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SSIS - SQL Server Integration Services

Q: What is SSIS? How it related with SQL Server. SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) is a component of SQL Server which can be used to perform a wide range of Data Migration and ETL operations. SSIS is a component in MSBI process of SQL Server. This is a platform for Integration and Workflow applications. It is known for a fast and flexible OLTP and OLAP extensions used for data extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL). The tool may also be used to automate maintenance of SQL Server databases and multidimensional data sets. Q: What are the tools associated with SSIS? We use Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS) and SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) to work with Development of SSIS Projects. We use SSMS to manage the SSIS Packages and Projects. Q: What are the differences between DTS and SSIS

Data Transformation Services Limited Error Handling Message Boxes in ActiveX Scripts No Deployment Wizard Limited Set of Transformation NO BI functionality

SQL Server Integration Services Complex and powerful Error Handling Message Boxes in .NET Scripting Interactive Deployment Wizard Good number of Transformations Complete BI Integration

Q: What is a workflow in SSIS ? Workflow is a set of instructions on to specify the Program Executor on how to execute tasks and containers within SSIS Packages. Q: What is the control flow? A control flow consists of one or more tasks and containers that execute when the package runs. To control order or define the conditions for running the next task or container in the package control flow, we use precedence constraints to connect the tasks and containers in a package. A subset of tasks and containers can also be grouped and run repeatedly as a unit within the package control flow. SQL Server 2005 Integration Services (SSIS) provides three different types of control flow elements: Containers that provide structures in packages, Tasks that provide functionality, and Precedence Constraints that connect the executables, containers, and tasks into an ordered control flow. Q: What is a data flow? A data flow consists of the sources and destinations that extract and load data, the transformations that modify and extend data, and the paths that link sources, transformations, and destinations The Data Flow task is the executable within the SSIS package that creates, orders, and runs the data flow. A separate instance of the data flow engine is opened for each Data Flow task in a package. Data Sources, Transformations, and Data Destinations are the three important categories in the Data Flow. Q: How does Error-Handling work in SSIS When a data flow component applies a transformation to column data, extracts data from sources, or loads data into destinations, errors can occur. Errors frequently occur because of unexpected data values. Type of typical Errors in SSIS: -Data Connection Errors, which occur incase the connection manager cannot be initialized with the connection string. This applies to both Data Sources and Data Destinations along with Control Flows that use the Connection Strings. -Data Transformation Errors, which occur while data is being transformed over a Data Pipeline from Source to Destination. -Expression Evaluation errors, which occur if expressions that are evaluated at run time perform invalid Q: What is environment variable in SSIS? An environment variable configuration sets a package property equal to the value in an environment variable.

Environmental configurations are useful for configuring properties that are dependent on the computer that is executing the package. Q: What are the Transformations available in SSIS? AGGEGATE - It applies aggregate functions to Record Sets to produce new output records from aggregated values. AUDIT - Adds Package and Task level Metadata - such as Machine Name, Execution Instance, Package Name, Package ID, etc.. CHARACTER MAP - Performs SQL Server level makes string data changes such as changing data from lower case to upper case. CONDITIONAL SPLIT Separates available input into separate output pipelines based on Boolean Expressions configured for each output. COPY COLUMN - Add a copy of column to the output we can later transform the copy keeping the original for auditing. DATA CONVERSION - Converts columns data types from one to another type. It stands for Explicit Column Conversion. DATA MINING QUERY Used to perform data mining query against analysis services and manage Predictions Graphs and Controls. DERIVED COLUMN - Create a new (computed) column from given expressions. EXPORT COLUMN Used to export a Image specific column from the database to a flat file. FUZZY GROUPING Used for data cleansing by finding rows that are likely duplicates. FUZZY LOOKUP Used for Pattern Matching and Ranking based on fuzzy logic. IMPORT COLUMN - Reads image specific column from database onto a flat file. LOOKUP - Performs the lookup (searching) of a given reference object set against a data source. It is used for exact matches only. MERGE - Merges two sorted data sets into a single data set into a single data flow. MERGE JOIN - Merges two data sets into a single dataset using a join junction. MULTI CAST - Sends a copy of supplied Data Source onto multiple Destinations. ROW COUNT - Stores the resulting row count from the data flow / transformation into a variable. ROW SAMPLING - Captures sample data by using a row count of the total rows in dataflow specified by rows or percentage. UNION ALL Merge multiple data sets into a single dataset. PIVOT Used for Normalization of data sources to reduce analomolies by converting rows into columns UNPIVOT Used for demoralizing the data structure by converts columns into rows incase of building Data Warehouses. Q: How to log SSIS Executions? SSIS includes logging features that write log entries when run-time events occur and can also write custom messages. This is not enabled by default. Integration Services supports a diverse set of log providers, and gives you the ability to create custom log providers. The Integration Services log providers can write log entries to text files, SQL Server Profiler, SQL Server, Windows Event Log, or XML files. Logs are associated with packages and are configured at the package level. Each task or container in a package can log information to any package log. The tasks and containers in a package can be enabled for logging even if the package itself is not. Q: How do you deploy SSIS packages. BUILDing SSIS Projects provides a Deployment Manifest File. We need to run the manifest file and decide whether to deploy this onto File System or onto SQL Server [ msdb]. SQL Server Deployment is very faster and more secure then File System Deployment. Alternatively, we can also import the package from SSMS from File System or SQ Server. Q: What are variables and what is variable scope ? Variables store values that a SSIS package and its containers, tasks, and event handlers can use at run time. The scripts in the Script task and the Script component can also use variables. The precedence constraints that sequence tasks and containers into a workflow can use variables when their constraint definitions include expressions. Integration Services supports two types of variables: user-defined variables and system variables. User-defined variables are defined by package developers, and system variables are defined by Integration Services.

You can create as many user-defined variables as a package requires, but you cannot create additional system variables.

Q: Can you name five of the Perfmon counters for SSIS and the value they provide? SQLServer:SSIS Service SSIS Package Instances SQLServer:SSIS Pipeline BLOB bytes read BLOB bytes written BLOB files in use Buffer memory Buffers in use Buffers spooled Flat buffer memory Flat buffers in use Private buffer memory Private buffers in use Rows read Rows written

SSAS - SQL Server Analysis Services

Q: What is Analysis Services? List out the features? Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) delivers online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining functionality for business intelligence applications. Analysis Services supports OLAP by letting we design, create, and manage multidimensional structures that contain data aggregated from other data sources, such as relational databases. For data mining applications, Analysis Services lets we design, create, and visualize data mining models that are constructed from other data sources by using a wide variety of industry-standard data mining algorithms. Analysis Services is a middle tier server for analytical processing, OLAP, and Data mining. It manages multidimensional cubes of data and provides access to heaps of information including aggregation of data. One can create data mining models from data sources and use it for Business Intelligence also including reporting features. Analysis service provides a combined view of the data used in OLAP or Data mining. Services here refer to OLAP, Data mining. Analysis services assists in creating, designing and managing multidimensional structures containing data from varied sources. It provides a wide array of data mining algorithms for specific trends and needs. Some of the key features are: Ease of use with a lot of wizards and designers.

Flexible data model creation and management Scalable architecture to handle OLAP Provides integration of administration tools, data sources, security, caching, and reporting etc. Provides extensive support for custom applications

Q: What is UDM? Its significance in SSAS? The role of a Unified Dimensional Model (UDM) is to provide a bridge between the user and the data sources. A UDM is constructed over one or more physical data sources, and then the end user issues queries against the UDM using one of a variety of client tools, such as Microsoft Excel. At a minimum, when the UDM is constructed merely as a thin layer over the data source, the advantages to the end user are a simpler, more readily understood model of the data, isolation from heterogeneous backend data sources, and improved performance for

summary type queries. In some scenarios a simple UDM like this is constructed totally automatically. With greater investment in the construction of the UDM, additional benefits accrue from the richness of metadata that the model can provide. The UDM provides the following benefits: Allows the user model to be greatly enriched. Provides high performance queries supporting interactive analysis, even over huge data volumes. Allows business rules to be captured in the model to support richer analysis. Q: What is the need for SSAS component? Analysis Services is the only component in SQL Server using which we can perform Analysis and Forecast operations.

SSAS is very easy to use and interactive. Faster Analysis and Troubleshooting. Ability to create and manage Data warehouses. Apply efficient Security Principles.

Q: Explain the TWO-Tier Architecture of SSAS? SSAS uses both server and client components to supply OLAP and data mining functionality BI Applications.

The server component is implemented as a Microsoft Windows service. Each instance of Analysis Services implemented as a separate instance of the Windows service. Clients communicate with Analysis Services using the standard the XMLA (XML For Analysis) , protocol for issuing commands and receiving responses, exposed as a web service.

Q: What are the components of SSAS? An OLAP Engine is used for enabling fast ad hoc queries by end users. A user can interactively explore data by drilling, slicing or pivoting. Drilling refers to the process of exploring details of the data. Slicing refers to the process of placing data in rows and columns. Pivoting refers to switching categories of data between rows and columns. In OLAP, we will be using what are called as Dimensional Databases. ?

Q: What is FASMI A database is called a OLAP Database if the database satisfies the FASMI rules : Fast Analysis is defined in the OLAP scenario in five seconds or less.

Shared Must support access to data by many users in the factors of Sensitivity and Write Backs. Multidimensional The data inside the OLAP Database must be multidimensional in structure. Information The OLAP database Must support large volumes of data..

Q: What languages are used in SSAS ? Structured Query Language (SQL) Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) - an industry standard query language orientated towards analysis Data Mining Extensions (DMX) - an industry standard query language oriented toward data mining. Analysis Services Scripting Language (ASSL) - used to manage Analysis Services database objects.

Q: How Cubes are implemented in SSAS ? Cubes are multidimensional models that store data from one or more sources. Cubes can also store aggregations SSAS Cubes are created using the Cube Wizard. We also build Dimensions when creating Cubes.

Cubes can see only the DSV( logical View).

Q: What is the difference between a derived measure and a calculated measure? The difference between a derived measure and a calculated measure is when the calculation is performed. A derived measure is calculated before aggregations are created, and the values of the derived measure are stored in the cube. A calculated measure is calculated after aggregations are created, and the values of a calculated measure arent stored in th e cube. The primary criterion for choosing between a derived measure and a calculated measure is not efficiency, but accuracy. Q: What is a partition? A partition in Analysis Services is the physical location of stored cube data. Every cube has at least one partition by default. Each time we create a measure group, another partition is created. Queries run faster against a partitioned cube because Analysis Services only needs to read data from the partitions that contain the answers to the queries. Queries run even faster when partition also stores aggregations, the pre calculated totals for additive measures. Partitions are a powerful and flexible means of managing cubes, especially large cubes. Q: While creating a new calculated member in a cube what is the use of property called non-empty behavior? Nonempty behavior is important property for ratio calculations. If the denominator Is empty, an MDX expression will return an error just as it would if the denominator Were equal to zero. By selecting one or more measures for the Non-Empty Behavior property, we are establishing a requirement that each selected measure first be evaluated before the calculation expression is evaluated. If each selected measure is empty, then The expression is also treated as empty and no error is returned. Q: What is a RAGGED hierarchy? Under normal circumstances, each level in a hierarchy in Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS) has the same number of members above it as any other member at the same level. In a ragged hierarchy, the logical parent member of at least one member is not in the level immediately above the member. When this occurs, the hierarchy descends to different levels for different drilldown paths. Expanding through every level for every drilldown path is then unnecessarily complicated. Q: What are the roles of an Analysis Services Information Worker? The role of an Analysis Services information worker is the traditional "domain expert" role in business intelligence (BI) someone who understands the data employed by a solution and is able to translate the data into business information. The role of an Analysis Services information worker often has one of the following job titles: Business Analyst (Report Consumer), Manager (Report Consumer), Technical Trainer, Help Desk/Operation, or Network Administrator. Q: What are the different ways of creating Aggregations? We can create aggregations for faster MDX statements using Aggregation Wizard or thru UBO Usage Based Optimizations. Always, prefer UBO method in realtime performance troubleshooting. Q: What is WriteBack? What are the pre-conditions? The Enable/Disable Writeback dialog box enables or disables writeback for a measure group in a cube. Enabling writeback on a measure group defines a writeback partition and creates a writeback table for that measure group. Disabling writeback on a measure group removes the writeback partition but does not delete the writeback table, to avoid unanticipated data loss. Q: What is processing? Processing is a critical and resource intensive operation in the data warehouse lifecycle and needs to be carefully optimized and executed. Analysis Services 2005 offers a high performance and scalable processing architecture with a comprehensive set of controls for database administrators. We can process an OLAP database, individual cube, Dimension or a specific Partition in a cube. Q: Name few Business Analysis Enhancements for SSAS? The following table lists the business intelligence enhancements that are available in Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS). The table also shows the cube or dimension to which each business intelligence enhancement applies, and indicates whether an enhancement

can be applied to an object that was created without using a data source and for which no schema has been generated. No data Enhancement Type Applied to source Time Intelligence Cube Cube No Account Intelligence Dimension Dimension or cube No Dimension Intelligence Dimension Dimension or cube Yes Dimension (unary operator) or Custom Aggregation Dimension No cube Semiadditive Behavior Cube Cube Yes> Custom Member Formula Dimension Dimension or cube No Custom Sorting and Uniqueness Dimension Dimension or cube Yes Settings Dimension Writeback Dimension Dimension or cube Yes Q: What MDX functions do you most commonly use? This is a great question because you only know this answer by experience. If you ask me this question, the answer practically rushes out of me. CrossJoin, Descendants, and NonEmpty, in addition to Sum, Count, and Aggregate. My personal favorite is CrossJoin because it allows me identify non-contiguous slices of the cube and aggregate even though those cube cells dont roll up to a natural ancestor. Indeed, CrossJoin has easily been my bread and butter. Q: Where do you put calculated members? The reflexive answer is in the Measures dimension but this is the obvious answer. So I always follow up with another question. If you want to create a calculated member that intersects all measures, where do you put it? A high percentage of candidates cant answer this question, and the answer is In a dimension other than Measures. If they can answer it, I immediately ask them why. The answer is Because a member in a dimension cannot intersect its own relatives in that dimension. Q: How do I find the bottom 10 customers with the lowest sales in 2003 that were not null? A: Simply using bottomcount will return customers with null sales. You will have to combine it with NONEMPTY or FILTER. SELECT { [Measures].[Internet Sales Amount] } ON COLUMNS , BOTTOMCOUNT( NONEMPTY(DESCENDANTS( [Customer].[Customer Geography].[All Customers] , [Customer].[Customer Geography].[Customer] ) , ( [Measures].[Internet Sales Amount] ) ) , 10 , ( [Measures].[Internet Sales Amount] ) ) ON ROWS FROM [Adventure Works] WHERE ( [Date].[Calendar].[Calendar Year].&[2003] ) ; Q: How in MDX query can I get top 3 sales years based on order quantity? By default Analysis Services returns members in an order specified during attribute design. Attribute properties that define ordering are "OrderBy" and "OrderByAttribute". Lets say we want to see order counts for each year. In Adventure Works MDX query would be: SELECT , FROM {[Measures].[Reseller [Date].[Calendar].[Calendar query Order Order Quantity]} Year].Members [Adventure using Quantity]} ON ON ON 0 1 Works];

Same SELECT {[Measures].[Reseller

TopCount: 0,

TopCount([Date].[Calendar].[Calendar Year].Members,3, [Measures].[Reseller Quantity]) ON FROM [Adventure Works]; Q: How do you extract first tuple from the Use Example: could usefunction

Order 1 set?

Set.Item(0) Year].Members 0 in Calculation script?

