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Page 1 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013

Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY Invest in people! EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013 Priority Axis 1 "Education and training in support for growth and development of the knowledge society" Key Area of Intervention 1.5 "Doctoral and post-doctoral programs in support of research" Project Title: "Harnessing cultural identities in global processes" Beneficiary: Romanian Academy The identification number of the contract: POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59758 Postdoc researcher: Dr. Marin Constantin Expert Coordinator: Prof. Suzana Cristiana Glavce LEVEL EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE Cantemir The paper Descriptio Moldaviae * Moldovans and ethnographic information about their way of life at the beginning of Eighteenth century, as it is transmitted through the work of Dimitrie Cantemir, Descriptio Moldaviae is supplemented by comparative horizon writing great Romanian scholar. Such an exercise Association or inter-cultural differentiation prepares narrative description of the content for a European audience, with Correspondence dissemination local Moldovan facts of social, economic or cultural resonance mainland. It is known that, after his election as a member of the Berlin Academy (1714), Dimitrie Cantemir wrote two years later Descriptio Moldaviae work, responding to expectations of the Berlin Society on accurate geographic coordinates and political Moldova. In a subsequent writing (fully designed complete description), ie Roman antiquity Chronicle moldovlahilor (1720) Romanian scholar explained structuring a presentation he makes Moldova, connection with "compound state and place, the seat of air, earth biugul, detour borders [...] and yet obiceiele, law, and religious and political affairs eremoniile others to trim and honoring human persevere "(cf. Holban 1973: 8). As we will show, his approach Cantemir (meant to nuance and to complete the understanding of issues as diverse as social categories, occupations, language, folk customs, etc.). resonate with Cross-cultural methodological own vision of anthropology. Our paper will try to identify -

beyond the thematic similarities between the facts presented in the paper and data on foreign population Comparison of the existence of a possible program of D. Cantemir, as a theoretical systematization plan mentioned methodology. In modern anthropology, comparative methodology appears as a constant methodological and conceptual, within current theoretical schools and otherwise irreconcilable (as evolutionism, functionalism, structuralism, interpretive anthropology, cultural materialism, etc..) In fact, anthropological comparatism reveals not so much a method with this name, applied as invariably such as some techniques and comparative variables according to the subject, with a type of empirical or theoretical problem, as well as more general conceptual and methodological choices of some authors. To take just one example, the condition "procedural history" made by American anthropologist validation of anthropological comparison (cf. Boas 1982 [1896]) in opposition to the "generalizing" the AR Radcliffe-Brown (1983 [1952]), concerned the discovery of "general laws" or "regularities" development of human society. What they have in common (beyond diversity) techniques compared anthropological background is their systematic nature, in that - regardless of the approach, they assume a syllabus or conceptual, following such an epistemological framework own discipline in question. Page 2 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY Comparative Cantemir in his Descriptio Moldaviae Description of Moldova - after a Moldovan society ethnography beginning of the eighteenth century - Completes the geographical information and historiography of Eastern Europe, such a way that Demetrius Cantemir was rightly regarded as the "father of the Romanian ethnography and folklore, and probably of the East "(cf. Fochi 1964). Suffice it to mention here the details of abundance wedding and funeral ceremonies of Moldovans, which Cantemir forerunner almost two ages ethnographic documentation of Simion Florea Marian in the years 1890-1992. Basis or pretext of any effort to comparison ethnography is basically brand application

