N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
F i S i Fourier Series
1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Periodic Functions
• A function is said to be periodic if
1.500
f(x)
Periodic Functions
Illustration of f(x+T)=f(x)
• A function is said to be periodic if
f(x+T) = f(x) for all x.
• The period of the function is T, a
positive number
0500
0.000
0.500
1.000
3.1 1.1 0.9 2.9 4.9 6.9 8.9 10.9
x
positive number.
1.500
1.000
0.500
T
T
0.8
For example :


.

\


.

\

+
=

.

\

t t
5
10
cos
5
cos
x x
( ) 5 / cos ) ( t x x f =
0 7
0.2
0.3
10 5 0 5 10

.
\

.
\

.
\
5 5
Therefore, cos(xπ/5) is a
periodic function with a
2
1.2
0.7
periodic function with a
period of 10.
10
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Periodic Functions
• Periodic functions occur frequently in
engineeringproblems (e g internal pressure
Periodic Functions
engineering problems (e.g. internal pressure
of combustion engine, vibrating platforms,
pendulums)
• A popular approach to mathematically
represent periodic functions is through Fourier
Series
J osephFourier (17681830) J oseph Fourier (1768 1830),
French physicist
FOURIER SERIES :
Any function f(x) of period 2L can be represented as an infinite summation of
( )
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
y ( ) p p
sine and cosine terms
3
. \
. \ . \ 1 n
with appropriately determined coefficients, a
n
and b
n
.
HOW?
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions
The integrals required to determine the coefficients in a Fourier series
Integral of trigonometric functions
0 cos 0 sin =

.

\

=

.

\

} }
÷ ÷
L
L
L
L
dx
L
x n
dx
L
x n t t
0 cos sin =

.

\


.

\

}
÷
L
L
dx
L
x n
L
x m t t
¹
´
¦
=
=
=

.

\


.

\

}
÷
m n
m n L
dx
L
x n
L
x m
L
L
, 0
,
cos cos
t t
¹
´
¦
=
=
=

.

\


.

\

}
÷
m n
m n L
dx
L
x n
L
x m
L
L
, 0
,
sin sin
t t
4
n, m =1,2,3,…
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions
Other useful formulas:
Integral of trigonometric functions
sin 2 1 1 cos 2 ) 2 cos(
2 2
A A A ÷ = ÷ =
n sin(nt/2) sin(nt) cos(nt/2) cos(nt)
1 1 0 0 1
2 0 0 1 1
) sin( ) sin( cos sin 2
cos sin 2 ) 2 sin(
B A B A B A
A A A
+ + ÷ =
=
3 1 0 0 1
4 0 0 1 1
5 1 0 0 1
) cos( ) cos( sin sin 2
) sin( ) sin( cos sin 2
B A B A B A
B A B A B A
+ ÷ ÷ =
+ +
6 0 0 1 1
7 1 0 0 1
8 0 0 1 1
) cos( ) cos( cos cos 2 B A B A B A + + ÷ =
9 1 0 0 1
10 0 0 1 1
11 1 0 0 1
5
12 0 0 1 1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions Integral of trigonometric functions
Proof :
( ) ( ) 0 ] cos [cos cos sin
) cos(
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ =

.

\

=
÷
÷
}
t
t t
t
t
t
t
n
L
L
L
L
n n
n
L
L
x n
n
L
dx
L
x n
( ) ( ) 0 ] sin sin [ sin cos = ÷ ÷ =
(
(

.

\

=

.

\

}
t t
t t
n n
L x n L
dx
x n
L
L
( ) ( )] [
0 0
(
¸
¸

.
\

.
\
= =
÷
÷
}
t t n L n L
L
L
6
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions
}
÷

.

\


.

\

=
L
L
dx
L
x m
L
x n
I
t t
cos sin
Integral of trigonometric functions
Proof :
( ) ( ) 1 + ÷
}
L
x m n x m n t t
. \ . \
L L
Case 1: n≠m
From : 2sin(A)cos(B)=sin(AB)+sin(A+B)
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
cos cos
2
1
sin sin
2
1
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
+
÷
÷ =
+
+ =
÷
}
L
L
L
x m n
m n
L
L
x m n
m n
L
dx
L
x m n
L
x m n
I
t
t
t
t
t t
( ) ( )
0
2
=
¸ ¸
+ ÷
÷L
L m n L m n t t
From : cos(A)=cos(A)
Case 2: n=m
2
sin
2
1
cos sin
(

.

\

=

.

\


.

\

=
÷ ÷
} }
L
L
L
L
L
dx
L
x n
dx
L
x n
L
x n
I
t t t
Case 2: n m
From : sin(2A)=2sin(A)cos(A)
7
0
2
cos
2 2
1
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ =
÷
L
L
L
x n
n
L t
t
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions
}
÷

.

\


.

\

=
L
L
dx
L
x m
L
x n
I
t t
sin sin
Integral of trigonometric functions
Proof :
( ) ( ) 1 + ÷
}
L
d
x m n x m n
I
t t
. \ . \
L L
Case 1: n≠m
From : 2sin(A)sin(B)=cos(AB)cos(A+B)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 sin sin
1
cos cos
2
=
(
(
(
+
÷
÷
=
÷ =
÷
}
L
L
x m n L x m n L
dx
L L
I
t t
( ) ( )
0 sin sin
2
0 0
=
(
(
¸
¸
+ ÷
=
÷
= =
L
L m n L m n
t t
Case 2: n=m Case 2: n m
From : cos(2A)=12sin
2
(A)
dx
L
x n
dx
L
x n
I
L
L
L
L

.

\

÷ =

.

