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International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273

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International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Particulate fouling and composite fouling assessment in corrugated plate heat exchangers
Guan-min Zhang a, Guan-qiu Li b, Wei Li b,⇑, Zhaoyan Zhang c, Xue-li Leng a, Mao-cheng Tian a
a

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, PR China Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China c Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Experimental and theoretical investigations of water-side fouling have been performed inside four corrugated plate heat exchangers. They have different geometric parameters, such as plate height, plate spacing, and plate angle. Fouling experiments including particulate fouling tests and composite particulate and precipitation fouling tests have been performed. The tests are primarily focused on the effects of concentration and average velocity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the microscopic structures of composite fouling. Heat transfer coefficients and friction factors have been obtained in clean tests. The plate heat exchanger with the largest de and height to pitch ratio shows the best antifouling performance. The Von-Karman analogy was used to obtain mass transfer coefficient to develop appropriate semi-theoretical fouling correlations; The wall shear stress is obtained from the pressure drop. The model predictions agree well with experimental data. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 1 August 2012 Received in revised form 11 January 2013 Accepted 11 January 2013 Available online 4 February 2013 Keywords: Corrugated plate heat exchanger Fouling Scanning electron microscope Mass transfer coefficient Von-Karman analogy

1. Introduction Plate heat exchanger (PHE) has been widely used in the fields of energy transport due to its favorable characteristics, such as high heat transfer coefficient, easy maintenance, compact size and convenience to increase the heat transfer area, etc. In-depth research on PHEs is required to widen its range of application. Corrugations in plate heat exchangers enhance the heat transfer rate by increasing the heat transfer area and increasing the turbulence mixing at low flow rates. Researches in corrugated plate heat exchangers have drawn many interests recently. Kim et al. [1] conducted experimental study of cross-flow air-cooled PHEs, which included single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. In comparison with single-wave PHE, double-wave PHE showed approximately 50% improvement in heat transfer performance at a cost of 30% increase in pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. Shaji and Das [2] studied the influence of maldistribution in corrugated plate heat exchangers. The experiments were carried out with uniform and non-uniform flow distributions for various flow rates and different numbers of plates. It was concluded that the flow maldistribution and back mixing which led to axial dispersion were two different physical phenomena and should not be combined together as the early models of plate heat
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 13858087932.
E-mail address: weili96@zju.edu.cn (W. Li). 0017-9310/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.01.040

exchangers. Wanniarachchi et al. [3], correlated published experimental thermal–hydraulic data to develop generalized correlations for prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop with the chevron angle as a geometric parameter. More than 90% of the heat exchangers have fouling problem, but fouling research has not been active in recent years. Cho’s team continued to develop anti-fouling technology [4]. They investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counter flow heat exchanger. The fouling resistances for the case of PWT coil plus filter dropped by 59%–72% compared with those obtained for the no-treatment cases, while 18%–35% drop was observed for the case of PWT coil only. Fouling brings many problems in the applications of PHEs. The heat transfer coefficient of fouled PHEs can be worse than the heat exchangers with no enhanced surfaces. Merheb et al. [5] developed the fouling monitor inside PHE in real time, using multiple optimized non-intrusive sensors. Low-frequency acoustic waves were propagated through the plates, and these waves were analyzed to measure their ability to detect fouling inside the PHE. By comparing the evolution of the acoustic wave parameters, an indicator of the fouling rate was obtained for each zone inside the exchanger. The results of this analysis showed that lowfrequency acoustic waves were sensitive to PHE fouling. Mahdi et al. [6] proposed a two-dimensional dynamic fouling model for milk fouling to predict the performance of a plate heat exchanger subject to fouling, using material balance equations. Their results

