You are on page 1of 14




Principle y Both heat and pressure are used. y Heat is generated by the electrical resistance of the work pieces and the interface between them. y Pressure is supplied externally and is varied throughout the weld cycle. y Due to pressure, a lower temperature needed than oxyfuel or arc welding.



y They are not officially classified as solidstate welding

y Overall resistance very low. y Very highcurrent (up to 100,000 A) y Very lowvoltage (0.5 to 10 V) is used.

by the American Welding Society.

y Very rapid and economical. y Extremely l well ll suited d to automated d manufacturing. f y No filler metal, no flux, no shielding gases.



Fig. The desired temperature distribution across the electrodes and the work pieces in lap resistance welding.

Fig. Typical pressure cycle welding. The forging and operations.

current and for resistance cycle includes post heating Fig. The arrangement of the electrodes and the work in spot welding, showing design for replaceable electrode tips.


1. Very rapid. 2. Fully automation possible. 3. 3 Conserve material; no filler metal, metal shielding gases, gases or flux is required. 4. Skilled operators are not required. 5.Dissimilar metals can be easily joined. 6. High reliability and High reproducibility.

1. High initial cost. 2. Limitations to the type of joints (mostly lap joints). 3 Skilled maintenance personne1 are required: 3. 4. special surface treatment needed.

y The resistance welding processes are among the

1. Resistance spot welding 2. Resistance seam welding 3 Projection welding 3. 4. Upset welding 5. Flash welding 6. Percussion welding

most common technique for high volume joining.

y The process description given so far is called resistance


spot welding (RSW) or simply spot welding.

y This is essentially done to join two sheetmetal jobs in

a lap pj joint, forming g a small nugget gg at the interface of the two plates.



Electric Resistance Welding Joules law applicable Q = I2 Rt, Joules

Calculate the melting efficiency in the case of arc welding of steel with a potential of 20 V and current of 200 A. The travel speed is 5 mm/s and the cross sectional area of the joint is 20 mm2. Heat required to melt steel may be taken as 10 J/ and the heat transfer efficiency as 0.85. [PTU 2004]

Calculate the melting efficiency in the case of arcwelding of steel with a potential of 20 V and a current of 200 A. The travel speed is 5 mm/s and .the the crosssectional area of the joint is 20 mm2. Heat required to melt steel may be taken as 10 J/mm3 and the heat transfer efficiency as 0.85.

Two steel plates each 1 mm thick are spot welded at a current of 5000 A. The current flow time is 0.1 s. The electrodes used are 5 mm in diameter Determine the heat generated and diameter. its distribution in the weld zone. The effective resistance in the operation is 200 .

Two steel sheets of 1.0mm thickness are resistance welded in a lap joint with a current of 10 000 A for 0.1 second. The effective resistance of the joint can be taken as 100 micro ohms. ohms The joint can be considered as a cylinder of 5 mm diameter and 1.5mm height. The density of steel is 0.00786 g/mm3 and heat required for melting steel is 10 J/mm3.

How much heat would be generated in the spot welding of two sheets of 1 mm thick steel that required q a current of 10000 A for 0.1 seconds? An effective resistance of 100 . is assumed.


Two 1.2 mm thick, flat copper sheets are being spot welded using a current of 6000 A and a current flow time of t = 0.18 s. The electrodes are 5 mm in diameter. Estimate the heat generated in the weld zone. Take effective resistance as 150 .

Two steel sheets of 1.0mm thickness are resistance welded in a projection welding with a current of 30 000 A for 0.005 second. The effective resistance of the joint can be taken as 100 micro ohms. The joint can be considered d d as a cylinder l d of f 5 mm diameter d and d 1.5 mm height. The density of steel is 0.00786 g/mm3 and heat required for melting steel is 10 J/mm3.

y Weld is made between overlapping sheets of metal.

y Welding current is a bit higher than spot welding, to

compensate short circuit of the adjacent weld.

y In other process a continuous seam is produced by

The seam is a series of overlapping spot welds.

y The basic equipment is the same as for spot welding. welding

passing a continuous current through the rotating electrodes with a speed of 1.5 m/min for thin sheet.

except that the electrodes are now in the form of rotating disks.
y Timed pulses of current pass to form the overlapping

Contd Contd

y Limitations of spot welding.

condition must be maintained continually, and only one spot weld at a time. 2. For additional strength multiple welds needed. y Projection welding (RPW) overcomes above limitations.

