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EE4532, POWER ELECTRONICS & DRIVES




Part [A]: Power Electronic Systems & Devices



• Section 1: Power Electronic Systems
• Section 2: Power Devices
• Section 3: Uncontrolled & Controlled Rectifiers



Total Lecture Hours: 12
Tutorial Hours: 6








Instructor:
Dr. Ali I. Maswood
Associate Professor, EAMASWOOD@NTU.EDU.SG



2

TYPES OF POWER ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS

For the control of electric power or power conditioning, the
conversion of electric power from one form to another is necessary
and the switching characteristics of the power devices permit these
conversions. The static power converters perform these functions of
power conversions. A converter may be considered as a switching
matrix. The power electronics circuits can be classified into 5 types:

1. Diode rectifiers
2. Ac-dc converters (controlled rectifiers)
3. Ac-ac converters (ac voltage controllers)
4. Dc-dc converters (choppers)
5. Dc-ac converters (inverters)

Diode Rectifiers: A diode rectifier circuit converts ac voltage into a
fixed dc voltage and is shown Figure. The input voltage to the
rectifier v
i
could be either single phase or three phase.





Thyristor (controlled) rectifier: A single-phase converter with two
natural commutated thyristors is shown. The average value of the
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output voltage v
o
can be controlled by varying the conduction time of
thyristors or delay angle α. The input could be a single- or three-
phase source.


Ac-ac converters: These converters are used to obtain a variable ac
output voltage v
o
from a fixed ac source and a single-phase converter
with a TRIAC is shown. The output voltage is controlled by varying
the conduction time of a TRIAC or firing delay angle α. These types
of converters are also known as ac voltage controllers.

Dc-dc converters: A dc-dc converter is also known as a chopper or
switching regulator, and a transistor chopper is shown in following
4

figure. The average output v
o
voltage is controlled by varying the
conduction time t
1
, of transistor Q1. If T is the chopping period, then
t
1
= δT. Where; δ is called as the duty cycle of the chopper.



Dc-ac converters: A dc-ac converter is also known as an inverter. A
single phase transistor inverter is shown in following figure. If
transistors M1, and M2 conduct for negative half of a period and M3
and M4 conduct for the other half, the output voltage is of he
alternating form. The output voltage can be controlled by varying the
conduction time of transistors.




5

DESIGN OF POWER ELECTRONICS -EQUIPMENT

The design of a power electronic equipment can be divided into four
parts:

1. Design of power circuits
2. Protection of power devices
3. Determination of control strategy.
4. Design of logic and gating circuits


Fig: An UPS Circuit

PERIPHERAL EFFECTS

The operations of the power converters are based mainly on the
switching of power semiconductor devices; and as a result the
converters introduce current and voltage harmonics into the supply
system and on the output of the converters. These can cause problems
of distortion of the output voltage, harmonic generation into the
supply system, and interference with the communication and
signaling circuits. It is normally necessary to introduce filters on the
input and output of a converter system to reduce the
harmonic level to an acceptable magnitude.

Load
AC mains
6



Figure above shows the block diagram of a generalized power
converter. The application of power electronics to supply the
sensitive electronic loads poses a challenge on the power quality
issues and raises problems and concerns to be resolved by
researchers.
The input and output quantities of converters could be either ac or dc.
Factors such as total harmonic distortion (THD), displacement factor
(DF), and input power factor (IPF) are measures of the quality of a
waveform. To determine these factors, finding the harmonic content
of the waveforms is required. To evaluate the performance of a
converter, the input and output voltages and currents of a converter
are expressed in a Fourier series. The quality of a power converter is
judged by the quality of its voltage and current waveforms.

The control strategy for the power converters plays an important part
on the harmonic generation and output waveform distortion, and can
be aimed to minimize or reduce these problems. The power
converters can cause radio-frequency interference due to
electromagnetic radiation, and the gating circuits may generate
erroneous signals. This interference can be avoided by grounded
shielding.


POWER MODULES

Power devices are available as a single unit or in a module. A power
converter often requires two, four, or six devices, depending on its
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topology. Power modules with dual (in half-bridge configuration) or
quad (in full bridge) or six (in three phase) are available for almost all
types of power devices. The modules offer the advantages of lower
on-state losses, high voltage and current switching characteristics,
and higher speed than that of conventional devices. Some modules
even include transient protection and gate drive circuitry.


INTELLIGENT MODULES

Gate drive circuits are commercially available to drive individual
devices or modules. Intelligent modules, which are the state-of-the-
art power electronics, integrate the power module and the peripheral
circuit.





8



VOLT AMPERE (VA) RANGES OF POWER DEVICES



Your Notes:
9

CLASSIFICATION OF POWER DEVICES (L2)

1. Uncontrolled turn on and off (e.g., diode);

2. Controlled turn on and uncontrolled turn off (e.g., SCR);

3. Controlled turn-on and -off characteristics (e.g., BJ T, MOSFET, GTO);

4. Continuous gate signal requirement (BJ T, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT);

5. Pulse gate requirement (e.g., SCR, GTO, MCT);

6. Bipolar voltage-withstanding capability (SCR, GTO);

7. Unipolar voltage-withstanding capability (BJ T, MOSFET, GTO, IGBT);

8. Bidirectional current capability (TRIAC);

9. Unidirectional current capability (SCR, BJ T, MOSFET,IGBT, diode)




Figure below shows the applications and frequency range of power devices. A
super power device should:

(1) have a zero on-state voltage,
(2) withstand an infinite off-state voltage,
(3) handle an infinite current, and
(4) turn on and off in zero time, thereby having infinite switching speed.