\

=
÷ ÷
} }
t t 2
cos 1
2
1
sin
2
8
L
L
x n
n
L
x
L
L
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ =
÷
t
t
2
sin
2 2
1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Integral of trigonometric functions
}
÷

.

\


.

\

=
L
L
dx
L
x m
L
x n
I
t t
cos cos
Integral of trigonometric functions
Proof :
( ) ( ) 1 + ÷
}
L
x m n x m n t t
. \ . \
L L
Case 1: n≠m
From : 2cos(A)cos(B)=cos(AB)+cos(A+B)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 sin sin
1
cos cos
2
1
=
(
(
(
+
+
÷
=
+
+ =
÷
}
L
L
L
x m n L x m n L
dx
L
x m n
L
x m n
I
t t
t t
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 sin sin
2
0 0
=
(
(
¸
¸
+
+
÷
=
÷
= =
L
L m n L m n
t t
Case 2: n=m Case 2: n m
From : cos(2A)=2cos
2
(A)1
dx
L
x n
dx
L
x n
I
L
L
L
L
+

.

\

=

.

\

=
÷ ÷
} }
t t
1
2
cos
2
1
cos
2
9
L x
L
x n
n
L
L
L
=
(
¸
(
¸
+

.

\

=
÷
t
t
2
sin
2 2
1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Determination of coefficients
FOURIER SERIES :
Determination of coefficients
( )
¿
·







+



+ = sin cos
x n
b
x n
a a x f
t t
Any function f(x) of period 2L can be represented as an infinite summation of
sine and cosine terms
( )
¿
=


.
\

.
\
+

.
\
+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
b
L
a a x f
with appropriately determined coefficients, a
n
and b
n
.
How do we determine the
coefficients a
n
and b
n
?
n n
10
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Determination of coefficients (a
0
) Determination of coefficients (a
0
)
Starting from,
( )
¿
·









i
x n
b
x n
f
t t
( )
¿
=


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
We integrate wrt x from–L to L We integrate wrt x from L to L
( )
1
0
sin cos dx
L
x n
b dx
L
x n
a dx a dx x f
n
L
L
n
L
L
n
L
L
L
L


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
¿
} } } }
·
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
t t
( )
}
L
d f
1
0
2La
L L L L
=
. \
=0 =0
( )
}
÷
=
L
dx x f
L
a
2
0
11
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Determination of coefficients (a ) Determination of coefficients (a
n
)
Starting from,
( )
¿
·


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
0
sin cos
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
= . \
. \ . \ 1 n
L L
We multiply the eqn by

.

\

L
x mt
cos
. \
L
( )
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+

.

\


.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

1
0
cos sin cos cos cos cos
n
n n
L
x m
L
x n
b
L
x m
L
x n
a
L
x m
a
L
x m
x f
t t t t t t
( ) L a dx
L
x m
L
x n
b dx
L
x m
L
x n
a dx
L
x m
a dx
L
x m
x f
m
L
n
L
n
L L
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+

.

\


.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

¿
} } } }
·
0
cos sin cos cos cos cos
t t t t t t
We integrate wrt x from –L to L
 
L
x mt 1
( )
L L L L L L
n
L L L L

.
\
. \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \
¿
} } } }
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
1
=0 =0 =0 for m≠n, =L for m=n
12
( )
}
÷

.

\

=
L
L
m
dx
L
x m
x f
L
a
t
cos
1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Determination of coefficients (b ) Determination of coefficients (b
n
)
Starting from,
( )
¿
·


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
0
sin cos
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
= . \
. \ . \ 1 n
L L
We multiply the eqn by

.

\

L
x mt
sin
. \
L
( )
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+

.

\


.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

1
0
sin sin sin cos sin sin
n
n n
L
x m
L
x n
b
L
x m
L
x n
a
L
x m
a
L
x m
x f
t t t t t t
( ) L b dx
L
x m
L
x n
b dx
L
x m
L
x n
a dx
L
x m
a dx
L
x m
x f
m
L
n
L
n
L L
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+

.

\


.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

¿
} } } }
·
0
sin sin sin cos sin sin
t t t t t t
We integrate wrt x from –L to L
 
L
x mt 1
( )
L L L L L L
n
L L L L

.
\
. \ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \
¿
} } } }
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
1
=0 for m≠n, =L for m=n =0 =0
13
( )
}
÷

.

\

=
L
L
m
dx
L
x m
x f
L
b
t
sin
1
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier series expansion
Summarizing the previous slides…
Fourier series expansion
 
   
Any function f(x) of period 2L can be represented as a Fourier series
( )
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
where
( )
( ) 3 2 1 cos
1
2
1
0



=
}
}
÷
n dx
x n
x f a
dx x f
L
a
L
L
L
t
where,
Euler
( )
( )
, 3 , 2 , 1 , sin
1
, 3 , 2 , 1 , cos
=

.