Bonis and Ruocco [10] developed a two dimensional model for a single channel of PHE in laminar regime to investigate the influence of temperature and velocity on the fouling performance. m2 projection area in each plate.out Th. K mass flow rate of cold water. W ss wall shear stress. K/W Schmidt number (Sc = m/DAB). The deviation lacking of the turbulent region is the largest. the laminar flow ceases being smooth and steady. [11] have conducted 3D modeling of an industrial PHE with non-chevron type in order to simplify computational efforts. K hot water outlet temperature. m/s Greek symbols DP pressure drop between inlet and outlet.264 G. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 Nomenclature Ac Aeff Apr B Cb cp. m/s flow velocity in centrality of PHEs. K/W thermal resistance of heat conduction. Von-Karman analogy. K/W Reynolds number thermal resistance of hot water side. In the laminar region. and turbulent region. The mass of deposit depended mainly on milk temperature and time of processing. Balasubramanian and Puri [9] tested a pilot-scale plate heat exchanger system.in Tc. W heat transfer of hot water side. kg/m3 Ud fouling deposition rate. dimensionless wetted perimeter of plate heat exchangers average heat transfer of cold water side and hot water side. [7] did experiments on 8 plate heat exchangers to heat water for radiator heating system. Maximum decrease in thermal energy of 15.-m. The thickness of the turbulent region is much larger than the thickness of the buffer region. and proved that CFD modeling results can be used to optimize PHE geometry. Zhang et al.in Th. the flow in the laminar region has significant influences on heat and mass transfer in PHEs. buffer region. kg m3 constant-pressure specific heat of cold water. W thermal resistance of cold water side. the resistance in laminar region is large. kg/h mass flow rate of hot water. Pa Á s q density of fluid. Pa Á s lw dynamic viscosity of wall. and the deviation lacking of the laminar region is the smallest. J/K thermal conductivity of deposit. and the temperature difference across this region is large.c cp. K cold water outlet temperature. m2 efficient heat transfer area in each plate. Heat and mass transfer analogy were used to develop semi-theoretical fouling model. dimensionless 2=3 colburn j-factor (¼ St P r ).h DAB de Di dp e f j KB kf L LMTD mc mh Nu p P Pr Pwet Q Qc Qh Rc Re Rh Rtotal Rw Sc cross-section area.38EÀ23). m diameter to root of fins. m sticking probability. J/(kg Á K) constant-pressure specific heat of hot water. Contrary to the CFD models for PHEs. Both particulate fouling and composite particulate and precipitation .86% was observed when Lectrofluor-641TM was used for skim milk pasteurization. dimensionless Prandtl number. kg/m2 s r fouling process index. turbulent flows near a wall surface are divided into three regions: laminar region. and Chilton-Colburn analogy. Although the thickness of laminar region is thin. K/W overall thermal resistance. For domestic hot water. J/(kg Á K) Brownian diffusivity (DAB = (KBT)/(3pldp)). W heat transfer of cold water side. dimensionless n the deposit bond strength. dimensionless axial element pitch. [8] tested the effects of surface roughness and textures of the PHE on calcium carbonate fouling.out T0 u u0 Stanton number. Lei et al. s fluid temperature. dimensionless Subscripts c cold water cl clean condition eff efficient area h hot water in inlet out outlet pr projection area 1–4 1st to 4th PHE showed fouling was highly dependent on the various process operating conditions. According to the Von-Karman analogy. Pa DQ heat transfer difference between hot water side and cold water side. Heat is primarily transferred through conduction. the distribution and the crystal size of calcium carbonate fouling were strongly dependent on the surface texture and finish. m particulate diameter. m2/s lf dynamic viscosity of fluid. There have not been many fouling models that are able to predict fouling potential in PHEs in the literature. dimensionless Boltzmann constant (=1. Because the gap between corrugated plates is small (usually less than 2 mm). Galeazzo et al. m2 time constant. dimensionless time. and found that the growth rate. kg/h Nusselt number. m2/s hydraulic diameter of plate heat exchangers. the fouling factor strongly depends on the water velocity. K hot water inlet temperature. m fanning friction factor. Srbislav et al. the mass transfer coefficient Km for PHE can be calculated through following analogies: Prandtl analogy. and the thickness of the buffer region is much larger than the thickness of the laminar region. K cold water inlet temperature. They think that shear stress value of 50 Pa was proven to be a lower limit for design of plate heat exchangers that are working with fluids of high fouling tendency. K temperature in centrality of PHEs. K average flow velocity through plates. 1/s bulk concentration. which cannot be ignored. dimensionless St t T Tc. which have different geometric designs. m rib height in. Since the flow pattern between corrugated plates in a PHE is much different from that inside tubes. Li and co-workers have developed fouling models based on heat and mass transfer analogy for internal enhanced tubes [12–15]. m log-mean temperature difference. W/m K flow channel length inside plate heat exchangers. It has modified surfaces for possible thermal energy savings while processing milk and tomato juice at pasteurization temperatures. the Von-Karman analogy defines flow structure between plates more accurately than Chilton-Colburn’s and Prandtl’s analogy. kg/m2 s Ur fouling removal rate. kg/m3 qf density of deposit. or in other words on the cold fluid wall shear stress. The present paper provides accelerated fouling data for four corrugated PHEs. Pa m kinematic viscosity.

