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Choi** * : Institute of Construction Technology, DAEWOO E&C CO., LTD. ** : DAWEOO E&C CO., LTD.

ABSTRACT

Design procedure of above-ground prestressed concrete (PC) LNG storage tanks with 200,000 m3 capacity has been investigated by Daewoo E&C. As the capacity increases, special attention should be paid to the existing code provisions related to the inner and outer tanks and efficient procedure should be established to design LNG tanks with structural and cost efficiency. The inner tank of 9% Ni type was designed to the API code. The procedures to determine main sections and prestressing schemes of each structural component of the outer tank were investigated to study the scale-up effects. It is expected that the sections determined by the above procedures could be effectively utilized as initial data for the detailed analyses of the whole structure under various loading conditions. Refined and optimized shape of the LNG tank is now under development.

INTRODUCTION

LNG storage tanks can be effectively used to cope with seasonal fluctuations in natural gas demand. Construction costs of the tanks occupy major portion of the LNG terminal’s total construction costs. Therefore, various efforts have been made to increase the cost efficiency of the LNG tanks, which can be largely divided into two parts; (1) There has been a clear tendency toward LNG tanks of higher capacity during the past decades. It can be achieved by the capacity expansion to decrease the relative cost per stored capacity and enable more effective land use(1), (2), (2) The cost efficiency as well as the shortening construction period have been pursued through the technological development in material and structural aspects(3). For the in-ground or under-ground LNG tanks, 200,000 m3 capacity has been already constructed at Negishi and Ohgisima in Japan, and Inchon in Korea. As a comparison, maximum capacity of aboveground tanks so far was 180,000 m3 at Senboku and Himeji in Japan(3). Recent literatures and papers have repeatedly reported that some revisions of the codes are required especially for the inner tank to design full containment type above-ground LNG tanks of higher capacity with economical (height to diameter) proportions(1), (4).

there are some more load-resisting factors in the outer tank including concrete strength. i. Fig.The most commonly used codes for the design of inner tanks are API 620(5) and BS 7777(6). These rules are distinguished from the maximum thickness of 30mm and full height hydrostatic testing imposed on the BS 7777 and the way toward higher capacity is widely open. Eurocode(EN265002) will reflect some important points required to design more reasonable dimensions of inner tank with higher capacity. Together with basic design of the tank. However. EN265002 is now in preparation under the CEN Committee TC 265. On the other hand. When we consider inner and outer tanks are . distinct features of increased structural efficiency and so induced material saving are pursued over the existing above-ground type tanks. Maximum thickness of the inner tank plate is not explicitly specified in API but actually ASTM thickness restriction should be followed. and the amounts of reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons.. e. It has the similar rule of hydrostatic testing to EN265002 in that 125% of the maximum product load is specified. Special attention was paid to the height to diameter proportion of the inner tank so that structural safety is ensured under the seismic loading of SSE as well as OBE conditions even though no anchor strap is attached to restrict movements of the inner tank. many of the domestic constructions in Japan have been based on Japanese own codes(7). DESIGN OF 9% Ni INNER TANK 9% Ni inner tank is designed according to the API 620 Appendix Q and L. The inner tank has the maximum thickness of 31.000 m3 capacity. Provided that the strength of the inner tank plate is given. increased maximum thickness of 50mm of the inner tank plate and partial height hydrostatic testing equivalent to 125% of the maximum product load. Daewoo E&C has investigated the design procedure of aboveground prestressed concrete (PC) LNG storage tanks with 200. 1 shows schematic sections of the currently developed inner tank with 200.2mm at the lower part of the inner tank wall and the diameter of 90m. part of which was already published in PD 7777(8). Some efficient procedures to determine main sections and prestressing schemes of each structural component of the outer tank are investigated with the increased capacity. the only load-resisting factor is the thickness of the plate. Also. thickness. Included in EN265002 are two apparent features. Encouraged with above mentioned trend of the design codes and accumulated experiences with the LNG tank constructions for years.000 m3 capacity. Several alternatives of the inner tank sizes were explored and compared together in the respect of some factors. The height to diameter ratio of the inner tank has the primary significance since overall proportion of LNG tank is determined from the inner tank rather than outer tank in many cases. The following aspects can be discussed in relation to the sizing problem.