comparative anthropological methods, whose variability reflects cultural pluralism itself. In this regard, Descriptio Moldaviae contains two main types of comparisons, depending on the degree of their ethnographic data systematization and organization around thematic criteria. Before any theoretical classifications made by Cantemir comparative approach can be those reported non-systematic comparisons - simple association or opposition of some provenance information different and are missing (in this case) of an analytical input. For example, wine is considered copyright Cotnari "greater noble "than Tokai wine (p. 109), a pair of oxen, five taels Moldova imperial costs compared to price forty to fifty imperials Gedanum (Danzig) (p. 115), Moldavian folk belief about Tricolici is "the same" as the tradition of lycanthropy franuzeaz about Loup Garou (p. 345), etc.. In this text, we are interested in discerning (beyond editorial and authorial choices transmission of the work in question), the possibility that Cantemir have completed the work program exposure data based in significant measure on heuristic comparative methodology. To note first that, in accordance with the title itself - Descriptio Antiqua et Hodierni Status Moldaviae it is a diachronic and synchronic orientation of the data and hence the comparative applied Cantemir. With reference to cults and superstitions "people down" (vulgus) in Moldova, the author states in cases (pp. 341, 343) an academical point of view according to which their origin as the old state Roman deities. Explanations Cantemir use therefore the etymological similarities or functional testimony of the spiritual heritage of Latin Moldovan population. Retrospective nature of the comparison present, not archaic meaning thereof, may be conceptually closer to "historical particularism", whose goal was the reconstruction of a "cultural processuality stages of small geographical areas in the world" 1 . In fact, Descriptio Moldaviae reiterate here - through interpretatio Romanian - ancient process (mentioned above) of translating Greek or Roman deities of various attributes Barbaricum. Lado and Mano, whose names are invoked at weddings especially wives, how is born assumption can not without reason, that these names means just Venus and Cupido, Gods love and marriage. Zana word you could guess that comes from the name of Diana. [...] DRAGAICA appears that shows the goddess Ceres. [...] Doina apparently was the name used in the Gauls of Mars or Bellona [...] Carol meets old Roman calends [...] Yell [...] means the same thing today in Moldova and Romans, that old witch [...] Another example of methodological diacronism Cantemir is the file or philology compared, which calls (indirectly) for Latin Moldovan language, respectively, against

1 Discovering the "general laws" of the evolution of human societies bases itself on "comparing stories [Private] development "(cf. Boas [1896] 1982). Page 3 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY Italian presuppositions about its development (pp. 363, 365). Romanian scholar turns so descriptive presentation of ethno-linguistic facts in a debate with historical and grammatical arguments in the words in Latin, Italian, and Romanian are facing each other, and by invoking Dies migratory populations represented by the Genoese. In anthropological terms, the approach of Demetrius Cantemir is relevant to the "macro-comparison" regional, which may reveal the intensity of "processes local-global in wider contexts " 2 And cultural particularities which they engage (in this case: genesis Romanian language). About the origin of the Moldovan language [...] is a language that many consider altered language derived from Latin [...]. [...] In Moldovan until today are many Latin words that language Italian does not know at all and, on the other hand, Moldovan language knows no names and Italian verbs in the language coming from the Goths, Vandals and Lombards. To do this May clearly, the Italian plays on the word barbarian commincio Incipio, while Moldavian the word derived from the Latin altered start; albus they say in Italian bianco, the Moldavian white civitas Italian citt is the Moldavian city, Dominus is in Italian Signore, the Moldavian Sir, mensa is the Italian tavola, mold. Dining, verbum, Italy. passcode, mold. speaking, caput Italy. Testa, mold. Cap; venatio Italy. Caccia, mold. Hunters. [...] Those who say that the Moldovan language is derived from the Italian language objects: 1. That in the Moldovan are: auxiliary verb, we, you, have, 2. Articles of names 3. Even some Pure Italian words, such lame, Italy. Sciopo and circle ital. Cerco which is totally