Experiment set-up Table 1 shows four different geometries of the corrugated plate heat exchangers. Experiment design and data reduction 2. The 4th PHE has the largest hydraulic diameter de and the smallest Aeff/Apr.43 Valve Flow meter T T Tank Pump Hot steam Heat exchanger Cold water Loop Vale Valve Flow meter Vale Heat exchanger Pump From cooling tower Hot water loop ΔP ΔP (a) Cold water out P P Hot water in Hot water Main valve flow meter 1 of hot water P P Hot water flow meter 2 P P Hot water flow meter 3 P P T T PHE 4 T T PHE 3 T T P P Cold water flow meter 4 T T PHE 2 T T P P Cold water flow meter 3 PHE 1 T T P P Cold water flow meter 2 T T T T P P (b) Hot water flow meter 4 Fig.0 3. 1 2 3 4 Plate angle 65° 60° 60° 60° Plate height (mm) 2.0 2. 2. which are commercially available. (b) Parallel structure of test section. while the 1st PHE have the smallest Aeff/Apr. and foulant concentration.-m.0 6. The hydraulic diameter de is calculated by the following equation: de ¼ 4Ac =Pwet ð1Þ where Ac and Pwet are the cross-section area and the wetted perimeter of the PHEs. A semi-theoretical fouling model has been established to correlate experimental data.G. This study is the first attempt to adopt the Von-Karman analogy in PHE fouling models.54 1. T T T: Temperature ΔP: Differential pressure Hot water out Cold water Main valve flow meter 1 of cold water Cold water in Hot water Cold water . while the 3rd PHE has the smallest de and the largest Aeff/Apr.1. In the same test condition including the same flow velocity.31 1. In order to test the heat and mass transfer coefficient of the PHEs listed in Table 1.5 de (mm) 4. a test rig has been established and Fig. 1(a) shows the schematic of the test apparatus.5 mm and a similar plate angle of 60° and 65°. (a) Schematic drawing of the test rig.0 Corrugation pitch (mm) 7 10 8 13. comparison between the different geometric designs had been done.5 Plate thickness (mm) 0. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to obtain the microscopic performance of the fouling deposition.0 5. It is used as a baseline for this research. (2) cold water loop in which the fouling material is added in the fouling tests.0 Aeff/Apr 1.5 2.52 1.0 4. (3) vapor loop Table 1 Geometry parameters of plate heat exchangers. 1. which consists of 4 closed loops: (1) hot water loop.5 0. Zhang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 265 fouling are investigated. The 4th PHE is widely used in industrial chillers. The 3rd PHE have the largest surface heat-transfer area ratio Aeff/Apr.5 0. These four PHEs listed in Table 1 have the same plate thickness of 0. Plate No.5 0. inlet flow temperature.

The friction factor f in PHEs decreases with the increase of Re. . The test results show that the 3rd PHE has the largest pressure drop due to the smallest spacing between its plates and the second longest channel length.1% of full scale ±0. The clean tests are conducted with inlet temperatures of 57 °C and 40 °C for hot water and cold water. which are listed in Table 2.15 + 0.25% of full scale Range À20–100 °C 0–6 MPa 0–100 kPa 0. Results and discussion 3. 5%. In addition. volume flow rate.2. . The deviation of y is shown in Eq. The deviation of hc is no more than 3%. It is assumed that y is an indirect measured function.3. differential pressure transducers and magnetic flow meters. x n Þ dy=y ¼ ½ð@ f =@ x1 Þ2  ðdx1 =x1 Þ2 þ ð@ f =@ x2 Þ2  ðdx2 =x2 Þ2 þ Á Á Á þ ð@ f =@ xn Þ2  ðdxn =xn Þ2 Š0:5 ð3Þ ð4Þ The largest deviations of main direct measured parameters including temperature. turbulent flow is maintained in all four PHEs in clean tests and fouling tests. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 Table 2 Accuracy for sensors and parameters.5%. In the particulate fouling tests and composite fouling tests. In this section.4 m/s and 0. Therefore. absolute pressure transducers.5Qc) and the log-mean temperature difference LMTD. The uncertainties of Q. The inlet and outlet temperatures of hot water and cold water are measured using Platinum RTDs. Data reduction The temperature. Experimental uncertainty The measurement devices used in this study include Platinum RTDs. 5.6%.15 + 0. The equal Reynolds number method [16] and the modified Wilson Plot method [17] are used to calculate single side heat transfer coefficient for both hot water side and cold water side. NaHCO3 and CaCl2. Since the cold water was maintained at 40 °C in clean tests as well. which is obtained using equal Reynolds number method and the modified Wilson Plot method. calibrated with an accuracy of ±0. Re in PHEs f1 ¼ 35:226ReÀ0:462 f2 ¼ 37:971ReÀ0:533 f3 ¼ 36:684ReÀ0:425 f4 ¼ 14:784ReÀ0:367 ð6aÞ ð6bÞ ð6cÞ ð6dÞ Rtotal ¼ LMTD=Q ¼ Rh þ Rw þ Rc ð 2Þ where Rh and Rc are the heat transfer resistance on hot water side and cold water side. 0. 