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The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog
The expansion vessel
When we talked about storage tanks in thermal plants we meant of course open tanks. Storage tanks also function as “expansion vessels”. The expansion tank has a dual function: thermal and hydraulic. From a thermal point of view its function is to allow water, which is an incompressible fluid, to expand or contract. In order for this to be possible it is necessary for the fluid to be in contact with a gas that can compensate for the expansions and contractions of the fluid. There are three possible configurations: open atmosphere vessel; closed vessel, containing water and air (or other inert gas) without any for of separation (selfpressurization or pressurization with air or gas that is inserted from the outside); closed vessel with a separating membrane between the water and an inert gas (nitrogen)
The volume of the expansion vessels can be calculated by using the following expressions: for a vessel that is open to the atmosphere:
for a closed vessel without a diaphragm:
for a closed vessel with diaphragm:
where: V v = the volume of the expansion vessel (L) V w = the volume of the inside the plant (L) v 1 = the specific volume of the cold water at a lowest temperature t1 (m3 / kg) v 2 = the specific volume of the water at the highest temperature t2 (m3 / kg) α = the coefficient of the expansion of metals (see table) - per steel α = 1,2 . 10- 5 (1/K) - per copper α = 1,65 10- 5 (1/K)
Instead in cooling water circuits: t1 = the maximum water temperature that can be reached when the system is not functioning. In hot water systems the reference temperatures are predominantly: t1 = the temperature during filling. The water’s specific volumes are shown in the following table. www.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog ∆t = t2 – t1 (°C ) P a = absolute atmospheric pressure (bar) P i = initial absolute pressure at the lowest temperature t1 (bar) P f = absolute pressure while functioning at the highest temperature t2 (bar) The expression: V w [(v 2/v 1) – 1] – 3 α∆t (L) represents the volume variation. 10 °C t2 = the water’s maximum flow temperature 85 : 90 °C In superheated water systems the temperature t2 can reach up to 130 ° C and beyond. for example.5700790882110595703125 2/10 .com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. 7°C .tempcoblog. t2 = the minimum functioning temperature. 35°C .
com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog From a hydraulic point of view the expansion tank determines and sets the system’s pressure reference. Open expansion vessel The vessel and the safety tubes must be protected from freezing temperatures. the vessel’s capacity must be at least twice the water’s expansion volume in order to prevent water from leaking due to possible overflow during the heating phase and is fed back into the vessel again during the cooling phase.5700790882110595703125 3/10 . Open expansion vessel As can be see by its expression. www. At the point in which the vessel is inserted in the circuit. thus making it possible to eliminate one or more boilers. The illustration shows the accessories that the vessel must be equipped with. Pressure values at the insertion point of different types of expansion vessels. As far as systems using many boilers is concerned it is good practice to provide each with its own boiler expansion vessel.tempcoblog. the pressure is equal to the vessel’s air pressure which is increased or decreased by the liquid located above or below.
The hot water heating systems that use open expansion vessels. The illustrations below show some possible connection diagrams. .a pressure gauge with flange for the checking pressure gauge.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Expansion vessels for three specific generators.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. .in the event of overheating.for the expansion or loading pipe which must enable the speedy filling of the boiler using water from the vessel.tempcoblog.5700790882110595703125 4/10 . as a result of this standard. the safety pipe must be able to vent any vapor produced in the boiler. with a functioning pressure that does not exceed 5 bar. .a safety pipe between the vessel and the generator that has a diameter equal to its virtual length and to the generator’s thermal power (see. .automatic blocking thermal switch. can be calculated by using the following expressions: .automatic adjusting thermal switch. “Safety standards for appliances containing hot liquids under pressure”). the illustration of the connection of the expansion tank with filler and safety pipes is typically used in the German DIN standard and the diameters of the tubes.where P is the power of the generator or generators expressed in kW. should be provided with: . .a thermometer with an inlay for the checking thermometer . www.