SELECT {{[Date].[Calendar].[Calendar }.Item(0)} ON FROM [Adventure Works] Q: How can I setup default dimension member

You can use ALTER CUBE statement. Syntax: ALTER CUBE CurrentCube | YourCubeName UPDATE DIMENSION , DEFAULT_MEMBER='';

SSRS - SQL Server Reporting Services

Q: What is SSRS? SQL Server Reporting Service is one of the server-based software systems that generate reports developed by Microsoft. It is used for preparing and delivering interactive and variety of printed reports. It is administered through an interface that is web based. Reporting services utilizes a web service interface for supporting and developing of customized reporting applicatons. It can be competed with Crystal Reports and other business intelligent tools. Q: Explain SSRS Architecture? Reporting services architecture is comprises of integrated components. It is multi-tiered, included with application, server and data layers. This architecture is scalable and modular. A single installation can be used across multiple computers. It includes the following components: - Report Manager, Reporting Designer, Browser Types Supported by Reporting services, Report server, Report server command line utilities, Report Server Database, Reporting Services Extensibility, Data sources that is supported by Reporting Services. Q: Explain Reporting Life Cycye? The Reporting Lifecycle includes - Report designing The designing is done in Visual Studio Report Designer. It generates a class which embodies the Report Definition. - Report processing The processing includes binging the report definition with data from the report data source. It performs on all grouping, sorting and filtering calculations. The expressions are evaluated except the page header, footer and section items. Later it fires the Binding event and Bound event. As a result of the processing, it produces Report Instance. Report instance may be persisted and stored which can be rendered at a later point of time. - Report Rendering: Report rendering starts by passing the Report Instance to a specific rendering extension (HTML or PDF formats). The instance of reports is paged if paging supported by output format. The expressions of items are evaluated in the page header and footer sections for every page. As a final step, the report is rendered to the specific output document. Q: How to finetune Reports? To tune-up the Reporting Services, follow the below mentioned ways: - Expand the Server or utilizing the reporting services of another database server. For better embedding of report contents, report applications logic and characteristics can have a duplicate copy of data. Replication of data continuously. Using nolock, the issues of locking can well be resolved and the performance of the query can be improved. This can be done by using dirty read at the time of duplicating the data is unavailable. Q: What are Data Driven Subscriptions? Reporting Services provides data-driven subscriptions so that you can customize the distribution of a report based on dynamic subscriber data. Data-driven subscriptions are intended for the following kinds of scenarios: Distributing reports to a large recipient pool whose membership may change from one distribution to the next. For example distribute a monthly report to all current customers. Distributing reports to a specific group of recipients based on predefined criteria. For example send a sales performance report to the top ten sales managers in an organization.

Q: What is Linked Report? Q: What are different types of roles provided by SSRS? Q: Difference between Logical Page an Physical Page in SSRS. Logical page breaks are page breaks that you insert before or after report items or groups. Page breaks help to determine how the content is fitted to a report page for optimal viewing when rendering or exporting the report. The following rules apply when rendering logical page breaks: Logical page breaks are ignored for report items that are constantly hidden and for report items where the visibility is controlled by clicking another report item. Logical page breaks are applied on conditionally visible items if they are currently visible at the time the report is rendered. Space is preserved between the report item with the logical page break and its peer report items. Logical page breaks that are inserted before a report item push the report item down to the next page. The report item is rendered at the top of the next page. Logical page breaks defined on items in table or matrix cells are not kept. This does not apply to items in lists. Q: User want only to display only pdf as export option in report Manager. How to acheive this? Q: Name and Describe few console utilities for SSRS? Q: Name few Endpoints exposed by SSRS 2012? Q: Describe different Processing Modes offered by SSRS? Q: When to Use Null Data driven Subscription? Create a data-driven subscription that uses the Null Delivery Provider. When you specify the Null Delivery Provider as the method of delivery in the subscription, the report server targets the report server database as the delivery destination and uses a specialized rendering extension called the null rendering extension. In contrast with other delivery extensions, the Null Delivery Provider does not have delivery settings that you can configure through a subscription definition. Q: How can you monitor the report Usage? Q: How does the report manager work in SSRS? Report manager is a web application. In SSRS it is accessed by a URL. The interface of this Report manager depends on the permissions of the user. This means to access any functionality or perform any task, the user must be assigned a role. A user with a role of full permissions can entire all the features and menus of the report. To configure the report manager, a URL needs to be defined. Q: What are the Reporting Services components? Reporting services components assist in development. These processing components include some tools that are used to create, manage and view reports. A report designer is used to create the reports. a report sever is used to execute and distribute reports. a report manager is used to manage the report server. Q:SQL Server Reporting Services vs Crystal Reports. Crystal reports are processed by IIS while SSRS have a report server. Caching in Crystal reports is available through cache server. On the other hand, caching in SSRS is available for Report history snapshots. Crystal reports have standards and user defined field labels. SSRS allows only user defined field labels. Q: What is Report Builder? Report Builder is a business-user, ad-hoc report design client that allows users to design reports based on the business terms (Report Builder model) they are familiar with, but without needing to understand database schemas or how to write SQL or MDX queries. Report Builder works with both SQL Server and Analysis Services data sources. Q: How does Report Builder support Analysis Services cubes? Report Builder supports relational SQL and Analysis Services data sources in SQL Server 2005. To create a model for Analysis Services cube, go to Report Manager or Management Studio, create a data source for your Analysis Services database, and then select the Generate Model option to create the model. Q: How do users use Report Builder with SQL Server data sources? While models that provide access to SQL Server Analysis Services are automatically generated on the report server, the Report Builder Model Designer can be used to generate or modify the models that are built on top of SQL Server relational databases. These model-building projects are a new type of project within a Visual Studiobased development shell. Q: How do I get Report Builder to generate a parameter that can be set by users viewing the report?

In the filter dialog box, click the name of the criteria that you would like to prompt the user for when viewing the report. For example, for the criteria Order Year=2000, click Order Year. Select the Prompt option in the drop-down list. Q: What new data source types were added in SSRS 2012? In addition to the data source types available in SSRS 2005 (SQL Server, Oracle, ODBC, OLE DB), the following have been added in SSRS 2008: SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services SQL Server 2005 Integration Services SQL Server 2005 Report Builder Models XML (through URL and Web services) SAP Q: How can I add Reporting Services reports to my application? Visual Studio 2005 (Standard and Enterprise editions) contains a set of freely redistributable Report Viewer controls that make it easy to embed Reporting Services functionality into custom applications. Two versions of the Report Viewer exist, one for rich Windows client applications and one for ASP.NET applications. Q: Do I need a report server to run reports in my application? In addition to publishing reports to a report server, you can build reports using the Report Designer that is directly integrated with Visual Studio language projects. You can embed reports directly in any Windows Forms or ASP.NET Web application without access to a report server. The data access in embedded reports is a natural extension of the Visual Studio data facilities. Not only can you use traditional databases as a source of data for your reports, you can use object collections as well. Q: Can you import Microsoft Excel data to SSRS? Reporting Services does not import data. It only queries data in whatever format it is stored in their native storage system. I will assume that you're asking whether you can create reports and use Excel spreadsheets as data sources. The answer is Yes, Reporting Services supports a wide variety of data sources, including Excel files. You'll get the best performance with the built-in native .NET providers but you should be able to connect to any ODBC or OLE-DB data source, whether it comes from Microsoft or a third-party company. Q: Can we deploy SSRS reports on our personal website? Your reports can only be deployed on a reporting services site. Your only option for viewing them from other sites is an HTTP link. Some tools, like SharePoint offer controls allowing you to view reports in the context of the other websites, but the report is still deployed to and hosted from reporting services. Q: Can we use datagrids for our report in SSRS? I've got an ASP.NET project that populates a datagrid. I'd like to use the datagrid as my datasource for my report using SQL Server Reporting Services. Is this possible? The simple answer is no. However, nothing's ever simple. A set of reporting controls was added in Visual Studio 2010 allowing you to report in a dataset, on data that was supplied by you. So, if you retrieved your data into a dataset, bound the datagrid to the dataset so it had data to display, you could then use that dataset as the datasource for the reporting controls. These are then client-side reports, not server reports though. Q: What are the drawbacks of reporting in SSRS? For many years, Microsoft had no direct solution for reporting with the SQL Server besides Crystal Reports. Now, they have SQL Server Reporting Services, but it does have several drawbacks. It is still complex to understand the complete functionality and structure of this new component, and many users are still relying on the reporting application they are more familiar with, which is Crystal Reports. Also, components in SSRS like Report Builder and Report Designer are meant for different users for different aspects of the report process, yet complete understanding and exposure to both is important to utilize both functions fully and extensively. There are also issues when exporting very large reports to Microsoft Excel, as it can lead to a loss of data. Q: Will running SSRS on Windows XP limit the number of users? Yes, but not because of SSRS. The Internet Information Services (IIS) component of Windows XP only allows a small number of users to connect to the website at once. As SSRS runs via IIS, this would prevent more than a few people from using SSRS at once. Also, the only edition of SSRS that will install on Windows XP is the Developer Edition. This edition can not be used for production use. You need Standard or Enterprise Edition for production use, which requires a Server OS to install on (Windows 2003 Standard, Windows 2008 Standard, etc). Q: Are there issues when exporting SSRS reports into Microsoft Excel? When my users are trying to export a SSRS report into Microsoft Excel, one or two columns in

the report appear to merge together. Why might this be? Exporting from SSRS is not always perfect, even if you stay within the Microsoft range of products. If you have extra resources, you could splurge for an add-on that offers much better control over exporting to Excel, such as OfficeWriter. From my experience, though, it is usually headers or footers that cause exporting issues. If any of these headers or footers overlap with data columns in your report, you will find that the exported version of the report has merged cells. Also, check columns next to each other to make sure that there is no overlap, as well. Q: How to send a SSRS report from SSIS? Often there is a requirement to be able to send a SSRS report in Excel, PDF or another format to different users from a SSIS package one it has finished performing a data load. In order to do this, first you need to create a subscription to the report. You can create a SSRS report subscription from Report Manager. At the report subscription you can mention the report format and the email address of the recipient. When you create a schedule for the SSRS report, a SQL Server Agent Job will be created. From the SSIS, by using sp_start_job and passing the relevant job name you can execute the SSRS report subscription.

Today i will share with you the list of SSIS most frequently asked interview questions with answers SSIS 2008 or SSIS 2012 interview questions will help you prepare better for your interviews

1. What are the different types of Data flow components in SSIS? There are 3 data flow components in SSIS. 1. Sources 2. Transformations 3. Destinations 2. Explain Audit Transformation ? It allows you to add auditing information as required in auditing world specified by HIPPA and Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX). Auditing options that you can add to transformed data through this transformation are : 1. Execution of Instance GUID : ID of execution instance of the package 2. PackageID : ID of the package 3. PackageName 4.VersionID : GUID version of the package 5. Execution StartTime 6.MachineName 7.UserName 8.TaskName 9.TaskID : uniqueidentifier type of the data flow task that contains audit transformation

3. Explain Copy column Transformation? This component simply copies a column to another new column. Just like ALIAS Column in T-Sql.

4. Explain Derived column Transformation? Derived column creates new column or put manipulation of several columns into new column. You can directly copy existing or create a new column using more than one column also.

5.Explain Multicast Transformation? This transformation sends output to multiple output paths with no conditional as Conditional Split does. Takes ONE Input and makes the COPY of data and passes the same data through many outputs. In simple Give one input and take many outputs of the same data.

6.What is a Task?
A task is very much like a method of any programming language which represents or carries out an individual unit of work. There are broadly two categories of tasks in SSIS, Control Flow tasks and Database Maintenance tasks. All Control Flow tasks are operational in nature except Data Flow tasks. Although there are around 30 control flow tasks which you can use in your package you can also develop your own custom tasks with your choice of .NET programming language

7.What is a workflow in SSIS ?

Workflow is a set of instructions on to specify the Program Executor on how to execute tasks and containers within SSIS Packages

8.What is the Control Flow?

When you start working with SSIS, you first create a package which is nothing but a collection of tasks or package components. The control flow allows you to order the workflow, so you can ensure tasks/components get executed in the appropriate order

9.What is a Transformation?
A transformation simply means bringing in the data in a desired format. For example you are pulling data from the source and want to ensure only distinct records are written to the destination, so duplicates are removed. Anther example is if you have master/reference data and want to pull only related data from the source and hence you need some sort of lookup. There are around 30 transformation tasks available and this can be extended further with custom built tasks if needed. 10.How many difference source and destinations have you used? It is very common to get all kinds of sources so the more the person worked with the better for you. Common ones are SQL Server, CSV/TXT, Flat Files, Excel, Access, Oracle, MySQL but also Salesforce, web data scrapping.


Question: Question: Question: Question: Question: Question: Question: Which Have Do How have you you do languages Gives versions you have learnt you have examples SSRS got Data (on of SSRS samples have of you your skills? books, used? work? (optional) conferences)

Visualization the job, articles, reports data

How What

normally you used where to

create query you

(wizard/manually)? for used SSRS Reports? parameters?

Question: What types of graphs do you normally use and what effects do you apply to them? Question: Question: Have you Can used you custom assemblies update in SSRS? If data Yes give using an example SSRS?


Question: What is the formatting code (format property) for a number with 2 decimal places? Below are "narrowed" questions: Question: What does rdl stand for? Question: How to deploy an SSRS Report? Question: What is Report Manager? Question: What is Report Builder? Question: What permission do you need to give to users to enable them to use Report Builder? Question: What do you need to restore report server database on another machine? Question: Can you create subscription using windows authentication? Question: What caching options do you have for reports on report server? Question: How to find slow running reports? Question: How can you make calendar available in report parameter? Question: How to pass multi-valued parameter to stored procedure in dataset? Question: Which functions are used to pass parameter to MDX query? Question: How to create "dependent " parameter "Make, Model, Year" Question: How to create "alternate row colour"? Question: How to create percentile function? Question: How to create median function? Question: How to make conditional sum in SSRS? Question: How to find a value in another dataset based on current dataset field (SSRS 2008 R2)? Question: How to change parameter value inside the report? Question: How to identify current user in SSRS Report?
General SSRS Questions









Comment: Differences between 2005 and 2008 are quite big so if someone hasn't used 2008 or 2008 R2 before (or vice versa) than make sure you know this will require a few days to get up to speed with the new/previous version. If the candidate used several versions ask to describe the differences between them.









Comment: If SSRS is main skills for the role than it is worth asking for samples (before interview) they will often tell you a lot about the candidate quality of work.









Comment: If you need dashboards then it is worth asking this question (we will ask more specific questions later). This is also related to previous question. When you review samples ask the candidate or yourself two questions: What is the purpose? And is it useful? Someone who does not know anything about data visualization will usually use pie charts, gauges (exception is bullet chart which is classified as gauge in SSRS), 3D effects, make colourful designs (without any colour meaning). Some candidates may mention Stephen Few or Edward Tufte and this normally is a big plus.













Comment: The thing is that most people who read good books have usually an advantage over those who hasn't because they know what they know and they know what they don't know (but they know it exists and is available). Blog/Articles vary in quality so best practise articles is a big plus+, conferences can be also a
SSRS Development open questions










Comment: If wizard in most cases then you got rather inexperienced person, if manually than it is usually good answer. The best answer is using a template. Generally developers create reports from scratch which is not bad but it is not very efficient either.













Comment: Most answers will probably be SQL (TSQL). But T-SQL is not the only query language. If someone build reports based on cubes before than they will say MDX. You can also query data from other sources (not recommended) or use data mining expressions (DMX = advanced).








Comment: Typically you use parameters to filter data in datasets (or data on reports) but you can also use them to restrict values like the well-known make->model->year example. You can also have hidden and











Question: What types of graphs do you normally use and what effects do you apply to them? Comment: Good graph are bar, line, scatter, bullet graphs. Bad graphs are pie charts, area graphs, gauges (apart from bullet graph which classified as gauge in SSRS). Effects should be limited to minimum. Developers should avoid 3D effects, "glass" effect, shadows etc
SSRS Advanced questions














Comment: This allows to re-use code in reports and it is not very common. Re-usability is good but building dependencies is not so good so one small mistake might break all reports using it; so it should be used with care.









Comment: This is not often used (and probably shouldn't be used in most cases) but it is possible.

Question: What is the formatting code (format property) for a number with 2 decimal places? Comment: N2. Attention to details and good memory is always welcome.
SSRS interview "narrowed" questions

In this section I will give you fairly long list of short and narrowed questions:

Question: What does rdl stand for? Answer: Report Definition Language Question: How to deploy an SSRS Report? Answer: Configure project properties (for multiple environments) and deploy from bids, upload manually or use rs.exe for command line deployment. Question: What is Report Manager? Answer: Web based tool that allows to access and run reports. Question: What is Report Builder? Answer: Report Builder is a self-service tool for end users. Question: What permission do you need to give to users to enable them to use Report Builder? Answer: "Report Builder" role and "system user". Report builder should also be enable in report server properties. Question: What do you need to restore report server database on another machine? Answer: SSRS Encryption key Question: Can you create subscription using windows authentication? Answer: No. Question: What caching options do you have for reports on report server?