2. Zhang et al.1. Eqs. 2.05% of full scale ±0. absolute pressure and pressure drop are 0. . 2. Sensors Devices Temperature transducer Pressure transducer Different pressure transducer Water flow meter Maximum parameter uncertainty Average heat transfer (W) LMTD Heat transfer coefficient. 2000 mg/L and 3000 mg/L. Al2O3 particulates. a composite fouling test was carried out at an inlet temperature of 50 °C to compare with the composite fouling tests above. pressure and volume flow rate taken by the data acquisition system are reduced to calculate the heat transfer coefficients on both sides of PHEs. Rh and Rc are calculated from the modified Wilson Plot method. which are calibrated to NIST traceable standards. . The Fanning friction factor is given by the following equation: f ¼ de DP=ð2Lqu2 Þ ð5Þ The fluid velocities are calculated through the nominal crosssectional flow area determined from de. (4). The test rig is capable of testing six PHEs simultaneously and the PHEs are tested in parallel in order to guarantee the same inlet condition at any times. The foulants used in composite fouling tests are the compounds of precipitation fouling.565% 1. Rw is the heat conduction resistance which may be neglected in the calculations. Experiment conditions Both clean tests and fouling tests were performed.002|t|. The uncertainty is obtained from the following calculations.002|t|°C ±0. this reduces experimental uncertainty in the fouling tests. (3). Rtotal can be calculated through Eq.4. (4) y ¼ f ð x1 . Total heat transfer coefficient can be calculated using the data reduction method discussed in Section 2. 3. (6a)–(6d) shows the correlations of f vs. In order to obtain the heat transfer coefficient in the single side of PHEs. Because of the compact design and corrugations between the plates. and (4) cooling water loop which maintains temperature of cold water. the foulants were added in the cold water and the temperature of cold water was maintained at 40 °C. a high degree of turbulence can be obtained in PHEs at low Reynolds number (200–400). it is important .6 m/s. the minimum Reynolds number of four tested plate heat exchangers in clean tests and fouling tests is about 600. Total heat transfer coefficient in the test section is determined from an energy balance on the water flowing through the PHEs. whereas the effects of fluid velocity were studied in composite fouling tests. heat transfer measurements give average values rather than local values and pressure drop measurements give total pressure drop for the entire test section. four PHEs listed in Table 1 are tested and the actual connections between the PHEs are shown in Fig. The average velocities of composite fouling tests are 0. 1(b). The hot water in the fouling tests did not have foulant and was maintained at an inlet temperature of 57 °C.698% which maintains the inlet temperature of hot water. LMTD. x 2 . which can be calculated from several direct measured functions in Eq. The material properties of the hot water and cold water in the test section were obtained from NIST-REFPROP using the average temperature and average pressure of the inlet and outlet in PHEs. In this paper. The 2nd PHE has the lowest pressure drop because of the large plate spacing and the small channel length.3. The experimental uncertainties associated with the sensors in use and calculated parameters considered are listed in Table 2. The foulant used in particulate fouling tests is Al2O3 and the concentrations are 1000 mg/L. The total heat transfer resistance Rtotal is obtained from the average heat transfer rate Q (=0. respectively. Clean tests Pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are measured for the four plate heat exchangers. A differential pressure transducer is used to measure the pressure drop across the test section.224% 5. 3%.5–11 m3/h 5.266 G.5Qh + 0.-m.2 m/s. Because measurements are taken only at the inlet and outlet of the test section. and particulate fouling. and it is assumed that it has the similar heat transfer correlations for the hot water side and cold water side. The effects of concentration were studied in particulate fouling tests. h (W/m2 K) Uncertainty ±0.