8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Connecting the open expansion vessel to a boiler. Should it be necessary to separate the generators from the expansion vessel. Should there be many heat generators which run the same plant. This ensures the connection between the generator and the atmosphere either via the safety pipe or via the vent tube. the pipes that connect each generator to the safety pipes must be installed with three-way valves using a passage cross section that is not smaller than the valves on the generator’s security tube. www.tempcoblog.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215.5700790882110595703125 5/10 . only the connections of each generator to the normal safety tube can be sized for the single power. a safety pipe that is sized for the nominal capacity of all the generators can be used. Connecting the expansion vessel with loading and safety tubes.
Start pump.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Connecting two heating generators to only one safety tube. There are no safety requirements regarding this issue: the problem is solved by taking into consideration that no point in the network should be in depression. that tube throttling should not be carried out on the open vessel plant’s two safety pipes: therefore. The piping networks. In order to verify the pressure of the piping network’s critical points it is necessary to check the diagram of the pressures along the circuit and to check the installation instructions. As far as the position of the circulation pump is concerned. a pump. is considered a choking device and must consequently be installed in areas away from the connections with the vessel.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. Let’s look at the following two examples of a start pump and a return pump. It should be noted. for example. through the control valve’s stuffing box.5700790882110595703125 6/10 .tempcoblog. in fact. with respect to the vessel’s circuit connection point. whatever type it may be. Another important aspect that should be taken into consideration is installing the pump with respect to the boiler: suction (when sending) or under pressure (when returning). Installation instructions and pressure diagram. www. which can penetrate. are never perfectly sealed against air. above all. if a heating body goes into depression. The vent tube must be conveyed in order to prevent it from causing to persons in case there is water discharge. Systems with a functioning pressure exceeding 5 bar must have a secondary automatic blocking thermal switch independent from the other switch. we should pay close attention because the circulation pumps must be installed in the water distribution network in a way that both physical and technical functions can be carried out.
The possible disadvantages are that water at high temperatures could get into the pump and as a result there could be high pressure in the network. which has slightly less prevalence. www. The A H static pressure prevails on the starting pump at point A. or let’s say the highest radiator.tempcoblog. are a graphical representation of the pressure variations along the circuit. At the pump’s exit the pressure value increases in proportion to the pump’s manometric height. where the expansion vessel is connected. is: HA – HP + Δ – HN = (HA – HN ) – HP + Δ In order to avoid this value from becoming negative (depression in the highest radiator) it is necessary (let’s neglect Δ to be on the safe side) for HA – HN . or rather the level difference between the vessel and the highest radiator. The start pump ensures that no point of the network goes into depression. the pressure is positive.1. pressure HA + ∆ prevails. When the water circulates. The pressure in 5 is worth HA – HP + Δ.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. The line that goes from here too represents the pressure flow between the radiator M and the pump. We can also note that it is placed below the line of the static pressure of a value equal to the height of the manometric pump. whether it be start or return flow. This pressure’s value is: HA + Δ .5. however if the valve is closed the pressure in the radiator is the same as the return pressure.HN = (HA – HN ) + Δ The term (HA – HN ) is the difference between the vessel’s water height and the radiator N height.3. In some buildings where HA – HN is 3 : 5m it is quite probable to see a pump. The pressure in the radiator at risk.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Return pump. At point 5. however it is placed below the line of the static pressure between the radiator M and the pump. the pressure decreases to the pump’s suction value. ensure the circuit’s water circulation without any form of depression. Point 4 represents the pressure in radiator M. Installation instructions and pressure diagram. whose ordinate is. It is therefore necessary to evaluate each scenario and to appropriately position the pump’s flow. to be greater than the pump’s prevalence. Items 1.4. Let’s now examine the return pump. A closer look at the problem shows how the lowest radiator is not at risk. however greater by Δ than the static pressure HA . The illustration below gives details of the equipment required by IPESL regulations for an open vessel system.5700790882110595703125 7/10 . The highest one is in danger because the pressure is less than HN compared to the lower radiator. In this scenario too the pressure is positive. defined uniquely by the water level in the expansion vessel. then as the water flows in the circuit. represented by point 5.2.