Your Notes:


10


Fig. V-I Characteristics of various power Devices


CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER DEVICES

• Power semiconductor devices can be operated as switches by applying
control signals to the gate terminal of thyristors, and to the base of
bipolar transistors.

• The required output is obtained by varying the conduction time of these
switching devices. Figure below shows the output voltages and control
characteristics of commonly used power switching devices. Once a
thyristor is in a conduction mode, the gate signal of either positive or
negative magnitude has no effect.


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Fig. V-I ratings & Operating Frequencies of Power devices

12


Fig. Device Symbols & their V/I Characteristics
13


POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES AND CIRCUITS

A diode acts as a switch to perform various functions such as:

• switches in rectifiers,
• freewheeling in switching regulators,
• charge reversal of capacitor and energy transfer between components,

Power diodes can be assumed as ideal switches for most applications, but
practical diodes differ from the ideal characteristics and have certain
limitations. The power diodes are similar to pn-junction signal diodes.
However, the power diodes have larger power, voltage, and current-handling
capabilities than those of ordinary signal diodes. The frequency response (or
switching speed) is low compared with that of signal diodes.


Semiconductor basics

Power semiconductor devices are based on high-purity, single-crystal silicon.
A pure silicon material is known as an intrinsic semiconductor with resistivity
that is too low to be an insulator and too high to be a conductor. It has high
resistivity and very high dielectric strength (over 200 kV/cm).

n-Type silicon material: If pure silicon is doped with a small amount of a
Group V element, such as phosphorus, arsenic, or antimony, each atom of the
dopant forms a covalent bond within the silicon lattice, leaving a loose
electron. These loose electrons greatly increase the conductivity of the
material.

p-Type material: If pure silicon is doped with a small amount of a Group III
element, such as boron, gallium, or indium, a vacant location called a hole is
introduced into the silicon lattice. These holes greatly increase the
conductivity of the material.

In a p-type material the holes are called the majority carriers and electrons are
called the minority carriers.

In the n-type material, the electrons are called the majority carriers, and holes
are called the minority carriers.
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DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

A power diode is a two-terminal pn-junction device and a pn-junction is
normally formed by alloying, diffusion.

• When the anode potential is positive with respect to the cathode, the
diode is said to be forward biased and the diode conducts.

• When the cathode potential is positive with respect to the anode, the
diode is said to be reverse biased.

Under reverse-biased conditions, a small reverse current (also known as
leakage current) in the range of micro or milliampere flows.

The v-i characteristics shown in following figure can be expressed by an
equation known as Schockley diode equation, and it is given under dc steady-
state operation by


Fig. Diode Practical & Ideal V/I Characteristics

15

V
D
>0…Forward biased, V
D
<0…Reverse biased, V
D
<-
V
BR…
Breakdown

REVERSE RECOVERY CHARACTERISTICS

Once a diode is in a forward conduction mode and then its forward current is
reduced to zero due to the natural behavior of the diode circuit or application
of a reverse voltage, the diode continues to conduct due to charges that remain
stored in the pn-junction and the bulk semiconductor material. The charges
require a certain time to recombine with opposite charges and to be
neutralized. This time is called the reverse recovery time of the diode.


Fig. Reverse Recovery (RR) Characteristic

The reverse recovery time is denoted as t
rr
and is measured from the initial
zero crossing of the diode current to 25% of maximum (or peak) reverse
current I
RR
.
t t t
b a rr
+ =

t
rr
consists of two components, ta and tb.
The ratio tb/ta, is known as the softness factor (SF).

The peak reverse current can be expressed in reverse di/dt as

dt
di
t I
a rr
=


16

Reverse recovery charge Q
RR
, is the amount of charge carriers that flows
across the diode in the reverse direction due to changeover from forward
conduction to reverse blocking condition.
RR charge:
t i t i t i
Q
rr rr b rr a rr
rr
2
1
2
1
2
1
= + ≈


If t
b
is negligible compared t
a
to as usually is the case, then the following
eqns. Are valid:

RR time,
dt di
Qrr
t
rr
/
2
=
, RR current
dt
di
Qrr
I rr
2 =




Example: Reverse Recovery Current



Your Notes: FIN

17

POWER DIODE TYPES (L3)

Depending on the recovery characteristics and manufacturing techniques, the
power diodes can be classified into the following three categories:

1. Standard or general-purpose diodes
2. Fast-recovery diodes
3. Schottky diodes

General-Purpose Diodes
• The general-purpose rectifier diodes have relatively high reverse recovery
time, typically 25 μs; and are used in low-speed applications, where recovery
time is not critical, e.g., diode rectifiers and converters for a low-input
frequency up to 1-kHz applications and line-commutated converters.