Answer: Do no cache, expiry cache after x minute, on schedule. Question: How to find slow running reports? Answer: Check ReportExecution table Question: How can you make calendar available in report parameter? Answer: Set parameter data type to date. Question: How to pass multi-valued parameter to stored procedure in dataset? Answer: Join function in SSRS and split function in T-SQL Question: Which functions are used to pass parameter to MDX query? Answer: StrToMember and StrToSet Question: How to create "dependant" parameter "Make, Model, Year" Answer: They need to be in correct order, and previous parameter should filter next parameter dataset. For instance Model dataset should be filtered using Make parameter Question: How to create "alternate row colour"? Answer: use RowNumber and Mod function OR visit our tutorial. Question: How to create percentile function? Answer: Custom code is required. Visit our tutorial for more details. Question: How to create median function? Answer: Custom code is required. Visit our tutorial for more details. Question: How to make conditional sum in SSRS? Answer: IIF condition true then SUM else nothing. Visit our tutorial for more details Question: How to find a value in another dataset based on current dataset field (SSRS 2008 R2)? Answer: Use lookup function. Question: How to change parameter value inside the report? Answer: Set action. "Jump to itself" and pass different value for the parameter. Question: How to identify current user in SSRS Report? Answer: User!UserID --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -Q1. WHAT is SQL Server Reporting Services(SSRS)? SQL Server Reporting Services is a server-based reporting platform that you can use to create and manage tabular, matrix, graphical, and free-form reports that contain data from relational and multidimensional data sources. The reports that you create can be viewed and managed over a World Wide Web-based connection Q2. Architecture of SSRS:

-Admin Q3. What are the three stages of Enterprise Reporting Life Cycle ? a. Authoring b. Management c. Access and Delivery Q4. What are the components included in SSRS? 1. A Complete set of Tools that can be used to create, manage and view reports 2. A Report Server component that hosts and processes reports in a variety of formats. Output formats include HTML, PDF, TIFF, Excel, CSV, and more. 3.An API that allows developers to integrate or extend data and report processing in custom applications, or create custom tools to build and manage reports. Q5. What is the benefit of using embedded code in a report? 1. Reuseability of Code: function created in embedded code to perform a logic can be then used in multiple expressions 2. Centralized code: helps in better manageability of code.

Q6. Which programming language can be used to code embedded functions in SSRS? Visual Basic .NET Code. Q7. Important terms used in the reporting services? 1. Report definition: The blueprint for a report before the report is processed or rendered. A report definition contains information about the query and layout for the report. 2. Report snapshot: A report that contains data captured at a specific point in time. A report snapshot is actually a report definition that contains a dataset instead of query instructions.

3. Rendered report: A fully processed report that contains both data and layout information, in a format suitable for viewing (such as HTML). 4. Parameterized report: A published report that accepts input values through parameters. 5. Shared data source: A predefined, standalone item that contains data source connection information. 6. Shared schedule: A predefined, standalone item that contains schedule information. 7. Report-specific data source: Data source information that is defined within a report definition. 8. Report model: A semantic description of business data, used for ac hoc reports created in Report Builder. 9. Linked report: A report that derives its definition through a link to another report. 10. Report server administrator: This term is used in the documentation to describe a user with elevated privileges who can access all settings and content of a report server. If you are using the default roles, a report server administrator is typically a user who is assigned to both the Content Manager role and the System Administrator role. Local administrators can have elevated permission even if role assignments are not defined for them. 11. Folder hierarchy: A bounded namespace that uniquely identifies all reports, folders, report models, shared data source items, and resources that are stored in and managed by a report server.

12. Report Server: Describes the Report Server component, which provides data and report processing, and report delivery. The Report Server component includes several subcomponents that perform specific functions. 13. Report Manager: Describes the Web application tool used to access and manage the contents of a report server database. 14. Report Builder: Report authoring tool used to create ad hoc reports. 15. Report Designer: Report creation tool included with Reporting Services. 16. Model Designer: Report model creation tool used to build models for ad hoc reporting. 17. Report Server Command Prompt Utilities: Command line utilities that you can use to administer a report server. a) RsConfig.exe, b) RsKeymgmt.exe, c) Rs.exe Q8. what are the Command Line Utilities available In Reporting Services?

Rsconfig Utility (Rsconfig.exe): encrypts and stores connection and account values in the RSReportServer.config file. Encrypted values include report server database connection information and account values used for unattended report processing RsKeymgmt Utility: Extracts, restores, creates, and deletes the symmetric key used to protect sensitive report server data against unauthorized access RS Utility: this utility is mainly used to automate report server deployment and administration tasks.Processes script you provide in an input file. Q. How to know Report Execution History? ExecutionLog table in ReportServer database store all the logs from last two months. SELECT * FROM ReportServer.dbo.ExecutionLog -Development Q. What is difference between Tablular and Matrix report? OR What are the different styles of reports? Tablular report: A tabular report is the most basic type of report. Each column corresponds to a column selected from the database. Matrix report: A matrix (cross-product) report is a cross-tabulation of four groups of data: a. One group of data is displayed across the page. b. One group of data is displayed down the page. c. One group of data is the cross-product, which determines all possible locations where the across and down data relate and places a cell in those locations. d. One group of data is displayed as the "filler" of the cells. Martix reports can be considered more of a Pivot table. Q. How to create Drill-through reports? Using Navigation property of a cell and setting child report and its parameters in it. Q. How to create Drill-Down reports? To cut the story short: - By grouping data on required fields -Then toggle visibility based on the grouped filed ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


You want to include an image in a report. How do you display the Image

Properties dialog box? When you drag an image item from the Toolbox window to the Report Designer, the Image Properties dialog box automatically opens.


You want to configure an amount to display the value in a currency format.

Which property do you use? To configure an amount to display a value in a currency format, select the report item, and then set the format property to C or c. 3. 4. What are data regions?Data regions are report items that display repeated You want to generate a report that is formatted as a chart. Can you use the rows of summarized information from datasets. Report Wizard to create such a report? No, the Report Wizard lets you create only tabular and matrix reports. you must create the chart report directly by using the Report Designer. 5. You want to use BIDS to deploy a report to a different server than the one you chose in the Report Wizard. How can you change the server URL? You can right-click the project in Solution Explorer and then change the Target-Server URL property. 6. Which rendering formats are affected by the PageSize properties?Because only the Adobe PDf file, Word, and Image rendering extensions use physical page breaks, they are the only formats that are affected by the PageSize properties. 7. Can you use a stored procedure to provide data to an SSRS report?Yes, you can use a stored procedure to provide data to an SSRS report by configuring the dataset to use a stored procedure command type. However, your stored procedure should return only a single result set. If it returns multiple result sets, only the first one is used for the report dataset. 8. 9. You want to use a perspective in an MDX query. How do you select the Can you use data mining models in SSRS?Yes, you can use the DMX Designer perspective?Use the Cube Selector in the MDX Query Designer to select a perspective. to create data mining queries for SSRS reports. However, do not forget to flatten the result set returned by the DMX query. 10. You want your report to display a hyperlink that will take users to your intranet. How do you configure such a hyperlink?Create a text box item, set the action to Go To URL, and then configure the URL. 11. You want a report to display Sales by Category, SubCategory, and Product. You want users to see only summarized information initially but to be able to display the details as necessary. How would you create the report?Group the Sales information by Category, SubCategory, and Product. Hide the SubCategory group and set the visibility to toggle based on the Category item. Hide the Product category group and set the visibility to toggle based on the SubCategory item. 12. You want to create an Excel interactive report from SSRS. In SSRS, can you create the same interactive experience in Excel that you would have on the Web? No, you cannot create the same experience with SSRS. you can, however, use Excel to create such an experience.


What is the main difference between a Matrix report item and a Table report

item? The main difference between a Matrix and a Table report item is in the initial template. Actually, both report items are just templates for the Tablix data region. 14. When you do not use report caching, is it better to use parameters to filter information in the query or to use filters in the dataset?From a performance perspective, it is better to use parameters because they let SSRS pull filtered data from the data source. In contrast, when you use filters, the queries retrieve all data and then filter the information in an additional step. 15. 16. How do you configure a running aggregate in SSRS?You can use the What is the main purpose of a report parameter? RunningValue function to configure a running aggregate. The main purpose of a report parameter is to add interactivity to your reports, letting users change the report behavior based on options they select. 17. 18. What is the main purpose of a query parameter? You want your users to select a parameter from a list of values in a list box. The main purpose of a query parameter is to filter data in the data source. How should you configure the parameter? You should create a data source that contains the possible values and then bind the data source to the parameter. 19. What is the main benefit of using embedded code in a report?The main benefit of using embedded code in a report is that the code you write at the report level can be reused in any expression in the report. 20. SSRS? An SSRS report supports only visual Basic .nET embedded code. What programming language would you use to create embedded functions in


SSIS and SSRS Interview questions with Answers

1) What is the control flow

ANS: In SSIS a workflow is called a control-flow. A control-flow links together our modular data-flows as a series of operations in order to achieve a desired result. A control flow consists of one or more tasks and containers that execute when the package runs. To control order or define the conditions for running the next task or container in the package control flow, you use precedence constraints to connect the tasks and containers in a package. A subset of tasks and containers can also be grouped and run repeatedly as a unit within the package control flow. SQL Server 2005 Integration Services (SSIS) provides three different types of control flow elements: containers that provide structures in packages, tasks that provide functionality, and precedence constraints that connect the executables, containers, and tasks into an ordered control flow. 2) what is a data flow

ANS: A data flow consists of the sources and destinations that extract and load data, the transformations that modify and extend data, and the paths that link sources, transformations, and destinations. Before you can add a data flow to a package, the package control flow must include a Data Flow task. The Data Flow task is the executable within the SSIS package that creates, orders, and runs the data flow. A separate instance of the data flow engine is opened for each Data Flow task in a package. SQL Server 2005 Integration Services (SSIS) provides three different types of data flow components: sources, transformations, and destinations. Sources extract data from data stores such as tables and views in relational databases, files, and Analysis Services databases. Transformations modify, summarize, and clean data. Destinations load data into data stores or create in-memory datasets. 3) how do you do error handling in SSIS ANS: When a data flow component applies a transformation to column data, extracts data from sources, or loads data into destinations, errors can occur. Errors frequently occur because of unexpected data values. For example, a data conversion fails because a column contains a string instead of a number, an insertion into adatabase column fails because the data is a date and the column has a numeric data type, or an expression fails to evaluate because a column value is zero, resulting in a mathematical operation that is not valid. Errors typically fall into one the following categories: -Data conversion errors, which occur if a conversion results in loss of significant digits, the loss of insignificant digits, and the truncation of strings. Data conversion errors also occur if the requested conversion is not supported. -Expression evaluation errors, which occur if expressions that are evaluated at run time perform invalid operations or become syntactically incorrect because of missing or incorrect data values. -Lookup errors, which occur if a lookup operation fails to locate a match in the lookup table. Many data flow components support error outputs, which let you control how the component handles row-level errors in both incoming and outgoing data. You specify how the component behaves when truncation or an error occurs by setting options on individual columns in the input or output. For example, you can specify that the component should fail if customer name data is truncated, but ignore errors on another column that contains less important data. 4) How do you do logging in ssis. ANS: SSIS includes logging features that write log entries when run-time events occur and can also write custom messages. Integration Services supports a diverse set of log providers, and gives you the ability to create custom log providers. The Integration Services log providers can write log entries to text files, SQL Server Profiler, SQL Server, WindowsEvent Log, or XML files. Logs are associated with packages and are configured at the package level. Each task or container in a package can log information to any package log. The tasks and containers in a package can be enabled for logging even if the package itself is not.

To customize the logging of an event or custom message, Integration Services provides a schema of commonly logged information to include in log entries. The Integration Services log schema defines the information that you can log. You can select elements from the log schema for each log entry. To enable logging in a package 1. In Business Intelligence Development Studio, open the Integration Services project that contains the package you want. 2. On the SSIS menu, click Logging. 3. Select a log provider in the Provider type list, and then click Add. 5)what are variables and what is variable scope ? ANS: Variables store values that a SSIS package and its containers, tasks, and event handlers can use at run time. The scripts in the Script task and the Script component can also use variables. The precedence constraints that sequence tasks and containers into a workflow can use variables when their constraint definitions include expressions. Integration Services supports two types of variables: user-defined variables and system variables. User-defined variables are defined by package developers, and system variables are defined by Integration Services. You can create as many user-defined variables as a package requires, but you cannot create additional system variables. Scope : A variable is created within the scope of a package or within the scope of a container, task, or event handler in the package. Because the package container is at the top of the container hierarchy, variables with package scope function like global variables and can be used by all containers in the package. Similarly, variables defined within the scope of a container such as a For Loop container can be used by all tasks or containers within the For Loop container. 6) True or False - Using a checkpoint file in SSIS is just like issuing the CHECKPOINT command against the relational engine. It commits all of the data to the database. ANS: False. SSIS provides a Checkpoint capability which allows a package to restart at the point of failure. 7) True or False: SSIS has a default means to log all records updated, deleted or inserted on a per table basis. ANS: False, but a custom solution can be built to meet these needs. 8) What is a breakpoint in SSIS? How is it setup? How do you disable it? ANS: A breakpoint is a stopping point in the code. The breakpoint can give the Developer\DBA an opportunity to review the status of the data, variables and the overall status of the SSIS package. 10 unique conditions exist for each breakpoint. Breakpoints are setup in BIDS. In BIDS, navigate to the control flow interface. Right click on the object where you want to set the breakpoint and select the 'Edit Breakpoints...' option. 9) How do you eliminate quotes from being uploaded from a flat file to SQL Server? ANS: In the SSIS package on the Flat File Connection Manager Editor, enter quotes into the Text qualifier field then preview the data to ensure the quotes are not included. Additional information: How to strip out double quotes from an import file in SQL Server Integration Services 10) Can you explain how to setup a checkpoint file in SSIS?

ANS: The following items need to be configured on the properties tab for SSIS package: CheckpointFileName - Specify the full path to the Checkpoint file that the package uses to save the value of package variables and log completed tasks. Rather than using a hardcoded path as shown above, it's a good idea to use an expression that concatenates a path defined in a package variable and the package name. CheckpointUsage - Determines if/how checkpoints are used. Choose from these options: Never (default), IfExists, or Always. Never indicates that you are not using Checkpoints. IfExists is the typical setting and implements the restart at the point of failure behavior. If a Checkpoint file is found it is used to restore package variable values and restart at the point of failure. If a Checkpoint file is not found the package starts execution with the first task. The Always choice raises an error if the Checkpoint file does not exist. SaveCheckpoints - Choose from these options: True or False (default). You must select True to implement the Checkpoint behavior. 11) How do you upgrade an SSIS Package? ANS: Depending on the complexity of the package, one or two techniques are typically used: Recode the package based on the functionality in SQL Server DTS Use the Migrate DTS 2000 Package wizard in BIDS then recode any portion of the package that is not accurate.

SSIS, SSRS, SSAS Interview Questions and Answers


SSIS Interview Questions and Answers

1. In BIDS, the SSIS project contain 10 packages. But How to deploy only 5 packages in Destination machine eventhough Manifest file contains all 10 packages after the Build? -Open the Manifest file in any editor like BIDS or Notepad, keep the required 5 packages, remove remaining 5 packages. -Save and Close the Manifest file. -Double click on Manifest file to deploy the required 5 package.

2. How would you pass a Parent variable value to Child Package? We can pass the parent variable to child package by using Package configuration: Parent Package Variable. 2.1 Create parent variable FilePath - Parent - String - C:\RK\file.txt 2.2 Drag an 'Execute Package Task' in Control Flow and configure it to start package.


2.3 Go to Child Package and create a variable with same name as your parent package variable. 2.4 Add Package configurations 2.5 "Enable Package Configuration", choose Configuration type as "Parent Package Variable" and type the name of the variable.

2.6 click 'Next' button and select the 'Value' property of the child package variable.

2.7 click 'Next' and 'OK' buttons 2.8 To test the package, I added sample Script Task with a messageBox to show the value of the parent package. 3. My Source Table data as follows:

Output Should be as follows:

How to Implement? Designed SSIS package like:

The script component code:

4. My Source Table Data as follows:

Output should be as follows:

How to Implement?

5. How to pass property value at Run time? A property value like connection string for a Connection Manager can be passed to the package using package configurations. 6. Will trigger fire when inserting data through SSIS package? 1.In the data flow task, go to the Advanced Editor of OLEDB Destination, and there should be a property "FastLoadOptions". Specify FIRE_TRIGGERS as an additional option.

2. SQL Destination Editor:

3. Bulk Insert Task Editor:

7. What are the different types of Transformations you have worked AGGEGATE -The Aggregate transformation applies aggregate functions to column values and copies the results to the transformation output. Besides aggregate functions, the transformation provides the GROUP BY clause, which you can use to specify groups to aggregate across. The Aggregate Transformation supports following operations: Group By, Sum, Average, Count, Count Distinct, Minimum, Maximum AUDIT - Adds Package and Task level Metadata - such as Machine Name, Execution Instance, Package Name, Package ID, etc.. CHARACTER MAP - When it comes to string formatting in SSIS, Character Map transformation is very useful, used to convert data lower case, upper case.

