walls. These structures develop as a result of the comparatively low density of salt and its ability to flow as a result of overburden pressure alone. plugs. Such structures are termed halokinetic structures. 4. Compressive tectonic forces are not an essential requirement to the mechanism of salt migration.4 Example of Salt Dome. According to Trusheim (1960) many salt structures in northern Germany can be attributed to the autonomous movement of salt under the influence of gravity. Salt structures occur in a wide variety of forms: stocks.Fig. According to this reconstruction. and experience in northern Germany indicates that an over-burden of approximately 170m thickness is necessary. Each structure may require detailed seismic mapping before its shape can be properly defined and in some circumstances specialised survey techniques are required to acquire good reflection data 30 . whereas those which arise as a result of compressive tectonic forces are termed halo-tectonic.

the removal of noise and multiples may make its surface readily observable.5 Basement effect in a deep-sea area Fig. While it is still not always feasible to recognize the basement on record sections. The absence of reflection events below this envelope makes the identification all the more likely. it was seldom possible to identify the surface of the basement from reflection records because of multiple reflections and other noise dominating the deep portions of the records. Salt Structures are important in oil exploration in that a wide variety of trap structures can develop in a region as a result of deformation by salt tectonics. Fig.from below salt structures. even though there has been no drilling along the line to verify it.5 Basement Structure Until common-depth-point recording and digital processing became available. 31 . 4. 4. particularly when it is very deep.5 illustrated this effect in a deep-sea area. Irregularities on the top of the basement often generate diffraction patterns which give a series of closely spaced arcs on the section having an envelope that can define the convolutions of the basement quite closely. 4.

Such a presentation should not be looked upon as a geological cross section because it can distort the actual geometry of the subsurface in two ways: (1) Any variations in velocity.6 Pitfalls in Structural Interpretation The conventional representation of a single channel of seismic reflection information is a plot of signal amplitude versus time on a trace corresponding in its position on the section to that of the receiving geophone group represented by the channel.6 Identification of basement surface from diffraction patterns on section along traverse In deep water. will cause the time section to have a configuration different from the actual geological section plotted in depth. either vertical or lateral. Fig. But a large majority of the sections actually used in exploration are of the conventional type. (United Geophysical Corp. 4. proprietary data. The record section shows an assemblage of such traces side by side. (2) Geometric bending of the ray paths away from the vertical will have the same effect as pointed out in our discussion of migration in the preceding section.) 32 . Migrated sections and sections plotted in depth rather than time are designed to minimize such distortion on conventional record sections.4.

8 shows a section that would lead one to the conclusion that there is an anticlinal feature between 1. which illustrates spurious structures attributable to velocity anomalies in overlying salt bodies. Moreover.0 s. The fact that the velocity in the salt column is higher than that in the surrounding material can account completely for the apparent structure of the subsalt formation. 33 . A strong reflection is observed under the large salt dome that is about 150 ms higher at its shallowest point than the correlative events on either side of the dome. This tongue causes the flat autochthonous beds below to appear arched upward because of velocity pull-up. as one sees from the marked section in the lower portion of the figure. Such effects are frequently observed in the Canadian foothills. 4.6.1 Velocity pitfalls Let us take look at Fig. The observed drop off in the same reflection near the right-hand edge of the section is explainable by a salt pillow just above it. But the authors' interpretation is quite different. 4. Fig.0 and 2. Another common pitfall in structural interpretation can result from erroneously chosen processing parameters. as in the area around Turner Valley where the Mississippian Rundle limestone is thrust at a low angle over lower-velocity Cretaceous formations.. Yet there is no real structural uplift below the salt. many migrated sections display incorrect structural indications because of uncertainties or complexities in the velocity distribution. Another example from Tucker and Yorston8 is related to overthrusting. 4. A low-angle overthrust fault has a high-velocity allochthonoustongue (presumably limestone) on the left side of the section.g. an incorrect stacking velocity. e. an effect often observed when salt is unusually deep.7. which happens to have a lower velocity than the surrounding formation.And it is important that all geophysicists recognize the errors that these distortions can lead to in seismic interpretation.