• current ratings from less than 1 A to several thousands of amperes, with
voltage ratings from 50 V to around 5 kv

Following Figure shows various configurations of general-purpose diodes,
which basically fall into two types.
o One is called a stud, or stud-mounted type;
o Other one is called a disk, or hockey-puck type.


Fast-Recovery Diodes

• The fast-recovery diodes have low
recovery time, normally less than 5
μs.
• They are used in dc-dc and dc-ac
converter circuits, where the speed
of recovery is often of critical
importance.
• Ratings of voltage from 50 V to
around 3 kV, and current from less
than 1 A to hundreds of amperes.


Fig. Stud & Hockey Puck
configuration of power diodes.
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Schottky Diodes
• The charge storage problem of a pn-junction can be eliminated (or
minimized) in a Schottky diode.

• A Schottky diode has a relatively low forward voltage drop.

• The leakage current of a Schottky diode is higher than that of a pn-junction
diode. The maximum allowable voltage of this diode is generally limited to
100 V The current ratings of Schottky diodes vary from 1 to 400 A.

• The Schottky diodes are ideal for high-current and low-voltage dc power
supplies. However, these diodes are also used in low-current power supplies
for increased efficiency.

The zener diode

• The Zener diode or reference diode, whose symbol is shown in
following Fig., finds primary usage voltage regulator or reference.
• The forward conduction characteristic of a Zener diode is much the as
that of a rectifier diode;


1. The reverse voltage breakdown is rather sharp. The breakdown voltage
can be controlled through the manufacturing process so it has a reasonably
predictable value.

2. When a Zener diode is in reverse breakdown, its voltage remains
extremely close to the breakdown value while the current varies from rated
current to 10 percent or less of rated current.

Zener regulator is designed so that i
z
≥ O.l*I
Z
to ensure the constancy of v
z
.
Sharp
Reverse V
Breakdown
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Example:
Find the voltage v
z
across the Zener diode of above Fig. if i
z
=lO mA and it is
known that V
z(Rated)
=5.6 V, I
z(rated)
=25 mA, and R
z
= 10 Ω.

Since 0.1*I
z
<i
z
<I
z
, operation is along the safe and predictable region of Zener
operation.

v
z
≈ V
z
+i
z*
R
z
=5.6+(10x10
-3
)(10)=5.7V

R
z
is frequently neglected in the design of Zener regulators.


SERIES-CONNECTED DIODES
In many high-voltage applications, e.g., high-voltage direct current HVDC
transmission lines, one commercially available diode cannot meet the required
voltage rating, and diodes are connected in series to increase the reverse
blocking capabilities.

In the following Fig., i
D
and V
D
are the current and voltage, respectively.


Fig. Series connection of diodes
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In the forward direction; v
D1
, and v
D2
are the sharing reverse voltages of diodes
D1, and D2, respectively. In practice, the v-i characteristics for the same type of
diodes differ due to tolerances in their production process.

In the forward-biased condition, both diodes conduct the same amount of
current, and the forward voltage drop of each diode would be almost equal.
However, in the reverse blocking condition, each diode has to carry the same
leakage current, and as a result the blocking voltages may differ significantly.

I I I I I
R S R S S 2 2 1 1
+ = + =

However, I
R1
=V
D1
/R
1
, and I
R2
=V
D2
/R
2
=V
D1
/R
2
. For equal voltage sharing:
R
v
I
R
v
I
D
S
D
S
2
1
2
1
1
1
+ = +

If R1=R2, two diode voltages can be slightly different because of their V-I
characteristic.

A simple solution to this problem is shown in following Figure:

Fig. Equal voltage sharing among series diodes
• Force equal voltage sharing by connecting a resistor across each diode.

• Due to equal voltage sharing the leakage current of each diode would be
different. The total leakage current must be shared by a diode and its resistor,
Values of V
D1
and V
D2
can be determined from:

21


R
v
I
R
v
I
D
S
D
S
1
2
1
1
+ = +
; assuming R1=R2
V
D1
+V
D2
=V
S


Voltage sharing under transient condition

PARALLEL-CONNECTED DIODES

• In high-power applications, diodes are connected in parallel to increase
the current carrying capability
• The current sharings of diodes would be in accord with their respective
forward voltage drops.
• Uniform current sharing can be achieved by providing equal inductances
(e.g., in the leads) or by connecting current-sharing resistors (not practical due
to power losses);
• It is possible to minimize this problem by selecting diodes with equal
forward voltage drops or diodes of the same type. Because the diodes are
connected in parallel, the reverse blocking voltages of each diode would be
the same.
22

• The resistors R1, R2 help current sharing under steady-state conditions.
• Current sharing under dynamic conditions can be accomplished by
connecting coupled inductors as shown in Figure b. If the current through D1,
rises, the L*di/dt across L1, increases, and a corresponding voltage of
opposite polarity is induced across inductor L2. The result is a low-impedance
path through diode D2 and the, current is shifted to D2.