Latin unknown, could not be taken elsewhere than Italian. To this, proponents of the first views answer, really Moldovans use of verbs auxiliary, but not Italian, but their own. So, whether it is articles, for Talk to any part of the Moldovan language is no different from the Italian more than here. Put the article before the name Italian, Moldavian behind, for example Italy. L'huomo at Moglia, mold. Man broad. Italian male has only one item in it singular, plural gli or i, the feminine singular, plur. them. However Moldovans were two articles in the singular masculine, ul, and them, one that adds names ending in consonant celellalt names ending the voice, eg man, horse, chair, boat, snake, etc. Cane. For plural names being added to Article I, for example, horses, humans, while the ends inanimate Article women themselves as well as chairs, dishes, etc.. For women, Moldovans also have two articles s and, for example female, the chicken. The ending in s form their plural in s, and female - broads, those in the plural ends in them as chickens - hens. Finally, those words that asaeamn more Italian than the old Roman language might believe [...] that crept into our language from the long-standing trade Genovese [...] The Moldovans, back when the lands ruled the Black Sea. [...] Relative contribution of synchronous Cantemir a series of materials aimed at defining modern anthropology, namely social organization, ethnicity, culture-and-personality and ethos. The fact that all the analytical record is located in a comparative perspective is important for effectiveness methodological inter-cultural program in Moldova description (which exceeds both comparisons nonSystematic and etymology mentioned above). 2 Value "macro-comparison" regional consists of a better explanation of "local-global processes wider contexts "than can be" thick description "of local communities and the" hazard reduction follow the ethnographic analysis [...] esenializrii logic "(cf. Gingrich, 2002). Page 4 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY In the social structure Moldovan identifies Cantemir (p. 281) "three classes" - nobles with princes, courtiers, and freeholders - which equals boiarski rod tripartite Russian society,

dvoriane, and odnodvorci, respectively. Social hierarchy appears as a cluster or complex of traits 3 what can not only characterize a population which has reached a particular level of social development, but a group populations with different ethnic identity, and whose organizational similarities suggest a historical development thereof. [...] Moldavian boyars increasing number too much, gentlemen decided to share all his boyars the three classes. Was given the first place, of course, those who had been picked up by rulers in highest dignities or those born in their blood. They are almost on the same level on which are boiarski Russian kingdom fruit, distinguished as other landowners of all lower. Secondly, come courtiers, or courtyard people who have received one or two villages inherited the ancestors, as the Russians call the dvoriane. [...] The latter are freeholders, which prefer to call them rather than free peasants landowners and they correspond almost odnodvorcilor Russian courts are not peasants but many live together in one village and working lands be themselves or by hired servants. A comparative excursus apart - one on ethnic groups in Moldova - it occasions Cantemir description of cultural variability in terms of professional specificity (p. 297). This time, in relation to a real conglomeration of tribes, occupation is one that becomes the object of "comparison problematized" 4 , giving the author the opportunity to draw up a typology as ethnic merchants, lefegiilor, craftsmen, and so on, and extrapolation of causality ethnic (non) commercial competitiveness. In Descriptio Moldaviae, ethnicity is not as polymorphism or polychrome painted in its cultural manifestations as rather theoretical tool for understanding its potential and economic developers. I would hardly think there is any other country borders closed so tight as to Moldova contain many and so different nations. In addition Moldovan [...] Moldova locussiesc many Greeks, Albanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Poles, Cossacks, Russians, Hungarians, Germans, Armenians, and Gypsies Hebrew [...]. The Greeks, Albanians, Serbs and Bulgarians live freely here and some dealing with trade, while others serve in army Mr. Leaf. Germans, Poles and Cossacks are few and they are either soldiers or servants of yard ba some of Poland but rarely reached Boyar honor. [...] Jews [...] do not practice any profession apart from trade and Innkeepers [...]. Russians and Hungarians were always in Moldova state of Serbia. Gypsies [...] other than blacksmithing craft and Zlatari not. [...] In Iasi and other cities live dealing with trade, and quite many Turks. [...] All [Moldovans cities] are craftsmen;