e.g. (From Tucker and Yorston. Some of the structures shown.) Fault shadow Fig. 4.8) 34 .Fig.8 "Anticline" cased by thrusting of high-velocity material over monoclinal layers. those below the piercement-type salt dome and salt pillows (like the deep one on the right) are not real but result from velocity effects..7 Distortion of sedimentary layers due to forces associated with salt-dome buoyancy. 4. (Exxon. Markings on lower section indicate interpreted structure. Inc.

4.6. the shortest time being observed over the syncline's deepest point. Properly designed automatic migration would collapse the diffraction arc to a point and would shift the flanks to their true positions.9 Bow-tie effect observed over sharp syncline in the Adriatic Sea. Fig. Inc. Apparent anticline is actually a diffraction feature.0 s. 4.9 shows the ray-path geometry resulting in the "bow tie" that is observed on the section at depths below 2. 4.2 Geometrical pitfalls A common type of geometrical pitfall is illustrated by Fig. 4. Fig. The two reflections dipping steeply in opposite directions are reflections from respective sides of the synclinal structure that cross one another on their way to the surface.) 35 . but even in the absence of such migration the bow-tie pattern should enable the knowledgeable geophysicist or geologist to recognize the true nature of the source. (Geocom. and the arcuate feature below is a diffraction from a point at the bottom of the syncline.9. This is what is observed when a section crosses a syncline with such a sharp curvature that the reflection ray paths cross one another on their way to and from the surface.

Chapter 5 Case Study .

*The square area between latitudes 30o48`.Chapter 5 Case Study Evaluation of Matruh Basin The purpose of the current study is to evaluate hydrocarbon potentials of the Albian Kharita and Cenomanian Bahariya formations in the Matruh Basin. The data on which the current study based on is nine composite logs and 3D seismic volume.1 Location map of the study area. Black-filled circles represent the locations of the nine composite logs and marks represent the two digital wells that were loaded in the 3D seismic volume. Fig. The square to the south east refers to the location of the 3D seismic data while the area in darker represent the actual 3D seismic covered area. 27o42` east 36 . 5. 31o24` north and between longitudes 26o48`. North Western Desert of Egypt.

1988).2 Basment tectonic map of the north Western Desert of Egypt (Modified after Sultan and Halim. Fig. 5. 37 . 5.5.1 Geological Background Fig.3 The subbasins constituting the northren Western Desert Basin (Modified after Sultan and Halim. 1988).

Table. 5. 5. subsurface data used to interpretaion of seismic data including well logs.1 Stratigraphic column of matruh basin. 38 . 1983).2 Basin Analysis Following figures and maps for Bahariya and Kharita formations were extracted in an attempt to identify the possible reservoir intervals. Egypt (Modified after Medoil.

4 18.2 11.4 31.8 16.7 24 78.2 4.8 - Mideiwar 1X Abu Tunis 1X Marsa.1 33.1 0.3 3.2 5.7 1.6 5.9 0.1 4 3.7 72.2 22.Table 5.2 4.2 50.3 0.4 69.2 2.5 3.3 3.9 18 47.7 69.4 42.5 38.9 27.4 24.3 36.4 46.7 4. Matruh Basin. North Western Desert.4 31.7 25 23 24 18.8 28.9 2.9 68 53.4 0.7 27.3 69.6 21.5 2.7 71.2 0.7 22.6 1.3 41.2 0.2 20.5 7.2 28.9 16.2.8 60.1 21.Matruh MMX-1 Matruh 1-1 Matruh 1-1 Matruh 2-1 Matruh 3-1 Ras Kanayes Ja27-1 SS: Sandstone LS: Limestone Anh: Anhydrite SiltSt: Siltstone Dol: Dolomite 39 .6 34.2 23.2 8. Lithologic constituents of Bahariya and Kharita formations.1 10.5 47.9 7.6 0. Egypt.1 13.8 3.5 1.1 11 7.2 33. Fromatin Name LITHOLOGY Well Name Darduma 1A Siqeifa-1X Kharita %SS %LS %Anh %Shale %Siltst %Dol %Clay Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariy Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya Kharita Bahariya 72.3 8.