\

=
=

.
\
=
}
}
÷
÷
n dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
n dx
L
x f
L
a
L
L
n
L
n
t
Euler
formula
14
. \
}
÷
L L
L
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : Find the Fourier series expansion of the ‘half rectified signal”
1.2
f(x)
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
s <
s s ÷
=
t
t
x x
x
x f
0 sin
0 , 0
p p g
shown.
04
0.6
0.8
1
( )
¹
s < t x x 0 , sin
( ) ( ) x f x f = + t 2
and
0
0.2
0.4
x
t 0
÷t
2t 3t
FromEuler formula with L = t
( ) ( ) ( )    
t t t t t
t
t
t t
t
1
1 1
2
1
cos
2
1
0 sin
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ = + = =
} } }
÷ ÷
x dx x dx dx x f a
From Euler formula with L = t,
15
t
1
=
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
From Euler formula with L = t,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ = =
t t 0
cos sin
1
0
1
cos
1
dx nx x dx dx nx x f a
p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ = =
÷ ÷ t t
t t t
0
cos sin 0 cos dx nx x dx dx nx x f a
n
For n>1,
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ) 1 ( cos ) 1 ( cos 1 1
(
+ ÷
}
x n x n
t
t
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
* *
0
0
1 1 ) 1 ( cos ) 1 ( cos 1
1
) 1 ( cos
1
) 1 ( cos
2
1
) 1 ( sin ) 1 ( sin
2
1
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
(
(
+
÷
÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
÷
÷
÷
÷ = + + ÷ =
}
n
n n
n
x n
n
x n
dx x n x n a
t t
t t
t
( ) { }
( )
( )  
2
1
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1 1 1 1 2
+
+ ÷
÷
÷
= ÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
÷
=
¦
)
`
¦
¹
´
(
¸
¸
+ ÷
(
¸
¸
+ ÷
n n
n n n
n n n n
t t
t
( )
2
, 6 , 4 , 2 ,
1
2
, 7 , 5 , 3 , 0
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
÷
÷
=
=
n
n
n
t
16
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 ) 1 ( cos ) 1 ( cos : *
+
÷ = + = ÷
n
n n note t t
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : p
 
1
i
1
i
1
} }
t
t t
d d
For n=1,
  0 2 cos
4
1
2 sin
2
1
cos sin
1
0
0 0
1
= ÷ = = =
} }
t
t t t
x dx x dx x x a
n n1 cos((n1)t) n+1 cos((n+1)t) (1)^(n+1)
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 ) 1 ( cos ) 1 ( cos : *
+
÷ = + = ÷
n
n n note t t
n n 1 cos((n 1)t) n+1 cos((n+1)t) ( 1) (n+1)
1 0 1 2 1 1
2 1 1 3 1 1
3 2 1 4 1 1 3 2 1 4 1 1
4 3 1 5 1 1
5 4 1 6 1 1
6 5 1 7 1 1
17
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
1 1 1
From Euler formula with L = t,
p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ = =
÷ ÷
t
t
t
t
t t t
0
0
sin sin
1
0
1
sin
1
dx nx x dx dx nx x f b
n
For n>1
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ) 1 ( i ) 1 ( i 1
) 1 ( cos ) 1 ( cos
2
1
0
(
+
+ ÷ ÷ =
}
t
t
t
dx x n x n b
n
For n>1,
( ) ( )
0
1
) 1 ( sin
1
) 1 ( sin
2
1
0
=
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
÷
÷
÷
=
t n
x n
n
x n
( )
1 2 sin 1
2 cos 1
1
sin
1
2
(
(
} }
t
t t
x
x dx x xdx b
For n=1,
18
( )
2 2 2
2 cos 1
2
sin
0
0 0
1
=
(
¸
¸
÷ = ÷ = =
} }
t t t
x dx x xdx b
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
Hence, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ... 6 cos 4 cos 2 cos sin
35
2
15
2
3
2
2
1 1
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = x x x x x f
t t t t
p
Although the series is infinite a fewterms are usually accurate enough
0 8
1
1.2
Up to a2
0 8
1
1.2
Only a0 and b1
with a
0
& b
1
only up to a
2
Although the series is infinite, a few terms are usually accurate enough.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
Up to a4
0.2
0
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
0.2
0
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1.2
Up to a6
up to a
4
up to a
6
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
19
0.2
0
0.2
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
0.2
0
0.2
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : Find the Fourier series expansion of the square wave p p q
shown.
1.0
( )
´
¦
< < ÷ ÷
=
t x
x f
0 , 1
t 2t 3t 3t 4t ÷t
( )
¹
´
< < t x
x f
0 , 1
( ) ( ) x f x f = + t 2
1.0
( ) ( )
20
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
From Euler formula with L = t,
p
( ) 0
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
= + ÷ = =
} } }
÷ ÷ t
t t
t
t t t
dx dx dx x f a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos
1
cos
1
cos
1
0
0
+
÷
= =
÷ ÷
} } }
t
t
t
t
t t t
dx nx dx nx dx nx x f a
n
( ) ( )
0
sin 1 sin 1
0
0
0
=
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
÷
} } }
t
t
t t
t t
t t t
n
nx
n
nx
21
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
From Euler formula with L = t,
p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )   ( )   { }
¦
¹
¦
¦
( (
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ = =
÷ ÷
} } }
nx nx
dx nx dx nx dx nx x f b
n
1 cos cos 1
sin sin
1
sin
1
0
0
0
t t
t
t
t
t
t
( ) ( )
( )   ( )   { }
¦
¦
= ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷
n
n n
n n
nx
n
nx
even for 0 ) 1 1 (
2
1 cos cos 1
1 cos cos 1
0
t t
t t
t
( )  
¦
¹
¦
´
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
= ÷ ÷ =
n
n n
n
n
n
n
odd for ,
4
)) 1 ( 1 (
2
even for , 0 ) 1 1 (
1 1
2
t t
t
t
( ) ( )
¿ ¿
· ·