lf and lw are the average dynamic viscosity at the fluid temperature and the wall temperature. in which the results of equal Reynolds number method and modified Wilson plot method have been considered. More than 90% of the water used in industrial applications is cooling water.4 for cold water side. six different forms of fouling may occur in industrial applications. Zhang et al. Comparing with the 2nd PHE. Experimental result shows that the development of fouling u ¼ CRen Prm ðlf =lw Þ0:14 ð 7Þ where m = 0. They are precipitation fouling. In this paper. corrosion fouling. (2). The power of Pr is 0. (d) 4th PHE. particulate fouling. the larger plate height of the 4th PHE enhance the heat transfer between the plates. This allows significant fouling to occur within several days or even several hours. 3. (8a)–(8d). The correlations of Nu of 1st–4th PHE are listed in Eqs. (c) 3rd PHE. Heat transfer coefficient of hot water side in PHEs calculated through the equal Reynolds number method and modified Wilson plot method: (a) 1st PHE. The Nusselt number of the hot water side and cold water side in PHEs can be expressed by. Fouling formation may follow one of the four patterns: linear increasing. Fig. (b) 2nd PHE. Asymptotic fouling is the most common fouling style in industrial applications.3 for hot water side and 0. high foulant concentration is used to accelerate fouling processes in the experiments.G. 2. power and asymptotic [19]. biological fouling and solidification fouling. 85% of the clean test data have the heat balance deviation of less than 5%. Rw can be neglected comparing with Rh and Rc. It is assumed that it has the similar correlations for Rh and Rc.4 for cold water side Nu1 ¼ 0:686Re0:523 Pr 0:3ð0:4Þ ðlf =lw Þ0:14 Nu2 ¼ 0:407Re0:58 Pr0:3ð0:4Þ ðlf =lw Þ0:14 Nu3 ¼ 0:412Re0:591 Pr 0:3ð0:4Þ ðlf =lw Þ0:14 Nu4 ¼ 0:618Re0:534 Pr 0:3ð0:4Þ ðlf =lw Þ0:14 ð8aÞ ð8bÞ ð8cÞ ð8dÞ Fig. Rh and Rc can then be calculated through the equal Reynolds number method and the modified Wilson plot method.2. The fouling problems in cooling water have been taken more seriously and the forms of fouling inside cooling water are basically a combination of particulate fouling and precipitation fouling [18]. however.-m. . the 4th PHE has looser structure. chemical fouling. Typically. In Eq. including particulate fouling tests and composite fouling tests. 2 shows the correlation results of the heat transfer coefficient in hot water side of the four tested PHEs. these two types of fouling experiments have been conducted to investigate the fouling characteristic in PHEs. because of the same geometric design and flow conditions in the both sides of PHEs. Fouling test Because fouling formation in actual applications is a slow process. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 267 to separate the heat transfer resistance in single side of PHEs from the total heat transfer resistance. The 1st PHE has the best heat transfer performance because of the most compact structure design. linear decreasing. while the 2nd PHE has the worst heat transfer performance.3 for hot water side and m = 0.

respectively. It can be found that the fouling resistances of the PHEs tested in particulate fouling experiments are dependent on the foulant concentration. The 1st PHE has the lowest ratio of corrugation pitch and plate height.5 times the fouling resistances when the concentration is 1000 mg/L. 2000. Fig.2 m/s and the inlet temperatures of cold water are maintained at 40 °C. Aluminum oxide particulates are used as foulant which have an average particulate diameters 2. III. 4 shows the measured fouling resistance of composite fouling experiments for the four tested PHEs.4 m/s are about 1.2 m/s 40 °C 40 °C 40 °C Test II Test III 0.268 Table 3 Fouling test conditions.6 times the fouling resistances at flow velocity of 0. The average velocities of cold water in the three tests are 0. 3. while the 4th PHE has the highest ratio. (c) Particulate fouling test III. respectively. the fouling resistances when concentration of aluminum oxide particulates is 3000 mg/L are about 1.-m. Asymptotic values of composite fouling tests are also listed in Table 4. which can be measured through the sclerometer.5 lm.2–1. the hardness in cold water decreased to nearly 600 mg/L.8 times the fouling resistances when the concentration is 2000 mg/L. The inlet temperature of cold water is 40 °C and the initial hardness in cold water is about 1500 mg/L. It can be seen that the fouling resistances of the tested PHEs are inversely dependent on the flow velocity. A plate angle of over 60° has negative impact on the fouling performance .2. II.1–1. Zhang et al. The plate angle of 60° is a turning point. 0.cl ð 9Þ Three particulate fouling experiments have been done after the clean tests. The cold water average velocities across the plates are 0.3–1. At this point. hardness 1555 mg/L Al2O3 2000 mg/L. The initial concentrations in cold water are 1000.6 m/s in composite fouling test I. 0.6 m/s 40 °C 40 °C formation in our tests follows an asymptotic pattern. 3 shows the measured fouling resistance for the four tested PHEs in particulate fouling tests. The dissolvent of aluminum oxide particulates is simple city water and the hardness of water is about 200–250 mg/L. Different fouling tests Particulate fouling tests Test I Foulant G. hardness 1525 mg/L Al2O3 2000 mg/L. Fig. The plate angle is also an important parameter. The fouling resistance of the tested PHEs can be calculated using Eq. (a) Particulate fouling test I. All other experimental conditions are the same. II. Low ratio of corrugation pitch and plate height increases the fouling resistance. 3.4. the fouling resistances at flow velocity of 0.2 m/s 0. In this set of the experiments.4 m/s. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 Setting velocity 0. In Fig. This is very important both in heat transfer and fouling deposition.2 m/s are about 1.2 m/s Setting temperature 40 °C Al2O3 1000 mg/L Composite fouling tests Test II Test III Test I Al2O3 2000 mg/L Al2O3 3000 mg/L Al2O3 2000 mg/L. At the end of the composite fouling tests. The different fouling tests conditions are listed in Table 3. A series of composite fouling tests have also been conducted. more fouling deposition can be found in composite fouling tests than the particulate fouling tests at similar conditions.4 m/s 0. Rf ¼ Rc À Rc. The particulate concentration at the beginning of the tests is 2000 mg/L approximately. 4 shows the fouling resistances at flow velocity of 0. The composite fouling tests investigate the influences of flow velocity and three different average velocities are used in three composite fouling tests. (9). The ratio of corrugation pitch and plate height is the key parameters in fouling deposition. 3000 mg/L in particulate test I. Fouling data for the four plate heat exchangers. the flow pattern inside the PHE changes from cross flow to tortuous flow. The value of Rf is taken at the end of the test period to be the asymptotic value RÃ f for each PHE. the fouling resistances when the concentration is 2000 mg/L are about 1. The asymptotic values are shown in Table 4. The 1st PHE shows the greatest fouling resistance in both Fig. III. the concentration influences in the fouling deposition are the critical parameter.6 m/s. All other experimental conditions are the same. hardness 1495 mg/L 0. (b) Particulate fouling test II. while the 4th PHE shows the best anti-fouling performance. In addition. particulate fouling tests and composite fouling tests.2 m/s 0. Fig.3–1.7 times the fouling resistances at flow velocity of 0.

Since the formation of precipitation fouling is the growth process of the crystal.4097 1.8139 2. the crystallization is the crucial process in precipitation fouling. The proportions of fouling components are listed in Table 5. The chemical component of the composite fouling test I is shown in Fig. In order to study the mechanism of the composite fouling deposition. the particulates can be the additional nucleation sites.0263 Test II 3. Zhang et al. The rough heat transfer surface provides the most common nucleation sites. 6(a). (b) composite fouling test II. 5(a) shows the bulk structure. In Fig. It means the particulates in composite fouling tests will enhance the precipitation fouling because of the increased nucleation site.30412 Test I 12. Fig. The crystal in Fig.-m.1344 1.99755 4.3.101 7. (a) Composite fouling test I.1729 of the PHE. The main chemical elements are Ca and Fe. 5(a). 5(b). the crystal in composite fouling tests will change the surface roughness and the particulate deposition processes will be further enhanced. which is similar to the test result in Table 4.5865 Test II 7. The proportions of fouling components are listed in Table 5. Because the 1st PHE has the least number of intersections. The microscopic composition of the composite fouling test is shown in Fig. Fouling data for the four plate heat exchangers. .6155 1. the interactions between the crystals and particulates may strengthen the fouling formation. 4. 6(b). which is called calcite crystal.3047 1. These intersections accelerate the deposit removal because the velocities in these places are larger than the other places due to its narrow spacing. The composite fouling deposition is strengthened comparing with particulate fouling. 3. Microscopic study of composite fouling tests The precipitation fouling and particulate fouling will influence each other in composite fouling. it can be seen that there are some differences in the intersections between the plates. and the fouling deposition is much more severe. 5(a) gives one of the SEM photo in composite fouling test I and it can be found the interactions between the crystals and the Al2O3 particulates. Different types of particulates (Al2O3 and Fe2O3) do not show significant effects on the fouling process. In addition.96991 3. In addition.G.7547 1. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 Table 4 Fouling test results.8516 Test III 5.2391 4. The crystallization needs nucleation sites. The aragonite crystals have looser structure than the calcite crystal. which indicates aragonite crystal. Fig.17689 3.9099 2. (c) composite fouling test III. In addition. A cold water inlet temperature of 50 °C and Fe2O3 are used in the experiments. and the main chemical elements are Al and Ca.8288 5. It is necessary to conduct microscopic study of the interactions between the precipitation fouling and particulate fouling in composite fouling tests. which is corroborated by the fouling tests results. The difference in the fouling resistance of these two composite fouling tests is mainly due to different inlet temperatures.0806 3. it hinders the deposit removal and it explains why 1st PHE has the largest fouling resistance.5103 1.2754 2. Different fouling tests 4 Rà f  10 ðK=WÞ Particulate fouling tests 4 Rà f  10 ðK=WÞ Composite fouling tests 269 Test I 1st plate 2nd plate 3rd plate 4th plate 2. which can increase the crystallization rate.18206 2. another fouling test is added to compare with the fouling result in Fig. In composite fouling tests.5067 Test III 6.8595 1. it can be seen that the crystal shows a stick structure. The calcite crystal will be formed when the temperature in fouling formation is low. The crystallization processes can be influenced by the particulate deposition and the particulates can also be deposited in the crystal structure.