CONDITIONAL SPLIT used to split the input source data based on condition. COPY COLUMN - Add a copy of column to the output, we can later transform the copy keeping the original for auditing. DATA CONVERSION - Converts columns data types from one to another type. It stands for Explicit Column Conversion. DATA MINING QUERY Used to perform data mining query against analysis services and manage Predictions Graphs and Controls. DERIVED COLUMN - Create a new (computed) column from given expressions. EXPORT COLUMN Used to export a Image specific column from the database to a flat file. FUZZY GROUPING Groups the rows in the dataset that contain similar values. FUZZY LOOKUP - Used for Pattern Matching and Ranking based on fuzzy logic. IMPORT COLUMN - Reads image specific column from database onto a flat file. LOOKUP - Performs the lookup (searching) of a given reference object set against a data source. It is used for exact matches only. MERGE - Merges two sorted data sets of same column structure into a single output. MERGE JOIN - Merges two sorted data sets into a single dataset using a join. MULTI CAST - is used to create/distribute exact copies of the source dataset to one or more destination datasets. ROW COUNT - Stores the resulting row count from the data flow / transformation into a variable. ROW SAMPLING - Captures sample data by using a row count of the total rows in dataflow specified by rows or percentage. UNION ALL - Merge multiple data sets into a single dataset. PIVOT Used for Normalization of data sources to reduce analomolies by converting rows into columns UNPIVOT Used for demoralizing the data structure by converts columns into rows incase of building Data Warehouses. 8. What are the different types of Transaction Options Required: If a transaction already exists at the upper level, the current executable will join the transaction. If No transaction at the upper level, a new transaction is created automatically. Supported:In any executable, if there is a transaction at upper level, the executable join the transaction else do not create a new transaction. Not Supported:The executable of the package do not honour any transaction ie do not join other transaction nor creates new transaction. 9. Explain about Checkpoints with properties Checkpoint is used to restart the package execution from the point of failure rather than from initial start. Set the following Properties: CheckpointFileName: Specifies the name of the checkpoint file. CheckpointUsage: Never, IfExists, Always SaveCheckpoints: indicates whether the package needs to save checkpoints. This property must be set to True to restart a package from a point of failure. FailPackageOnFailure: property needs to be set to True for enabling the task in the checkpoint. Checkpoint mechanism uses a Text File to mark the point of package failure. These checkpoint files are automatically created at a given location upon the package failure and automatically deleted once the package ends up with success. 10. How to execute SSIS Package from Stored Procedure. using xp_cmdshell command

11. Parallel processing in SSIS To support parallel execution of different tasks in the package, SSIS uses 2 properties: 1.MaxConcurrentExecutables: defines how many tasks can run simultaneously, by specifying the maximum number of SSIS threads that can execute in parallel per package. The default is -1, which equates to number of physical or logical processor + 2. 2. EngineThreads: is property of each DataFlow task. This property defines how many threads the data flow engine can create and run in parallel. The EngineThreads property applies equally to both the source threads that the data flow engine creates for sources and the worker threads that the engine creates for transformations and destinations. Therefore, setting EngineThreads to 10 means that the engine can create up to ten source threads and up to ten worker threads. 12. Package configuration? Different types of Configuration Files The package can be transferred across various environments like development and unit testing, system testing, UAT and production. Most packages will have environment specific variables like connection string to a database or path to a flat file, or user defined variables etc. that would be impacted while moving the package across environments as part of deployment process. Hence, it is mandatory to change these environment dependent variables when the package is transferred across environments. Package configurations help in managing such changes without actually opening and editing the SSIS package in Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS). After deploying the package to a different machine (using SQL Server or file system deployment mode) it is mandatory to copy the related package configuration files on to that machine. If the package is scheduled to run through a SQL Agent job, the configuration file should be added while creating the job so that package will read the information from the configuration file. While executing the job, SQL Agent will take the design time values for connection strings if the package configuration file is not supplied. There are 5 configuration types available with package configurations.

13. Logging. Different types of Logging files Logging is used to log the information during the execution of package. A log provider can be a text file, the SQL Server Profiler, a SQL Server relational database, a Windows event log, or an XML file. If necessary, you can define a custom log provider (e.g., a proprietary file format).

14. How to debug a package For debugging a package, we have 3 options: -Setting breakpoints in a package, container or Task -Using Data Viewer in the Data flow task -Setting Error redirection in the Data Flow task 15. What is the LoggingMode property? SSIS packages, tasks and containers have a property called LoggingMode. This property accepts 3 possible values: Enabled - to enable logging of that component Disabled - to disable logging of that component UseParentSetting - to use parent's setting of that component to decide whether or not to log the data. 16. Error handling in SSIS package I have created a package like below:

Select 'Load to sql Table' Data flow Task. Navigate to 'Even Handlers' Tab.

Drag and Drop 'Execute Sql Task'. Open the Execute Sql Task Editor and in Parameter Mapping' section, select the system variables as follows:

Create a table in Sql Server Database with Columns as: PackageID, PackageName, TaskID, TaskName, ErrorCode, ErrorDescription.

The package will be failed during the execution.

The error information is inserted into Table.

17. Difference between Merge and UnionAll Transformations The Union All transformation combines multiple inputs into one output. The transformation inputs are added to the transformation output one after the other; no reordering of rows occurs. The Merge transformation combines two sorted datasets into a single dataset. The rows from each dataset are inserted into the output based on values in their key columns. The Merge transformation is similar to the Union All transformations. Use the Union All transformation instead of the Merge transformation in the following situations: -The Source Input rows are not need to be sorted. -The combined output does not need to be sorted. -when we have more than 2 source inputs.

18. Multicast, Conditional Split, Bulk Insert Tasks Multicast Transformation is used to extract output from single source and places onto multiple destinations. Conditional Split transaformation is used for splitting the input data based on a specific condition. The condition is evaluated in VB Script. Multicast Transformation generates exact copies of the source data, it means each recipient will have same number of records as the source whereas the Conditional Split Transformation divides the source data based on the defined conditions and if no rows match with this defined conditions those rows are put on default output. Bulk Insert Task is used to copy the large volumn of data from text file to sql server destination. 19. Incremental Load in SSIS Using Slowly Changing Dimension Using Lookup and Cache Transformation 20. How to migrate Sql server 2005 Package to 2008 version 1. In BIDS, by right click on the "SSIS Packages" folder of an SSIS project and selecting "Upgrade All Packages". 2. Running "ssisupgrade.exe" from the command line (default physical location C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\DTS\Bin folder). 3. If you open a SSIS 2005 project in BIDS 2008, it will automatically launch the SSIS package upgrade wizard. 21. Difference between Synchronous and Asynchronous Transformation Synchronous T/F process the input rows and passes them onto the data flow one row at a time. When the output buffer of Transformation created a new buffer, then it is Asynchronous transformation. Output buffer or output rows are not sync with input buffer. 22. What are Row Transformations, Partially Blocking Transformation, Fully Blocking Transformation with examples. In Row Transformation, each value is manipulated individually. In this transformation, the buffers can be re-used for other purposes like following: OLEDB Datasource, OLEDB Data Destinations Other Row transformation within the package, Other partially blocking transformations within the package. examples of Row Transformations: Copy Column, Audit, Character Map Partially Blocking Transformation: These can re-use the buffer space allocated for available Row transformation and get new buffer space allocated exclusively for Transformation. examples: Merge, Conditional Split, Multicast, Lookup, Import, Export Column Fully Blocking Transformation: It will make use of their own reserve buffer and will not share buffer space from other transformation or connection manager. examples: Sort, Aggregate, Cache Transformation 23. Difference between FileSystem and Sql server Deployment File System Deployment: We can save the package on a physical location on hard drive or any shared folder with this option, and we should provide a full qualified path to stored package in the FileSystem option. Sql Server Deployment: SSIS packages will be stored in the sysssispackages table of MSDB Database. 24. Difference between Lookup and Fuzzy Lookup transformation

Lookup Transformation finds the exact match. Fuzzy Lookup transformation matches input table with reference table. It finds the closest match and indicates the quality of the match.

25. Difference between Full Cache and Partial Cache Partial Cache: The lookup cache starts off empty at the beginning of the data flow. When a new row comes in, the lookup transform checks its cache for the matching values. If no match is found, it queries the database. If the match is found at the database, the values are cached so they can be used the next time a matching row comes in. Full Cache: The default cache mode for lookup is Full cache. The database is queried once during the pre-execute phase of the data flow. The entire reference set is pulled into memory. This approach uses most of the memory. Caching takes place before any rows are read from the data flow source. Lookup operations will be very fast during execution. 26. Cache Transformation Cache Transformation: to cache the data used in the Lookup transform. When to use Full cache mode: When you're accessing a large portion of your reference set When you have a small reference table When your database is remote or under heavy load, and you want to reduce the number of queries sent to the server When to use Partial cache mode: When you're processing a small number of rows and it's not worth the time to charge the full cache. When you have a large reference table. When your data flow is adding new rows to your reference table. When you want to limit the size of your reference table by modifying query with parameters from the data flow. 27. Explain Slowly Changing Dimesnion The SCD concept is basically about how the data modifications are absorbed and maintained in a Dimension Table. The new (modified) record and the old record(s) are identified using some kind of a flag like say IsActive, IsDeleted etc. or using Start and End Date fields to indicate the validity of the record. Types: Type 1 - update the columns in the dimension row without preserving any change history. Type 2 - preserve the change history in the dimension table and create a new row when there are changes. Type 3 - some combination of Type 1 and Type 2, usually maintaining multiple instances of a column in the dimension row; e.g. a current value and one or more previous values. 28. Different types of File Enumerators

Foreach ADO: The ADO Enumerator enumerates rows in a table. For example, we can get the rows in the ADO records.The variable must be of Object data type. Foreach ADO.NET Schema Rowset: The ADO.Net Enumerator enumerates the schema information. For example, we can get the table from the database. Foreach File: The File Enumerator enumerates files in a folder. For example, we can get all the files which have the *.txt extension in a windows folder and its sub folders. Foreach From Variable: The Variable Enumerator enumerates objects that specified variables contain. Here enumerator objects are nothing but an array or data table. Foreach Item: The Item Enumerator enumerates the collections. For example, we can enumerate the names of executables and working directories that an Execute Process task uses. Foreach Nodelist: The Node List Enumerator enumerates the result of an XPath expression. Foreach SMO: The SMO Enumerator enumerates SQL Server Management Objects (SMO). For example, we can get the list of functions or views in a SQL Server database. 29. How to execute the package from .NET? We need a reference to Microsoft.SqlServer.ManagedDts.dll to call a package. using Microsoft.SqlServer.Dts.Runtime Application app = new Application(); Package package = null; package = app.LoadPackage(@"C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\DTS\Packages\Integration Services Project2\Package.dtsx", null); Microsoft.SqlServer.Dts.Runtime.DTSExecResult results = package.Execute();

30. How to schedule a package (Role of Sql Server Agent) In order for the job to run successfully, the SQL Server agent should be running on the target machine. We can start the SQL Server Agent Services in numerous ways like: Starting SQL Server Agent Service from Command Line Starting SQL Server Agent Service from Services.MSC console Starting SQL Server Agent Service using SQL Server Configuration Manager Starting SQL Server Agent Service using SQL Server Management Studio

(SSMS) 31. What are containers? (For loop, Sequence Container) SSIS Containers are controls that provide structure to SSIS packages. Containers support repeating control flows in packages and they group tasks and containers into meaningful units of work. Containers can include other containers in addition to tasks. Container Type Container Description Purpose of SSIS Container To repeat tasks for each element in a collection, for example retrieve files from a folder, running T-SQL statements that reside in multiple files, or running a command for multiple objects. To repeat tasks until a specified expression evaluates to false. For example, a package can send a different e-mail message seven times, one time for every day of the week. This container group tasks and containers that must succeed or fail as a unit. For example, a package can group tasks that delete and add rows in a database table, and then commit or roll back all the tasks when one fails.

Foreach Loop Container

This container runs a Control Flow repeatedly using an enumerator.

For Loop Container

This container runs a Control Flow repeatedly by checking conditional expression (same as For Loop in programming language).

Sequence Container

Groups tasks as well as containers into Control Flows that are subsets of the package Control Flow.

32. What are precedence constraints A task will only execute if the condition that is set by the precedence constraint preceding the task is met. By using these constraints,it will choose different execution paths depending on the success or failure of other tasks. Success Workflow will proceed when the preceding container executes successfully. Indicated in control flow by a solid green line. Failure Workflow will proceed when the preceding containers executi on results in a failure. Indicated in control flow by a solid red line.

Completion Workflow will proceed when the preceding containers execution completes, regardless of success or failure. Indicated in control flow by a solid blue line. Expression/Constraint with Logical AND Workflow will proceed when specified expression and constraints evaluate to true. Indicated in control flow by a solid color line along with a small fx icon next to it. Color of line depends on logical constraint chosen (e.g. success=green, completion=blue). Expression/Constraint with Logical OR Workflow will proceed when either the specified expression or the logical constraint (success/failure/completion) evaluates to true. Indicated in control flow by a dotted color line along with a small fx icon next to it. Color of line depends on logical constraint chosen (e.g. success=green, completion=blue). 33. Performance Optimization in SSIS 1. Avoid Asynchronous Transformation (Sort T/F) wherever possible. Sort T/F required all the incoming rows to be arrivaed before start processing. Instead of using Sort T/F, we get sorted rows from datasource using ORDER By clause. 2. Pulling High Volumes of Data Drop all Non-Clustered Indexes and Clustered Index if exists, then Transfer and load the data into Destination Table. Create Clustered Index and Non-clustered indexes. 3. Avoid SELECT * DataFlow Task uses buffer oriented architecture for data transfer and transformation. When data transfer from Source to Destination, the data first comes into the buffer, required transformations are done in the buffer itself and then written to Destination. The size of buffer depends on the estimated row size. The estimated row size is equal to the maximum size of all columns in the row. So the more columns in a row means less number of rows in a buffer. Hence select only those columns which are required at the destination. Even if we need all the columns from source, we should use the column name specifically in the SELECT statement, otherwise it takes another round for the source to gather meta-data about the columns when u are using SELECT *. 4. Effect of OLEDB Destination Settings There are couple of settings with OLEDB destination which can impact the performance of data transfer as listed below. Data Access Mode This setting provides the 'fast load' option which internally uses a BULK INSERT statement for uploading data into the destination table instead of a simple INSERT statement (for each single row) as in the case for other options. So unless you have a reason for changing it, don't change this default value of fast load. If you select the 'fast load' option, there are also a couple of other settings which you can use as discussed below. Keep Identity By default this setting is unchecked which means the destination table (if it has an identity column) will create identity values on its own. If you check this setting, the dataflow engine will ensure that the source identity values are preserved and same value is inserted into the destination table. Keep Nulls Again by default this setting is unchecked which means default value will be inserted (if the default constraint is defined on the target column) during insert into the destination table if NULL value is coming from the source for that particular column. If you check this option then default constraint on the destination table's column will be ignored and preserved NULL of the source column will be inserted into the destination.

Table Lock By default this setting is checked and the recommendation is to let it be checked unless the same table is being used by some other process at same time. It specifies a table lock will be acquired on the destination table instead of acquiring multiple row level locks, which could turn into lock escalation problems. Check Constraints Again by default this setting is checked and recommendation is to un-check it if you are sure that the incoming data is not going to violate constraints of the destination table. This setting specifies that the dataflow pipeline engine will validate the incoming data against the constraints of target table. If you un-check this option it will improve the performance of the data load. #5 - Effect of Rows Per Batch and Maximum Insert Commit Size Settings: Rows per batch: The default value for this setting is -1 which specifies all incoming rows will be treated as a single batch. You can change this default behavior and break all incoming rows into multiple batches. The allowed value is only positive integer which specifies the maximum number of rows in a batch. Maximum insert commit size: The default value for this setting is '2147483647' (largest value for 4 byte integer type) which specifies all incoming rows will be committed once on successful completion. You can specify a positive value for this setting to indicate that commit will be done for those number of records. Changing the default value for this setting will put overhead on the dataflow engine to commit several times. Yes that is true, but at the same time it will release the pressure on the transaction log and tempdb to grow specifically during high volume data transfers. The above two settings are very important to understand to improve the performance of tempdb and the transaction log. For example if you leave 'Max insert commit size' to its default, the transaction log and tempdb will keep on growing during the extraction process and if you are transferring a high volume of data the tempdb will soon run out of memory as a result of this your extraction will fail. So it is recommended to set these values to an optimum value based on your environment. #7 - DefaultBufferSize and DefaultBufferMaxRows : The execution tree creates buffers for storing incoming rows and performing transformations. The number of buffer created is dependent on how many rows fit into a buffer and how many rows fit into a buffer dependent on few other factors. The first consideration is the estimated row size, which is the sum of the maximum sizes of all the columns from the incoming records. The second consideration is the DefaultBufferMaxSize property of the data flow task. This property specifies the default maximum size of a buffer. The default value is 10 MB and its upper and lower boundaries are constrained by two internal properties of SSIS which are MaxBufferSize (100MB) and MinBufferSize (64 KB). It means the size of a buffer can be as small as 64 KB and as large as 100 MB. The third factor is, DefaultBufferMaxRows which is again a property of data flow task which specifies the default number of rows in a buffer. Its default value is 10000. If the size exceeds the DefaultBufferMaxSize then it reduces the rows in the buffer. For better buffer performance you can do two things.