=







+



+ = sin
4
sin cos nx
x n
b
x n
a a x f
t t
Hence,
22
( ) ( )
¿ ¿
= =

.
\
=


.
\

.
\
+

.
\
+ =
, 5 , 3 , 1 1
0
sin sin cos
n n
n n
nx
n L
b
L
a a x f
t
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + = x x x x x f 7 sin 5 sin 3 sin sin
7
4
5
4
3
4 4
t t t t
p
1.5
n = 1
1.5
n = 3
1.5
n = 5
1.5
n = 7
1.5
n = 9
1.5
n = 11
1.5
n = 13
1.5
n = 15
1.5
n = 17
1.5
n = 19
0.5
1
n = 1
0.5
1
n = 3
0.5
1
n = 5
0.5
1
n = 7
0.5
1
n = 9
0.5
1
n = 11
0.5
1
n = 13
0.5
1
n = 15
0.5
1
n = 17
0.5
1
n = 19
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
0
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
1.5
1
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
23
3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14 3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : Find the Fourier series expansion of the square wave
¦
÷ < < ÷ 1 2 , 0 x
p p q
shown.
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< <
< < ÷
< <
=
2 1 , 0
1 1 , 1
1 2 , 0
x
x
x
x f
( ) ( ) x f x f = + 4
1
24
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
1 1 1 1 1 1
From Euler formula with L = 2,
p
( )  
2
1
4
1
0
4
1
4
1
0
4
1
) 2 ( 2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
0
= = + + = =
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
} } } }
x dx dx dx dx x f a
( ) dx dx
x n
dx dx
x n
x f a
n
0
2
1
2
cos
2
1
0
2
1
2
cos
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
+

.

\

+ =

.

\

=
÷
÷
÷ ÷
} } } }
t t
n n
n
x n
n 2
sin
2
sin
1
2
sin
2
2
1
1
1
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷

.

\

=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

=
÷
t t
t
t
t
n a
n
n
n
even for 0 : note
2
sin
2
=

.

\

=
t
t
25
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : p
From Euler formula with L = 2,
( )
0
1 2 1
0
2
1
2
sin
2
1
0
2
1
2
sin
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
(
(



÷



(
(



+

.

\

+ =

.

\

=
÷
÷
÷ ÷
} } } }
t t t
t t
n n x n
dx dx
x n
dx dx
x n
x f b
n
0
2
cos
2
cos
2
cos
2
1
=
(
¸
¸

.

\

÷

.

\

=
(
¸
¸

.

\

÷ =
÷
t t n n
( )
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
x n
b
L
x n
a a x f
t t
Hence,
¿
·
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+ =
, 5 , 3 , 1
2
cos
2
sin
2
2
1
n
x n n
n
t t
t
26
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
( )
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

+

.

\

÷

.

\

+ = ...
2
5
cos
2
3
cos
2
cos
5
1
3
1 2
2
1
x x x
x f
t t t
t
p
1.2
n = 1
1.2
n = 3
1.2
n = 5
¸ ¸
. \ . \ . \
2 2 2
1.2
n = 7
1.2
n = 9
1.2
n = 11
1.2
n = 13
1.2
n = 15
1.2
n = 17
1.2
n = 19
0.6
0.8
1
n = 1
0.6
0.8
1
n = 3
0.6
0.8
1
n = 5
0.6
0.8
1
n = 7
0.6
0.8
1
n = 9
0.6
0.8
1
n = 11
0.6
0.8
1
n = 13
0.6
0.8
1
n = 15
0.6
0.8
1
n = 17
0.6
0.8
1
n = 19
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.4
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.2
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
27
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Dirichlet Conditions Dirichlet Conditions
If the Fourier series is to represent f(x), then at x=x
1
,
h ld t f( ) i i t i l d d
( ) ( ) ( )
¿
=
+ +
m
n
n n
nx b nx a a
1
1 1 0
sin cos
should converge to f(x
1
) as m increases, i.e. as more terms are included.
The following Dirichlet conditions must be fulfilled for convergence: g g
1. The function f(x) must be defined and singlevalued.
2. The function f(x) must be piecewise continuous. ( ) p
3. The derivative f’(x) must be piecewise continuous.
28
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :If the following functions are defined over the interval –t < x a p e t e o o g u ct o s a e de ed o e t e te a t x
< t and f(x)=f(x+2t),state whether or not each function can
be represented by a Fourier series.
2
2
9 ) ( .. 6 tan ) ( .. 5
1
) ( .. 4
2
) ( .. 3 5 4 ) ( .. 2 ) ( .. 1
x x f x x f x f
x
x f x x f x x f
÷ = = =
= ÷ = =
) ( ) (
5
) ( f f
x
f
÷
1. Yes, 2. Yes, 3. No (infinite discontinuity at x=0)
4 Yes 5 No (infinite discontinuity at x=t/2) 6 No (two valued) 4. Yes, 5. No (infinite discontinuity at x=t/2), 6. No (two valued)
29
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Discontinuities
The Fourier series representation of a piecewise continuous function,
gives the average value of the two limit at the points of discontinuity, i.e., if
Discontinuities
g g p y
x=a is a point of discontinuity, then
( ) h a a a f a f a f ± = + =
± + ÷
lim , ) ( ) (
1
) ( ( ) h a a a f a f a f
h÷0
, ) ( ) (
2
) (
30
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N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Discontinuities Discontinuities
In the previous 2 examples, the functions are piecewise continuous. So we
have
1.0
1.0
t 2t 3t 3t 4t ÷t
( ) ( ) sin
4
, 5 , 3 , 1

.

\

=
·
=
¿
nx
n
x f
n
t
( )
2
cos
2
sin
2
2
1
, 5 , 3 , 1


.

\


.

\


.

\

+ =
·
=
¿
x n n
n
x f
n
t t
t
( ) 0 sin
4
, At
, 5 , 3 , 1
=

.