Table 5 Fouling chemical element for composite fouling test I and added composite fouling test. which can be decided by the fouling deposition rate Ud and the fouling removal rate Ur.20 21. provided that Km.58 12. ss and n are known [19] Bt Rf ¼ RÃ f ð1 À e Þ Added composite fouling test ð10Þ ð11Þ ð12Þ RÃ f ¼ K m PC b n=ss kf qf B ¼ ss = n .53 00.85 54.59 At% 20.61 40. P. which can be used to predict fouling behavior.15 16. (10)–(12).270 G.00 00. (a) SEM photo of one composite fouling test (inlet temperature 40 °C).66 00.36 20.76 00.72 17.83 4.54 49. Element Composited fouling test I C O Na Al Si Cl Ca Fe C O Na Si Cl Ca Fe Wt% 12.51 00. 5.85 00.94 00. Zhang et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 Fig. Ud was proportional to mass transfer coefficient.99 06.26 00.00 00.42 28. sticking probability and deposit bond strength. Fouling model Kern and Seaton [19] assumed the deposit accumulation was the result of two simultaneous opposing processes: fouling deposition and fouling removal. Ur was directly proportional to the shear stress and the mass of the fouling deposit per unit area.08 08.11 40.27 00.81 00.70 00. (b) main chemical elements of composite fouling.-m.48 14. The fouling resistance and asymptotic fouling resistance can be calculated through Eqs.79 27.54 00.86 00.

The equations can be obtained as following: ss ¼ DPAc =Aw ¼ 0:5f qu2 Combining Eqs.G. flow and mass transfer. The three-region model of the Von-Karman analogy is expected to provide better accuracy. b = 5(Pr À 1) + 5 ⁄ Ln[(5Pr + 1)/6].-m. (a) SEM photo of added composite fouling test (inlet temperature 50 °C). which can also be applied to turbulent boundary in PHEs. j ¼ StPr2=3 j ¼ 4=½b m2 þ ð2ab À 2b Þm þ ðb À 2abފ 0 2 2 2 ð17Þ ð18Þ . it is used as the baseline. (13b) and (14) yields: ð14Þ St ¼ j  Pr À2=3 ¼ ðf =2Þ=f1 þ ðf =2Þ St 0 ¼ K m =u0 ¼ ðf =2Þ=f1 þ ðf =2Þ0:5  ½5ðSc À 1Þ þ 5Lnðð5Sc þ 1Þ=6ފg ð13bÞ 0:5 K m =u0 ¼ 4=½b m2 þ ð2ab À 2b Þm þ ðb À 2abފ  ½5ðPr À 1Þ þ 5Lnðð5Pr þ 1Þ=6ފg ð13aÞ 2 0. Since the 4th PHE is widely used in industrial chillers. Hence the shear stress may be written as. (b) main chemical elements of composite fouling. ð16Þ Where.5 2 2 2 ð15Þ where. m = [1 + 4/(b St)] . 6. (13a) and (13b) is Von-Karman analogy of heat. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 271 Fig. It can be assumed that the pressure drop is dominated by wall shear stress [15]. The Von Karman analogy is used to calculate Km. a fraction of the pressure drop may be due to the profile drag on roughness elements. a = 5(Sc À 1) + 5 ⁄ Ln[(5Sc + 1)/6]. The asymptotic fouling resistance can be expressed as à Rà f =Rf4 ¼ rðK m =K m4 Þ=ðf =f4 Þ ¼ rðj =j4 Þ=ðf =f4 Þ 0 0 Eqs. For rough surfaces. Zhang et al. and that the profile drag component is small.

