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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Review of Related Literature Women today have a great deal of pressure to deal with.

They often have to worry about their careers, relationships, and appearance. A woman's appearance is often one of her primary concerns. Whether she is a cold corporate executive, a common housewife, or even a student, she is always striving to meet society's concept of beauty. Hakuhodo (2012), shows that while East Asian women focus on skincare, Southeast Asian women concentrate on cosmetics. It stays true to majority of the younger bracket of Filipino women. It has also been proven that the top three “musthaves” are lipstick, face powder and nail polish , respectively. Hakuhodo showed that 87.1% of Filipino women use lipsticks, 84% use pressed powder and 75.9% use nail polish. However, with the constant exposure to different environments, the usage of cosmetics don’t only uplift ones self -esteem but also chances of irritation and infection due to the bacteria that has been accumulated over time. (Muhammed, 2011) studied Bacterial and Fungal Contamination in Three Brands of Cosmetic Marketed in Iraq and found that most cosmetics contain a lot of ingredients that are good for microbial growth and the production of cosmetics is not a sterile process and at least the storage temperature is nearly optimal for microbial growth. Cosmetics products may be contaminated during manufacturing by microorganisms

coli cause diarrhea due to enterotoxin. Stated in the Medilexicon's Medical Dictionary (2012). said: "These latest findings highlight a lack of information available on cosmetic sell-by dates. the production of which seems to be associated with a transferable episode. Repeated exposure to bacteria from the mouth affects lip colour cosmetics. E. 2012) it was stated that most infectious diseases are transferred person to person via bacteria contaminated hands that can cause colds. infections and life-threatening illnesses such as Hepatitis A and Salmonella. coli is a species that occurs normally in the intestines of humans and other vertebrates. The worst type causes bloody diarrhea. it is widely distributed in nature. E. Enteropathogenic strains of E. Mintel's senior beauty analyst. and can sometimes cause kidney failure and even death. Germ-contaminated cosmetics can do the same.existing in the environment or in the raw materials. which mostly contain water and the later form an appropriate media for microbial growth. and is a frequent cause of infections of the urogenital tract and of neonatal meningitis and diarrhea in infants. . Most types of E. coli are harmless while some types can make you sick and cause diarrhea. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in the intestines. Escherichia coli According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2013). In a journal The Secret Life of Germs. Richmond (2009).

When an infected person coughs or sneezes. aeruginosa. pharynx and on their skin. (Mandal. only S. 2010) stated that S. their bio statistical efficiency was also determined. including the skin. pathogen microorganisms such as S. after carefully examining the microbiological content of these lipsticks.(Akin and Atlantar. The remaining 9 lipstick samples (90%) were kept under investigation until the end of the testing procedure on the 28th day. oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. E. In 81 samples. In normal . but it may be found regularly in most other anatomical locales. aureus.5%) were found to consist mold and yeast which are not allowed by the cosmetic regulations. In each counting procedure. Around one third of healthy individuals carry this bacteria in their noses. Staphylococcus aureus Although more than 20 species of Staphylococcus are described in Bergey's Manual (2001). they found out that 34 of them (42%) had total aerobic plate count and 19 of them (23. for different bacteria. These contain the bacteria and can infect others. investigated the microbiological quality control of lipsticks. In the samples. it was found that only one sample was effective at the 3rd and 14th day. coli. 1989). epidermidis are significant in their interactions with humans. aureus and S. S. P. Salmonella and Shigella were detected. he or she releases numerous small droplets of saliva that remain suspended in air. Indeed. It is transmitted through air droplets or aerosol. aureus colonizes mainly the nasal passages. aureus may occur commonly in the environment.

or nasopharynx does not lead to any symptoms or disease. eyes and genital tract. they have found that 34 samples have been found to be contaminated and total aerobic bacteria counts were between 104-106 CFU/g. Another common method of transmission is through direct contact with objects that are contaminated by the bacteria or by bites from infected persons or animals. microbial contamination was studied according to the guidelines of U. In 81 samples. this bacteria may be life threatening.healthy and immunocompentent person.news-medical. S. S. aureus is isolated from an abscess or boil or other skin lesion. it is usually due to its secondary invasion of a wound rather than the primary cause of disease. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method: “Microbiological . aureus in their nose. When S. aureus colonization of the skin. In a study entitled Microbiological Investigation of Used Cosmetic Samples by the Hacettepe University (2010). Approximately 30% of healthy humans carry S. dermatitis or skin infections and genital tract infections. aureus may similarly be isolated from abscesses. intestinal tract.net) Altanlar has studied microbiological quality of 81 lipsticks which are unused. breast abscesses or mastitis. In animals and humans that are immunocompromised or immunodeficient. In only one of the samples Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and no other pathogen bacteria mold or yeasts were observed.S. back of the throat and on their skin. aureus is considered the classic opportunist in this way since it takes advantage of broken skin or other entry sites to cause an infection. In some lipsticks microorganisms such as mold and yeast which are not allowed to be present in cosmetics were determined. It may lead to pyogenic infections of the skin. S. (www.

aureus and E. The Food and Drug Administration (2011) did a survey of an assortment of 400 lipsticks and there were low levels. In 5 samples total aerobic bacteria numbers were off the limits.Methods for Cosmetics”. Among the samples. 3 eye shadows. The most recent study studied more metals and projected the health risk was derived from the metal's strength and usual lipstick use. in 3 eyelashes. 2 lipsticks and 2 foundations of 10 samples microbial contamination were observed. S. . but the agency stated that there were no safety concerns at that time.coli that are not allowed to be found in cosmetics were determined.