\

=
·
=
¿
n
n
x
n
t
t
t
2
1
2
cos
2
sin
2
2
1
, 1 At
, 5 , 3 , 1
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

+
=
·
=
¿
n n
n
x
n
t t
t
31
( ) ( ) 0 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
and
, 5 , 3 , 1
= ÷ + = +
. \
+ ÷
a f a f
n
( ) ( )
2
1
1 0
2
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
1
and = + = +
+ ÷
f f
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier series expansion
So, more precisely…
Any function f(x) of period 2L satisfying the Dirichlet conditions can be
Fourier series expansion
( )
¿
·







+



+ = sin cos
x n
b
x n
a a x f
t t
y ( ) p y g
represented as a convergent Fourier series
( )
¿
=


.
\

.
\
+

.
\
+ =
1
0
sin cos
n
n n
L
b
L
a a x f
( )
1
0
=
}
dx x f a
L
where,
( )
( ) , 3 , 2 , 1 , cos
1
2
0
=

.

\

=
}
}
÷
÷
n dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
f
L
L
L
n
L
t
( ) , 3 , 2 , 1 , sin
1
=

.

\

=
}
÷
n dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
L
L
n
t
32
At a discontinuity, x=a,
( ) ( ) ) ( ) (
2
1
+ ÷
+ = a f a f a f
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Even and odd functions
• A function f(x) is said to be even if :
• An even function is symmetric about the y axis
( ) ( ) x f x f = ÷
Even and odd functions
• An even function is symmetric about the y axis
An even function
( ) x x f sin =
y
1
Examples of even functions:
0.5
0
0.5
x
sin sin : sin ) (
) cos( ) cos( : ) cos( ) (
x x x x f
x x x x f
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
33
1
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
) sin( ) sin( ) ( : ) sin( ) ( x x x x x x x f = ÷ ÷ =
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Even and odd functions
• A function f(x) is said to be odd if :
• An odd function is anti symmetric about the y axis
( ) ( ) x f x f ÷ = ÷
Even and odd functions
• An odd function is antisymmetric about the y axis
An odd function
( ) f
Examples of odd functions:
( ) x x x f cos =
y
4
6
8
1
) (
1
:
1
) (
) sin( ) sin( : ) sin( ) (
x x x
x f
x x x x f
÷ =
÷
=
÷ = ÷ =
6
4
2
0
2
x
34
) cos( ) cos( ) ( : ) cos( ) ( x x x x x x x f ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
8
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Even and odd functions Even and odd functions
For example,
Addition of functions:
Even +Even =Even
are even, are odd.
) cos( ,
2
x x ) sin( , x x
Even is ) cos(
2
x x +
Even + Even Even
Odd + Odd = Odd
Even + Odd = Neither
Even is ) cos(x x +
Odd is ) sin(x x +
Neither is
2
x x +
Multiplication of functions:
Even x Even = Even
Odd x Odd = Even
Even x Odd =Odd
Even is ) cos(
2
x x
Even is ) sin(x x
Odd is
2
x x ×
35
Even x Odd = Odd
Odd is x x ×
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Even and odd functions
( ) ( ) A dx x f dx x f
L
L
= =
} }
÷ 0
0
Even and odd functions
If f(x) is even then,
f(x)
Even function
Hence,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
}
} } }
=
= + =
÷ ÷
L
L
L
L
L
dx x f
A dx x f dx x f dx x f
0
0
0
2
2
x
A A
L L A d
( )
}
0
( ) ( ) A dx x f A dx x f
L
= ÷ =
} }
0
and
If f(x) is odd then,
x L L
Odd function
Area under curve
( ) ( )dx x f dx x f
L
} }
÷ 0
a d
If f(x) is odd then,
Hence,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
0
0
= + ÷ = + =
} } }
÷ ÷
A A dx x f dx x f dx x f
L
L
L
L
f(x)
x
A
A
L
L
( ) ( )
( ) 0 ) ( Odd
2 ) ( Even
0
¬
= ¬
}
} }
÷
L
L L
L
d f f
dx x f dx x f x f
36
( ) 0 ) ( Odd = ¬
}
÷L
dx x f x f
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier cosine series Fourier cosine series
If f(x) is an even function, then the coefficients of its Fourier series are
( ) ( )
} }
= =
÷
L L
L
dx x f
L
dx x f
L
a
0
0
1
2
1
( ) ( ) even is x f
( ) ,
( ) ( )
} }

.

\

=

.

\

=
÷
L L
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
0
cos
2
cos
1 t t
1
 
L
x nt
( )


.

\


.

\

even is cos
L
x n
x f
t
( ) 





x nt
( ) 0 sin
1
=

.

\

=
}
÷
L
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
t
( )


.

\


.

\

odd is sin
L
x n
x f
t
Therefore,
( )
¿
·
=

.

\

+ =
1
0
cos
n
n
L
x n
a a x f
t
37
This is known as the Fourier cosine series
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier sine series Fourier sine series
If f(x) is an odd function, then the coefficients of its Fourier series are
( ) 0
2
1
0
= =
}
÷
L
L
dx x f
L
a
( ) ( ) odd is x f
( ) ,
( ) 0 cos
1
=

.

\

=
}
÷
L
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
t
( ) ( )
} }






L L
x n x n 2 1 t t
( )


.

\


.

\

odd is cos
L
x n
x f
t
( ) 





i i
x n
f
t
( ) ( )
} }

.

\

=

.

\

=
÷L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
0
sin
2
sin
1 t t
( )


.

\


.

\

even is sin
L
x n
x f
t
Therefore,
( )
¿
·
=

.