Moldovan is rarely a merchant. For Moldovans [...] consider shameful trade in any Apart from selling fruit they acquire their land. This is, I think, because the most important is that rare Moldova townsfolk [citizen] rich and although our country sends aliens far more goods than it receives from them all the time though suffering from lack of money. 3 AJ Kben show (1973) that the comparative method not only establishes relations between the factors analyzed, and postulates continuity "cause" or "functional" between them; Kben show here need to compare companies or institutions to "equal weight and balanced" today (added author) compare not "simple features" but "clusters", "complex traits "," excerpts or syndromes society. " 4 The comparative method is proving a useful tool when working and "problem-" the subject, by secondment of a particular geographical setting or socio-cultural system, specifying the "variants of a single general classes, "" community-run "- with examples from Israel and the postwar United States may be defined in these terms (see G. Kushner, 1988). Page 5 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY Intra-cultural comparison that suggests Cantemir (pp. 311, 313) among residents Moldova below and above the people of Moldova outlines a small outline social psychology by highlighting model [Divergent] personality of lands free peasants or yeomen, and those of neighbors, their subservient peasants. This passage joining details about military prowess, piety, manners ..., the portrayal of rural groups, operates through an antithesis ethnographic study configurations reminiscent of contemporary cultural anthropology 5 . Romanian scholar paper describes such cases populations and behaviors by exploring cultural trajectories of similarity or difference - of them.

Moldovans down [lands Iasi Carligatura, Roman, Vaslui, Tutova, Tecumseh, Putna Covurlui Flciu Lpuna, Orhei, Soroca] [...] are good soldiers and fierce but at the same time without restless and unstable [...]. The holy least they care. Most of them [...] think every man was written by God before the day of death and no one can die, nor perish in war, if her sickness was not fulfilled. [...] Those who are near Tatars are often thefts and burglaries. [...] her adulteries are rare, but young people think that it's ashamed, but praise, that by getting married, make love in secret [...] Although they were very poor because proximity to the Tartars, though never refuse bread and hosting guest [...] Residents of Moldova up [lands Hotin Dorohoi, Harlem, Chernivtsi, Suceava, Neamt, Bacau] are less warriors are not willing fiery battles, but prefer to win quietly bread sweating hard. I am very much leaning towards the holy [...] so [...] throughout Moldova above are more than two hundred monasteries larger built in stone. [...] When they are few thefts are not [...]. retains bodily cleanliness and beautiful manners even before marriage [...]. They are more skilled than others at driving public Trebor, its better care wealth [...] but to the guests are more than residents of Moldova counted down. A treatment group compared restricted narrative considers ethos residents Moldova. Folk and game Cluarilor (p. 315) and The charm (p. 345), but especially Wedding and funeral ceremonies of Moldovans (pp. 321-333) are presented in individuality their ethnographic (only), perhaps as a result of unavailability of documentation. However, when describing Hora (pp. 313, 315), Dimitrie Cantemir distinguished Moldavian traditional elements - the game more characters in a circle or line - to French and Polish dances (by two or four). Choreographic details but also on gender, age, parental status and rank participants ethno-folkloric show their creativity - which resonate with accreditation by comparison anthropological "self character model" of human communities 6 . Moldovan games are completely different from other nations. For they do not play by two or four, the French or the Poles, but several characters together form a circle or a line long, and it can not be easier than at weddings. When playing all clutching hands in a circle and 5 Comparative anthropological societies can address themselves not only as institutional ensembles or as models behavior, but also their cultural expressions, especially when the object of the analysis is to translate or interpretation of such representations, for instance by comparing the European concept of "person" with "visions of Self "in ethnographic cultures Java, Bali and Morocco (cf. Geertz, 1983). 6 In K. Hastrup (2004), the meaning itself of our discipline depends then keeping a comparative consciousness.