North Western Desert. I. 5.=50 ft) Fig. I.=200 ft) 40 .5 Isopach map of Kharita Formation. Egypt (C. Matruh Basin.4 Isopach map of Bahariya Formation.Fig. North Western Desert. 5. Matruh Basin. Egypt (C.

North Western Desert. Matruh Basin. 5. Arrows refer to possible hydrocarbon migration pathway (C. I.=200 ft) Fig.Fig.6 Structure contour map of Bahariya Formation. 5.7 Structure contour map of Kharita Formation. Egypt. North Western Desert.=200 ft) 41 . Arrows refer to possible hydrocarbon migration pathway (C. Matruh Basin. Egypt. I.

Fig. Matruh Basin.8 Sand to shale ratio map of Bahariya Formation. Matruh Basin. North Western Desert. 5. Fig. Egypt. North Western Desert. Egypt. 5. 42 .9 Sand to shale ratio map of Kharita Formation.

3 Seismic Data Fig.10 Location the seismic lines that are shown in (Figures 5.1 43 . The location of seismic survey is shown in Fig. The dark area is the real 3D seismic survey.5. 5. 5.13).11 to 5.

11 Line "q" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). 44 .Fig. 5.

45 .12 Line "f" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). 5.Fig.

Fig. 46 .13 Line "k" in the original 3D seismic volume (before applying any intrpretation steps). 5.

1 Fault Pattern Interpretation The present study area is highly faulted. allow horizons pick up as well as to help in predicting what sort of hydrocarbon traps may be present in the area. The faults affecting the time zone of interest (~ 800 to 1500 ms) need to be interpreted to reveal the geologic history of the area.4 Structural Interpretation Harding (1985): stated that "early identification of structural style is an important exploration function and the appropriate selection of prospect (trap) models often depend on the reliability of such identification. 47 .5." 5. The fault interpretation was carried out through the interpretation of the vertical depth .4.

5. 5.12) 48 .Fig.14 Interpreted line number "f" (see fig.

5.15 Interpreted line number"k". 5. empty area are no seismic data zones (see fig.10 for location) 49 .Fig.

To achieve that purpose. The data on which the current study based on is nine composite logs and 3D seismic volume. 5. 2. North Western Desert of Egypt. 5.16 Interpreted part of line number "q" (see fig. The slope of the subsidence curve decreased by the Turonian indicating the start of thermal subsidence. Burial history profiles and subsidence curves showed a rapid subsidence that started at Late Jurassic and continued through Cretaceous.10 for location) 5. 3. Maturity calculations at the nine wells showed that the Albian Kharita and Cenomanian Bahariya formations reached enough maturity to generate oil. the following techniques were applied to the nine composite logs: 1. 50 . Structure contour maps of the Bahariya and Kharita formations showed the dip of their upper surfaces to the southeast direction.Fig.5 Summary And Conclusions The purpose of the current study is to evaluate hydrocarbon potentials of the Albian Kharita and Cenomanian Bahariya formations in the Matruh Basin.