\

=
1
sin
n
n
L
x n
b x f
t
38
This is known as the Fourier sine series
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier cosine &sine series
For a piecewise continuous function f(x) of period T = 2L, i.e.,
( ) ( ) x f L x f = + 2
Fourier cosine & sine series
If the function is even, it can be represented by the Fourier cosine series
( )
¿
·

.

\

+ =
0
cos
n
L
x n
a a x f
t
( )
}
=
L
dx x f
L
a
0
0
1
=
. \
1 n
L
where
( )
}

.

\

=
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
0
cos
2 t
and
 
L
2
·
 
If the function is odd, it can be represented by the Fourier sine series
( )
}

.

\

=
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
0
sin
2 t
( )
¿
·
=

.

\

=
1
sin
n
n
L
x n
b x f
t
where
39
At a discontinuity point x=a, ( )
( ) ( )
2
÷ + +
=
a f a f
a f
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Fourier cosine &sine series Fourier cosine & sine series
Note from the previous examples:
0.5
1
1.5
n = 19
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + = x x x x x f 7 sin 5 sin 3 sin sin
7
4
5
4
3
4 4
t t t t
• f(x) is odd
1.5
1
0.5
0
3 14 1 57 0 1 57 3 14
• antisymmetric about yaxis
• a Fourier sine series is obtained
0.8
1
1.2
n = 19
3.14 1.57 0 1.57 3.14
( )
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

+

.

\

÷

.

\

+ = ...
2
5
cos
2
3
cos
2
cos
5
1
3
1 2
2
1
x x x
x f
t t t
t
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
• f(x) is even
• symmetric about yaxis
F i i i i bt i d
40
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
• a Fourier cosine series is obtained
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : Find the Fourier series representation of f(x) = x for 1<x<1 a p e d t e ou e se es ep ese tat o o f(x) x o x
such that f(x+2)=f(x). By considering the Fourier series at
x=0.5, find the value of
... 1
9
1
7
1
5
1
3
1
÷ + ÷ + ÷
Since f(x) is odd, the series will be a Fourier sine series, i.e.,
 
L
x n 2 t
·
 
x nt
( )
}

.

\

=
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
0
sin
2 t
( )
¿
·
=

.

\

=
1
sin
n
n
L
x n
b x f
t
where
With L 1 With L=1,
( )
( )
( ) t
t t
t
t dx x n
n n
x n x
dx x n x b
n
cos
2 cos
2 sin 2
1
0
1
0
1
0
+
(
¸
(
¸
÷
= =
} }
( )
( )  
( )
t
t
t t
t
n
x n
n n
n
n
1 2
sin
2 cos 2
0
1
0
2 2
÷
÷ = +
÷
=
=
Therefore
41
( )
( )
( )
¿
·
=
+
÷
=
1
1
sin
1 2
n
n
x n
n
x f t
t
Therefore,
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
02
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n =10
a p e
( )
( )
( )
¿
·
=
+
÷
=
1
1
sin
1 2
n
n
x n
n
x f t
t
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
At x=0.5, f(0.5)=0.5 and
1
0.8
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 ( )
( )
( )
   
÷

.

\

÷
=
¿ ¿
¿
· ·
+
·
=
+
1 2 1 2
2
sin
1 2
1
1
1
2
1
t t
t
t
n
n
n
n n
n
n
f
( )


.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

=

.

\

÷
=
¿ ¿
= =
2
9
sin
9
1
2
7
sin
7
1
2
5
sin
5
1
2
3
sin
3
1
2
sin
2
2
sin
1 2
2
sin
1 2
, 5 , 3 , 1 , 5 , 3 , 1
t t t t t
t
t
t
t
t
n n
n
n
n
n

.

\

+ + ÷ + ÷ =

.
\
. \ . \ . \ . \ . \
9
1
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
2
2 9 2 7 2 5 2 3 2
t
t
42
Therefore,
4
...
9
1
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
t
= + + ÷ + ÷
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :Obtain the Fourier series of the following function, f(x).
( ) ( ) 1 1
2
1
f
( ) ( ) x f x f + 2
a p e Obta t e ou e se es o t e o o g u ct o , ( )
( ) ( ) 1 1 ,
2
2
1
< < ÷ + = x x x x f
( ) ( ) x f x f = + 2
1
f(x)
x
1 1 2 3 4 2 3
x
The function is neither even nor odd. However, it is a sum of an even and
dd f ti ith L 1 an odd function with L=1:
( ) ( ) ( ) x f x f x f
o e
+ = ( )
2
2
1
x x f
e
= ( ) x x f
o 2
1
=
where and
43
We will obtain the Fourier series of f
e
(x) and f
o
(x) separately and add them
together.
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example
• For f
e
(x), we use the Fourier cosine series.
1 1 1
1
3
1
(
x
L
a p e
( )
( ) 6
1
3 1
1 1
0
3
2
1
1
0
2
2
1
0
0
=
(
¸
(
¸
= = =
} }
x
dx x dx x f
L
a
L
e
1
f(x)
( ) ( )
1
0
2
0
cos cos
2
t
t
dx x n x dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
L
e n
=

.

\

=
} }
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
0
1
0
2
0 0
sin
2 sin
t
t t
t
dx x n x
n n
x n x
L
f
L
e n
÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
. \
}
} }
1 1
( )   ( )
( )
( )  
( )
1
1
0
2 2
1
0
2 2
1 2
i
2 cos 2
cos
2
cos
2
0
t
t
t
t
t
n
dx x n
n
x n x
n
n
÷
÷ + =
}
( )
2
2
1
x x f
e
=
• Therefore,
( )
( )  
( )
2 2
0
3 3 2 2
sin
t
t
t t n
x n
n n
= ÷ =
( )
2
f
e
( )
( )
( )
¿
·
÷1 2 1
n
44
( )
( )
( )
¿
=
+ =
1
2 2
cos
1 2
6
1
n
e
x n
n
x f t
t
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example
• Similarly, for f
o
(x), we use the Fourier sine series.
1
f(x)
L 1
2
 
a p e
( ) ( )
( )
( ) t
t
t
t
dx x n
x n x
dx x n x dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
L
o n
1
1
1
0 0
cos
1 cos
sin sin
2
+
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
=

.

