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2009 Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications
Implementation of Source and Channel Coding for Power Reduction in Medical Application Wireless Sensor Network
Richard Mc Sweeney, Christian Spagnol, and Emanuel Popovici
Department of Microelectronics Engineering University College Cork Cork, Ireland richardmcs@ue.ucc.ie, c.spagnol@ue.ucc.ie, e.popovici@ucc.ie
Abstract—This paper examines the system level power reduction of Wireless Sensor Nodes in medical applications by the use of source and channel coding. The reliability and energy savings of the serially concatenated Huffman and ReedSolomon codes is presented, and the scheme with regards to medical applications is discussed. The results show that it is possible to have BER and compression gains in the system, but also show that computational time of purely software oriented implementations are not optimal. Keywords - Medical application; power reduction; wireless sensor network; Huffman source coding; Reed-Solomon channel coding
Luigi Giancardi
Department of Biophysical and Electronic Engineering University of Genoa Genoa, Italy giancardi@student.ucc.ie
encoding on the other hand introduces systematic redundancies to the data so that by transmitting the data at a reduced energy per bit, the communication achieves the same bit error rate. The cost for this is additional decoder power consumption at the receiver. Both methods work on the assumption that power savings in the wireless data transmission can be achieved at the expense of power consumption in the encoding/decoding stages of either the processor or the dedicated hardware.
I.
INTRODUCTION
The growing interests and developments in the area of wireless sensor networks have opened up many avenues for the applications of such systems in remote monitoring, whether they may be in medical, environment, security, surveillance, or industrial [1]. The main constraints of such systems include reliability, area, timing, and efficiency, however the main bottleneck that has been generally accepted is of the issue of the power consumption of such nodes, hence the lifespan of the battery in the unit. The energy efficiency and effective power management is crucial in sensor network operation and in the autonomy of the sensor nodes. The power consumption of the wireless sensor node is distributed among several different areas of the device, where the most common configurations include a microprocessor, a DSP unit (FPGA/ASIC), memory, and a transceiver. Since the most power-consuming device is the RF module, in order to achieve minimum system power consumption it is most effective to buffer the data and operate the transmitter at the highest possible data rate in burst mode, thus minimizing the time in which the communication occurs. To achieve efficient and reliable communication, it is sometimes desired to use source coding and channel coding. Source encoding removes redundancies that are inherent in the data by quantization and/or compression, thereby reducing the amount of energy required per bit-ofinformation in transmission through the channel. Channel
978-0-7695-3669-9/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2009.48 271
Figure 1. System Flow
The work proposed in this paper focuses on a software implementation of a source and channel coding scheme on an 8-bit micro-controller. Huffman code was used for compression, and a shortened Reed-Solomon (28,24) code over GF(28) was used for error correction. The system was designed with the intention of applications in the medical field, in particular for remote patient monitoring. The system itself was implemented on the Tyndall 25mm motes (Atmel mega128 processor and Nordic nrf2401 transceiver) [2] that operate on the 2.4 GHz ISM band and by using the sample EEG data [3], the power measurements were performed and analyzed. Section 2 of this paper presents the theory and background of source coding and illustrates the factors that affect the quantization and Huffman compression scheme. The theory and methods used in Reed-Solomon channel coding is presented in Section 3. Section 4 of the paper gives the results of the power reduction and gains in terms of compression and error correcting code. The conclusion of the findings and the future works are presented in Section 5.
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II.
SOURCE CODING
Data compression algorithms can be divided in two families, namely lossless compression and lossy compression techniques. [4] The lossless compression scheme allows perfect reconstruction of the original data, while lossy compression returns an approximation that can achieve better compression rates. The choice of compression scheme used depends heavily on the application and the performance required by the system. For this work a trade-off solution is proposed, where some error (loss) is introduced, before the lossless compression stage, in order to achieve a higher compression gain. The steps of this technique are illustrated below in Figure 2.
,where S is the number of EEG samples in the entire training set, |qi-di| is the difference between the quantized value of the i-th sample and the original i-th sample, and wi is a weight-coefficient related to the frequency-of-occurrence of each value in the database. Error and Coding-Gain contributes to the cost-function and are given the same importance in this evaluation.