First you can remove unwanted columns from the source and set data type in each column appropriately, especially if your source is flat file. This will enable you to accommodate as many rows as possible in the buffer. Second, if your system has sufficient memory available, you can tune these properties to have a small number of large buffers, which could improve performance. Beware if you change the values of these properties to a point where page spooling (see Best Practices #8) begins, it adversely impacts performance. So before you set a value for these properties, first thoroughly testing in your environment and set the values appropriately. #8 - How DelayValidation property can help you SSIS uses two types of validation. First is package validation (early validation) which validates the package and all its components before starting the execution of the package. Second SSIS uses component validation (late validation), which validates the components of the package once started. Let's consider a scenario where the first component of the package creates an object i.e. a temporary table, which is being referenced by the second component of the package. During package validation, the first component has not yet executed, so no object has been created causing a package validation failure when validating the second component. SSIS will throw a validation exception and will not start the package execution. So how will you get this package running in this common scenario? To help you in this scenario, every component has a DelayValidation (default=FALSE) property. If you set it to TRUE, early validation will be skipped and the component will be validated only at the component level (late validation) which is during package execution 9. Better performance with parallel execution 10. When to use events logging and when to avoid. 11. Monitoring the SSIS Performance with Performance Counters Launch Performance Monitor: 1. Start -> All Programs -> Administrative Tools -> Performance 2. Load the SSIS related Counters In the Performance Object, select SQL Server:SSIS Pipeline and SQL Server:SSIS Service. SSIS provide a set of performance counters. Among them, the following few are helpful when you tune or debug your package: Buffers in use Flat buffers in use Private buffers in use Buffers spooled Rows read Rows written Buffers in use, Flat buffers in use and Private buffers in use are useful to discover leaks. During package execution time, we will see these counters fluctuating. But once the package finishes execution, their values should return to the same value as what they were before the execution. Otherwise, buffers are leaked.

Buffers spooled has an initial value of 0. When it goes above 0, it indicates that the engine has started memory swapping. In a case like this, set Data Flow Task properties BLOBTempStoragePath and BufferTempStoragePath appropriately for maximal I/O bandwidth. Buffers Spooled: The number of buffers currently written to the disk. If the data flow engine runs low on physical memory, buffers not currently used are written to disk and then reloaded when needed. Rows read and Rows written show how many rows the entire Data Flow has processed. 12. FastParse property Fast Parse option in SSIS can be used for very fast loading of flat file data. It will speed up parsing of integer, date and time types if the conversion does not have to be locale-sensitive. This option is set on a per-column basis using the Advanced Editor for the flat file source.

13. Checkpoint features helps in package restarting 34. Upgrade DTS package to SSIS 1. In BIDS, from the Project Menu, select 'Migrate DTS 2000 Package' 2. In the Package Migration Wizard, choose the Source, Sql Server 2000 Server Name, Destination folder. 3. Select the List of packages that needs to be upgraded to SSIS 4. Specifty the Log file for Package Migration. 35. Events in SSIS OnError : Runs when a task or container reports an error. OnExecStatusChanged : Runs for all tasks and containers when the execution status changes to In Process, Success, or Failed. OnInformation : Runs when SSIS outputs information messages during the validation and execution of a task or container. OnPostExecute : Runs after a container or task successfully completes. OnPostValidate : Executes after a container or task has successfully been validated. OnPreExecute : Runs just before a container or task is executed. OnPreValidate: Runs before the component is validated by the engine. OnProgress : Executed when a progress message is sent by the SSIS engine, indicating tangible advancement of the task or container. OnQueryCancel : Invoked when an Execute SQL Task is cancelled through manual intervention, such as stopping the package. OnTaskFailed : Similar to OnError, but runs when a task fails rather than each time an error occurs. OnVariableValueChanged: Runs when the value changes in a variable for which the RaiseChangeEvent property is set to True. OnWarning Runs: when a task returns a warning event such as a column not being used in a data flow. 36. Difference between Control Flow and Data Flow 1.Control flow consists of one or more tasks and containers that execute when the package runs. We use precedence constraints to connect the tasks and containers in a package. SSIS provides three different types of control flow elements: Containers that provide structures in packages, Tasks that provide functionality, and Precedence Constraints that connect the executables, containers, and tasks into an ordered control flow. 2.Control flow does not move data from task to task. 3.Tasks are run in series if connected with precedence or in parallel. 1. A data flow consists of the sources and destinations that extract and load data, the transformations that modify and extend data, and the paths that link sources, transformations, and destinations. The Data Flow task is the executable within the SSIS package that creates, orders, and runs the data flow. Data Sources, Transformations, and Data Destinations are the three important categories in the Data Flow.

2. Data flows move data, but there are also tasks in the control flow, as such, their success or Failure effects how your control flow operates 3. Data is moved and manipulated through transformations. 4. Data is passed between each component in the data flow. 37. Different ways to execute SSIS package 1. Using the Execute Package Utility (DTEXECUI.EXE) graphical interface one can execute an SSIS package that is stored in a File System, SQL Server or an SSIS Package Store. DTEXECUI provides a graphical user interface that can be used to specify the various options to be set when executing an SSIS package. You can launch DTEXECUI by double-clicking on an SSIS package file (.dtsx). You can also launch DTEXECUI from a Command Prompt then specify the package to execute. 2. Using the DTEXEC.EXE command line utility one can execute an SSIS package that is stored in a File System, SQL Server or an SSIS Package Store. The syntax to execute a SSIS package which is stored in a File System is shown below. DTEXEC.EXE /F "C:\BulkInsert\BulkInsertTask.dtsx" 3. Test the SSIS package execution by running the package from BIDS: -In Solution Explorer, right click the SSIS project folder that contains the package which you want to run and then click properties. - In the SSIS Property Pages dialog box, select Build option under the Configuration Properties node and in the right side panel, provide the folder location where you want the SSIS package to be deployed within the OutputPath. Click OK to save the changes in the property page. -Right click the package within Solution Explorer and select Execute Package option from the drop down menu 4. Sql Server Agent: Drill down to the SQL Server Agent node in the Object Explorer. Right click on the Jobs node and select New Job from the popup menu. The first step to setting up the proxy is to create a credential (alternatively you could use an existing credential). Navigate to Security then Credentials in SSMS Object Explorer and right click to create a new credential Navigate to SQL Server Agent then Proxies in SSMS Object Explorer and right click to create a new proxy 38. How to execute a Stored Procedure from SSIS using Execute SQL Task 39. How to deploy packages from one server to another server 1.To copy the deployment bundle Locate the deployment bundle on the first server. If you used the default location, the deployment bundle is the Bin\Deployment folder. Right-click the Deployment folder and click Copy. Locate the public share to which you want to copy the folder on the target computer and click Paste. 2: Running the Package Installation Wizard

1. On the destination computer, locate the deployment bundle. 2. In the Deployment folder, double-click the manifest file, Project1.SSISDeploymentManifest. 3. On the Welcome page of the Package Installation Wizard, click Next. 4. On the Deploy SSIS Packages page, select either File sytem or SQL Server deployment option, select the "Validate packages after installation" check box, and then click Next. 5. On the Specify Target SQL Server page, specify (local), in the Server name box. 6. If the instance of SQL Server supports Windows Authentication, select Use Windows Authentication; otherwise, select Use SQL Server Authentication and provide a user name and a password. 7. Verify that the "Rely on server storage for encryption" check box is cleared. Click Next. 8. On the Select Installation Folder page, click Browse. 9. On the Confirm Installation page, click Next. 10. The wizard installs the packages. After installation is completed, the Configure Packages page opens.

40. How to deploy a package

Right click on the Solution in Solution Explorer and choose properties in the Menu.

When the build /rebuild is successful, navigate to the directory is referred in DeploymentOutputPath Deploying the Package: Double click the Manifest File to start the deployment. The Package Installation wizard begins and Deploy SSIS Packages step is the first screen that is presented.

This screen lets you select where shall the packages be deployed, as mentioned in the Dialog Box, deploying in SQL Server is more secure, since SQL Server stores the packages internally compared to File System where additional security measures needs to taken to secure the physical files.

41. What is the use of Percentage Sampling transformation in SSIS? Percentage Sampling transformation is generally used for data mining. This transformation builds a random sample of set of output rows by choosing specified percentage of input rows. For example if the input has 1000 rows and if I specify 10 as percentage sample then the transformation returns 10% of the RANDOM records from the input data. 42. What is the use of Term Extraction transformation in SSIS? Term Extraction transformation is used to extract nouns or noun phrases or both noun and noun phrases only from English text. It extracts terms from text in a transformation input column and then writes the terms to a transformation output column. It can be also used to find out the content of a dataset. 43. What is Data Viewer and what are the different types of Data Viewers in SSIS? A Data Viewer allows viewing data at a point of time at runtime. The different types of data viewers are: 1. Grid 2. Histogram 3. Scatter Plot 4. Column Chart

44. What is Ignore Failure option in SSIS? In Ignore Failure option, the error will be ignored and the data row will be directed to continue on the next transformation. Lets say you have some JUNK data(wrong type of data ) flowing from source, then using this option in SSIS we can REDIRECT the junk data records to another transformation instead of FAILING the package. This helps to MOVE only valid data to destination and JUNK can be captured into separate file. 45. How do we convert data type in SSIS? The Data Conversion Transformation in SSIS converts the data type of an input column to a different data type. 46. Explain Audit Transformation ? It allows you to add auditing information. Auditing options that you can add to transformed data through this transformation are : 1. Execution of Instance GUID : ID of execution instance of the package 2. PackageID : ID of the package 3. PackageName : Name of the Package 4. VersionID : GUID version of the package 5. Execution StartTime 6. MachineName 7. UserName

8. TaskName 9. TaskID : unique identifier type of the data flow task that contains audit transformation. 47. what are the possible locations to save SSIS package? 1.File System: We can save the package on a physical location on hard drive or any shared folder with this option, and we should provide a full qualified path to stored package in the FileSystem option. 2. Sql Server: SSIS packages will be stored in the MSDB database, in the sysssispackages table. SSIS Package Store is nothing but combination of SQL Server and File System deployment, as you can see when you connect to SSIS through SSMS: it looks like a store which has categorized its contents (packages) into different categories based on its managers (which is you, as the package developer) taste. So, dont get it wrong as something different from the 2 types of package deployment. 48. How to provide security to packages? We can provide security to packages in 2 ways 1. Package encryption 2. Password protection

1. DonotSaveSensitive: any sensitive information is simply not written out

to the package XML file when you save the package. 2. EncryptSensitiveWithUserKey: encrypts sensitive information based on the credentials of the user who created the package. It is the default value for the ProtectionLevel property. 3. EncryptSensitiveWithPassword: requires to specify a password in the package, and this password will be used to encrypt and decrypt the sensitive information in the package. 4. EncryptAllWithPassword: allows to encrypt the entire contents of the SSIS package with your specified password. 5. EncryptAllWithUserKey: allows to encrypt the entire contents of the SSIS package by using the user key. 6. Server Storage: allows the package to retain all sensitive information when you are saving the package to SQL Server. SSIS packages are saved to MSDB database of SQL Server. You can change the Protection Level of deployed packages by using the DTUTIL utility. 49. How to track a variable in ssis?
OnVariableValueChanged: This event gets raised when value of the variable is changed. 1.Set the "EvaluateasExpression" property of the variable as True. 2.Set the "RaiseChangedEvent" property of the variable as True. 3.Create an event handler for the "OnVariableValueChanged" event for the container in which the variable is scoped. 50. FTP Task: The FTP task downloads and uploads data files and manages directories on servers. For example, a package can download data files from a remote server. use the FTP task for the following purposes: 1. Copying directories and data files from one directory to another, before or after moving data, and applying transformations to the data. 2. Downloading files from an FTP location and applying transformations to column data before loading the data into a database. At run time, the FTP task connects to a server by using an FTP connection manager. The FTP connection manager includes the server settings, the credentials for accessing the FTP server, and options such as the time-out and the number of retries for connecting to the server. The FTP connection manager supports only anonymous authentication and basic authentication. It does not support Windows Authentication. Predefined FTP Operations: Send Files, Receive File, Create Local directory, Remove Local Directory, Create Remote Directory, Remove Remote Directory Delete Local Files, Delete Remote File Customer Log Entries available on FTP Task: FTPConnectingToServer FTPOperation

51. New features in SSIS 2012 1. GUI Improvements - -Sort packages by name -Package visualization -Zoom -Data flow source/destination wizard -Grouping in data flow 2. CDC (Change Data Capture) Task and Components - -CDC is nothing but Incremental load loads all rows that have changed since the last load -CDC needs to keep track of which changes have already been processed. -CDC task does this by storing LSNs in a tracking table -CDC source component reads from the CDC table function, based on the LSN it for from the CDC task. -CDC transformation splits records into new rows, updated rows and deleted rows. 3. Flat File Connection Manager Changes - -The Flat File connection manager now supports parsing files with embedded qualifiers. The connection manager also by default always checks for row delimiters to enable the correct parsing of files with rows that are missing column fields. The Flat File Source now supports a varying number of columns, and embedded qualifiers. 4. Offline Connection Managers: Integration Services now validates all connections before validating all of the data flow components when a package is opened and sets any connections that are slow or unavailable to work offline. This helps to reduce the delay in validating the package data flow. After a package is opened, you can also turn off a connection by right-clicking the connection manager in the Connection Managers area and then clicking Work Offline. This can speed up operations in the SSIS Designer. 5. New Functions/Expressions in SSIS 2012: LEFT: You now can easily return the leftmost portion of a string rather than use the SUBSTRING function. Left syntax is the same as we know in TSQL: LEFT(character_expression,number) REPLACENULL: You can use this function to replace NULL values in the first argument with the expression specified in the second argument. This is equivalent to ISNULL in T-SQL: REPLACENULL(expression, expression) TOKEN: This function allows you to return a substring by using delimiters to separate a string into tokens and then specifying which occurrence to return: TOKEN(character_expression, delimiter_string, occurrence) TOKENCOUNT: This function uses delimiters to separate a string into tokens and then returns the count of tokens found within the string: TOKENCOUNT(character_expression, delimiter_string) 6. Easy Column Remapping in Data Flow (Mapping Data Flow Columns) -When modifying a data flow, column remapping is sometimes needed -SSIS 2012 maps columns on name instead of id -It also has an improved remapping dialog 7. Shared Connection Managers: To create connection managers at the project level that can shared by multiple packages in the project. The connection manager you create at the project level is automatically visible in the Connection Managers tab of the SSIS Designer window for all packages. -When converting shared connection managers back to regular (package) connection managers, they disappear in all other packages.

8. Scripting Enhancements: Now Script task and Script Component support for 4.0. Breakpoints are supported in Script Component 9. ODBC Source and Destination - -ODBC was not natively supported in 2008 -SSIS 2012 has ODBC source & destination -SSIS 2008 could access ODBC via ADO.NET 10. Reduced Memory Usage by the Merge and Merge Join Transformations The old SSIS Merge and Merge Join transformations, although helpful, used a lot of system resources and could be a memory hog. In 2012 these tasks are much more robust and reliable. Most importantly, they will not consume excessive memory when the multiple inputs produce data at uneven rates. 11. Undo/Redo: One thing that annoys users in SSIS before 2012 is lack of support of Undo and Redo. Once you performed an operation, you cant undo that. Now in SSIS 2012, we can see the support of undo/redo. 52. Difference between Script Task and Script Component in SSIS.
Script Task Control Flow/Date Flow The Script task is configured on the Control Flow tab of the designer and runs outside the data flow of the package. Script Component The Script component is configured on the Data Flow page of the designer and represents a source, transformation, or destination in the Data Flow task. You must specify whether you want to create a source, transformation, or destination with the Script component. The Script component runs as a part of the Data Flow task and does not report results using either of these properties. The Script component raises errors, warnings, and informational messages by using the methods of the IDTSComponentMetaData100 interface returned by the ComponentMetaData property. For example: Dim myMetadata as IDTSComponentMetaData100 myMetaData = Me.ComponentMetaData myMetaData.FireError(...)