The knowledge obtained by such a method, continuous Danish author revealed a "flexibility" and "character self-modeling "of the people, by abandoning the idea of" human nature ". Page 6 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY move in equal and measured step from right to left, the game called hora but when, seated in a long line, hands cling, yet so as to remain free ends of the line, and rotate with different twists, they commonly call this game a Polish word Dante. At weddings, before the priest's blessing to join the engagement is wont to play in the courtyards and streets, and this in two rows, one for men the other for women. [...] In two strings each has his place after class, women and girls enjoy the same honor noblemen as men and fathers them. Conclusions Under those shown here, argue the comparative size of the work Descriptio Moldaviae, as a result of methodological options that announces Cantemir (mutatis mutandis) many of the principles and techniques of modern anthropological comparative. It is also difficult to integrate options in a "program" extensive cross-cultural study of Romanian scholar: his work remains a contribution really descriptive, structured and consistent exposure on geography, history, political institutions, population, religion, language and customs Moldova beginning of the eighteenth century. It is equally certain, however, that comparative directories listed above reflect a contextual European membership Moldovan society, and thus a true inter-cultural understanding. Interpretatio the popular mythology Romanian, Romanian language Latin demonstrating the equivalence transstate of aristocratic rank, characterization professional ethno-Moldovan population - are all topics systematization of a given comparative information regarding the (otherwise) a "closed country abroad so tight "little known western world. References BOAS, Franz, (1982 [1896]) "The Limitations of the Comparative Method of Anthropology," in Race, Language and Culture,

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, pp. 270-280. Cantemir, Dimitrie (1973 [1716]), Description of Moldova, trans. Gh Gutu, Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest. Geertz, Clifford (1983) "'From the Native's Point of View': On the Nature of Anthropological Understanding," in Clifford Geertz, Local Knowledge. Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology, Basic Books, Inc.. Publishers, New York, pp. 55-70. Foch, Adrian (1964) "Dimitrie Cantemir ethnographer and folklorist", Journal of Ethnography and Folklore, IX, 1, pp. 71-102, 2, pp. 19-124. Gingrich, Andre (2002) "When Ethnic majorities is 'dethroned'. Towards a methodology of self-reflexive, controlled macrocomparison "in Fox, Richard G. and Gingrich, Andre (eds.), Anthropology, by Comparison, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 225-248. Hastrup, Kirsten (2002) Page 7 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA Labour, Family And Welfare AMPOSDRU European Social Fund HRD 2007-2013 Structural Instruments 2007-2013 OIPOSDRU ROMANIAN ACADEMY "Anthropology's Comparative Consciousness. The Case of Human Rights ", in Richard G. Fox and Andre Gingrich (eds.), Anthropology, by Comparison, Routledge: London and New York, pp. 27-43. HOLBAN, Maria (1973) "Introduction" to Dimitrie Cantemir, Moldova description, trans. Gh Gutu Academy Press Romanian, Bucharest, pp. 7-38. KBEN, Andre (1973) "Comparativists and Non-Comparativists in Anthropology," in Raoul Narrol and Ronald Cohen (Eds.), A Handbook of Method in Cultural Anthropology, Columbia University Press, New York and London, pp. 581-96. Kushner, Gilbert (1988) "Powerless People: The Administered Community", in Th. Downing G.Kushner (eds.),

Anthropology and Human Rights, Cultural Survival Report, 24, Cultural Survival, Inc.., Pp. 2742. RADCLIFFE-BROWN, Alfred Reginald, (1983 [1952]) "The Comparative Method in Social Anthropology ', in MN Srinivas (ed.), AR Radcliffe-Brown. Method in Social Anthropology. The Major Writings on Method by the Founder of the Scientific Method of Social Anthropology, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, pp. 108-29. * NOTE: This work was conducted within the project "Valuing cultural identities in processes global "co-financed by the European Union and the Romanian Government through the European Social Fund program Operational Human Resources Development 2007-2013, the grant agreement no. POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59758 / "This paper is suported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), Financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number the SOP HRD/89/1.5/S/59758 "title and intellectual and industrial property rights of the results obtained the postdoctoral internship belong Romanian Academy.

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