1. Electrode




y Dimples are embossed on work pieces at the weld

locations and then placed between largearea electrodes, and pressure and current applied like spot welding. y Current flows through the dimples and heats them and pressure causes the dimples to flatten and form a weld.
Fig.Principleof projectionwelding, (a)priortoapplicationof currentandpressure (b)andafterformationof welds

y Projections are pressformed in any shape. y Multiple welds at a time. y No indentation mark on the surface. y Bolts and nuts can be attached to other metal parts.

y Made butt joint compared to lap joint. y Pieces are held tightly and current is applied. y Due to pressure joints get slightly upset and hence its

y Useful for joining rods or similar pieces.



y This is the process used for making electric resistance

y It is similar to upset welding except the arc rather than

welded (ERW) pipes starting from a metal plate of suitable thickness. y The plate is first formed into the shape of the pipe with the help of the three roll set as shown in Fig. above. The ends of the p plate would then be forming g the butt j joint. y The two rotating copper disc electrodes are made to contact the two ends of the plate through which the current is passed. The ends get heated and then forge welded under the pressure of the rolls. y The ends of the pieces to be upset welded must be perfectly parallel. Any high spots if present on the ends would get melted first before the two ends are completely joined.

resistance heating.
y One pieces is clamped with cam controlled movable

platen and other with is fixed platen.



y Two pieces are brought together and the power supply is

switched on. Momentarily the two pieces are separated to create the arc to melt the ends of the two pieces. Then again the pieces are brought together and the power switched off while the two ends are fused under force. Most of the metal melted would flash out through the joint and forms like a fin around the joint. y Faster than upset welding.

y Similar to flash welding except arc power by a rapid

discharge of stored electrical energy.

y The arc duration is only y 1 to 10 ms, heat is intense and

highly concentrated.
y Small weld metal is produced, little or no upsetting, and

low HAZ.
y Application: Butt welding of bar or tube where heat

damage is a major concern.


OtherWelding h i Technique

Thermit Welding
y Heating and coalescence is by superheated molten

y Temp. 2750C produced in 30 seconds, superheating

the molten iron which provide both heat and filler metal.
y Runners and risers are provided like casting. y Copper, brass, and bronze can be welded using a

metal obtained from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and a metallic reducing g agent. g
y Used mixture one part aluminum and three parts iron

oxide and ignited by a magnesium fuse. (1150C). 8Al+3Fe3O4 9Fe+4Al2O3 +heat

different starting mixture.

y Used to joint thick sections, in remote locations.



y Very effective for welding thick sections. y Heat is derived from the passage of electrical current

y A 65mm deep layer of molten slag, protect and

cleanse the molten metal.

y Watercooled copper molding plates confined the

through a liquid slag and temp. temp 1760 1760C C

liquid and moved upward.

y Multiple electrodes are used to provide an adequate

supply of filler.



y Applications: Shipbuilding, machine manufacture,

heavy pressure vessels, and the joining of large castings and forgings.
y Slow cooling gp produces a coarse g grain structure. y Large HAZ.


y A beam of electrons is magnetically focused on the

work piece in a vacuum chamber.

y Heat of fusion is produced by electrons decelerate. decelerate y Allows







y No shield gas (vacuum chamber used)


y Used a focused laser beam provides power intensities

y Very thin HAZ and little thermal distortion. y Filler metal and inert gas shield may or may not used. y Deep penetration. y No N vacuum needed. d d y No direct contact needed.

in excess of


y The highintensity beam produces a very thin column

of vaporized metal with a surrounding liquid pool.

y Depthtowidth ratio greater than 4: 1.



y Heat input is very low, often in the range 0.1 to 10 J. y Adopted by the electronics industry. y Possible

y Blacksmith do this.

to weld

wires without removing


y Borax is used as a flux. y The ends to be joined were then overlapped on the

polyurethane insulation. insulation

anvil and hammered to the degree necessary to produce an acceptable weld.

y Quality depends on the skill of the worker and not

used by industry.

y Heat is obtained by the friction between the ends of

y Machine is similar to a centre lathe. y Power requirements 25 kVA to 175 kVA. y The axial pressure depends on the strength and

the two parts to be joined.

y One part is rotated at a high speed and other part is

hardness of the metals being joined.

y Pressure 4 40 MPa for lowcarbon steels to as high g as 45 450

axially aligned and pressed tightly against it.

y Friction raises the temperature of both the ends. Then

MPa for alloy steels.

rotation is stopped abruptly and the pressure is increased to join.

Contd Contd


y Very efficient. y Wide variety of metals or combinations of metals can

be joined such as aluminium to steel.

y Grain size is refined y Strength is same as base metal. metal y Only round bars or tubes of the same size, or

connecting bars or tubes to flat surfaces can join.

y One of the components must be ductile. y Friction welding is a solid state welding.
Fig frictionweldingprocess


USW is a solidstate welding. Highfrequency (10 to 200, KHz) is applied. Surfaces are held together under light normal

Restricted to the lap joint Weld thin materialssheet, foil, and wireor the

attaching thin sheets to heavier structural members.