analysis showed that NW is a prevailing trend in Cretaceous. 4. That resulted in tracking 150 normal fault striking NW-SE. Fault tracking in the time zone of interest through vertical seismic transects as well as time slices through the amplitude. Jurassic. The anticline areas are highly recommended for drilling especially the bigger western one. 3. and Paleozoic formations with a strong appearance of E-W trending faults in the Jurassic formations. In addition Abu-Roash D-member and Alamein dolomite Formation were also tracked in order to help in structural interpretation. Besides. Bahariya and Kharita formations were then tracked through the seismic data volume. 2. These differences in amplitude values may be due to changes in porosity as a result of changes in sand/shale ratios. the seismic data was subjected to the following interpretation techniques: 1. 51 . Sand to shale ratio maps of the two formations showed that Kharita is a sandy formation while Bahariya is sandy to the east and shaley to the west of the area. Amplitude values were extracted on the Bahariya and Kharita horizons. The wrench between Europe and Africa at Late Cretaceous times was proposed to be the cause of the structures affecting the studied formations. they showed the general dip of these horizons to the south east direction. 5. The results of trend.4. Time structure maps for the four horizons were constructed. Three higher amplitude spots were noted on each of the two maps. They are seemed to be formed at the same time of the faults. 5. Following the previous processing steps. The thicknesses of Bahariya and Kharita increase to the northwest of the area as was deduced from the isopach maps of the twoformations. Trend analysis to the tracked faults in different time at different depths that represent different ages. Small hydrocarbon reservoirs can exist in the studied formations as all the circumstances allow them to form. time structure maps showed two anticlines extending in the area and trending NE-SW in a direction almost be perpendicular to the faults direction.

W. Simm. USA: PennWell Publishing Company. Cambridge. Goulty. Evaluate Oil potentiality for Matruh Basin. Applied Geophysics. R. 15. (1980). Dobrin. 1041-63. Faculty of Science: Suez Canal University.. E. (2003). (1979). & Redshaw. Chapman. Andhra Pradesh. J. 3-D seismic interpretation. What do you know about seismic survey? (2009. 77-80 McQuillin. K. R. Introduction to geophysical prospecting (3th ed... (2004). February). A. M. W. England: Cambridge University Press. M . Taner. M. Egypt.S. N. Seismic Exploration Fundamentals.D. Gamea. T. M. Graham & Trotman press Othman. R. Applied Geophysics. (1960).Reflection Interpretation. B. Geological interpretation. Sheriff. (1979). Bacon. An Introduction to seismic Interpretation. T. Schlumberger Cambridge Research: Cambridge University Press.M. W. M.). India: Geophysics Andhra University. (2004). pp 260-264 52 .. Oklahoma. R.Bibliography Bacon. Fundamentals Of Seismic Wave Propagation. 44. Petroleum Journal: Petroleum Ministry. Koehler. A. Egypt. First Break. Lateral resolution of 2D seismic illustrated by a real data example. F & Sheriff R. 2D and 3D Land Seismic Data Acquisition and Seismic Data Processing. H.Hill Book Company. C. Complex seismic trace analysis Geophysics. K. Telford. & Barcly. Tulsa. Singapore: McGraw.. (2007). E. (1997). Coffeen.. (1986). Ph. Talagapu.

‬‬ ‫ﻳﺣﺗﻭﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﺣﺙ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﺗﻲ ﺑﺄﺧﺗﺻﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺩﻣﻪ ﺗﻌﺭﻳﻔﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻲ ﻭﻛﻳﻔﻳﻪ ﺟﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻲ‪.‫ﺍﻟﻣﻠﺧﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻳﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻛﺎﺳﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻲ ”‪ “Seismic Survey‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻧﻘﻳﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺑﺗﺭﻭﻝ ﻭﻳﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺣﺟﺭ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠ�ﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳ�ﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻛ�ﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳ�ﺢ ﺍﻟﺳ�ﻳﺯﻣﻲ ﻫ�ﻲ ﺭﺅﻳ�ﺔ ﻣ�ﺎ ﺗﺣ�ﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻁﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻥ ﺗﺭﺍﻛﻳﺏ ﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﻪ ﺗﻌﺭﻑ ﺑ�ـ "‪ "Oil Trap‬ﻣﺻ�ﺎﺋﺩ ﺑﺗﺭﻭﻟﻳ�ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳ�ﺙ ﺍﻧﻬ�ﺎ ﺗﺣﺗ�ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﻳﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‪. "Recording Unit‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﻪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺳﺟﻳﻝ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺗﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺳﻁﺢ ﻣ�ﺭﻩ ﺍﺧ�ﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳ�ﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﺟﻬ�ﺯﻩ ﺍﻟﺗﺳ�ﺟﻳﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺭﺳ��ﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ��ﻲ ﻣﺭﻛ��ﺯ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟ��ﻪ ﻹﺟ��ﺭﺍء ﻋﻣﻠﻳ��ﺎﺕ ﺭﻗﻣﻳ��ﻪ ﻋﻠﻳﻬ��ﺎ "‪ "Digital Processing‬ﻭﻣ��ﻥ ﺛ��ﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺗﺣﻣﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺟﻬﺯﻩ ﺍﻟﻛﻣﺑﻳﻭﺗﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺩﻩ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻳﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎﻝ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻧﻌﻛﺱ ﻋﻧﺩ ﺍﻟﺣﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻝ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺑﻘ�ﺎﺕ ‪interface‬‬ ‫ﺣﻳ��ﺙ ﺍﻷﺧ��ﺗﻼﻑ ﻓ��ﻲ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﺎﻓ��ﻪ )ﻛﺛﺎﻓ��ﻪ ﺍﻟﺻ��ﺧﻭﺭ( ﻟﻠﺣ��ﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺳ��ﻳﺑﻲ ﻭﻳ��ﺗﻡ ﺭﺻ��ﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺳ��ﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﺟﻬ��ﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﺎﺳ��ﻪ ﺗﺳ��ﻣﻲ ‪ Receivers‬ﺣﻳ��ﺙ ﺗﻛ��ﻭﻥ ﻣﺗﺻ��ﻠﻪ ﻣ��ﻊ ﺑﻌﺿ��ﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ��ﺑﻌﺽ ﻭﺃﻳﺿ��ﺎ ﻣﺗﺻ��ﻠﻪ ﻣ��ﻊ ﻋﺭﺑ��ﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺳﺟﻳﻝ "‪.‬‬ ‫‪۱‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﻳﺭﻩ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺣﻳﺙ ﻳﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻓﺯﻳﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟ�ﻭﺟﻲ ﺑﻌﻣ�ﻝ ﺗﻔﺳ�ﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺳ�ﻳﺯﻣﻳﻪ ﻟﺗﻠ�ﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺻﺎﺋﺩ ﺍﻟﺑﺗﺭﻭﻟﻳﻪ ﻭﻋﻣﻝ ﺧﺭﺍﺋﻁ ﻛﻧﺗﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻳﻬﺎ ﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﺭ ﺍﻟﺑﺋﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻭﻡ ﻓﻛﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺭﺑﻊ ﺧﻁﻭﺍﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻟ�ﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﺷ�ﺎء ﻣﻭﺟ�ﻪ ﺻ�ﻭﺗﻳﻪ ﻗﻭﻳ�ﻪ ﻓ�ﻭﻕ ﺳ�ﻁﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺄﺳ�ﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟ�ﺩﻳﻧﺎﻣﻳﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑ�ﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍﻟﻳﻪ "‪ "Vibroseis‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺛﺭ ﺷﻳﻭﻋﺎً‪.