\

=
}
} }
1 1
( )
( )
( )   t
t t
t
t
t t
x n
n n
n
dx x n
n n
1
0
2 2
0
0
sin
1 cos
cos
+ ÷ =
+
(
¸
¸
}
( ) f
1
• Therefore
( )
t n
n 1
1
+
÷
=
( ) x x f
o 2
1
=
• Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
¿
·
=
+
÷
=
1
1
sin
1
n
n
o
x n
n
x f t
t
45
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example
( )
·
(
2 1 1
n
a p e
Hence,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
¿
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
+ = + =
1
sin cos
2 1
6
1
n
o e
x n x n
n n
x f x f x f t t
t t
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 1
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 2
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 3
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 4
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 5
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 10
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 20
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 1
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 2
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 3
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 4
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 5
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 10
0.3
0.4
0.5
n = 20
0.6
0.8
1
n = 1
0.6
0.8
1
n = 2
0.6
0.8
1
n = 3
0.6
0.8
1
n = 4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 5
0.6
0.8
1
n = 10
0.6
0.8
1
n = 20
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
( ) x f
o
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.1
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
( ) x f
e
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0.2
0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
( ) ( ) ( ) x f x f x f
e o
+ =
46
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Half range Fourier series Halfrange Fourier series
Sometimes we are interested in obtaining the Fourier series of a function,
f(x) for 0<x<L f(x) for 0<x<L.
As Fourier series is for periodic functions for –L<x<L, we construct and find
the Fourier series of a function F(x) such that
¹
´
¦
< <
< < ÷
=
L x x f
x L x g
x F
0 ), (
0 ), (
) (
Since we are only interested in f(x), we can chose any function for g(x).
47
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Half range Fourier series
For example,to find Fourier given f(x)=x+1, 0<x<L, some possible
choices for g(x) are
Halfrange Fourier series
choices for g(x) are,
´
¦
< < ÷ x L
F
0 , 0
) (
1 ) ( + = x x g
0 ) ( = x g
i e
L x L x x F < < ÷ + = , 1 ) (
¹
´
< < +
=
L x x
x F
0 , 1
) (
F(x)
F(x)
f(x)=x+1
i.e.,
i.e.,
x
L L
x
L L
g(x) is normally chosen to be either symmetric or antisymmetric to
48
f(x) so that F(x) can be represented by a Fourier cosine or sine
series respectively.
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Half range Fourier series
That is,
1 ) ( + ÷ = x x g
Halfrange Fourier series
1 ) ( ÷ = x x g
or
¹
´
¦
< < +
< < ÷ + ÷
=
L x x
x L x
x F
0 , 1
0 , 1
) (
F(x)
f(x)=x+1
i.e.,
g(x)= x+1
¹
´
¦
< < +
< < ÷ ÷
=
L x x
x L x
x F
0 , 1
0 , 1
) (
F(x)
f(x)=x+1
i.e.,
F(x)
f(x)=x+1 g(x)=x+1
F(x)
f(x)=x+1
Note:
You do not
x
L L
x
L L
( )
¿
·



+
x n
f
t
need g(x) to
find the
Fourier
series, but
youshould
( )
}
=
L
dx x f
L
a
0
0
1
( )
¿
=

.

\

+ =
1
0
cos
n
n
L
a a x f
where
( )
¿
·

.

\

=
1
sin
n
L
x n
b x f
t
you should
know what
the series is
outside of
0<x<L.
49
( )
}

.

\

=
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
0
cos
2 t
and
=
. \
1 n
L
( )
}

.

\

=
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
b
0
sin
2 t
where
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :Obtain the (a) Fourier cosine series and (b) Fourier sine
¹ ¦
L 2
a p e Obta t e (a) ou e cos e se es a d (b) ou e s e
series of the following function, f(x).
f(x)
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
< < ÷
< <
=
L x x L
x x
x f
L
L
L
L
2
2
2
2
,
0 ,
1.0
x
0 L/2 L
f
o
(x)
Use Fourier cosine series
gives,
Use Fourier sine series
gives,
f
o
( )
x
0 L/2 L
1.0
L
50
0 L/2 L
L
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
(
a p e
(a) Fourier cosine series
( ) ( )
2
2 /
2
2 /
2 /
0 0
0
2
2 2 1 1
¦
`
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ + = =
} } }
x
L
x
dx x L
L
dx x
L L
dx x f
L
a
L L
L
L
L L
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
2 / 0
2
2
2 2
=
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(




÷ ÷




÷ + =
¦
)
¦
`
¦
¹
¦
´
(
¸
¸
÷ +
(
¸
¸
=
L L L
L
L
Lx
L
L
2 2
8 2 2 8
¦
)
`
¦
¹
´ (
¸
¸

.
\

.
\
L
( )

.

\

=
}
0
cos
2
L
n
dx
L
x n
x f
L
a
t
( )
( )
(
(
(
(

.

\

÷ +

.