Fig. since no tensile stress is induced in hoop direction under those kinds of loads for flat domes with that rise or less.000 m3 capacity DESIGN OF OUTER TANK General remarks As a preliminary study. Those practices may originate from the elementary membrane theory. It corresponds to the rise to diameter ratio of 1/8. . which is often recommended for the roof domes where self-weight and/or externally distributed load are dominant(9). it is plausible that overall proportion of the tank is more dependent upon the inner tank that has less redundancies in the load-resisting mechanisms. Parts of the investigations are introduced in the followings. Schematic dimensions of the above-ground LNG storage tank with 200. Roof dome Many of the existing concrete roof domes of above-ground LNG tanks have the radius of curvature equal to the diameter of outer wall. These approaches are expected to concisely give insights into the sizing problem prior to the detailed analyses of whole structure when the capacity expansion is attempted.integrated together in the full containment type and both tanks should possess the strength to resist design loadings independently. 1. LNG outer tank is divided into the structural components and each component is separately investigated by the appropriate shell theories.

since the higher curvature can endure internal pressure with less tensile stresses. Here.8d to 1. Some of the large in-ground LNG tanks where the roof dome is also exposed above the ground level had the radius of curvature close to 0. Buckling safety of carbon steel liner is also important and varies sensitively depending on the placing method of concrete dome(11). however the codes for the carbon steel liner that is attached inside the concrete dome should be additionally followed. e. Moreover. where d is the diameter of outer wall. however the estimated amount of concrete differs each other. but is not treated here. Table 1 represents the maximum hoop stresses of roof dome according to the membrane theory of shell structures under some major loading conditions. Cases D and G have similar safety factors. allowable tensile stress is calculated as 24. Structural safety check should be performed in two ways for the concrete domes. Therefore. i. conventional rise of the domes in the above-ground LNG tanks is not optimal at least in the structural efficiency. In the design of LNG tank with 200. thus it is found that two cases of D and G are adequate for the first trial.8d not violating API code. it can be said that when the internal pressure is additionally considered.2d. in the respect of allowable stress and buckling.8d. no special code-related restriction is imposed on the shape of concrete dome. Besides structural safety.2 kgf/cm2 based on the compressive strength equal to 300 kgf/cm2.3% of the total amount of concrete can be saved from the thickness reduction when compared to the case G. it can be detected that higher rise is advantageous in the structural aspect when subjected to internal pressure. API 650(10) specifies that radius of curvature of the liner should range from 0..000 m3 capacity. . it can be concluded that prestressing is not additionally required as is the case for most LNG tank domes. The target stress level is referred to and adjusted to that of some existing above-ground LNG tanks under same loading conditions. it is carefully considered to increase the rise of dome up to 0. For the case D it is estimated that 3. which is one of the main design loadings in LNG tanks although the magnitude is far smaller than that in the nuclear containment structures. Refer to the LNG tanks at Negishi and Inchon already introduced above.On the other hand.

7 tf/m2) Selfweight Externally distributed loads (0. From the geometrical consideration.45m 0.4 18.5 tf/m2) Total stress (severer case) Safety factor (allowable stress /total stress) Remark Conventional design 0.4 22.6m 0. it is assumed that concrete dome is placed in two layers with the same thickness as is frequently adopted.8 18. Shape of roof dome Buckling safety is examined according to ACI 373(12).5m 0.65m 26. Ring beam Primary role of the ring beam is to cope with major portion of the thrust transmitted from roof dome thus to reduce excessive deformation of upper part of the wall.1 -5.2 -7.6 1.05 1.92 1.0d 1.8 -1.7 16.0 26.6m 0.8 19.8 -7.4 23.0d 1.25 1.Table 1.8 28. dimensions of ring beam and the amount of prestressing tendons inside the ring beam have close relationship with the shape of roof dome.5 28. 2.6m 0.5 34.8d 0.3 -1.7 1.58d 1. Stress check for the concrete roof dome(hoop stress) Units : kgf/cm2 Dimensions of dome Types of LNG tank A B C D Proposed design E F G Radius of curvature 1.7 19. higher rise dome induces less thrust to the .8 26.0d 0.9 -1.9 -0.29 1.30 Acceptable Acceptable Fig.6 -4. which indicates that the case D also satisfies the buckling-related code requirements both for the construction and operation phases.22 0.2 -7.0 2.1 -2.6 -1. Therefore.16 1. Here.0d 1.0 20.0d Thickness (at the crown) Internal pressure (3.6m 0.6 -7.