.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﺧﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟ�ﻭﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﻳﺎﻧ�ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺳ�ﻳﺯﻣﻳﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻛﺎﺳ�ﻳﻪ ﻣ�ﻊ ﺇﻗﺻ�ﺎء ﺍﻟﻣﻌ�ﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻳﺎﺿ�ﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻘ��ﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻧﻅﺭﻳ��ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺯﻳﺎﺋﻳ��ﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻁﻭﻟ��ﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﻛﻳ��ﺯ ﻋﻠ��ﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﻬ��ﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟ��ﻭﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺗﻔﺳ��ﻳﺭ ﻭﻫﺩﻓ��ﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳ��ﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﺿﻣﻧﺕ ﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺿﺎﻫﺎﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻡ ﺍﻟﺧﺭﺍﺋﻁ ‪ ……….‬ﺃﻟﺦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﻣﺱ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘ���ﺩﻳﻡ ﻧﻣ���ﻭﺫﺝ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳ���ﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻠ���ﺔ ﻋﻠ���ﻲ ﻣﻧﻁﻘ���ﻪ ﺣ���ﻭﺽ ﻣﻁ���ﺭﻭﺡ ﻛﻧﻣ���ﻭﺫﺝ ﻟﺗﻁﺑﻳ���ﻕ ﺧﻁ���ﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺳ���ﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺯﻣﻳﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻛﺎﺳﻳﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺗﻣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﺗﺭﻭﻟﻳﻪ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳ��ﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻛﺎﺳ��ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺳ��ﻳﺯﻣﻳﻪ ﻓ��ﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺍﻛﻳ��ﺏ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳ��ﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔ��ﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻬ��ﻭﺩ ﺗﻭﺍﺟ��ﺩ ﺍﻟﺑﺗ��ﺭﻭﻝ ﺑﻬ��ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻳﻔﻳﻪ ﺗﻔﺳ�ﻳﺭ ﺻ�ﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟ�ﺎﺕ ﻓ�ﻭﻕ ﺗﻠ�ﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺍﻛﻳ�ﺏ ﻣ�ﻊ ﺫﻛ�ﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﻁ�ﺎء ﺍﻟﺗ�ﻲ ﻳﺟ�ﺏ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺗﺟﻧ�ﺏ ﺃﺛﻧ�ﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺍﻛﻳﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪۲‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻟﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺭﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻔﺎﻫﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳ�ﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﺳ�ﺗﺧﺩﻣﺔ ﻓ�ﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺳ�ﻳﺭ ﺑﺻ�ﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﺑﺳ�ﻁﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺛ�ﻝ ﺍﻧ�ﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟ��ﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔ��ﺭﻕ ﺑ��ﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟ��ﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻛﺎﺳ��ﻳﻪ ﻣﻭﺿ��ﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺑﺣ��ﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟ��ﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺷ��ﺗﺗﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻁ��ﺭﻕ ﺇﻟ��ﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻼﺕ‪.

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫َ ُْ َ ْ َ ْ ُ ْ َ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ْ ُ َْ َ َ َ‬ ‫ﺯﻟﺰﺍﻟﻬﺎ * ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﺖِ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﺛﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ *‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ِ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﻟﺰِﻟ ِ‬ ‫ََ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ َ َ ْ َ ُ َ ﱢ ُ َ َْ َ َ َ ﱠ َﱠ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹِﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ * ﻳﻮﻣﺌِﺬٍ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ * ﺑِﺄﻥ ﺭﺑﻚ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ََ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ ُ ﱠ ُ َ َْ ً ﱢُ َ ْ َ ْ َ َُ ْ َ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺣﻰ ﻟﻬﺎ * ﻳﻮﻣﺌِﺬٍ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﺷﺘﺎﺗﺎ ﻟﻴﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻢ * ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ ﱠ َْ ً َ َُ َ َ َ ْ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ ﱠ َ ‪ُ َ َ ‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﺭﺓٍ ﺧﻴﺮﺍ ﻳﺮﻩ * ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣِﺜﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﺭﺓٍ ﺷﺮﺍ ﻳﺮﻩ ◌ *‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ِ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻟﺰﻟﺔ‬ .

‬ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﺳﺗﺎﺭ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﻧﻌﻳﻡ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﻠﻁﻳﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺎﺿﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻓﺯﻳﺎء‬ .۱‬ﺃﺣﻣﺩ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﺣﻣﻳﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﺣﺎﻓﻅ‬ ‫‪ .‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺑﺄﺳﻳﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻗﺳﻡ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺣﺙ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺰﻣﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .۲‬ﺃﺣﻣﺩ ﻣﺣﻣﻭﺩ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﺳﻼﻡ ﺣﺳﻥ‬ ‫‪ .۳‬ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﺭﺣﻣﻥ ﻣﺣﻣﺩ ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﻔﺗﺎﺡ ﺳﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﺳﺗﻛﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺣﺻﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻛﺎﻟﻭﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ ‪۲۰۰۹/۲۰۰۸‬‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺕ ﺇﺷﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .