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Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 35, No. 6, p.

454-461 (June 1998)



Development and Its

of a Dynamic Application to

Food Korean



DYNACON Conditions


WonTaeHWANG*,t, Gyuseong CHO*and MoonHeeHAN** * Department of Nuclear Engineering , KoreaAdvanced Instituteof Scienceand Technology ** Department of Environmental System Analysis , KoreaAtomic EnergyResearch Institute (Received October 20,1997), (Revised February 23,1998) A dynamic foodchainmodel DYNACON wasdeveloped to simulate the radionuclide transfer on agricultural ecosystems. DYNACON estimates theradioactivity in eachcompartment of foodchains forthree radionuclides, nineplantspecies andfiveanimal products as a function of the deposition date. A number of theparameter values usedin thisstudyarerepresentative ofKorean agricultural conditions. Themodel wasexpressed bycoupled differential equations and theradioactivity in eachcompartment wassolved as a function oftimefollowing an acute deposition. Although DYNACON isstructurally based onexisting models, it wasdesigned in orderto simulate morerealistic radionuclide behavior in Korean agricultural conditions andto savecomputation time.It was found that theradioactivity in foodstuffs depends strongly onthedate ofdeposition. Acomparative studybetween DYNACON and an equilibrium model showed goodagreement fordepositions that occur during thegrowing season of plants.DYNACON is goingto be implemented in a Korean real-time doseassessment system FADAS. KEYWORDS:dynamicfood chain model, DYNACON,acute deposition, agricultural ecosystems, Koreanagricultural conditions, compartments, equilibrium model

nobyl accident showed clearly the importance of seasonal I. Introduction influence on ingestion doses resulting from contaminated Following a deposition of radionuclides, a terrestrial foodstuffs in nuclear accidents(2)(3). Thereafter, several food chain is a significant pathway which leads to in- dynamic models have been developed to describe such ternal radiation exposure to humans. Deposition of ra- seasonal changes(4)-(7). dionuclides may occur as a result of routine or acciWe developed a dynamic food chain model DYNAdental releases from nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel- CON to support a Korean real-time dose assessment cycle facilities and nuclear weapons testing. Mathematsystem FADAS (Following Accident Dose Assessment ical models that simulate the transfer of radionuclides System)(8) which evaluates the radiological consequences in food chains have been developed for various pur- of a nuclear accident. The parameter values in food chain poses. In such models, the behavior of radionuclides is models are dependent on climatological, agricultural and described by transfers between compartments which rep- other characteristics of a considered region. The major resent different parts of food chains. Equilibrium models foodstuffs of Korea are significantly different from those describe steady-state radioactivity in compartments re- of other countries. In particular, rice is a main foodsulting from routine releases of radionuclides into the stuff, and rice fields differ from ordinary fields with reenvironment. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commis- gards to agricultural practices as well as soil characterission's Regulatory Guide 1.109 model(1), which we will tics. Although the parameter values in DYNACON are call the NRC model in this paper, is the most well- representative of Korean agricultural conditions , some known equilibrium model. However, equilibrium models values were taken from available foreign literature due are not appropriate in cases of accidental releases. In to the lack of site-specific data. DYNACON is structhese cases, the transfer of radionuclides between com- turally based on existing models such as RADFOOD(4) partments has to be considered dynamically since ra- and PATHWAY(5),and it was designed in order to simudioactivity in compartments does not reach steady-state late more realistic radionuclide behavior in Korean agriin a short time for long-lived radionuclides such as 137Cs cultural conditions and to save computation time . (T1/2=30 years) and 90Sr (T1/2=-29 years). The CherThis paper describes the methods of modeling, the * 371 -1 Kusong-dong transfer processes of radionuclides and the calculation , Yusong-gu, Taejon, KOREA 305-701. **150 D results of DYNACON. A comparative study between uckjin-dong, Yusong-gu , Taejon, KOREA 305-353.tC orresponding author, Tel. +82-42-868-2353 ,F DYNACON and the NRC model is also provided .
ax. +82-42-868-2370, E-mail: wthwang@nanum

F (Bq.A lower value of 0. Transfer Processes of Radionuclide 1. where d stands for day) B: Current biomass (dry-kg. the functionaldependence between the interception fraction and the biomass of plant leaves.dry-kg-1 for forage crops(9). Outputs of the model are the radioactivity of foodstuffsfollowing an acute deposition. 1 The transfer processes different compartments of radionuclides between considered in DYNACON estimate dB/dt=kgB(Bmax-B/Bmax) (2) . Soil is divided into four differentcompartments. fixedsoil (agricultural land: 1-25cm. Nine plant species and five animalproducts are considered.dry-kg-1 is assumed for fruits(12). NO. The value of kg is assumed to be 0.m-2).m-2) Bmax: Maximum potential biomass (dry-kg. Table 1 shows the foodstuffsconsidered in the model. is expressedas follows(10): f=1-e-aBf. (1) where a: Foliar interception constant (m2. The term a is estimated from measurements of the ratio of plant concentration (Bq. Therefore. General Description of DYNACON DANACONis written in FORTRAN 77 and operated on a personal computer. pasture land: >15cm). 35. The ratio of the amount deposited onto plants to the amount of total radionuclide deposition is definedas the interception fraction. Neglecting the interception by ears or the fruit surfaces of plants. the time-dependent biomass of plant leaves and that of edible parts are replaced by Bf and Be.m-2). Deposition and Interception Radionuclides released into the atmosphere when a nuclear accident occurs are deposited onto plants and soil surfaces. The value of 3m2. Currently. and the date at which a deposition happens. 6.m-2).3 to 3. Equation (2) may be analytically solved as follows: Table 1 Foodstuffs considered in DYNACON VOL. III. It is found to range from 2. Figure 1 represents the transfer processesof radionuclides between different compartments. the time-dependent biomass of plants: where kg: Growth rate constant (d-1. JUNE 1998 . Equation (2) is applied to all parts of a plant. Bf (dry-kg.Development of a Dynamic Food Chain Model 455 II. 90Sr. 131I) in an accident of nuclear power plants. root zone soil(agricultural land: 1-25cm.dry-kg-1 is assumed for all plant species except for fruits(11). f (9). pasture land : 1-15cm).m-2).dry-kg-1) to the total deposition (Bq.3m2. Logistic growth of plants is assumed to Fig. respectively. surface soil (0-1cm).3m2. the model considers three critical radionuclides (137Cs. instead of B. pasture land: 115cm) and deep soil (agricultural land: >25cm. Inputs of the model are the initial radioactivity on the ground.12 d-1 for all plants(5).dry-kg-1).

Weathering and Growth Dilution After the deposition of radionuclides on plant surfaces. a single value of 1x10-5m-1 is used(5).m-2. The weathering removal rate lw is assumed to be 2.d-1 is used in this study(5). For pasture land. The growth dilution rate lg is assumed to be 3. T. The resuspension factor RF (m-1) is defined as the ratio of air concentration (Bq. will reduce the quantity of contamination on plant surfaces. This process is a dominant process in the early phase following an acute deposition. lre (d-1). Different approaches to estimate the resuspension factor are applied to agricultural and pasture land. from lre= RFVd. However.m-2). The value of B0 is assumed to be 0. Table 2 represents the growth characteristics of the plant species considered in DYNACON(13). Also. a time-dependent RF suggested by Linsley is used(15): RF(t in days)=10-6e-0. The absorbed radioactivity is assumed to remain within the inner tissues. For the soil condition of Korea.47x10-2d-1 (T1/2=20d)(14). l 1. The transfer rate of radioactivity by resuspension.m-3) Depth of root zone soil (m) Bulk density of root zone r soil (dry-kg. Translocation The inner tissues or edible parts of plants absorb radionuclides from plant surfaces.m-3) to the radioactivity on the ground (Bq. the mass concentration of plants will be diluted with growth.0x103 L. Percolation This process describes the downward movement of radionuclides from the surface soil to root zone soil.5x10-3d-1. respectively(5).m-3) Soil-water distribution coefficient (L.drykg-i). ll (6) where Rp: fc: : Lr: r: Kd: Percolation velocity of water in soil (m. 5.m-3).0x10-3 and 8. (5) 4. the values of t and rr Table 2 Growth characteristics of plants considered in DYNACON(13) JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . (4) Deposition of resuspended particles onto plant surfaces is estimated with the deposition velocity Vd(m. which effectively reduces the radioactivity of soil surface(5). A value of 173m. The leaching rate ll (d-1) is estimated as follows(16): =fcRp/tLr(1+rr/tKd).m-3)t Volumetric water content of soil (L. Resuspension Radionuclides on soil surfaces may be resuspended by the action of wind.07 dry-kg. while root uptake increases generally in accordance with time for long-lived radionuclides.5x10-3. HWANG 456 et al.d-1) Constant (1.90Sr and 131I are assumed to be 5. 6. except for the losses due to radioactive decay ld(d-1) and growth dilution. washoff and volatilization.d-1). For agricultural land.m-2 for other plants(5). The translocation rates tr of 137Cs.015 dry-kg. rain or other disturbances.m-2). resuspension is not considered for rice fields because rice fields contain water at all times during the growing season. (3) lows: where B0: Initial biomass of plants (dry-kg.W. Leaching This process describes the downward movement of radionuclides from root zone soil to deep soil where root uptake is unavailable. and subsequently deposited on plant surfaces where they are absorbed further into the inner parts of the plant. the soil surface to the plant surfaces is expressed as fol- B(t)= BmaxB0/(Bmax-B0)e-kgt+B0. A value of 1. which is measured as the ratio of deposition rate onto plants (Bq.01t+10-9.m-2 for pastures and 0. 2.98x10-2d-1 is assumed to be the transfer rate by percolation lpc. environmental removal processes such as wind. 3.d-1) to the air concentration (Bq.77x10-2d-1 (T1/2=25d)(6).

but a single feedstuff for each animal is considered. summer. The rate of root uptake lup (d-1) is considered to be dependent on the growth rate of plants including the edible parts.07 dry-kg.040. ordinary fields and pasture land. (7) where fp: Available fraction of precipitation. The total irrigation for rice fields is assumedto be 1.d-1) E: Average evaporation rate (m.d-1). and the biological excretion rate lb (d-1).7. The values of CR are selected from a reference(17)in consideration of the soil characteristics (clay. The assumed values for soil ingestion. NO. are 0. For rice.d-1 for beef cows. Root Uptake The radioactivity in the edible parts of plants through root uptake is estimated by the plant-to-soil concentration ratio CR. The rate of change of the radioactivity in a particular compartment dXi/dt (Bq. ( field types applied in DYNACON(13) 9) where K: Number of compartments ij: Transfer rate l constant (d-1). Germany.d-1 or Bq.d-1 for pigs and 0.3. l 8.d-1 for dairy cows.d-1) I: Average irrigation rate (m. The values of fp are assumed to be 0. lvp= (8) where Bt: Total biomass including plant leaves and edible parts (dry-kg.d-1).L-1).3mm for spring. which is total precipitation minus surface runoff P: Average precipitation rate (m.4 dry-kg. Mathematical Formulations The advantage of the compartmental approach for dynamic food chain modeling is that each compartment can be treated independently and described by a relatively simple mathematical model(18). fall and winter.m-3 for rice fields. JUNE 1998 .m-2. The distribution coefficientKd is defined as the ratio of radioactivity in soil to that in water in a soil-water system at equilibrium. a dynamic food chain model developed at GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt and Gesundheit. which is defined as the ratio of radioactivity per unit mass of plant (Bq. The irrigation is neglected for plants growing in ordinaryfields or pasture land.0 for rice fields.01 dry-kg. respectively(13). A detailed description of the modeling approach is given in Eq. 35. The seasonal precipitation is 230. are 16.180. The feeding diets of animals vary greatly. It is assumed that pigs and poultry ingest cereals as a feedstuff. FS.0 and 1. 6.d-1 for poultry(17). The compartmental system consists of a series of interconnected compartments representing different parts of the food chain.9x10-3 and 2. Table 3 represents the daily average evaporation rate in each month according to the field types in Korean agricultural conditions(13). 604.respectively(6). IV.d-1) to 1kg of animal product (Bq.drykg-1 for 137Cs. It is assumed that cows ingest fresh pastures and soil during the grazing at equilibrium. The values of Kd are assumed to be 1.1x10-4d-1 are assumed for the adsorption rate ad and desorption rate lds.d-1 for dairy and beef cows. 100 and 100L.2 dry-kg. To simulate the fixation of 137Csbetween the root zone soil and the fixed soil compartment. respectively(13). Adsorption and Desorption Someradionuclides may be fixed and immobile in soil by their adsorption to clay particles which leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of root uptake by or d. the numerical solutions of the coupled differential equations are obtained with daily time VOL.m-2).dry-kg-1. These parameter values were adopted from EGOSYS-87(6).180 dry-kg. respectively(5). and stored pastures during the non-grazing season. 263. A differential equation of this form is made for each compartment. respectively(5). they are assumed to have the same values as cereals due to the lack of information. and 270 L.050mm during the growing season of rice(13). respectively(13). is described by the first-order differential equation as follows: dXi/dt=SKj=1j=/ilijXi-X iSKj=1j=/ilij. 9.90Sr and soil).1 dry-kg.5 and 0.1and 103. 7.m-3 and 1. (18) of this paper. which is equivalent to the growing season of pastures. The feedstuff ingestion rates of animals. which varies logistically(5): (dBt/dt)CR/rrLr. The percolation velocity of water in soil Rp is given by plant) to raTable 3 Daily average evaporation rate according to the dioactivity per unit mass of soil (Bq. the values 1. 7.000. 1. which is defined as the fraction of the amount transferred from an animal's daily intake of a radionuclide (Bq. Then. FV. Feedstuff Ingestion and Excretion of Animals The transfer of radionuclides from feedstuffs into animal products is described by the transfer factor TF (d. loam) of Korea.8. 2.Development of a Dynamic Food Chain Model 457 are givenas 600 and 1. 270 and 1. ordinary fields and pasture land.