A Script task can accomplish almost any generalpurpose task.

Raising Results

The Script task uses both the TaskResult property and the optional ExecutionValue property of the Dts object to notify the runtime of its results. The Script task uses the Events property of the Dts object to raise events. For example: Dts.Events.FireError(0, "Event Snippet", ex.Message & ControlChars.CrLf & ex.StackTrace

Raising Events


A Script task runs custom code at some point in the package workflow. Unless you put it in a loop container or an event handler, it only runs once.

A Script component also runs once, but typically it runs its main processing routine once for each row of data in the data flow.


The Script Task Editor has three pages: General, Script, and Expressions. Only the ReadOnlyVariables and ReadWriteVariables, and ScriptLanguage properties directly affect the code that you can write.

The Script Transformation Editor has up to four pages: Input Columns, Inputs and Outputs, Script, and Connection Managers. The metadata and properties that you configure on each of these pages determines the members of the base classes that are autogenerated for your use in coding.

Interaction with the Package

In the code written for a Script task, you use the Dts In Script component code, you use typed property to access other features of the package. The accessor properties to access certain package Dts property is a member of the ScriptMain class. features such as variables and connection managers. The PreExecute method can access only read-only variables. The PostExecute method can access both readonly and read/write variables.

Using Variables

The Script task uses the Variables property of the Dts object to access variables that are available through the tasks ReadOnlyVariables and ReadWriteVariables properties. For example: string myVar; myVar = Dts.Variables["MyStringVariable"].Value.ToString();

The Script component uses typed accessor properties of the autogenerated based class, created from the components ReadOnlyVariables and ReadWriteVariables properties. For example: string myVar; myVar = this.Variables.MyStringVariable;

Using The Script task uses the Connections property of the Connections Dts object to access connection managers defined in the package. For example: string myFlatFileConnection; myFlatFileConnection = (Dts.Connections["Test Flat File Connection"].AcquireConnection(Dts.Transaction) as String);

The Script component uses typed accessor properties of the autogenerated base class, created from the list of connection managers entered by the user on the Connection Managers page of the editor. For example: IDTSConnectionManager100 connMgr;connMgr = this.Connections.MyADONETConnection;

53.Difference between DTS and SSIS? DTS: Limited number of transformations. Limited error handling. Message box in active-x scripts. SSIS: More number of transformations. Better error handling. Message box in .NET scripting. 54. How to execute package from command line 1. To execute an SSIS package saved to SQL Server using Windows Authentication: dtexec /sq pkgOne /ser productionServer 2. To execute an SSIS package that is saved in the file system: dtexec /f "c:\pkgOne.dtsx" 3. To execute an SSIS package saved to the File System folder in the SSIS Package Store: dtexec /dts "\File System\MyPackage" 4. To execute an SSIS package that is saved in the file system and configured externally: dtexec /f "c:\pkgOne.dtsx" /conf "c:\pkgOneConfig.cfg" 55. How to unzip a File in SSIS? Use Execute Process Task in the Control Flow. From BIDS, drag and drop an "Execute Process Task" to the control flow and configure. In the Execute Process, perform the following configurations: Executable: The path of the application that is being used.

Arguments: Need to supply the arguments to extract the zipped files. Working Directory: The current directory for all process. 56. which service requires to start a job SQL Server Agent Service 57. Difference between OLEDB Destination, SQL Destination, Bulk Insert 1. OLEDB destination loads the records in batches, where as SQL Server destination loads all the records at one go. 2. OLEDB Destination uses the 'Fast Load' data access mode. SQL Server destination uses shared memory for maximum loading speed, must execute on the same server as the database engine. Prefer the OLE-DB Destination simply because it gives better flexibility on where you execute the package. 3. The Bulk Insert task uses the T-SQL BULK INSERT statement for speed when loading large amounts of data. 58.which services are installed during Sql Server installation SSIS SSAS SSRS SQL Server (MSSQLSERVER) SQL Server Agent Service SQL Server Browser SQL Full-Text 59. How to run dynamic T-SQL in SSIS? Option#1: Using Script Component as Destination Option#2: Using Object Variable and run t-sql with Execute SQL Task 60. What is the use of RecordSet Destination? The Recordset destination does not save data to an external data source. Instead, it saves data in memory in a recordset that is stored in variable of the Object data type. After the Recordset destination saves the data, we use a Foreach Loop container with the Foreach ADO enumerator to process one row of the recordset at a time. The Foreach ADO enumerator saves the value from each column of the current row into a separate package variable. Then, the tasks that you configure inside the Foreach Loop container read those values from the variables and perform some action with them. 61. Delay Validation, Forced Execution Delay Validation: Validation take place during the package execution. Early Validation: Validation take place just before the package execution. 62. Transfer Database Task used to move a database to another SQL Server instance or create a copy on the same instance (with different database name). This task works in two modes: Offline, Online.

Offline: In this mode, the source database is detached from the source server after putting it in single user mode, copies of the mdf, ndf and ldf files are moved to specified network location. On the destination server the copies are taken from the network location to the destination server and then finally both databases are attached on the source and destination servers. This mode is faster, but a disadvantage with mode is that the source database will not available during copy and move operation. Also, the person executing the package with this mode must be sysadmin on both source and destination instances. Online: The task uses SMO to transfer the database objects to the destination server. In this mode, the database is online during the copy and move operation, but it will take longer as it has to copy each object from the database individually. Someone executing the package with this mode must be either sysadmin or database owner of the specified databases. 63. Transfer SQL Server Object Task Used to transfer one or more SQL Server objects to a different database, either on the same or another SQL Server instance. You can transfer tables, views, Indexes, stored procedures, User defined functions, Users, Roles etc.

64. How to Generate an Auto Incremental Number in a SSIS Package? A script component can be used for the designated task. The steps are as follows: 1. Drag and drop the Script Document to the Data flow and select the Script Component Type as Transformation. 2. Double click the Script Component. 3. Select the column which is to pass through the script component, in the Input Columns tab. 4. Add a column with an integer data type, in the Inputs and Outputs tab. 65. Breakpoint in SSIS? A breakpoint allows you to pause the execution of the package in BIDS during development or when troubleshooting an SSIS Package. You can right click on the task in control flow, click on 'Edit Breakpoint' menu and from the Set Breakpoint window, you specify when you want execution to be halted/paused. For example OnPreExecute, OnPostExecute, OnError events, etc. To toggle a breakpoint, delete all breakpoints and disable all breakpoints go to the Debug menu and click on the respective menu item. You can even specify different conditions to hit the breakpoint as well. 66. What is the DisableEventHandlers property used for? SSIS packages, tasks and containers have a property called DisableEventHandlers. If you set this property to TRUE for task or container, then all event handlers will be disabled for that task or container. If you set this property value to FALSE then the event handlers will once again be executed.

SSRS Interview Questions and Answers

1. How do u implement Cascading parameter? The list of values for one parameter depends on the value chosen in preceding parameter. Eg: Country --> State --> City 2. How to pass parameter from Report Viewer Control to sub report? 3. How to open another report in a new window from existing report? Use a little javascript with a customized URL in the "Jump to URL" option of the Navigation tab. Non-parameterized Solution To get started, let's pop up a simple non parameterized report. Follow these instructions: 1. Instead of using the "Jump to Report" option on the Navigation tab, use the "Jump to URL" option. 2. Open the expression screen (Fx button). 3. Enter the following: ="javascript:void('http://servername?%2freportserver%2fpatht o%2freport&rs:Command=Render'))"


Click OK twice, then save and deploy the report.

Parameterized Solution Assume you have a field called ProductCode. Normally, you might hard code that like this: http://servername/reportserver?%2fpathto%2freport&rs:Command=Render&Produc tCode=123 In this case, you want to pass variables dynamically, using an available value from the source dataset. You can think of it like this: http://servername/reportserver?%2fpathto%2freport&rs:Command=Render&Produc tCode=Fields!ProductCode.Value The exact syntax in the "Jump to URL" (Fx) expression window will be: ="javascript:void('http://servername/reportserver?%2fpathto%2frepor t&rs:Command=Render&ProductCode="+Fields!ProductCode.Value+"'))" 4. How to pass parameter from chart to Table in same report? 5. How to apply custom Colors of chart report? STEP1: Create your custome color palette in the report using Custom Code in your report. To do so, click Report => Report Properties => Code and copy below code: Private colorPalette As String() = { "Blue", "Red", "Teal", "Gold", "Green","#A59D93", "#B8341B", "#352F26", "#F1E7D6", "#E16C56", "#CFBA9B"} Private count As Integer = 0 Private mapping As New System.Collections.Hashtable() Public Function GetColor(ByVal groupingValue As String) As String If mapping.ContainsKey(groupingValue) Then Return mapping(groupingValue) End If Dim c As String = colorPalette(count Mod colorPalette.Length) count = count + 1 mapping.Add(groupingValue, c) Return c End Function STEP2: In the Pie Chart, select Series Properties and select the Fill option from left side. Now write following expression in the Color expression: =code.GetColor(Fields!Year.Value) Here Fields!Year.Value is a field of dataset which is used as Chart Category fields. 6. Can we have Table within a Table in SSRS report? Yes. We can have Nested Tables. 7. How to apply stylesheet to SSRS Reports select Report->Report Properties from the menu and then click the Code tab. Function StyleElement (ByVal Element As String) As String

Select Case UCase(Element) Case "TABLE_HEADER_BG" Return "Red" Case "TABLE_FOOTER_BG" Return "Green" Case "TABLE_HEADER_TEXT" Return "White"t; Case e Elsese Return "Blackk End Select End Function Now apply this function to the style property of an element on the report. =code.StyleElement("TABLE_HEADER_TEXT") If you want apply dynamic styles to report, then create tables in sql server and insert style information into the tables. Create a Dataset, specify the Stored Procedure. example: =Fields!TABLE_HEADER_TEXT.Value where TABLE_HEADER_TEXT is a value in the table. 8. Dynamic sorting, Dynamic Grouping in SSRS Can be done using expressions. 9. Different types of Filters The 2 types of filters in SSRS are: Dataset Filter: Filtering within the source query. When you implement a filter within the data set, less data is sent from the source database server to the Report Server - usually a good thing. Report Filter: This includes filtering after the source query has come back on a data region (like the Tablix), or a data grouping. When you implement a filter within the report, when the report is re-executed again with different parameter choices, the Report Server uses cached data rather than returning to the database server. Using a Dataset Filter is the most efficient method. 10. Difference between Filter and Parameter? Which one is better? In case of Filters, first the data will be fetched from the database, then the Filters are applied on the fetched data. Filters are applied at run time first on the dataset, and then on the data region, and then on the group, in top-down order for group hierarchies. To add a filter, we must specify a filter equation (expression). The data type of filtered data and value must match. Parameters are applied at the database level. The Data will be fetched based on parameters at the database level using WHERE condition in the query. Parameters are better than Filters in performance. 11. Optimization of Report Report can be optimized in terms of Grouping, Filters. Report can be optimized through Caching, Snapshot and subscriptions. 1. The total time to generate a report (RDL) can be divided into 3 elements: Time to retrieve the data (TimeDataRetrieval).

Time to process the report (TimeProcessing) Time to render the report (TimeRendering) Total time = (TimeDataRetrieval) + (TimeProcessing) + (TimeRendering) These 3 performance components are logged every time for which a deployed report is executed. This information can be found in the table ExecutionLogStorage in the ReportServer database. SELECT TOP 10 Itempath, parameters, TimeDataRetrieval + TimeProcessing + TimeRendering as [total time], TimeDataRetrieval, TimeProcessing, TimeRendering, ByteCount, [RowCount],Source, AdditionalInfo FROM ExecutionLogStorage ORDER BY Timestart DESC 2. Use the SQL Profiler to see which queries are executed when the report is generated. Sometimes you will see more queries being executed than you expected. Every dataset in the report will be executed. A lot of times new datasets are added during building of reports. Check if all datasets are still being used. For instance, datasets for available parameter values. Remove all datasets which are not used anymore. 3. Sometimes a dataset contains more columns than used in the Tablix\list. Use only required columns in the Dataset. 4. ORDER BY in the dataset differs from the ORDER BY in the Tablix\list. You need to decide where the data will be sorted. It can be done within SQL Server with an ORDER BY clause or in by the Reporting server engine. It is not useful to do it in both. If an index is available use the ORDER BY in your dataset. 5. Use the SQL Profiler to measure the performance of all datasets (Reads, CPU and Duration). Use the SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) to analyze the execution plan of every dataset. 6. Avoid dataset with result sets with a lot of records like more than 1000 records. A lot of times data is GROUPED in the report without an Drill down option. In that scenario do the group by already in your dataset. This will save a lot of data transfer to the SQL Server and it will save the reporting server engine to group the result set. 7. Rendering of the report can take a while if the result set is very big. Look very critical if such a big result set is necessary. If details are used in only 5 % of the situations, create another report to display the details. This will avoid the retrieval of all details in 95 % of the situations. 12. I have 'State' column in report, display the States in bold, whose State name starts with letter 'A' (eg: Andhra pradesh, Assam should be in bold) 13. In which scenario you used Matrix Report Use a matrix to display aggregated data summaries, grouped in rows and columns, similar to a PivotTable or crosstab. The number of rows and columns for groups is determined by the number of unique values for each row and column groups. 14. Image control in SSRS An image is a report item that contains a reference to an image that is stored on the report server, embedded within the report, or stored in a database. Image Source : Embedded Local report images are embedded in the report and then referenced. When you embed an image, Report Designer MIME-encodes the image and stores it as text in

the report definition. When to Use: When image is embedded locally within the report. When you are required to store all images within the report definition.

Image Source : External When you use an external image in a report, the image source is set to External and the value for the image is the URL to the image. When to Use: When images are stored in a File System, External File Share or Web Site. Image Source : Database If we add images that are stored in a database to report then such image is known

as a data-bound image. Data-bound images can also be displayed from binary data (BLOB) stored in a database. When to use: When image is stored in a Database. When you specify a dataset field that is bound to a database field that contains an image. 15. Role of Report Manager Deploying the reports onto the web server. Delivering the reports through E-mail or File Share using the subscriptions. Creating the Cached and Snapshot Reports. Providing the Security to the reports. 16. How to upload a report to report server In the Report Manager, we have upload option to upload the reports. 17. What is a Shared Dataset Shared datasets retrieve data from shared data sources that connect to external data sources. A shared dataset contains a query to provide a consistent set of data for multiple reports. The dataset query can include dataset parameters. Shared datasets use only shared data sources, not embedded data sources. To create a shared dataset, you must use an application that creates a shared dataset definition file (.rsd). You can use one of the following applications to create a shared dataset: 1. Report Builder: Use shared dataset design mode and save the shared dataset to a report server or SharePoint site. 2. Report Designer in BIDS: Create shared datasets under the Shared Dataset folder in Solution Explorer. To publish a shared dataset, deploy it to a report server or SharePoint site. Upload a shared dataset definition (.rsd) file. You can upload a file to the report server or SharePoint site. On a SharePoint site, an uploaded file is not validated against the schema until the shared dataset is cached or used in a report. The shared dataset definition includes a query, dataset parameters including default values, data options such as case sensitivity, and dataset filters. 18. How do u display the partial text in bold format in textbox in Report? (eg: FirstName LastName, where "FirstName" should in bold fornt and "LastName" should be in normal font.) Use PlaceHolder 19. How to Keep Headers Visible When Scrolling Through a Report? 1. Right-click the row, column, or corner handle of a tablix data region, and then click Tablix Properties. 2. On the General tab, under Row Headers or Column Headers, select Header should remain visible while scrolling.

3. Click OK. To keep a static tablix member (row or column) visible while scrolling 1. On the design surface, click the row or column handle of the tablix data region to select it. The Grouping pane displays the row and column groups. 2. On the right side of the Grouping pane, click the down arrow, and then clickAdvanced Mode. The Row Groups pane displays the hierarchical static and

dynamic members for the row groups hierarchy and the Column groups pane shows a similar display for the column groups hierarchy. 3. Click the static member (row or column) that you want to remain visible while scrolling. The Properties pane displays the Tablix Member properties. 4. In the Properties pane, set FixedData to True.

20. How to add Page Break

1. On the design surface, right-click the corner handle of the data region and then click Tablix Properties. 2. On the General tab, under Page break options, select one of the following options: Add a page break before:Select this option when you want to add a page break before the table. Add a page break after:Select this option when you want to add a page break after the table. Fit table on one page if possible:Select this option when you want the data to stay on one page.

21. A main report contain subreport also. Can we export both main report and subreport to Excel? Yes. The exported report contains both the mail report and sub report. 22. how to convert PDF report from Portrait to Landscape format? In Report Properties --> Set the width of the report to the landscape size of your A4 paper: 29.7 cm Set the height of the report to 21 cm. To avoid extra blank pages during export, the size of the body should be less or equal to the size of the report - margins. Set the width of the body to 26.7 cm (29.7 -1.5 - 1.5) Set the height of the body to 18 cm (21 - 1.5 -1.5) 23. Error handling in Report Step 1: All the data sets of the report should contain one addition input parameter which should pass a unique information for every request (for every click of View Report button) made by the user. Step 2: Need to implement TRY CATCH blocks for all the Stored procedures used in the SSRS reports through datasets. The CATCH section of every procedure should have the provision to save the error details into DB table, if any error occurred while execution of that procedure. Step 3: Add one more additional dataset with the name "ErrorInfo" which should call the store procedure (USP_ERROR_INFO). This procedure should be accepting a unique value. This unique value should be passed to all the data sets for every click of 'View Report' button made by the user. This dataset will return the error information available in the data base table by verifying records with the unique id which has passes as input parameter. Step 4:Enable the Use Single Transaction When Processing Queries option in data source properties, which makes all the query executions through a single transaction. Step 5: After successful completion of all the above mentioned steps, insert new table on SSRS report with custom error information which will be shown to the report user if the user gets any error during execution of the report. 24. Have u worked on any 3rd party Report Tools There are few third party Report Tools like Nevron, izenda. 25. Different ways of Deploying reports 1. We can deploy the reports using rs.exe tool 2. In the Solution Explorer, 2.1.Right-click the report project, and then click Properties.

2.2.In the Property Pages dialog box for the project, select a configuration to edit from the Configuration list. Common configurations are DebugLocal, Debug, and Release. 2.3.In StartItem, select a report to display in the preview window or in a browser window when the report project is run. 2.4.In the OverwriteDataSources list, select True to overwrite the shared data source on the server each time shared data sources are published, or select False to keep the data source on the server. 2.5.In the TargetDataSourceFolder text box, type the folder on the report server in which to place the published shared data sources. The default value for TargetDataSourceFolder is Data Sources. If you leave this value blank, the data sources will be published to the location specified in TargetReportFolder. 2.6. In the TargetReportFolder text box, type the folder on the report server in which to place the published reports. The default value for TargetReportFolder is the name of the report project. 2.7. In the TargetServerURL text box, type the URL of the target report server. Before you publish a report, you must set this property to a valid report server URL.

3. There are 2 options for deploying the reports that you create with Report Builder 3.0: 1. Report Manager 2. SharePoint document library 26. Difference between Cached Report and Snapshot Report

Cached Report is a saved copy of processed report. The first time a user clicks the link for a report configured to cache, the report execution process is similar to the on-demand process. The intermediate format is cached and stored in ReportServerTempDB Database until the cache expiry time. If a user request a different set of parameter values for a cached report, then the report processor treats the requests as a new report executing on demand, but flags it as a second cached instance. Report snapshot contains the Query and Layout information retrieved at specific point of time. It executes the query and produces the intermediate format. The intermediate format of the report has no expiration time like a cached instance, and is stored in ReportServer Database. 27. Subscription. Different types of Subscriptions? Subscriptions are used to deliver the reports to either File Share or Email in response to Report Level or Server Level Schedule. There are 2 types of subscriptions: 1. Standard Subscription: Static properties are set for Report Delivery. 2. Data Driven Subscription: Dynamic Runtime properties are set for Subscriptions 28. SSRS Architecture 29. How to deploy Reports from one server to other server 30. Different life cycles of Report 1.Report authoring: This stage involves creation of reports that are published using the Report Definition language. RDL is an XML based industry standard for defining reports. Report Designer is a full-featured report authoring tool that runs in Business Intelligence Development Studio and Report Builder. 2. Report management: This involves managing the published reports as a part of the webservice. The reports are cached for consistency and performance. They can be executed whenever demanded or can be scheduled and executed. In short Report Management includes: - Organizing reports and data sources, - Scheduling report execution and delivery - Tracking reporting history. 3. Report delivery: Reports can be delivered to the consumers either on their demand or based on an event. Then they can view them is a web-based format. Web based delivery via Report Manager web site Subscriptions allow for automated report delivery URL Access, Web Services and Report Viewer control 4.Report security: It is important to protect reports as well as the report resources. Therefore, Reporting Services implement a flexible, role-based security model. 31. Different type of Reports Linked report:A linked report is derived from an existing report and retains the original's report definition. A linked report always inherits report layout and data source properties of the original report. All other properties and settings can be different from those of the original report, including security, parameters, location, subscriptions, and schedules.

Snapshot reports: A report snapshot contains layout information and query results that were retrieved at a specific point in time. Report snapshots are processed on a schedule and then saved to a report server. Subreport: A subreport is a report that displays another report inside the body of a main report. The subreport can use different data sources than the main report. Cached reports: A cached report is a saved copy of a processed report. Cached reports are used to improve performance by reducing the number of processing requests to the report processor and by reducing the time required to retrieve large reports. They have a mandatory expiration period, usually in minutes. Drill Down Report: Means navigate from the summary level to detail level in the same report. Drill Through Report: Navigation from one report to another report. Ad hoc reports:Ad Hoc reporting allows the end users to design and create reports on their own provided the data models. 3 components: Report Builder, Report Model and Model Designer Use 'Model Designer' tool to design 'Report Models' and then use 'Report Model' tool to generate reports. Report Builder - Windows Winform application for End users to build ad-hoc reports with the help of Report models. 32. Explain the Report Model Steps. 1. Create the report model project select "Report Model Project" in the Templates list A report model project contains the definition of the data source (.ds file), the definition of a data source view (.dsv file), and the report model (.smdl file). 2. Define a data source for the report model 3. Define a data source view for the report model A data source view is a logical data model based on one or more data sources. SQL Reporting Services generates the report model from the data source view. 4. Define a report model 5. Publish a report model to report server. 33. How to get the data for Report Model Reports Datasource View 34. Difference between RDL and RDLC? RDL files are created for Sql Server Reporting Services and .RDLC files are for Visual Studio Report Viewer Component. The <Query> element of RDL contains query or command and is used by the Report Server to connect to the datasources of the report. The <Query> element is optional in RDLC file. This element is ignored by Report Viewer control because Report Viewer control does not perform any data processing in Local processing mode, but used data that the host application supplies. 35. Difference between Sorting and Interactive Sorting? To control the Sort order of data in report, you must set the sort expression on the data region or group. The does not have control over sorting. You can provide control to the user by adding Interactive Sort buttons to toggle between ascending and descending order for rows in a table or for rows and columns in a matrix. The most common use of interactive sort is to add a sort button to every column header. The user can then choose which column to sort by.

36. What is Report Builder Windows Winform application for End users to build ad-hoc reports with the help of Report models. 37. Difference between Table report and Matrix Report A Table Report can have fixed number of columns and dynamic rows. A Matrix Report has dynamic rows and dynamic columns. 38. When to use Table, Matrix and List 1. Use a Table to display detail data, organize the data in row groups, or both. 2. Use a matrix to display aggregated data summaries, grouped in rows and columns, similar to a PivotTable or crosstab. The number of rows and columns for groups is determined by the number of unique values for each row and column groups. 3. Use a list to create a free-form layout. You are not limited to a grid layout, but can place fields freely inside the list. You can use a list to design a form for displaying many dataset fields or as a container to display multiple data regions side by side for grouped data. For example, you can define a group for a list; add a table, chart, and image; and display values in table and graphic form for each group value 39. Report Server Configuration Files 1. RSReportServer.config: Stores configuration settings for feature areas of the Report Server service: Report Manager, the Report Server Web service, and background processing. 2. RSSrvPolicy.config Stores the code access security policies for the server extensions. 3. RSMgrPolicy.config Stores the code access security policies for Report Manager. 4. Web.config for the Report Server Web service Includes only those settings that are required for ASP.NET. 5. ReportingServicesService.exe.config 6. Registry settings 7. Web.config for Report Manager Includes only those settings that are required for ASP.NET 8. RSReportDesigner.config 9. RSPreviewPolicy.config 40. Difference between a Report and adhoc Report Ad Hoc reporting allows the end users to design and create reports on their own provided the data models. Adhoc Report is created from existing report model using Report Builder. 41. How do u secure a Report 1. Authorization is provided through a role-based security model that is specific to Reporting Services. Different Types of Roles provided by SSRS : - Browsers - Content Manager - My Reports - Publishers - Report Builder 2. IIS security controls access to the report server virtual directory and Report Manager. 42.How to Combine Datasets in SSRS (1 Dataset gets data from Oracle and other dataset from Sql Server)

Using LookUP function, we can combine 2 datasets in SSRS. In the following example, assume that a table is bound to a dataset that includes a field for the product identifier ProductID. A separate dataset called "Product" contains the corresponding product identifier ID and the product name Name. =Lookup(Fields!ProductID.Value, Fields!ID.Value, Fields!Name.Value, "Product") In the above expression, Lookup compares the value of ProductID to ID in each row of the dataset called "Product" and, when a match is found, returns the value of the Name field for that row. 43. Difference between Report Server and Report Manager Report Server handle authentication, data processing, rendering and delivery operations. The configuration settings of Report Manager and the Report Server Web service are stored in a single configuration file (rsreportserver.config). Report Manager is the web-based application included with Reporting Services that handles all aspects of managing reports (deploying datasources and reports, caching a report, subscriptions, snapshot). 44. Steps to repeat Table Headers in SSRS 2008? 1. Select the table 2. At the bottom of the screen, select a dropdown arrow beside column groups. Enable "Advanced Mode" by clicking on it. 3. under Row Groups,select the static row and choose properties / press F4. 4. Set the following attributes for the static row or header row. Set RepeatOnNewPage= True for repeating headers Set KeepWithGroup= After Set FixedData=True for keeping the headers visible. 45. How to add assemblies in SSRS

45. Report Extensions?

46. parent grouping, child grouping in SSRS 47. How to show "No Data Found" Message to end user?
Add a Text box with expression =IIF(Count(<ID Field>, "DataSet")=0,"No Data Returned", nothing) and set the visibility of this Text box as =IIF(Count(<ID Field>, "DataSet")=0,False,True)

48. What is the 'Use single transaction when processing the queries' in the Datasource? Dataset Execution Order? By default, datasets are executed in parallel. This option used to reduce the amount of open connections to the database. For example, if you have a report with 3 datasets and you dont have this option checked, a new connection is made to the database for every single dataset. However, if you have it checked, then only one connection will be open to the database and all the datasets will return the data and the connection will be closed. This can be used to reduce network traffic and potentially increase performance. Open the data source dialog in report designer, and select the "Use Single Transaction when processing the queries' check box. Once selected, datasets that use the same data source are no longer executed in parallel. They are also executed as a transaction, i.e. if any of the queries fails to execute, the entire transaction is rolled back.

The order of the dataset execution sequence is determined by the topdown order of the dataset appearance in the RDL file, which also corresponds to the order shown in report designer. 49. ReportServer and ReportServerTempDB Databases
ReportServer: hosts the report catalog and metadata. For eg: keeps the catalog items in the Catalog table, the data source information in

the Data-Source table of ReportServer Database. ReportServerTempDB: used by RS for caching purposes. For eg: once the report is executed, the Report Server saves a copy of the report in the ReportServerTempDB database.

SSAS Interview Questions and Answers

1. Star Vs Snowflake schema and Dimensional modeling Star Schema: One Fact Table surrounded by number of Dimension Tables. It is a DeNormalized form. Dimension table will not have any parent table. Hierarchies in the Dimension are stored in the Dimension itself. Snowflake: Normalized form of star schema is a snow flake schema. Dimension tables can be further broken down into sub dimensions. Dimension table will have one or more parent tables. Hierarchies are broken into seperate tables in snow schema. These hierarchies helps to drilldown the data from Top hierarchy to lowermost hierarchy. Increases the number of joins and poor performance in retrival of data. 2. Data storage modes - MOLAP, ROLAP, HOLAP In ROLAP, the structure of aggregation along with the values are stored in the 2 dimensional relational formats at disc level. ROLAP offers low latency, but it requires large storage space as well as slower processing and query response times. In MOLAP, the structure of aggregation along with the data values are stored in multi dimensional format, takes more space with less time for data analysis compared to ROLAP. MOLAPoffers faster query response and processing times, but offers a high latency and requires average amount of storage space. This storage mode leads to duplication of data as the detail data is present in both the relational as well as the multidimensional storage. In HOLAP, stucture is stored in Relational model and data is stored in multi dimensional model which provides optimal usage and space. This storage mode offers optimal storage space, query response time, latency and fast processing times. Default storage setting is MOLAP. 3. Types of Dimensions

Dimension type Regular

Description A dimension whose type has not been set to a special dimension type.


A dimension whose attributes represent time periods, such as years, semesters, quarters, months, and days. Organization A dimension whose attributes represent organizational information, such as employees or subsidiaries. Geography A dimension whose attributes represent geographic information, such as cities or postal codes. BillOfMaterials A dimension whose attributes represent inventory or manufacturing information, such as parts lists for products. Accounts A dimension whose attributes represent a chart of accounts for financial reporting purposes. Customers A dimension whose attributes represent customer or contact information. Products A dimension whose attributes represent product information. Scenario A dimension whose attributes represent planning or strategic analysis information. Quantitative A dimension whose attributes represent quantitative information. Utility A dimension whose attributes represent miscellaneous information. Currency This type of dimension contains currency data and metadata. Rates A dimension whose attributes represent currency rate information. Channel A dimension whose attributes represent channel information. Promotion A dimension whose attributes represent marketing promotion information.

4. Types of Measures Fully Additive Facts: These are facts which can be added across all the associated dimensions. For example, sales amount is a fact which can be summed across different dimensions like customer, geography, date, product, and so on. Semi-Additive Facts: These are facts which can be added across only few dimensions rather than all dimensions. For example, bank balance is a fact which can be summed across the customer dimension (i.e. the total balance of all the customers in a bank at the end of a particular quarter). However, the same fact cannot be added across the date dimension (i.e. the total balance at the end of quarter 1 is $X million and $Y million at the end of quarter 2, so at the end of quarter 2, the total balance is only $Y million and not $X+$Y).

Non-Additive Facts: These are facts which cannot be added across any of the dimensions in the cube. For example, profit margin is a fact which cannot be added across any of the dimensions. For example, if product P1 has a 10% profit and product P2 has a 10% profit then your net profit is still 10% and not 20%. We cannot add profit margins across product dimensions. Similarly, if your profit margin is 10% on Day1 and 10% on Day2, then your net Profit Margin at the end of Day2 is still 10% and not 20%. Derived Facts: Derived facts are the facts which are calculated from one or more base facts, often by applying additional criteria. Often these are not stored in the cube and are calculated on the fly at the time of accessing them. For example, profit margin. Factless Facts: A factless fact table is one which only has references (Foreign Keys) to the dimensions and it does not contain any measures. These types of fact tables are often used to capture events (valid transactions without a net change in a measure value). For example, a balance enquiry at an automated teller machine (ATM). Though there is no change in the account balance, this transaction is still important for analysis purposes. Textual Facts: Textual facts refer to the textual data present in the fact table, which is not measurable (non-additive), but is important for analysis purposes. For example, codes (i.e. product codes), flags (i.e. status flag), etc. 5. Types of relationships between dimensions and measuregroups. No relationship: The dimension and measure group are not related. Regular: The dimension table is joined directly to the fact table. Referenced: The dimension table is joined to an intermediate table, which in turn,is joined to the fact table. Many to many:The dimension table is to an intermediate fact table,the intermediate fact table is joined, in turn, to an intermediate dimension table to which the fact table is joined. Data mining:The target dimension is based on a mining model built from the source dimension. The source dimension must also be included in the cube. Fact table: The dimension table is the fact table. 6. Proactive caching Proactive caching can be configured to refresh the cache (MOLAP cache) either on a pre-defined schedule or in response to an event (change in the data) from the underlying relational database. Proactive caching settings also determine whether the data is queried from the underlying relational database (ROLAP) or is read from the outdated MOLAP cache, while the MOLAP cache is rebuilt. Proactive caching helps in minimizing latency and achieve high performance. It enables a cube to reflect the most recent data present in the underlying database by automatically refreshing the cube based on the predefined settings.

Lazy aggregations:

When we reprocess SSAS cube then it actually bring new/changed relational data into SSAS cube by reprocessing dimensions and measures. Partition indexes and aggregations might be dropped due to changes in related dimensions data so aggregations and partition indexes need to be reprocessed. It might take more time to build aggregation and partition indexes. If you want to bring cube online sooner without waiting rebuilding of partition indexes and aggregations then lazy processing option can be chosen. Lazy processing option bring SSAS cube online as soon as dimensions and measures get

processed. Partition indexes and aggregations are triggered later as a background job.