\

=
. \
} }
}
2 /
2 /
0
2
0
cos cos
4
L
L
L
n
dx
L
x n
x L dx
L
x n
x
L
L L
t t
51
(
(
¸
¸
. \ . \
} }
2 1
2 / 0
2
I
L
I
L L L
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :



(
(



=
}
sin sin
2 /
2 /
t t
dx
x n L x n Lx
I
L
L
a p e
(a) Fourier cosine series
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+

.

\

=

.
\
÷
(
¸
¸

.
\
=
}
cos
2
sin
2
sin sin
2 /
2 2
2 2
0
0
1
t
t
t
t
t t
L
x n
n
L n
n
L
dx
L n L n
I
L


.

\

÷

.

\

+

.

\

=
¸ ¸
. \ . \
1
2
cos
2
sin
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
t
t
t
t
t t
n
n
L n
n
L
L n n
( )

.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ =
}
sin sin
2 /
2 /
2
t
t
t
t
dx
L
x n
n
L
L
x n
x L
n
L
I
L
L
L
L
( )


.

\


.

\

÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ =
2
cos cos
2
sin
2
0
2 2
2 2
t
t
t
t
t
n
n
n
L n
n
L
52
( )
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷

.

\

=
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷

.

\

= + =
2
cos
2
cos
8
1 cos
2
cos 2
4 4
2
2 2 2 2
2 1
2
t t
t
t
t
t
n n
n
n
n
n
I I
L
a
n
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
¦
16 8
a p e
(a) Fourier cosine series
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= ÷ = + ÷
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷

.

\

=
otherwise , 0
, 14 , 10 , 6 , 2 ,
16
) 1 1 )( 1 (
8
2
cos 1
2
cos
8
2 2 2 2
12 8 4 f 0
dd f 0
2 2
n
n n
n n
n
a
n
t t
t t
t
¦
¹
= =
=
, 12 , 8 , 4 for 0
odd for 0
n
n
Therefore,
( )
 
   

.

\

÷ =

.

\

+ =
¿ ¿
·
=
·
=
L
x n
n L
x n
a a x f
n n
n
t
t
t
6 1 2 1 16 1
cos
1 16
2
1
cos
, 10 , 6 , 2
2 2
1
0


.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

÷ =
L
x
L
x t t
t
6
cos
6
1 2
cos
2
1 16
2
1
2 2 2
53
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
( ) ( )
(
(
(









} } }
2 /
i i
4
i
2
L L L
d
x n
L d
x n
d
x n
f b
t t t
a p e
(a) Fourier sine series
( ) ( )
(
(
(
¸
¸

.

\

÷ +

.

\

=

.

\

=
} } }
2 1
2 / 0
2
0
sin sin sin
I
L
I
n
dx
L
x L dx
L
x
L
dx
L
x f
L
b
 
(
 
2 / L
(
(



+




.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
=
}
sin cos
cos cos
2 /
2 2
2 /
0
0
1
t t
t
t
t
t
x n L n L
dx
L
x n
n
L
L
x n
n
Lx
I
L
L

.

\

+

.

\

÷ =
(
¸
¸

.
\
+

.
\
÷ =
2
sin
2
cos
2
sin
2
cos
2
2 2
2 2
0
2 2
t
t
t
t
t t
n
n
L n
n
L
L n n
. \ . \
2 2 2 t t n n
54
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
( )



=
}
sin
t
dx
x n
x L I
L
a p e
(a) Fourier sine series
( )
( )

.

\

÷
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷
=

.
\
÷ =
}
}
cos cos
sin
2 /
/
2 /
2
t
t
t
t
dx
L
x n
n
L
L
x n
x L
n
L
dx
L
x L I
L
L
L
L
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷

.

\

=
. \
¸ ¸
. \
sin
2
cos
2
2 /
2 2
2 2
2 /
t
t
t
t
t t
L
x n
n
L n
n
L
L n L n
L
L
L
( )
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷

.

\

=
2
sin sin
2
cos
2
2 2
2 2
t
t
t
t
t
n
n
n
L n
n
L
( )
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷

.

\

=
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

=
2
cos 1
2
sin
8
sin
2
sin 2
4
2 2 2 2
t t
t
t
t
t
n n
n
n
n
n
b
n
55
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example :
¦



8 nt
a p e
(a) Fourier sine series
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=

.

\

=

.

\

÷

.

\

=
otherwise , 0
, 5 , 3 , 1 for ,
2
sin
8
]
2
cos 1 [
2
sin
8
2 2
2 2
n
n
n
n n
n
b
n
t
t
t t
t
¦
¹
= =
,
odd for 0 even for 0 n n
Therefore
( )


.

\

÷

.

\

+

.

\

÷

.

\

=

.

\

=
¿
·
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x n
b x f
n
t t t
t
t 5
sin
5
1 3
sin
3
1
sin
1
1 8
sin
2 2 2 2
Therefore,
. \
. \ . \ . \ . \
=
L L L L
n
t 5 3 1
, 5 , 3 , 1
56
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
Example : a p e
Fourier cosine series Fourier sine series
( )


.

\

÷

.

\

+

.

\

÷

.

\

=
L
x
L
x
L
x
x f
t t t
t
5
sin
5
1 3
sin
3
1
sin
1
1 8
2 2 2 2
( )


.

\

+

.

\

÷

.

\

÷ =
L
x
L
x
x f
t t
t
6
cos
6
1
cos
2
1 16
2 2 2 2
1
Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series Fourier Cosine Series Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 2
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 1
Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 6
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 3
Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 10
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 5
Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 14
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 7
Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 18
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 9
Fourier Sine Series
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
n = 30
Fourier Cosine Series
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
n = 15
Fourier Sine Series
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.8
0.6
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
57
© Department of Mechanical Engineering
N A T I O N A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F S I N G A P O R E
END END
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