Fig. Current sharing networks
Your Notes: FIN

23
DIODES WITH RC AND RL LOADS

Following figure shows a diode circuit with an RC load. For the sake of
simplicity the diodes are considered to be ideal. By ideal we mean that the
reverse recovery time and the forward voltage drop VD are negligible. The
source voltage Vs is a dc constant voltage. When the switch S1, is closed at t=0,
the charging current i that flows through the capacitor can be found from:




Observation:
• In a RC circuit, voltage rises exponentially
• In a RC circuit, current falls exponentially

On the other hand:
• In a RL circuit, Current ???? exponentially
• In a RL circuit, voltage ???? exponentially


24
FREEWHEELING DIODE

• If switch S1, in following Fig. is closed for time t1, a current is
established through the load, and then if the switch is opened, a path must be
provided for the current in the inductive load.
• This is normally done by connecting a diode Dm, as shown in Fig. a, and
this diode is usually called a freewheeling diode.
Operation in two modes:
• Mode 1 begins when the switch is closed at t =0, and mode 2 begins
when the switch is then opened.
• The equivalent circuits for the modes are shown in b. i
1
and i
f
are
defined as the instantaneous currents for mode 1 and mode 2, respectively. t1
and t2 are the corresponding durations of these modes.




25

UNCONTROLLED DIODE RECTIFIERS (L4)

• A rectifier is a circuit that converts an ac signal into a unidirectional
(DC) signal. the rectifiers are classified into two types:
• single phase and
• three phase.
• Diodes are considered to be ideal. By ideal we mean that the reverse
recovery time trr and the forward voltage drop VD are negligible. That
is, t
rr
, =0 and VD =0.

Single-phase half-wave rectifiers

• During the positive half-cycle of the input voltage, diode D, conducts
and the input voltage appears across the load.
• During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage, the diode is in a
blocking condition and the output voltage is zero.

Fig. Rectifier with resistive load


rms value

DC value

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PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

• The output voltage is discontinuous and contains harmonics.
• A rectifier is a power processor that should give a dc output voltage with
a minimum amount of harmonic contents.
• At the same time, it should maintain the input current as sinusoidal as
possible and in phase with the input voltage so that the power factor is
near unity.
• The power-processing quality of a rectifier requires the determination of
harmonic contents of the input current, the output voltage and
current.
• We can use Fourier series expansions to find the harmonic contents of
voltages and currents,

The average value of the output (load) voltage Vdc. The average value of the
output (load) current, Idc.
The output dc power,
Pdc =Vdc*Idc

Output rms power:
Pd(rms) = Vd(rms)* Id(rms)

Rectifier Efficiency:
P
P
rms D
dc
) (
= η

Ripple factor (RF) measuring the DC ripple content (for DC side only):
1
2
) (

|
.
|

\
|
=
V
V
RF
DC
rms D

Transformer utilization factor (TUF):

I V
P
S S
DC
TUF =

Where V
S
and I
S
are the transformer secondary (ac) rms voltage & current
respectively.

27



Displacement factor (DF) is defined as:
); (θ Cos DF =

where: θ is the phase angle between voltage and fundamental current.

Total harmonic distortion (THD) on the AC side:
2 / 1
2
1
1
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
I
I
S
THD

Where:
I
1 is the rms fundamental input current &
I
S is the
net rms input current.

Rectifier input power factor (PF) is defined as:

) ( ) (
1 1
θ θ Cos Cos PF
I
I
I V
I V
S
S
S S
S S
= =



• THD is a measure of the distortion of an AC waveform.

• If the input current is purely sinusoidal, I
S
=I
S1
, and the power factor
(PF) equals the displacement factor (DF) '

• Displacement factor DF is often known as displacement power factor
(DPF).

• An ideal rectifier should have:




η
= 100%, RF = 0, TUF = 1, THD = 0, PF = DPF = 1.

28

WAVEFORMS AND THEIR HARMONICS


Waveforms Harmonics (FFT)


Pure ac


Square wave ac







Pure dc








Pulsating dc




50
Hz
50
50
*3
0
Hz
2*
50
Fundamental
Dc Component
3
rd
Harmonic
29


Fig. Input (ac) voltage, current and its fundamental component (I
S1
)
of a 1-phsae full rectifier under highly inductive load.


Example: Performance Parameters of a 1-P half-wave rectifier

Note: In examples, reference to certain equations, pls see Text book
by M. H. Rashid


A Half Wave Rectifier

30

31
Half Wave Rectifier with R-L load and Battery


32



Fig. Half wave rectifier with a battery at the load.

Diode Conduction found from:
E Sin
V
m
= α
, Hence,
) (
1
Vm
E
Sin

= α

Average charging current:
) (
) (
2
1
.) (
t d
R
E t VmSin
I av O
ω
ω
π
β
α


=
FIN

33
SINGLE-PHASE FULL-WAVE RECTIFIERS (L5)

• Each half of the transformer with its associated diode acts as a half-wave
rectifier and the output of a full-wave rectifier is shown in Figure b.
• Because there is no dc current flowing through the transformer, there is
no dc saturation problem of transformer core. The average output voltage is:

V
v
V V
m
T
m
m dc
dt t
T
6366 . 0
2
) sin(
2
2 /
0
= = =

π
ω

Where: Vm – Input peak voltage











34
• Instead of using a center-tapped transformer, we could use four diodes
• This is known as BRIDGE TOPOLOGY