Figure 3. Parameter VM and Quantization
Figure 2. Source encoding flow
The initial step quantizes the 12 bit EEG data to 8 bits (Figure 3), which results in resolution-loss of the amplitudes that is uniformly distributed over the whole dynamic range of the data set. The quantized EEG data is then compressed using the static Huffman encoder, and is subsequently passed into a payload setup to be encoded by the channel-encoding scheme. A. Quantization The quantization of the EEG data was performed in uniformly over the entire dynamic range, significantly reducing the number of possible values that can be represented without losing significant information in the data. The 8-bit representations also make it easier for the 8bit micro-controller to perform computations, and as it is noted in [5], it gives enough precision to ensure a correct interpretation of the signal by a physician. The error introduced by the quantizer varies with the maximum amplitude that can be represented after the quantization, where the peak of the Gaussian distribution plays an integral role in the choice of the quantization interval. This peak amplitude parameter VM is chosen so as to minimize the negative effect of the quantization without significantly affecting the compression performance. The cost-function in (1) is used.
⎤ min ⎡ 1 ⎢ J = Err (VM ) + ⎥ {VM } ⎣ Gain (VM ) ⎦
With this assumption and by the examination of the data sets for the most reasonable peak amplitude, it is found that the best choice for the parameter VM is 1330, as in Figure 3, where the cost function J and the transformation introduced by the quantizer are shown. After the quantization, data will assume only 256 different values. This is the baserequirement for the next step of the algorithm. B. Huffmann Coding Given a discrete source of symbols, the Huffman coding procedure builds for that source a variable-length “minimum-redundancy” prefix code. The “minimumredundancy code” is often referred as optimum in the sense that it leads to the lowest possible average codeword length, given N symbols and M digits. It is important to note that for every source there are several optimum codes. We considered only prefix codes because there is no loss of generality in considering only the prefix ones, in which a codeword cannot be a prefix of some other codeword; in fact it can be shown that given a general optimum code, there exists a prefix code that achieves the same results. [4] The Huffman code tree [6] has a number of leaves proportional to the number of different symbols coming from the discrete source: in this case they are 256, as the Discrete Source is the Quantizer from the previous step. Each leaf contains a string of bits, here called “codeword” that corresponds to an input symbol. Going from the root deep through the code tree, the symbols become step-by-step less likely, while the related codewords much longer. The average length of the code is defined as,
Lav = ∑ bi . p i
i =0 N −1
(1)
(3)
,where the term Gain(VM) is an expression of the compression gain (defined in section 4.1), and the term Err(VM) is an error-function defined by:
Err (VM ) = 1 S ∑ (| qi − di |2 wi ) S i =1
(2)
,where bi is the codeword, and pi is the corresponding error probability. The Huffman compression scheme is designed so that the average length of the code is smaller than the uncoded version.
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An issue related to this code is that it is impossible to put a limit on the maximum length of a codeword. This is due to fact that the maximum depth of the Huffman tree results from the code-design procedure without any possibility of control. This is a problem since a fixed maximum codeword length is required when working with an 8-bit microprocessor that cannot efficiently handle variables exceeding the size of 8-bits. To solve this problem a hybrid technique based on the Collapsed Huffman Tree (CHT) is used. Each Huffman codeword larger than length 8 bits are appended a CHT codeword. To flag such case, the result in a final codeword has 16 bits. It has been observed that this does not have a significant negative impact on the average length of the code, because the CHT leaf collects the most unlikely symbols of a given source. III. REED SOLOMON CHANNEL CODING The code that was chosen for this particular implementation of channel coding is the shortened ReedSolomon (28,24,4) over the Galois Field size of GF(28). The RS code [7] is traditionally popular and has been a longtime industry-standard that has found uses in various applications such as satellite communications, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Compact Disks (CD), Digital Versatile Disks (DVD), mass storage, and in wireless communications. The main reasons for such wide-ranging popularity stems from the fact that the RS code has efficient encoding and decoding algorithms, and targets (multiple) burst errors. The RS (28,24,4) is implemented in this scheme due to its small size, high code rate, burst error correction capability, and for its reduced complexity encoder-decoder implementations, as well as due to the limitations of the packet size of the wireless communication to 28 bytes. Following the encoding of the EEG data by the Huffman compression scheme, the resulting message m(x) is systematically encoded by the concatenated code and is sent wirelessly through a highly noisy indoor environment. The systematic encoding ensures that the data symbols appear in the codeword, and is expressed, using polynomial notation as follows, (4) c ( x ) = p ( x ) + x n − k m( x ) ,where the parity symbols p(x) is chosen such that the codeword c(x) is divisible by the generator polynomial. Due to the complexity of the Galois field multiplication, and the limitations of the processor to perform only one operation per clock cycle, a bit serial multiplier is used for multiplications in GF(28), and a look-up-table is made for inversion to facilitate maximum speed of the operation [8].
Once the packet is received, the word may be corrupted and this is expressed as r(x) = c(x) + e(x), where r(x) is the received data, c(x) is the codeword, and e(x) is the added channel noise. The RS decoder attempts to correct the errors by means of polynomial operations. The flow can be seen in Figure 4. The (n-k = 2t) syndromes Si are computed and these are used to calculate the Error Locator Polynomial EL(x) in an iterative fashion. The Berlekamp-Massey algorithm that is used often for the calculation of this error locator polynomial is replaced with the Fitzpatrick algorithm [9] due to its slightly faster performance. Once the Fitzpatrick algorithm has calculated the error locator polynomial, the roots of the polynomial Xi are then found by the shortened Chien search algorithm, which only cycle through the last 28 elements of the GF(28) since the code has been shortened to RS (28,24). This observation leads to a considerably shortened computational time for the search calculation. The resulting roots Xi-1 are the inverses of the error locations in the received word and are used for the calculation of the error values Yi. These error values are calculated without the use of the error evaluator polynomial, as was proposed in [10]. The equation used for the error value calculations is shown in (5).
Yi =
X i−2t +1 ELi′ X i−1 ELi ' X i−1
( )
( )
(5)
,where ELi (X i−1 ) = 0 , and ELi’(x) is the formal derivative of ELi(x), and these are obtained through the Fitzpatrick algorithm. The process of finding the derivative of ELi(x) is trivial compared with that of calculating the error evaluator polynomial required by the Forney decoding algorithm, thereby saving significant computational effort. Finally the error is corrected with the use of the error values Yi and their corresponding error positions Xi-1. IV.
RESULTS
Several implementations were considered for the analysis of the power consumption and the performances of the source and channel codes. These are summarized in Table I.
TABLE I. Version V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 COMMUNICATION VERSIONS USED
Version Description 12-bit EEG data that is transmitted as a 16 bit word without any processing Quantized 8-bit EEG data Quantized 8-bit EEG data with Huffman coding Quantized 8-bit EEG data with Reed-Solomon coding Quantized 8-bit EEG data with Huffman and RS coding
Figure 4. Reed-Solomon Decoder architecture
These schemes are implemented and the data obtained from them are sent wirelessly through the Tyndall motes with the transceiver set in burst mode. The transmission
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packets were sized to 32 bytes per packet, with 28 bytes of information payload. The result current consumption waveforms at the transmitter for the versions 2 to 5 are shown in Figure 5, where each peak corresponds to a packet sent over the RF channel. The waveforms were captured via voltage measurement across a 10Ω external resistor with the supply voltage for the Tyndall mote set at 5V. The measurements were carried out in an interval of 250 milliseconds, with sample EEG data being sent at TX data rate of 250kb/sec.
Moving from V1 to V5, it is observed that the power consumption of the system drops due to a decrease in the packet rate, but the overall energy consumption rises due to the heavier processing demands of the codes. This is due to the limitations of the 8-bit microprocessor to carry out tasks such as efficient bit-wise Galois-Field multiplication, hence high amounts of computational time were introduced that led to reduced packet rate. V1 and V2 are shown together since the difference between them was imperceptible. In regards to V2 and V3, it is observed that V2 has twice the packet rate of V3 due to the necessary computational effort required by the Huffman coding operation in V3. However, considering that the average compression gain is around 60% (see Section 4A), the computational effort is compensated by the fact that V3 has more than twice as large entropy than V2. Also considering that the transceiver packet is set to be very small and is configured in very rapid burst-mode, it is seen that the total energy consumption would be higher for increasing packet payload and noisier environment. A. Compression Performance The Compression rate is strictly dependent on the average length of the source code, Lav as defined in (3). In particular, considering the case of a Huffman tree built using the entire EEG database as the training set with VM=1330 and 8 bit quantization, the results were obtained and are shown in Table III.