decreases by radioactive decay with time: Cveg=C*velge-lat. Radioactivity after harvesting.5 for only leafy vegetables(5). It is assumed that XA. where the 1st day was chosen to avoid overlap with the harvest of leafy vegetables. Cveg(Bq. However. V. can be expressed as follows: (10) Radioactivity in the inner tissues (or edible parts) of plants (XB): (18) where N: Number of biological excretion rates an: Fraction of biological excretion rate n s: Bulk density of surface soil (1.C*veg (Bq. except for November.m-3)(13) Ls: Depth of surface soil subject to ingestion (1. It also shows a distinct seasonal dependence on the date of deposition. while root uptake is a relatively negligible process. and the remaining terms represent the contamination of animal products resulting from present feeding practices. the resuspension process is not considered in the case of rice. HWANG et al .L-1). Figure 3 shows the integrated 90Sr concentrations in foodstuffs over the 50 years following an acute deposition as a function of deposition month. The 15th day of each month was chosen as the date of deposition for the corresponding month.h: XB. Therefore. steps (i. Figure 2 shows the integrated 137Cs concentration in foodstuffs over 50 years following an acute deposition as a function of the deposition month. (17) The contamination of animal products may be caused by the ingestion of feedstuffs and soil.458 W.wetkg-1). the radioactivity in animal products.e. This is because deposition-translocation is a primary process in the contamination of foodstuffs. the integrated radioactivity in foodstuffs increases steadily as the time of deposition is close to the sowing date of plants due to the effects of resuspension. It is assumed that XA is zero for animal products which ingest cereals as a feedstuff. DYNACON uses a FORTRAN subroutine called DGEAR.h is zero except for leafy vegetables. The largest difference in integrated radioactivity is observed in rice with 3 orders of magnitude. Results and Discussion Radioactivity in foodstuffs per unit deposition of radionuclides (1Bq. It shows a distinct difference between the deposition in the growing and non-growing seasons of plants. The values of fd are summarized in Ta- .0x10-2m). T. the seasonal dependence of 90Sr is less than that of 137Csbecause of the relatively low transloJOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (11) Radioactivity in the surface soil (XC): (12) Radioactivity in the root zone soil (XD): (13) Radioactivity in the fixed soil (XE): (14) Radioactivity in the deep soil (XF): (15) Radioactivity in vegetable foodstuffs at harvest. In general cases. However.wet-kg-1). Canim (Bq.18x103 r dry-kg.fresh-kg-1 or Bq. The differential equations for different compartments with boundary conditions are given as follows: Radioactivity on plant surfaces (XA): ble 2(13).m-2) was estimated using a dynamic food chain model DYNACON.dry-kg-1) ( Fraction of radioactivity remaining after washing Ratio of dry to wet weight.h: fw: fd: (16) Radioactivity on plant surfaces at harvest (Bq. so the difference of integrated radioactivity in deposition during non-growing seasons can hardly be observed.dry-kg-1) Radioactivity in inner tissues at harvest Bq. which is supplied by the International Mathematical and Statistical Libraries (IMSL)(19). Dt=1d) using Gear's stiff methods. which is a good algorithm to solve the first-order differential equation system. The first term including biological excretion rates represents the contribution from previous feeding practices of animals. is estimated as follows: where XA. The value of fw is given as 0.

is equivalent radioactivity integrated required Fig. whilethe opposite is true for depositions during the nongrowingseasons of plants. values of the NRC model were used. it has been depends found on that the the date radioacof de- in foodstuffs strongly position. for depositions results are only growing compared season plants. VOL. model by DYNACON in DYNACON. Figure 4 shows the variation of radioactivity in milk and beef as a function of time following131Ideposition on August 15th. Figures 5(a) and (b) show the 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations in leafy vegetables estimated by two models.459 Development of a Dynamic Food Chain Model Fig. 3 90Sr concentrations in foodstuffs over integrated 50 years as a function of the deposition month Same remarks apply here as to Fig. respectively. 35. JUNE 1998 ing season. During the growing season of leafy vegetables. The difference of radioactivity in foodstuffs within an order of magnitude between DYNACON and the NRC model results is not so large. respectively. Maximum radioactivity is reached within several days after initial deposition. timated available. Consequently. it is concluded that radioactivity in foodstuffs for 137Cs is generally higher than that for 90Srin depositions during the growing seasons of plants . even though there are differences in the mathematical formulations and the considered transfer processes in complex food chain models. During the growing season of pastures. 6. Figures 6(a) and (b) are the 137Csand 90Sr concentrations in milk estimated by two models. and the NRC NRC model in leafy model were vegmay rate concentrations of the per unit The input taken of DYNACON deposition time-dependent was values those the used default The was are ranot esparameter from of DYNACON milk. NO. The difference in radioactivity of foodstuffs among radionuclides is attributable primarily to physical half-life The compared etables be the ity compared steady-state per unit acute for in the 100 NRC when results and and physiological and 90Sr The results to infinite those mobility. the radioactivityin milk and beef rapidly decreases because of the short half-life of 131I (T1/2=8d) and the rapid excretion from animal products. Therefore. the short-lived 131I is only important for foodstuffs with continuous production and short storage periods such as milk and beef. In addition to the consideration of site-specific data . the variationof integrated 90Sr concentrations in most foodstuffs for deposition during non-growing seasons is hardly observed. 2. Consequently. for 137Cs directly to the because radioactiv- radioactivity deposition(20). the results of DYNACON and those of the NRC model are within a factor of 10. removal by washing in DYNACON Since using the the that the input occur results of the NRC values the model parameter of DYNACON during of the growof cation and high root uptake of 90Sr. Otherwise. 4 Variation of 131Iconcentrations in milk and beef as a function of time following an acute deposition (date of deposition: Aug. 15th) From tivity these results. parameter dionuclide considered. the results of DYNACON and those of the NRC model are within a factor of 5. time-integrated obtained The were in foodstuffs years. 2 137Cs concentrations years as a function in foodstuffs integrated of the deposition month over 50 Fig. Thereafter.