As shown in the following Fig.
Next
35








36

THREE-PHASE BRIDGE RECTIFIERS

• Used in high-power applications
• Can operate with or without a transformer and gives six-pulse ripples on
the output voltage
• The diodes are numbered in order of conduction sequences and each one
conducts for 120
0

• The pair of diodes which are connected between that pair of supply lines
having the highest amount of instantaneous line-to-line voltage will conduct



The average output voltage (DC):
V
V
V V
m
m
m dc
t d t 654 . 1
3 3
) cos( 3
6 / 2
2
6 /
0
= = =

π
π
ω ω
π

Where: Vm – Input line–neutral peak voltage


The rms output voltage:
=
(
¸
(

¸

=

2 / 1
6 /
0
2
2
) ( cos 3
6 / 2
2
π
ω ω
π
t d t
v V
m rms


=
V V
m m
6554 . 1
4
3 9
2
3
2 / 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
π

37

Rms diode current:

I I I m m r
t d t 5518 . 0 ) ( cos
2
4
2 / 1
6 /
0
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=

π
ω ω
π

Where: Im- peak value of the input/load/diode current

Rms input (transformer secondary) current=
I I I I m m m S
t d t 78 . 0
6
2
sin
2
1
6
2
) ( cos
2
8
2 / 1
2 / 1
6 /
0
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

=

π π
π
ω ω
π
π

38





TUF= P
DC

/3V
S
*I
S

V
DC

V
DRMS

RF = SQRT(V
DRMS
/V
D
)
2
-1=4%
39
Diode/Thyristor Protection

T charging <T discharging
Lower I
RR





above
below
40


EXAMPLE




R=5 Ohm
41


Your Notes: FIN























42

RECTIFIER CIRCUIT DESIGN (L6)

Design of a rectifier involves:
• determining the ratings of semiconductor diodes.
• ratings of diodes are normally in terms of:
• average current, rms current, peak current, peak inverse voltage.

Other parameters involve:
• Supply transformer ratings (kVA),
• Input/output filters
• Switch protection circuit (snubbers)
• thyristor gating signal generator





43



FILTERS


Input (top) & Output filter Topologies

44



Your Notes:









As shown in the following

45



From the above eqn.
46
EFFECTS OF SOURCE AND LOAD INDUCTANCES
• In a practical circuit due to transformer leakage and supply inductances
(source) inductances are always present and the performances of rectifiers
are changed
• Consider point ωt =Π where voltages v
ac
and v
bc
are equal.
• Due to L1, the current cannot fall to zero immediately and the transfer of
current cannot be instantaneous
• Current through D1 i
d1
decreases resulting in an induced voltage across L1
• Current through D3, i
d3
increases from zero, inducing an equal negative
voltage across L2


Voltage across L2 is:
dt
di
L V
L 2 2
=
, with a linear rise of current,
i t
L V
L
∆ = ∆
2 2

47

Average DC voltage drop:
( )
I L v v v V
dc S L L L X
f i
T
6 2
1
3 2 1
= ∆ + + =





Your Notes: FIN















48

THYRISTORS (L7)
• It’s a bistable switch, operating from non-conducting state to conducting state
• Compared to transistors, thyristors have lower on-state conduction losses and
higher power handling capability.
• On the other hand, transistors generally have superior switching performances
in terms of faster switching speed and lower switching losses.

A thyristor is a four-layer semiconductor device of pn-pn structure.

• When the anode voltage is made positive with respect to the cathode, the
junctions J 1, and J3 are forward biased.
• The junction J 2 is reverse biased, and only a small leakage current flows from
anode to cathode.
• The thyristor is then said to be in the forward blocking or off-state condition
• If the anode-to-cathode voltage V
AK
is increased to a sufficiently large value,
the reverse-biased junction J 2 breaks. This is known as avalanche breakdown and
the corresponding voltage is called forward breakdown voltage V
BO
. Because the
other junctions J 1, and J 3 are already forward biased, there is free movement of
carriers across all three junctions, resulting in a large forward anode current. The
device is then in a conducting state, or on-state.
• The voltage drop would be due to the Ohmic drop in the four layers and it is
small, typically 1 V In the on-state, the anode current is limited by an external
impedance.
• The anode current must be more than a value known as latching current I
L
to
maintain the required amount of carrier flow across the junction; otherwise, the
device reverts to the blocking.

49
• Once a thyristor conducts, it behaves like a conducting diode and there is no
control over the device.
• If the forward anode current is reduced below a level known as the holding
current I
H
, a depletion region develops around junction J 2 due to the reduced
number of carriers and the thyristor is in the blocking state.
• The holding current is on the order of milli amperes and is less than the
latching current I
L
. That is, I
L
> I
H
.
• Holding current IH is the minimum anode current to maintain the thyristor in
the on-state.
• In practice, the forward voltage is maintained below V
BO
and the thyristor is
turned on by applying a positive voltage between its gate and cathode
Switching Characteristics


• Thyristor latches into conduction when its anode is positive with respect to
the cathode and only when a voltage pulse is applied to its gate terminal.
• The forward anode current of a thyristor must be more than its latching
current to latch into the conduction state

50

TWO-TRANSISTOR MODEL OF THYRISTOR

The latching action can be demonstrated by using a two-transistor model of
thyristor. A thyristor can be considered as two complementary transistors, one pnp-
transistor Q1, and other npn-transistor Q2, as shown. Equivalent circuit model is
shown in Figure b.