The fouling model captures the fouling behavior well. j indicates the relative foulant deposition ratio. In the second composite fouling test.272 G.4)/ (Apr/Apr. (3) A semi-empirical fouling model has been obtained to predict the fouling factors in different PHEs. and an area revised parameter b = (Aeff/Aeff. Other parameters (Cb. the deposit layer shows different structure of the CaCO3 crystal comparing with the first composite fouling test because of the higher temperature.-m. ðj =j4 Þ=ðf =f4 Þ can be defined as g. 2011. kf. (20b) predicts the composite fouling in the tested PHEs. (20b) are less than ±18%. and plate angle. (b) composite fouling tests. The deviations in Eq. 5. The 3rd PHE with the smallest de and the second largest flow length has the largest friction factor. 7(a) and (b) gives. (2) Particulate fouling experiments and composite fouling experiments have been performed in the fouling tests. The SEM photos have been taken for composite fouling tests. The mass transfer coefficient Km is calculated by using the Von-Karman analogy and the wall shear stress ss is calculated theoretically. The fouling model show better prediction in particulate fouling than in composite . and 0 0 f/f4 indicates the relative foulant removal ratio. The fouling models also show that composite fouling incurs larger fouling resistance increasing than particulate fouling. 0:442 à Rà f =Rf4 ¼ 1:08ðbgÞ Ã Rà f =Rf4 ð20aÞ ð20bÞ Acknowledgements The National Key Technology R&D Program ‘‘Highly-Effective Energy-Saving Techniques for Combined Buildings’’ (#2012BAA10B01) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ‘‘Fundamental study on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) using low/medium grade heat for thermal power generation’’ (#51210011) provided the funding for this research. the 1st PHE with the most compact structure has the largest friction factor and the best heat transfer performance. à à Rf =Rf4 vs. The particulates in composite fouling will enhance the crystal growth process while the crystal will enhance the deposition of particulates. the inlet temperatures of hot water and cold water are maintained at 57 °C and 40 °C. ¼ 1:44ðbgÞ 0:586 Eq. Zhang et al. It can be used to guide the design and actual operations of PHEs. (20a) predicts the particulate fouling in the tested PHEs and Eq. bg. Most of the clean test data have heat balance deviation of less than 5%. The equal Reynolds number method and the modified Wilson plot method are used to obtain the heat transfer coefficients on both sides of the plate. j4 ¼ 4=½b m2 4 þ ð2ab À 2b Þm4 þ ðb À 2abފ 0 0 =j4 0 2 2 2 ð19Þ In Eq. The 4th PHE shows the best anti-fouling performance and the 1st PHE which has the most compact structure has the most increase in fouling resistance. A power law curve fit of Fig. The Rf =Rf4 is well correlated as a function of bg. (16). The CaCO3 crystals change to aragonite structures when the fluid temperature is high. It can be used to predict the fouling resistance after obtaining the heat transfer and friction factor of the different PHEs. Conclusion This paper provides clean tests of heat transfer and fluid flow and fouling tests of particulate fouling and composite fouling in four commercially available corrugated PHEs with different geometrical designs. while the 2nd PHE has the worse heat transfer performance. due to the complex fouling behavior in composite fouling. plate spacing. à Fig. 7. Calcite structure has a more compact structure. Curve fit between Rà f =Rf4 and bg: (a) particulate fouling tests. such as plate height. The fouling model agrees well with the experimental results. Fig. r = (Pn)/(P4n4) is the fouling process function and can be assumed to be the function of bg.4) is used to correct the wall shear stress. The tests are primarily focused on the effects of concentration and average velocity. 7(a) and (b) shows the fouling data à à à in Table 4 plotted in the form Rà f =Rf4 vs. We would like to delicate this work to the memory of late Professor Ralph Webb who passed away in April. qf) are the property parameters. (1) In clean tests. while the 2nd PHE with the second largest de and the second smallest flow length has the largest friction factor has the smallest friction factor. bg may be curve-fitted to determine the functional dependence r empirically. while the CaCO3 crystals are calcite structures when the fluid temperature is low. à which can be eliminated when calculating Rà f =Rf4 . / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60 (2013) 263–273 fouling. à Two rationally based power law correlations of Rà f =Rf4 as a function of bg in particulate fouling tests and composite fouling tests are developed for the four tested PHEs. (20a) are less than ±6% and those in Eq.

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