Also. time-dependent leaching rate into deep soil is considered according to the characteristics of agricultural practice for different field types. (1)). but it is not considered for rice fields. T. (8)). Conclusions This paper newly presented DYNACON. the integrated 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations over 50 years showed a maximum difference of 3 orders and an order of magnitude. (2) The resuspension factor of a single value is used for ordinary fields and timedependent value is used for pasture land. (3) The root uptake rate is assumed to be proportional to the total biomass including the edible parts of plants (see Eq. the number of coupled differential equations decreased. while it is not in pasture land. 5 Comparison of the results from DYNACON and an equilibrium model (NRC model) for time-integrated 137Csand 90Sr concentrations in leafy vegetables Fig. (1) radionuclide behavior in rice fields is considered to be different from that in ordinary fields. while the foliar interception fraction is assumed to be proportional only to the biomass of plant leaves (see Eq. respectively. Consequently. it was shown that the radioactivity in foodstuffs depends strongly on the date of deposition. HWANG 460 et al. (2) The radioactivity in animal products is also estimated by an analytic solution. This is because a radionuclide is well mixed by tillage in ordinary fields. a dynamic food chain model used to simulate the radionuclide transfer following an acute deposition on agricultural ecosystems.W. To save computation time. VI. As a result. which were considered in PATHWAY(5). Resuspension is the important contamination process for foodstuffs growing in ordinary fields. The parameter values in the model were adjusted to representative Korean agricultural conditions as much as possible. (1) time-dependent plant biomass is obtained from an analytic solution neglecting the losses of plant biomass resulting from the grazing of animals and senescence effects. significant differences as compared with existing dynamic food chain models are summarized as follows: For the simulation of more realistic radionuclide transfer in Korean agricultural conditions. For rice. (a) Time-integrated 137Cs concentration (a) Time-integrated 137Cs concentration (b) Time-integrated 90Sr concentration (b) Time-integrated 90Sr concentration Fig. 6 Comparison of the results from DYNACON and an equilibrium model (NRC model) for time-integrated 137Csand 90Sr concentrations in milk in DYNACON. for the different dates of deJOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . The radioactivity in foodstuffs was estimated as a function of the date of deposition.

J.m-2) Bmax:Maximum potential biomass (dry-kg.: Health Phys. (1983). 705 (1980). C. III: Health Phys.. more followand both the foodstuffs characteristics model.: NUREG/CR-1004.: NUREG/CR-3332.. W. H.m-2 or Bq. Linsley. IMSL Inc. considered although transfer into accidents. H.: Health Phys. Englewood Cliffs. Tadmor.. 50..: "Radiological AssessmentSource and Exposures". 1.m-2) XA. (1977). Rood..m-3) r REFERENCES(1) (2) U. 645 (1990).kg-1) Vd: Deposition velocity of resuspended particles (m.m-2) B0: Initial biomass of plants (dry-kg.. J.109. R. (1984). Miller. W. Faw.m-2) Bf: Biomass of plant leaves (dry-kg.S. Since DYNACON realistic behavior ing an acute NRC model agreed ematical within A comparative is a dynamic of radionuclides study that and between the in food deposition. Peterson. International Atomic Energy Agency: Technical Rep. KAERI/RR-1737/96. (1996).. H. [in Korean]. Environ.: Health Phys. " Whicker. H. J. 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