The thyristor load (anode current) is
linked to the gate current, the gains of the
two transistors (α
1
, α
2
) and the leakage
currents of the collector-base junctions of
respective transistors I
CBO
, as:
) ( 1
2 1
2 1 2
α α
α
+ −
+ +
=
I I I
I
CBO CBO G
A

If (α
1

2
) ≈1, anode current can be very
large, thyristor can be turned on with a
small gate current.



I
E
, mA
α -Current Gain, α=α
1

2
<1
51
THYRISTOR TURN-ON
• During the turn-on process of a thyristor, there is a regenerative or positive
feedback effect. As a result, a thyristor can turn on with a small gate current and
latch into conduction carrying a large value of anode current.
• In the blocking mode, the applied dv/dt must be less than the rated voltage

A thyristor is turned on by increasing the anode current. This can be accomplished
in one of the following ways:
• Light: The light-activated thyristors are turned on by allowing light to strike
the silicon wafers.
• dv/dt: The manufacturers specify the maximum allowable dvldt of thyristors.
• Gate current: If a thyristor is forward biased, the injection of gate current by
applying positive gate voltage between the gate and cathode terminals turns
on the thyristor.
As the gate current is increased, the forward blocking voltage is decreased, as
shown following figure.



52
Designing gate circuit:
1. The gate signal should be removed after the thyristor is turned on. A continuous
gating signal would increase the power loss in the gate junction.
2. A gating signal must be wide enough so that I
T
>I
L
.


Where: t
d
– delay time
t
r
– Rise time

On time, t
ON =
t
d
+ t
r


THYRISTOR TURN-OFF
• Turn-off time t
q
is the minimum value of time interval between the instant
when the on-state current has decreased to zero and the instant when the thyristor
is capable of withstanding forward voltage without turning on.
• Reverse recovered charge Q
RR
is the amount of charge that has to be
recovered during the turn-off process.


53

A thyristor that is in the on-state can be turned off by reducing the forward current
to a level below the holding current I
H
.

Off time, t
q =
t
rr
+ t
r

54

THYRISTOR TYPES

• Manufacturers use various gate structures to control the dildt, turn-on time,
and turn-off time.
• Thyristors can easily be turned on with a short pulse
• For turning off, they require special drive circuitry or special internal
structures to aid in the turning-off process.
• There are several versions of thyristors with turn-off capability

Depending on the physical construction, and turn-on and turn-off behavior,
thyristors can be broadly classified into many categories:

• Phase-controlled thyristors (or SCRs)
• Fast switching thyristors (or SCRs) ,
• Light-activated silicon-controlled rectifiers (LASCRs)
• Bidirectional triode thyristors (TRIACs)
• Gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs)

Your Notes: FIN










55
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS (L8)

• Diode rectifiers provide a fixed output voltage only
• For controlled output voltages, thyristors are used instead of diodes.
• The output voltage of thyristor rectifiersis varied by controlling the delay or
firing angle of thyristors.

Used in variable-speed drives, ranging from fractional horsepower to megawatt
power level.

Phase-control converters can be classified into two types:
(1) single-phase converters, and (2) three-phase converters
Each type can be a:
(a) semiconverter, (b) full converter, and (c) dual converter.

• A semiconverter is a one-quadrant converter and it has one polarity of output
voltage and current.
• A full converter is a two-quadrant converter
• A dual converter can operate in four quadrants; and both the output voltage
and current can be either positive or negative


• In the converter of the following Fig., during the positive half-cycle of input
voltage, the thyristor anode is positive with respect to its cathode and the
thyristor is said to be forward biased
• When thyristor T1 is fired at ωt = α, T1, conducts and the input voltage
appears across the load.
• When the input voltage starts to be negative at ωt =Π, the thyristor anode is
negative with respect to its cathode and thyristor T, is said to be reverse
biased; and it is turned off.

56


The average output voltage (Vm is the peak input voltage):
| |
) cos 1 (
2
cos
2
) ( * sin
2
1
α
π
ω
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
+ =
− = =

V
V
v V
m
m
m dc
t t d t

Rms output voltage:
2 / 1
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
2
2
2
2 sin 1
2
) ( ) 2 cos 1 (
4
) ( * sin
2
1
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
¸
(

¸

=
∫ ∫
α
α π
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
V
V
v V
m
m
m rms
t d t t d t



57
SINGLE-PHASE FULL CONVERTERS

• Converter is shown in Figure with a highly inductive load so that the load
current is continuous and ripple free
• During the positive half-cycle, thyristors T1, and T2 are forward biased
• Due to the inductive load, thyristors T1, and T2 continue to conduct beyond
ωt=Π, even though the input voltage is already negative.
• During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage, thyristors T3 and T4 are
forward biased; and firing of thyristors T3 and T4 applies the supply voltage
across thyristors T1, and T2 as reverse voltage

• Provides two quadrant operation, v
o
=+or –
• However, i
o
is always positive
• With a resistive load, v
o
is positive only