Maximum thickness 2.5 mm for aluminum and 1.0

pressure. Temp. do not exceed onehalf of the melting point. The ultrasonic transducer is same as ultrasonic machining.

mm for harder metals. Number N b of f metals t l and d dissimilar di i il metal t l combinations bi ti and non metals can be joined such as aluminum to ceramics or glass. Equipment is simple and reliable. Less surface preparation and less energy is needed.



y Joiningthedissimilarmetalsinbimetallics y Makingmicrocircuitelectricalcontacts. y Welding ld refractory f orreactivemetals l y Bondingultrathinmetal.

y Done at room temperature in air, water or vacuum. y Surface contaminants tend to be blown off the surface. y Typical impact pressures are millions of psi. psi y Well suited to metals that is prone to brittle joints

when heat welded, such as,

y Aluminum on steel y Titanium on steel


y Typically the detonation velocity should not exceed

Important factors are, y Critical velocity y Critical angle y The cladding plate can be supported with tack welded supports at the edges, or the metal inserts.

120% of the sonic velocity in the metal.



High velocity explosives, 45727620 m/s. y TNT y RDX y PETN y Composition B y Composition C4 y Datasheet y Primacord Medium velocity explosives, 15244572 m/s y Ammonium nitrate y Ammonium perchlorate y Amatol y Nitroguonidine y Dynamites y diluted PETN

Advantages, y Can bond many dissimilar, normally unweldable metals y The lack of heating preserves metal treatment y The Th process is i compact, portable, bl and d easy to contain i y Inexpensive y No need for surface preparation


Disadvantages, y The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility (at least 5%) y The cladding plate cannot be too large. y Noise and blast can require worker protection, protection vacuum chambers, buried in sand/water.

y Verylargeplatescanbecladded. y Joinsdissimilarmetals.

y Jointubetotubesheetsof largeheatexchangers.





Autogeneous Welding
y Autogeneous welding or fusion of the parent

material in an inert gas shield without the use of filler metals.

y Similar to GTAW except the plasma caused by the arc

is constricted by a watercooled orifice

y Capable of high welding speeds where size permits y Argon is used as the shielding gas.

Brazing gandSoldering g

and a filler metal whose melting temperature is above 450C; but below the melting point of the metals being joined. Comparison with welding and the brazing process 1. The Th composition ii of f the h brazing b i alloy ll is i significantly i ifi l different from that of the base metal. 2. The strength of the brazing alloy is substantially lower than that of the base metal. 3. The melting point of the brazing alloy is lower than that of the base metal, so the base metal is not melted. 4. Capillary action or capillary attraction draws the molten filler metal into the joint, even against the flow of gravity.
y Brazing is the joining of metals through the use of heat



Brazingprocesshasseveraldistinct advantages:
1. All metals can be joined. 2. Suited for dissimilar metals. 3. Quick and economical. 4. Less defects.

Corrosion prone


y Extremely clean surface needed.

y Brazingbrass(60%Cu,40%Zn) y Manganesebronze y Nickelsilver y Coppersilicon y Silveralloys(with/withoutphosphorous) y Copperphosphorous

y Fluxes used are combinations of borax, boric acid,

chlorides, fluorides, tetraborates and other wetting agents. g



y A popular composition is 75% borax and 25% boric

y Sodium cyanide is used in brazing tungsten to copper. y Base materials not melted. melted



y Capillary action is not required. y Edge preparation needed. y Can join cast iron. iron

y Done with an oxyacetylene torch.



y By definition, soldering is a brazing type of operation

where the filler metal has a melting temperature below 45 450C.

y Strength of the filler metal is low. y Soldering is used for a neat leakproof joint or a low

resistance electrical joint.

y Not suitable for hightemp. application.

Effective soldering generally involves six important steps: (1) Design of an acceptable solder joint, (2) Selection of the correct solder for the job, (3) Selection of the proper type of flux, (4) Cleaning the surfaces to be joined, (5) Application of flux, solder, and sufficient heat to allow the molten solder to fill the joint by capillary action and solidify, and (6) Removal of the flux residue, if necessary.

y Most solders are alloys of lead and tin. y Three commonly used alloys contain 60, 50, and 40%

y Ammonium chloride or rosin for soldering tin y Hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride for soldering

tin and all melt below 240 240C C.

galvanized iron
y Some fluxes are corrosive and should be removed after





y Silver solders uses for highertemperature service,

Electrical and Electronic purpose.

Soldering and brazing are difficult of grey cast Iron due to surface contamination with graphite having a very low surface energy.

Welding Problem Cracking of weld metal Cracking of base metal Spatter Distortion Slag inclusion Porosity Causes High joint rigidity Excessive stresses Arc blow Poor joint selection Improper cleaning in multipass welding Excessive H2, O2, N2, in the welding atmosphere or Damp electrodes inclusionssuchasMn FeandS inthebasemetaland/or residualstress

y The residual stresses result from the restrained expansion


and contraction that occur during localized heating and cooling in the region of weld deposit. y The magnitude of residual stresses depends on the weldment design support and clamping of the components being design, welded, their materials, welding process used, part dimensions, welding sequence, post weld treatment, size of the deposited weld beads, etc. y Residual stresses should not have a harmful effect on the strength performance of weldments, reduces fatigue strength, May cause distortion. This residual stress may result in the cracking of a brittle material and is not important as far as a ductile material.