TABLE III. Term H=5.345 Lav=5.366 Lav_cht=5.961 CHT=38 COMPRESSION FIGURES Term Description Entropy of the signal from quantizer Average length for the standard Huffman tree Average length for the Huffman tree with the CHT leaf Position of the CHT leaf in Huffman tree Efficiency of Huffman coding Efficiency of Huffman coding with the CHT leaf
Figure 5. TX system current consumption vs. time
η = 0.996 ηCHT =0.897
Table II summarizes the performance of the various schemes at the transceiver power level of –20dBm.
TABLE II. Version Packet/sec Power TX (mW) Power RX (mW) Power Total (mW) Energy/ packet TX (μW) Energy/ packet RX (μW) V1 320 99.6 153.5 253.1 3.1135 4.7967 TX POWER AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION V2 320 99.6 155.7 255.6 3.1132 4.8667 V3 160 90.9 154.6 245.5 6.0573 10.308 V4 16 83.3 155.0 238.3 52.046 96.900 V5 15 83.2 155.0 238.2 55.439 103.36
The estimation of the compression gain is made using a simple relationship in (6), where 12 is the original resolution of the sample.
Gain = 12 Lav
, Gain = 12 cht
(6)
Lav _ cht
Shown in Table IV are the results of a test that was devised to explore the compression scheme on various EEG data types. The test consists of transmitting 200 packets of these data through the wireless link. The results are presented in the table, where Fragment 1 holds EEG data activity of seizure prone patients, Fragment 2 holds the data of the patients when in seizure, and Fragment 3 is the normal EEG data of healthy adult subjects.
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TABLE IV.
COMMUNICATION PERFORMANCE WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF EEG DATA
Bit Error Rate (BER)
10
−1
FRAGMENT 1 Total Packets Significant bits sent Total Samples sent Average Packet Length FRAGMENT 2 Total Packets Significant bits sent Total Samples sent Average Packet Length FRAGMENT 3 Total Packets Significant bits sent Total Samples sent Average Packet Length
V1 200 44800 2400 192/192 V1 200 44800 2400 192/192 V1 200 44800 2400 192/192
V2 200 44800 4800 192/192 V2 200 44800 4800 192/192 V2 200 44800 4800 192/192
V3 200 36171 7725 179/184 V3 200 35612 3605 177/184 V3 200 36486 8690 181/184
10
−2
10
−3
RS(28,24) BPSK 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Distance (m) 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Figure 6. Graph of TX-RX distance vs. Bit Error Rate
It is observed that the communication breaks down completely at a distance of 80cm for the uncoded version, and at 142cm for the encoded version. The rest of the graph shows a nonlinear relationship between the distance and the BER. To measure the coding gain of the RS code, the following model is used [11],
PTX ,U [W ] = ηU Eb ⎛ 4π ⎞ n N⎜ ⎟ d N0 ⎝ λ ⎠
2
(7)
The experimental average code length and the corresponding compression gain of the Huffman encoded data for each Fragment can be seen in Table V, where of course only V3 is considered.
TABLE V. HUFFMAN PERFORMANCE WITH VARIOUS EEG Fragment 1 Average Length Gaincht Gain (%) 4.682 2.560 60.91 Fragment 2 9.878 1.210 17.35 Fragment 3 4.198 2.850 64.91
,where: ηu = Spectral efficiency (=1 for BPSK) Eb/N0 = SNR (energy ratio) N = Signal noise (Thermal noise*Bandwidth) λ = Transmitted wavelength d = Distance between TX and RX n = Path loss exponent By placing the coded and uncoded case in proportion, the following relationship is obtained.