however. For closed vessels with a diaphragm. www. not less than 0. Closed expansion vessel We have already seen at the beginning of the chapter how to calculate the capacity of a closed vessel.5700790882110595703125 8/10 . increased by the excess pressure of the valve and decreased by an amount corresponding to the difference in height between the expansion vessel and that safety valve. in bar. if the latter is placed lower or in other words increased if placed higher. A closed vessel system without a diaphragm.tempcoblog.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Security equipment required by ISPESL regulations – open vessel.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. the absolute pressures to consider are: P i = absolute initial pressure corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure at the point where the vessel is installed measured in bar (kg/cm2 ). the P i pressure to place in the the closed vessel with a diaphragm is: P i = absolute pressure in bar to which the gas cushion is precarious. P f = maximum absolute functioning pressure. in the expression which is valid for a closed vessel without the diaphragm. assuming the definition is P f .15 bar. a pressure which cannot be less than the hydrostatic pressure at the point where the vessel is connected. increased by an amount determined by the designer and. equal to the calibration pressure of the safety valve.
For systems with a pressure exceeding 5 bar a second blocking thermostat must be installed which is independent from the first one. . increasing the volume resulting from the calculation of a quantity equal to the initial volume of water contained in the cold system vessel.automatic thermal regulating switch. the volume occupied by the gas when the system is cold. With closed vessel. Even with closed expansion vessels it is possible to exclude heat generators provided that the pipe connected to the vessel’s generator is installed using a three-way valve with the same open vessel characteristics. the formula to be used for testing is the same used for the closed vessel with a diaphragm.automatic filling unit which reduces the aqueduct’s supply pressure and reintegrates any losses of water in the cold state. circulation pump heating systems the heat input must be automatically interrupted should the pump stop functioning and this can be implemented with an electric burning pump or via a flow switch.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. It must ensure the generator’s connection either with the expansion vessel or with the atmosphere. . in addition to the precharge pressure and the total vessel volume. C losed vessel pressurized systems that run on constant pressure and at a variable level must be protected by a fuel shut-off valve or a temperature relief valve because there is no correlation between increased temperature and pressure. . . 1 burner www. the tank volume must be calculated the same as for open vessels.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog Closed vessel system with diaphragm.blocking control device. The illustration below shows the instrumentation required for closed vessel systems.tempcoblog. in which case the system designer must indicate.a pressure gauge with flange for the checking pressure gauge. you must have: .5700790882110595703125 9/10 . In closed vessel heating systems with a power up to 350 kW and a working pressure that doesn’t exceed 5 bar. Safety and control instrumentation for a heating system with a closed vessel (the symbols used are those used by the regulating standards). the filling unit is made up of the pressure reducing valve. and even for vessels without a diaphragm.a safety valve which enables the discharge of a quantity of steam per hour (kg/h) of not less than P/0. For pre-pressurized vessels that have a constant level and pressure while functioning. and has a variable pressure while functioning.thermometer with small well for the checking thermometer. .automatic thermal blocking switch. the volume of the vessel must be sufficient enough to contain the excursions necessary for the devices needed when discharging and water re-integrating is necessary. The expression of vessels without a diaphragm can only be applied to self-pressurized vessels where the pressure prior to filling is equal to the atmospheric pressure. the filling valve and the restraint and filter valve. In addition to what has already been written please note: .air separator with automatic vent valve and float. .58 (where P is the power of the generator in kW). For pressurized vessels. for example where the pressure before filling is greater than the atmospheric pressure. For pre-pressurized vessels at constant pressure and variable pressure level during functioning.
14 pressure reducer. 12 accessible and visible discharge.5700790882110595703125 10/10 . 7 automatic blocking switch.tempcoblog. 9 pressure indicator.com/3432/the-expansion-vessel/?doing_wp_cron=1376980215. 6 automatic regulating thermal switch.8/20/13 The expansion vessel : Tempco Blog 2 boiler 3 safety valve 4 fuel shut off valve. 8 pressure control device. 13 circuit pump. 16 water counter (possible) www. 15 non-return valve. 11 little well. 10 temperature indicator. 5 expansion vessel with membrane.