Lazy processing option can be changed by server level property "OLAP\LazyProcessing\Enabled"

Advantage: Lazy processing saves processing time as it brings as soon as measures and dimension data is ready. Disadvantage: User will see performance hit when aggregation are getting build in background. 7. Partition processing options Process Default: SSAS dynamically chooses from one of the following process options. Process Full: Drop all object stores, and rebuild the objects. This option is when a structural change has been made to an object, for example, when an attribute hierarchy is added, deleted, or renamed. Process Update: Forces a re-read of data and an update of dimension attributes. Flexible aggregations and indexes on related partitions will be dropped. Process Add: For dimensions, adds new members and updates dimension attribute captions and descriptions. Process Data:Processes data only without building aggregations or indexes. If there is data is in the partitions, it will be dropped before re-populating the partition with source data. Process Index: Creates or rebuilds indexes and aggregations for all processed partitions. For unprocessed objects, this option generates an error. Unprocess: Delete data from the object. Process Structure: Drop the data and perform process default on all dimensions. Process Clear: Drops the data in the object specified and any lower-level constituent objects. After the data is dropped, it is not reloaded. Process Clear Structure: Removes all training data from a mining structure. 8. Difference between attirubte hierarchy and user hierarchy An Attribute Hierarchy is created by SSAS for every Attribute in a Dimension by default. An Attribute by default contains only two levels - An "All" level and a "Detail" level which is nothing but the Dimension Members. A User Defined Hierarchy is defined explicitly by the user/developer and often contains multiple levels. For example, a Calendar Hierarchy contains Year, Quarter, Month, and Date as its levels. Some of the highlights/differences of Attribute and User Defined Hierarchies: 1. Attribute Hierarchies are always Two-Level (Unless All Level is suppressed) whereas User Defined Hierarchies are often Multi-Level. 2. By default, Every Attribute in a Dimension has an Attribute Hierarchy whereas User Defined Hierarchies have to be explicitly defined by the user/developer. 3. Every Dimension has at least one Attribute Hierarchy by default whereas every Dimension does not necessarily contain a User Defined Hierarchy. In essence, a Dimension can contain zero, one, or more User Defined Hierarchies. 4. Attribute Hierarchies can be enabled or disabled. Disable the Attribute Hierarchy for those attributes which are commonly not used to slice and dice the data during analysis, like Address, Phone Number, and Unit Price etc. Doing this will improve the

cube processing performance and also reduces the size of the cube as those attributes are not considered for performing aggregations. 5. Attribute Hierarchies can be made visible or hidden. When an Attribute Hierarchy is hidden, it will not be visible to the client application while browsing the Dimension/Cube. Attribute Hierarchies for those attributes which are part of the User Defined Hierarchies, like Day, Month, Quarter, and Year, which are part of the Calendar Hierarchy, can be hidden, since the attribute is available to the end users through the User Defined Hierarchy and helps eliminate the confusion/redundancy for end users. 9. Dimension, Hierarchy, Level, and Members Dimensions in Analysis Services contain attributes that correspond to columns in dimension tables. These attributes appear as attribute hierarchies and can be organized into user-defined hierarchies, or can be defined as parent-child hierarchies based on columns in the underlying dimension table. Hierarchies are used to organize measures that are contained in a cube. Hierarchy: is the relation between attributes in a dimension. Level: refers to individual attribute within the Hierarchy. 10. Difference between database dimension and cube dimension When you create a dimension using dimension wizard in BIDS, then you're creating a Database dimension in your AS database. Database dimensions is independent of cube and can be processed on their own. When you build a cube, and you add dimensions to that cube, you create cube dimensions: cube dimensions are instances of a database dimension inside a cube. A database dimension can be used in multiple cubes, and multiple cube dimensions can be based on a single database dimension The Database dimension has only Name and ID properties, whereas a Cube dimension has several more properties. Database dimension is created one where as Cube dimension is referenced from database dimension. Database dimension exists only once.where as Cube dimensions can be created more than one using ROLE PLAYING Dimensions concept. 11. Importance of CALCULATE keyword in MDX script, data pass and limiting cube space 12. Effect of materialize When setting up a dimension with a Refence relationship type, we have the option of "materializing" the dimension. Select to store the attribute member in the intermediate dimension that links the attribute in the reference dimension to the fact table in the MOLAP structure. This imporvies the qery performance, but increases the processing time and storage space. If the option is not selected, only the relationship between the fact records and the intermediate dimension is stored in the cube. This means that Anaylysis services has to derive the aggregated values for the members of the referenced dimension when a query is executed, resulting in slower query performance. 13. Partition processing and Aggregation Usage Wizard 14. Perspectives, Translations, Linked Object Wizard

15. Handling late arriving dimensions / early arriving facts 16. Role playing Dimensions, Junk Dimensions, Conformed Dimensions, SCD and other types of dimensions Role playing Dimesnion: A Role-Playing Dimension is a Dimension which is connected to the same Fact Table multiple times using different Foreign Keys. eg: Consider a Time Dimension which is joined to the same Fact Table (Say FactSales) multiple times, each time using a different Foreign Key in the Fact Table like Order Date, Due Date, Ship Date, Delivery Date, etc Steps: In Cube Designer, click the Dimension Usage tab. Either click the 'Add Cube Dimension' button, or right-click anywhere on the work surface and then click Add Cube Dimension. In the Add Cube Dimension dialog box, select the dimension that you want to add, and then click OK. A Conformed Dimension is a Dimension which connects to multiple Fact Tables across one or more Data Marts (cubes). Conformed Dimensions are exactly the same structure, attributes, values (dimension members), meaning and definition. Example: A Date Dimension has exactly the same set of attributes, same members and same meaning irrespective of which Fact Table it is connected to A linked dimension is based on a dimension that is stored in a separate Analysis Services Database which may or may not be on the same server. You can create and maintain a dimension in just one database and then reuse that dimension by creating linked dimensions for use in multiple databases. Linked Dimensions can be used when the exact same dimension can be used across multiple Cubes within an Organization like a Time Dimension, gography Dimension etc. Here are some of the highlights of a Linked Dimension: -More than one Linked Dimension can be created from a Single Database Dimension. -These can be used to implement the concept of Conformed Dimensions. -For an end user, a Linked Dimension appears like any other Dimension. A Degenerate Dimension is a Dimension which is derived out of a Fact Table and it appears to the end user as a separate/distinct Dimension, its data is actually stored in the Fact Table. It's a Dimension table which does not have an underlying physical table of its own. Degenerate Dimensions are commonly used when the Fact Table contains/represents Transactional data like Order Details, etc. and each Order has an Order Number associated with it, which forms the unique value in the Degenerate Dimension. A Junk Dimension is often a collection of Unrelated Attributes like indicators, flags, codes, etc. It is also called as a Garbage Dimension. Junk Dimensions are usually small in size. One of the common scenarios is when a Fact Table contains a lot of Attributes which are like indicators, flags, etc. Using Junk Dimensions, such Attributes can be

removed/cleaned up from a Fact Table. SCD: The Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD) concept is basically about how the data modifications are absorbed and maintained in a Dimension Table. The new (modified) record and the old record(s) are identified using some kind of a flag like say IsActive, IsDeleted etc. or using Start and End Date fields to indicate the validity of the record. 17. Parent Child Hierarchy, NamingTemplate property, MemberWithLeafLevelData property 18. How will you keep measure in cube without showing it to user? 19. How to pass parameter in MDX Here is an example, suppose this is your query: select {[Measures].[Internet Order Quantity]} on 0, [Product].[Category].[Category] on 1 from [Adventure Works] where [Date].[Calendar Year].&[2002] You can modify it like this: select {[Measures].[Internet Order Quantity]} on 0, [Product].[Category].[Category] on 1 from [Adventure Works] where strtomember(@P1) Now, if you pass the value [Date].[Calendar Year].&[2002] to the P1, then it will run just like: where [Date].[Calendar Year].&[2002] STRTOSET returns a set. STRTOMEMBER returns a member. 20. SSAS 2008 vs SSAS 2012 21. Dimension security vs Cell security 22. SCOPE statement, THIS keyword, SUBCUBE 23. CASE (CASE, WHEN, THEN, ELSE, END) statement, IF THEN END IF, IS keyword, HAVING clause 24. CELL CALCULATION and CONDITION clause 25. RECURSION and FREEZE statement 26. Common types of errors encountered while processing a dimension / measure groups / cube 27. Logging and monitoring MDX scripts and cube performance

28. What do you understand by attribute relationship? what are the main advantages in using attribute relationship? An Attribute Relationship is a relationship between various attributes within a Dimension. By default, every Attribute in a Dimension is related to the Key Attribute. There are basically 2 types of Attribute Relationships: Rigid, Flexible 29. What is natural hierarchy and how will you create it? Natural hierarchies, where each attribute is related either directly or indirectly to all other attributes in the same hierarchy, as in product category - product subcategory - product name 30. What do you understand by rigid and flexible relationship? Which one is better from performance perspective? Rigid: Attribute Relationship should be set to Rigid when the relationship between those attributes is not going to change over time. For example, relationship between a Month and a Date is Rigid since a particular Date always belongs to a particular Month like 1st Feb 2012 always belongs to Feb Month of 2012. Try to set the relationship to Rigid wherever possible. Flexible: Attribute Relationship should be set to Flexible when the relationship between those attributes is going to change over time. For example, relationship between an Employee and a Manager is Flexible since a particular Employee might work under one manager during this year (time period) and under a different manager during next year (another time period). 31. In which scenario, you would like to go for materializing dimension? Reference dimensions let you create a relationship between a measure group and a dimension using an intermediate dimension to act as a bridge between them. 32. In dimension usage tab, how many types of joins are possible to form relationship between measure group and dimension? 33. What is deploy, process and build? Bulid: Verifies the project files and create several local files. Deploy: Deploy the structure of the cube(Skeleton) to the server. Process: Read the data from the source and build the dimesions and cube structures 34. Can you create server time dimension in analysis services(Server time dimension)? 35. How many types of dimension are possible in SSAS? Account Bill of Materials Currency Channel Customer Geography Organizations Products promotion Regular Scenario Time Unary 36. What is time intelligence? How will you implement in SSAS?

37. What do you understand by linked cube or linked object feature in SSAS? 38. How will you write back to dimension using excel or any other client tool? 39. What do you understand by dynamic named set (SSAS 2008)? How is i different from static named set? 40. In Process Update, which relationship will be better(Rigid and Flexible relationship)? 41. What is the difference between "ProcessingGroup" ByAttribute and ByTable? 42. What do you understand by following properties of dimension attribute. Default Member AttributeHierarchyEnabled AttributeHierarchyOptimizedState DiscretizationMethod OrderBy OrderByAttribute 43. What are different storage mode option in SQL server analysis services and which scenario, they will be useful? 44. How will you implement data security for given scenario in analysis service data? "I have 4 cubes and 20 dimension. I need to give access to CEO, Operation managers and Sales managers and employee. 1) CEO can see all the data of all 4 cubes. 2) Operation Managers can see only data related to their cube. There are four operation managers. 3) Employees can see only certain dimension and measure groups data. (200 Employees) " 45. What are the options to deploy SSAS cube in production? Right click on Project in Solution Explorer -> Properties Build -> Select ' Output Path' Deployment -> Processing Option - Default, Full, Do Not Process Transactional Deployment - False, True Deployment Mode - Deploy All, Deploy Changes only 1.BIDS In BIDS from the build menu select the build option (or right click on the project in the solution explorer). The build process will create four xml files in the bin subfolder of the project folder .asdatabase - is the main object definition file .configsettings .deploymentoptions .deploymenttargets

2. Deploy Deployment via BIDS will overwrite the destination database management settings so is not recommended for production deployment. A more controllable option is the Deployment wizard, available in interactive or command line mode. Run the wizard from Start -> All Programs ->Microsoft Sql Server -> Analysis Services -> deployment wizard 1. Browse to the .asdatabase file created by the build 2. connect to the target server 3. Configure how partitions and roles should be deployed 4. specify how configuration settings are deployed 5. Specify Processing options: Default processing allows SSAS to decide what needs to be done; Full processing can be used to process all objects. You can also choose not to process at all. 6. choose whether to deploy instantly or to create an XMLA command script for later deployment. The script will be created in the same location as the .asdatabase file. 46. What are the options available to incrementally load relational data into SSAS cube? Use Slowly Changing Dimesnion 47. Why will you use aggregation at remote server? 48. What are different ways to create aggregations in SSAS? 49. What do you understand by Usage based optimization? 50. Can we use different aggregation scheme for different partitions? 51. Why will you use perspective in SSAS? 52. What are KPIs? How will you create KPIs in SSAS? 53. What are the main feature differences in SSAS 2005 and SSAS 2008 from developer point of view? 54.What are the aggregate functions available for measure in SSAS? Sum, Min, Max, Count, and Distinct Count 55. What are the processing modes available for measure group? What do you understand by lazy aggregation? 56. How can you improve dimension design? 1: Limit the Number of Dimensions Per Measure Group and Number of Attributes Per Dimension. AttributeHierarchyOptimizedState: Determines the level of optimization applied to the attribute hierarchy. By default, an attribute hierarchy is FullyOptimized, which means that Analysis Services builds indexes for the attribute hierarchy to improve query performance. The other option, NotOptimized, means that no indexes are built for the attribute hierarchy. 2: Use Dimension Properties Effectively For large dimensions that expose millions of rows and have a large number of attributes, pay particular attention to the ProcessingGroup property. By

default, this property is assigned a value of ByAttribute. 3: Use Regular Dimension Relationship Whenever Possible 4: Use Integer Data Type for Attribute Keys If at All Possible 5: Use Natural Hierarchies When Possible 57. What are the performance issues with parent child hierarchy? In parent-child hierarchies, aggregations are created only for the key attribute and the top attribute, i.e., the All attribute unless it is disabled. 58. What do you understand by formula engine and storage engine? Formula Engine is single-threaded, Storage Engine (SE) is multi-threaded. The Query Processor Cache/Formula Engine Cache caches the calculation results whereas the Storage Engine Cache caches aggregated/fact data being queried. 59. How can you improve overall cube performance? Partitioning the cube can help to reduce the processing time. The benefit of partitioning is that it allows to process multiple partitions in parallel on a server that has multiple processors. Regarding the best possible processing strategy, the following steps: 1. Process Update all the dimensions that could have had data changed. Depending on the nature of the changes in the dimension table, Process Update can affect dependent partitions. If only new members were added, then the partitions are not affected. But if members were deleted or if member relationships changed, then some of the aggregation data and bitmap indexes on the partitions are dropped. 2. Process Data the partitions that have changed data (which are usually the most recent partitions). Of course, the smaller the partition, the better, so try to use daily partitions instead of monthly or use monthly partitions instead of yearly. 3. Process Index for the rest of the partitions

1. Explain the structure of MDX query? 2. Tell me your 5 mostly used MDX functions? 3. What is the difference between set and tuple? Tuple: It is a collection of members from different Dimension Set: collection of one or More tuples from same dimension 4. What do you understand by Named set? Is there any new feature added in SSAS 2012 related to named set? 5. How will you differentiate among level, member, attribute, hierarchy? 6. What are the differences among exists, existing and scope? 7. What will happen if we remove CALCULATE keyword in the script? 8. How will you pass parameter in MDX? 9. What is the difference between .MEMBERS and .CHILDREN? 10.What is the difference between NON EMPTY keyword and NONEMPTY() function? 11. Functions used commonly in MDX like Filter, Descendants, BAsc and others

12. Difference between NON EMPTY keyword and function, NON_EMPTY_BEHAVIOR, ParallelPeriod, AUTOEXISTS 13. Difference between static and dynamic set 14. Difference between natural and unnatural hierarchy, attribute relationships 15. Difference between rigid and flexible relationships 16. Write MDX for retrieving top 3 customers based on internet sales amount? 17. Write MDX to find current month's start and end date? 18. Write MDX to compare current month's revenue with last year same month revenue? 19. Write MDX to find MTD(month to date), QTD(quarter to date) and YTD(year to date) internet sales amount for top 5 products? 20. Write MDX to find count of regions for each country? 21. Write MDX to rank all the product category based on calendar year 2005 internet sales amount? 22. Write MDX to extract nth position tuple from specific set? 23. Write MDX to set default member for particular dimension? 24. What are the performance consideration for improving MDX queries? 25. Is Rank MDX function performance intensive? 26. Which one is better from performance point of view...NON Empty keyword or NONEMPTY function? 27. How will you find performance bottleneck in any given MDX? 28. What do you understand by storage engine and formula engine?