η MAX ⎜ ⎜
⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ n ⎟ N⎜ ⎟ d ⎟ ⎝ N 0 ⎠ RS ⎝ λ ⎠ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ n ⎟ ⎟ d ⎟ N⎜ ⎝ N 0 ⎠U ⎝ λ ⎠
2 2
PTX , RS [W ] PTX ,U [W ]
=
(8)
η MAX ⎜ ⎜
The results show that coding gain is strictly dependant on the nature of the signal, and if considering that segments such as fragments 1 and 3 occur for more than 99% of the time, the little increment from 8 to 9.878 bits per sample (during the seizure activity) does not affect the compression capabilities of the system over a macro-scale. B. Reed Solomon Coding Gain The coding gain of the RS code is usually calculated by setting the desired bit error rate of the uncoded BPSK and the coded BPSK and then measuring the difference between the SNR. This is achieved by varying the transmitter power levels. However due to the limitations of the transceiver of the Tyndall mote in setting the TX power levels, the SNR was modified by varying the distance between the TX and RX at a constant transceiver power level of –20dBm. The results of this experiment are shown in Figure 6.
Since the same channel and transmitter are used, the above equation can be simplified to,
⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎜ n ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ d RS ⎞ ⎝ 0 ⎠U ⎛ ⎟ =⎜ ⎜d ⎟ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎝ U ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ RS
(9)
By examining the results obtained from Figure 6, the corresponding distance values set at a BER of 10-3 were found to be dU=0.6, dRS=0.824. Table VI illustrates the values of the Error Correcting Code (ECC) gain in relation to various environmental conditions expressed as the path loss exponent, where n=2 is for free space, n=3 is for indoor environment, and n=4 is for indoor environment with many obstructions.
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TABLE VI. Path loss exponent
ECC GAIN FORVARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS n=2 1.886 2.755 dB n=3 2.5902 4.133 dB n=4 3.5572 5.511 dB [1]
REFERENCES
K.Römer and F. Mattern. “The Design Space of Wireless Sensor Networks.” IEEE Wireless Communications, volume 11, 6:54-61, Dec. 2004. [2] Tyndall National Institute, Cork, Ireland, Available at: http://www.tyndall.ie/mai/25mm.htm [3] R. G. Andrezjak, K. Lehnertz, F. Mormann, C. Rieke, P. David and C. Elger. “Indications of nonlinear deterministic and finite dimensional structures in time series of brain electrical activity: Dependence on recording region and brain state.” Physical Review E, volume 64, 061907, 2001. [4] A. Gersho and R. M. Gray, “Vector Quantization and Signal Compression.” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1992. [5] G. Antoniol and P. Tonella. “EEG Data Compression Techniques.” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume 44, 2, 1997. [6] D. A. Huffman. “A method for the construction of MinimumRedundancy codes.” Proceedings of the I.R.E., 1952. [7] I. Reed and G. Solomon. “Polynomial codes over certain finite fields.” Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 8:300-304, 1959. [8] S. Lin and D.J. Costello. “Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and Applications.” Prentice Hall, 1983. [9] P. Fitzpatrick and S.M. Jenning. “Comparison of two algorithms for decoding alternant codes.” Applicable Algebra In Engineering, Communication and Computing, 9:211-220, 1998. [10] E. Popovici. “Algorithms and Architectures for Decoding ReedSolomon and Hermitian Codes.” PhD thesis, University College Cork, Ireland, 2002. [11] S. L. Howard, C. Schlegel, and K. Iniewski. “Error Control Coding in Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks: When Is ECC EnergyEfficient?” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 74812:1-14, 2006.
ECC gain (linear) ECC gain (log)
Considering that the frequency of the transceiver used is in a busy communication band (2.4GHz), and the testing is performed in a cluttered indoor environment, it is reasonable to assume that n=3, and the coding gain works out to be around 4.133 dB. V.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
The possibility of energy savings using a software implementation of a serially concatenated Huffman-RS code was presented, and was shown that although gains in terms of BER and compression are observed, the implementation of the system presented long computational time that made the coding seem less practical. The main reason is due to the limitations of using the 8-bit microprocessor, and future work will explore the hardware-software co-design of the Reed-Solomon code, and also investigate the advantages of joint source-channel coding scheme for medical applications, as well as the implementation of the system on a 16-bit microprocessor. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to thank the Tyndall National Institute for their support in the provision of hardware through the SFI-NAP scheme and for the facilitation of the testing process. This work is funded by SFI-EEDSP for Mobile Digital Health, grant number: 07/SRC/I1169.
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