58
The average output voltage (Vm is the peak input voltage):
| |
α
π
ω
π
ω ω
π
α π
α
α π
α
cos
cos
2
) ( * sin
2
2
2
2
V
V
v V
m
m
m dc
t t d t
=
− = =
+
+


Rms output voltage:
V
V V
v V
S
m m
m rms
t d t t d t = ==
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
¸
(

¸

=
∫ ∫
+
2
) ( ) cos( 1 (
2
) ( * sin
2
2
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
2
2
π
α
α π
α
ω ω
π
ω ω
π


Previous Fig.
In Previous Fig.
59

60



DUAL CONVERTER
• If two full converters are connected back to back, as shown, both the
output voltage and the load current flow can be reversed
• The system provides a four-quadrant operation and is called a dual
converter. Dual converters are normally used in high-power variable-
speed drives
• If α
1
and α
2
are the delay angles of converters 1 and 2, respectively, the
corresponding average output voltages are V
dc1
and V
dc2

• The delay angles are controlled such that one converter operates as a
rectifier and the other converter operates as an inverter, but both
converters produce the same average output voltage.

) cos(
2
1
1
α
π
V
V
m
dc
=

) cos(
2
2
2
α
π
V
V
m
dc
=

Where: α
2
= π- α
1

61


62
3-phase half wave Controlled Rectifiers (L9)

• Higher average output voltage compared to a 1-phase
• Higher DC side pulses resulting in higher harmonic orders
• Lower filtering requirement




63

For resistive load at α < 30
0
& Highly imductive load at any α

If the input L-N peak voltage is V
m
, then the:
Average output voltage:
α
π
ω ω
π
α π
α π
cos
2
) ( * sin
2
3
3 3
6 / 5
6 /
V
v V
m
m dc
t d t = =

+
+


Rms output voltage;
2 / 1
2 / 1
6 / 5
6 /
2
2
2 cos
8
3
6
1
3 ) ( * sin
2
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

=

+
+
α
π
ω ω
π
α π
α π
V v V
m m drms
t d t



For resistive load & α ≥ 30
0
:
DC output voltage:
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = =

+
α
π
π
ω ω
π
π
α π
6
cos 1
2
) ( * sin
2
3
3
6 /
V
v V
m
m dc
t d t


Rms output voltage:

2 / 1
2 / 1
6 /
2
2
2
3
sin
8
1
4 24
5
3
) ( * sin
2
3
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + −
=
(
¸
(

¸

=

+
α
π
π π
α
ω ω
π
π
α π
V
v V
m
m drms
t d t


Disadvantages:
• Input currents are pulsating DC, can saturate the transformer
• Only limited to low power applications

64
THREE-PHASE FULL CONVERTERS

• Extensively used in industrial applications up to the 120-kW level, where a
two-quadrant operation is required.
• The thyristors are fired at an interval of 60
0

• The frequency of output ripple voltage is 6f, and the filtering requirement is
less than that of half-wave converters
• When thyristors T1 and T2 conduct, the line-to-line voltage v
a
appears
across the load
• If the thyristors are numbered, as shown in Figure, the firing sequence is
12, 23, 34, 45, 56, and 61

If the line-to-neutral voltages are defined as:

Corresponding line-to-line voltages are:



65



RMS
Average
66
Average output voltage:
α
π
ω
π
ω
π
ω
π
α π
α π
α π
α π
cos
) ( *
6
sin 3
3
) ( *
2
6
3 3
2 /
6 /
2 /
6 /
V
v v V
m
m ab dc
t d t t d
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
∫ ∫
+
+
+
+

Rms output voltage:
2 / 1
2 / 1
2 /
6 /
2
2
2 cos
4
3 3
2
1
3
) ( *
6
sin
2
6
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

+
+
α
π
ω
π
ω
π
α π
α π
V
v V
m
m drms
t d t


Finding the Performances of a three-phase Full-wave Converter
A three-phase full-wave converter is operated from a three-phase Y-connected,
(V
ab(rms
))208-V, 60-Hz supply and the load resistance is R=10Ω. If it is required
to obtain an output voltage of 50% of the maximum possible output voltage,
calculate:
(a) the delay (α), (b) the rms and average output currents, (c) the average and rms
thyristor currents. (d) rectification efficiency, (e) the TUF, and (f) the input PF
Solution:

67








68

For Highly Inductive Load and for the same delay angle, PF is Lower. FIN

Previous example
The load type, i.e. R or L.
69
Twelve-pulse Rectifiers (L10)


Vo
Voy, VoΔ 6-pulses
12-pulses
70
• One of the bridges is supplied through a Y-Y connected transformer,
• The other is supplied through a Y-Δ (or Δ-Y) transformer
• The purpose of the Y-Δ transformer connection is to introduce a 30
0

phase shift between the source and the bridge.
• This results in input voltage-current phase shift, which are 30
0
apart.
• The two bridge outputs are similar, but also shifted by 30
0
.
• The dc output is the sum of the dc output of each bridge:

Net output voltage:
α
π
α
π
α
π
cos cos cos
6 3 3
) (
2
) (
1
) (
0
V V V
V V V
L L m L L m L L m
o oy
− − −

= + = + =


• Since a transition between conducting SCRs occurs every30
0
, there are a
total of 12 such transitions for each period of the ac source.
• The output has harmonic frequencies which are multiples of 12 times the
source frequency (12k, where: k =1, 2,3 ... ).
• Filtering to produce a relatively pure dc output is less costly than that
required for the six-pulse rectifier.