5m 1.ring beam.4 25. (13).5m 2.0d requires as many as sixteen tendons and correspondingly enlarged ring beam section to satisfy the same target stress level. (12). As a comparison.4 -0. where the former is usually more critical in the case of . Both cases H and I in Table 2 result in the total stress close to zero by providing twelve tendons.2m 4. Vertical tendons are additionally required to control the stresses induced by vertical moment. LNG pressure and internal pressure are the main design loadings of the wall. Stress check for the ring beam(hoop stress) Units : kgf/cm2 Types of LNG tank Conventional design Proposed design A B H I Dimensions of ring beam Prestressing Width Height Dome loadings Selfweight Externally distributed loads Total stress Remark 1.8 7.3 -67.8 53. Table 2.6m 3. Dome shape of case D in Table 1 that was regarded as recommendable is also adopted for the present calculations.8 -60. Case I is examined for some previous construction practices and found to have proper range of stress level not exceeding the limit values specified in the codes(9).6 -33.2m 2. where LNG is assumed to be in contact with the outer wall for the case of leakage from the inner tank. Outer wall Some noticeable points in the design of present concrete tank wall are illustrated. which accommodates practical space between tendons. However. The construction procedure should be so planned as to avoid excessive compression as well as tension in the ring beam throughout all the phases. ring beam height is not enough to possess required number of tendons for the case H thus case I.9 16.7 30.1m 1.0m 3.000 m3 capacity referring to some existing above-ground LNG tanks. case C in table 1 that has the radius of curvature of dome equal to 1.6 44. No tensile stress is intended in ring beam in the present design of LNG tank with 200.6 -0.3m -40.7 46. Thus.0 -4. Safety check should be performed for the construction as well as the operation phase according to the proper codes(9). Horizontal hoop tendons are installed to counteract the design loadings and also to introduce some residual compressive stress in hoop direction(12). (12). is more acceptable. higher rise dome to a certain extent than conventional cases of above-ground LNG tank is also beneficial for the ring beam as well as the dome itself.2 Insufficient space for tendons Acceptable Construction sequence of roof dome and ring beam has primary importance because stress state of the ring beam is much affected depending on the sequence. (13) .7 18.5 13.

Vertical stress σ can be calculated from σ = 6 M / t 2 . Moment distribution of wall and alternative wall shapes Another strategy to reduce the excessive tensile stress is to provide a proper amount of vertical tendons. three-tenth of height for the material saving in the present design. Fig. Considering that the moment distribution is not much changed by the slight variation of wall profiles. The most important problem is how to control the excessive moment and corresponding tensile stress at the lower part of wall that result from the restraint of wall deformation by the rigid bottom slab.prestressed concrete wall. Some strategies to control the excessive tensile stress are revisited and a recent research related to the optimal installation of tendons is introduced in the followings. It has been reported that eccentrically positioned vertical tendons are of help compared to the concentrically positioned cases. However. most of the aboveground LNG tanks in Korea have the wall type of c in Fig. In fact. 3. Thus the magnitude of excessive stress at the lower part of wall can be considerably diminished by increasing the thickness of the wall. Taking the actual moment diagram into account. say. it is conceivable that varying thickness section be further localized below. High strength of 600 kgf/cm2 over conventional 400 kgf/cm2 has been adopted for the wall of . walls of varying thickness are more effective than those of constant thickness. 3 shows typical moment distribution in the tank wall along with some alternatives in the wall shape. but actual effect of eccentricity is doubtful as has been noticed by recent studies(14). 3 with the similar safety level maintained. the amount of concrete can be saved by proceeding from a to d in Fig. High strength concrete contributes to raise the strength of section often resulting in thinner section. Fig. where lower half of height has varying thickness and remaining upper half constant thickness. magnitude of the compression that can be introduced by the vertical tendons is limited by the allowable compressive stress at the stage of initial prestressing. that is. where M is the vertical moment and t thickness of the wall. 3.

Moment distributions of the conventional and the proposed prestressing schemes . By adjusting the spaces of hoop tendons in lower part of the wall utilizing optimization technique if required. The stress states resulting from those two construction methods are never similar and the Fig. In the present design of wall now under development. while in some cases all the hoop tendons are stressed at a time after all the concrete works of the outer tank are completed. According to the recent researches(14)-(16). 4. However. 4. required number of tendons can be saved. an example of which is shown in Fig. (a) Conventional scheme (b) Proposed scheme Fig. Hoop tendons in a wall segment are stressed simultaneously with the each wall segment construction in some previous constructions. it should be noted that too much strength difference between the structural components could induce undesirable internal forces from the difference of long-term behavior due to creep and shrinkage of concrete. Also. more advanced pressure distribution can be achieved that results in moderate magnitude of the base moment for both the initial prestressing and operation stages. all the above mentioned aspects related to the optimal stress control are taken into account to find out most economical as well as structurally safe alternatives. it is effective to modify the conventional trapezoidal pressure distribution induced by the hoop tendons to other types of distributions. Construction procedure is also important factor.Senboku LNG tank(3). 3 only represents the latter case.

1-PS6-4. welded. IGU·IIR·GTI. Twelfth International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas. (1981). “Largest aboveground PC LNG storage tank in the world. S.” Proc.. 2. it is expected that above-ground LNG tanks that have higher capacity will be constructed.” Proc. 3. Heiersted. pp. Thirteenth International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas. 8..” Proc. low-pressure storage tanks. Japan Gas Association. pp.1-PO-23. . et al. there is a clear tendency toward LNG tanks of higher capacity since it has been recognized as the desirable method for maximizing cost efficiency.11..CONCLUSION Construction costs of the LNG storage tanks occupy major portion of the LNG terminal’s total construction costs. API 620 : Design and construction of large. R. BS 7777 : Flat-bottomed..9. incorporating the latest technology-construction cost reduction and shortening of work period by employing new construction methods. PD 7777 : Alternative steel selection and its effect on design and testing of tanks to BS 7777.. pp. Nishizaki. Thirteenth International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas. et al.. T. PS6-4. cylindrical storage tanks for low temperature service. 5. IGU·IIR·GTI. 5. “Bigger & cheaper LNG tanks? Overcoming the obstacles confronting freestanding 9% nickel steel tanks up to and beyond 200. S. American Petroleum Institute.” Proc. Kamiya. (1996). (1998). 4. M. B. (1993). Together with basic design of the tank. Recommended practice for LNG aboveground storage(RPAS). PO23. “Capacity and technology for the Snøhvit LNG plant. (2001). The design of refined and optimized shape of the LNG tank is now in progress.9.6-28. Design procedure of above-ground prestressed concrete (PC) LNG storage tanks of full containment type with 200. British Standards Institution. Thirteenth International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas. distinct features of increased structural efficiency and so induced material saving are pursued over the existing above-ground type tanks. Thus. Goto. (2001). vertical.1-PO-23. pp. (2001).6-1-5. IGU·IIR·GTI. REFERENCES 1.. 7. and Tajima. 6.000 m3 capacity has been investigated by Daewoo E&C. Encouraged with revisions of existing codes that may restrict the economical design. “LNG Technological progress in Japan-Three decades of evolution. A. Long.000 m3. PO-23.

11. (2000). “Prestressed tanks.” ACI Journal. No.. 9. H. Circular storage tanks and silos. “Design and erection of temporary steel roof for under-ground LNG storage tank.(2000).PO-27. Nawy. Suzuki. T. Thirteenth International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas. PCI committee on precast. . A. No. Brøndum-Nielsen. 2nd edition. 80-125.” Proc. American Concrete Institute. (2001).. 88. E. V. (1989).” PCI Journal. 12.. and Elliott. 6. (1997). 721-729. Prestressed concrete. British Standards Institution.” ACI Journal. 32. Ghali. 10. PO-27. 4. (1991). 500509. 4.. 15. et al.Dec. A. G. API 650 : Welded steel tanks for oil storage. E. pp. 14. “Prestressing of circular tanks.1. V. No. (1987). E & FN Spon. pp. prestressed concrete storage tanks. Ghali.. 16. V. July-Aug. pp. pp. Prentice-Hall. 82. “Recommended practice for precast prestressed concrete circular storage tanks. (1985). ACI 373R-97 : Design and construction of circular prestressed concrete structures with circumferential tendons. 13. American Petroleum Institute. Nov. (1998). IGU·IIR·GTI.10.

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