• Another advantage of using a twelve-pulse converter rather than a six-
pulse converter is the reduced harmonics that occur in the ac system.

The current in the ac lines supplying the Y- Y transformer in Fourier series:
|
.
|

\
|
+ − + − = ... cos
13
1
cos
11
1
cos
7
1
cos
5
1
cos
3 2
) (
13 11 7 5
t t t t t t
o o o o o o Y I i ω ω ω ω ω
π

The current in the ac lines supplying the Y-Δ transformer is in Fourier series:

|
.
|

\
|
+ − − + =

... cos
13
1
cos
11
1
cos
7
1
cos
5
1
cos
3 2
) (
13 11 7 5
t t t t t t
o o o o o o I i ω ω ω ω ω
π


71
The ac systern current, which is the sum of 2 transformer currents in Fourier
series:
|
.
|

\
|
+ − = + =

... cos
13
1
cos
11
1
cos
3 4
) ( ) ( ) (
13 11
t t t t t t
o o o o Y ac I i i i ω ω ω
π

(No 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics)

Some of the harmonics (5
th
& 7
th
) on the ac side are canceled by using the
twelve-pulse scheme.
The harmonics that remain in the ac system are of order l2k±1.

This principle can be expanded to an-arrangements of higher pulse numbers by
incorporating increased pulse Nos. of six/pulse converters with transformers with
appropriate phase shifts.
lower-voltage industrial systems commonly have converters with up to 48
pulses.


POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENTS

• The PF of phase-controlled converters depends on delay angle α, and is in
general low, especially at the low output voltage range. These converters
generate harmonics into the supply.
• Forced commutations can improve the input PF and reduce the harmonics
levels.

1. Extinction angle control
2. Symmetric angle control
3. Pulse-width modulation (PWM)
4. Single-phase sinusoidal PWM
5. Three-phase PWM control


72
Extinction Angle Control
• The switching actions of S1, and S2 can be performed by GTO or IGBT.
An IGBT remains on as long as a gate voltage is applied to its gate
terminal.
• The output voltage is controlled by varying the extinction angle β.
• The fundamental component of input current leads the input voltage, and
the displacement factor (and PF) is leading.
• In some applications, this feature may be desirable to simulate a capacitive
load and to compensate for line voltage drops.


73
Average output voltage:
( ) β
π
ω ω
π
β π
cos 1 ) ( * sin
2
2
0
+ = =


V
v V
m
m dc
t d t

V
dc
can be varied from 2V
m
/Π to 0 by varying β from 0 to Π.

The rms output voltage:

2 / 1
2 / 1
0
2
2
) (
2
2 sin 1
2
) ( * sin
2
2
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
(
¸
(

¸

=


β
β π
π
ω ω
π
β π
v
v V
m
m rms d
t d t




Symmetric Angle control

Provides an unity Displacement factor
Average and rms output voltage can be controlled by angle β.

The average output voltage:

2
sin ) ( * sin
2
2
2
2 / ) (
2 / ) (
β
π
ω ω
π
β π
β π
V
v V
m
m dc
t d t = =

+



The rms output voltage:

( )
2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / ) (
2 / ) (
2
2
) (
sin
1
2
) ( * sin
2
2
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

=

+

β β
π
ω ω
π
β π
β π
v
v V
m
m rms d
t d t




74

75


76


77
PWM CONTROL
• In PWM control, the converter switches are turned on and off several times
during a half-cycle and the output voltage is controlled by varying the width of
pulses.




• The gate signals are generated by
comparing a triangular wave with a
dc signal

78
The average output voltage due to p number of pulses per half cycle:

| | ∑ ∑

= =
+
+ − =
(
¸
(

¸

=
p
m
m m m
m
p
m
m dc
v
v V
m m
m
t d t
1 1
) cos( cos ) ( * sin
2
2
δ α α
π
ω ω
π
δ α
α








Input Current can be expressed as:
79
Single-Phase Sinusoidal PWM

• It is possible to choose the widths of pulses in such a way that certain
harmonics could be eliminated
• Most common one is the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM)
• Pulse widths are generated by comparing a triangular reference v
r
with a
carrier half-sinusoidal voltage v
c
of variable amplitude and fixed
frequency 2fs

• The widths of the pulses (and the average/rms output voltage) are varied
by changing the amplitude of v
c
, or the modulation index M from 0 to 1.
The modulation index is defined as:
A
A
r
C
M =

80

• In a sinusoidal PWM control, the DF is unity and the PF is improved
• The lower order harmonics are eliminated or reduced
• For example, with four pulses per half-cycle the lowest order harmonic
is the fifth; and
• with six pulses per half-cycle, the lowest order harmonic is the seventh.

Your Notes: FIN



81
PF IMPROVEMENT BY FILETRS (L11)



82

83

Your Notes: