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Quality assurance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_assurance

Quality assurance
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Quality assurance (QA) refers to the engineering activities implemented in a quality system so that requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.[1] It is the systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention.[2] This can be contrasted with quality control, which is focused on process outputs. Two principles included in QA are: "Fit for purpose", the product should be suitable for the intended purpose; and "Right first time", mistakes should be eliminated. QA includes management of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components, services related to production, and management, production and inspection processes.[citation needed] Suitable quality is determined by product users, clients or customers, not by society in general. It is not related to cost and adjectives or descriptors such "high" and "poor" are not applicable. For example, a low priced product may be viewed as having high quality because it is disposable where another may be viewed as having poor quality because it is not disposable.[citation needed]

Contents
1 History 1.1 Initial efforts to control the quality of production 1.2 Wartime production 1.3 Postwar 2 Failure testing 3 Statistical control 4 Total quality management 5 QA in software development 6 Models and standards 7 Company quality 8 Using contractors and/or consultants 9 Bibliography 9.1 Journals 9.2 Issues 9.3 Books 10 See also 11 References

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guilds adopted responsibility for quality control of their members. Secretary to the British Admiralty. quarantine and ideally correct product quality failures. the free encyclopedia http://en. appointed multiple such overseers[citation needed]. starting with his famous one-page memorandum of 1924[citation needed]. manufacturing processes typically became more complex with larger numbers of workers being supervised. Some of the initial work for SQC is credited to Walter A. it was possible for workers to control the quality of their own products. With the impact of mass production required during the Second World War made it necessary[citation needed] to introduce an improved form of quality control known as Statistical Quality Control. or SQC. separately organised from production and large enough to be headed by superintendents. Prior to the extensive division of labor and mechanization resulting from the Industrial Revolution. This period saw the widespread introduction of mass production and piece work.org/wiki/Quality_assurance History Initial efforts to control the quality of production During the Middle Ages. Standard statistical techniques allow the producer to sample and test a certain proportion of the products for quality to achieve the desired level of confidence in the quality of the entire batch or production run. Royal governments purchasing material were interested in quality control as customers. By extending the inspection phase and making inspection organizations more efficient. Postwar 2 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM . when some attention was given to the cost of scrap and rework. For this reason. Wartime production At the time of the First World War.Quality assurance . setting and maintaining certain standards for guild membership[citation needed]. To counter bad workmanship. which in turn occasionally led to poor quality workmanship being passed on to the assembly lines. The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacturing during the 1930s[citation needed]. Shewhart of Bell Labs. Centuries later. King John of England appointed William Wrotham to report about the construction and repair of ships[citation needed]. full-time inspectors were introduced to identify. Quality control by inspection in the 1920s and 1930s led to the growth of quality inspection functions[citation needed]. Samuel Pepys. The Industrial Revolution led to a system in which large groups of people performing a specialized type of work were grouped together under the supervision of a foreman who was appointed to control the quality of work manufactured. which created problems as workmen could now earn more money by the production of extra products. it provides inspectors with control tools such as sampling and control charts. even where 100 per cent inspection is not practicable. SQC includes the concept that every production piece cannot be fully inspected into acceptable and non acceptable batches.Wikipedia.wikipedia. mostly in the USA[citation needed].

often under stresses such as increasing vibration. and these groups utilized these concepts in the redevelopment of the Japanese economy.S. the parameters for a pressure vessel should cover not only the material and dimensions but operating. data can be taken from scrutinized areas of a sample lot of the part and statistical variances are then analyzed and charted. the free encyclopedia http://en.[5] Walter Shewart of Bell Telephone Laboratories recognized that when a product is made. General Douglas MacArthur oversaw the re-building of Japan. environmental. safety. General MacArthur involved[citation needed] two key individuals in the development of modern quality concepts: W. 3 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM . Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. Often quite simple changes can dramatically improve product service.[3] Total quality management Main article: Total quality management The quality of products is dependent upon that of the participating constituents.org/wiki/Quality_assurance In the period following World War II.[6] some of which are sustainable and effectively controlled while others are not. This exposes many unanticipated weaknesses in a product. Both individuals promoted the collaborative concepts of quality to Japanese business and technical groups.[3] Many organizations use statistical process control as a tool in any quality improvement effort [4] to track quality data. Although there were many individuals trying to lead United States industries towards a more comprehensive approach to quality. For instance.Wikipedia. temperature. or control can be implemented on the process that made the part ideally eliminating the defect before more parts can be made like it. Statistical control Statistical control is based on analyses on objective and subjective data. Control can then be implemented on the part in the form of rework or scrap. the product's quality cannot be guaranteed. Failure testing Valuable processes to perform on a whole consumer product is failure testing or stress testing. continued to apply the Quality Control (QC) concepts of inspection and sampling to remove defective product from production lines. The process(es) which are managed with QA pertain to Total Quality Management. many countries' manufacturing capabilities that had been destroyed during the war were rebuilt. and the data is used to drive engineering and manufacturing process improvements. essentially ignoring advances in QA for decades[citation needed]. such as changing to mold-resistant paint or adding lock-washer placement to the training for new assembly personnel.wikipedia. the U.[citation needed] In mechanical terms this is the operation of a product until it fails. If the specification does not reflect the true quality requirements. During this time. reliability and maintainability requirements. and humidity. Any product can be statistically charted as long as they have a common cause variance or special cause variance to track.Quality assurance .

qualifications Soft elements. Elements such as controls. motivation. Company quality During the 1980s. such as ISO 9000 or a model such as CMMI. team spirit and quality relationships. [citation needed] Models and standards ISO 17025 is an international standard that specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and or calibrations. skills. such as satisfying the customer's quality requirements. The CMMI maturity levels can be divided into 5 steps. 3.wikipedia. job management. if all departments approached quality with an open mind. 2. experiences. Infrastructure (as it enhances or limits functionality) The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these aspects is deficient.Quality assurance . the concept of "company quality" with the focus on management and people came to the fore[citation needed]. The methods by which this is accomplished are many and varied. It was realized that. These requirements outline what a laboratory must do to become accredited. such as personnel integrity. the free encyclopedia http://en. and can be applied to any business or non-business activity: Design 4 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM . which a company can achieve by performing specific activities within the organization. performance and integrity criteria and identification of records Competence such as knowledge. QA is not limited to the manufacturing. There are 15 management requirements and 10 technical requirements. confidence. adequate processes. 4. Management system refers to the organization's structure for managing its processes or activities that transform inputs of resources into a product or service which meets the organization's objectives.org/wiki/Quality_assurance QA in software development Main article: Software quality assurance Software quality assurance consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality. complying with regulations. or meeting environmental objectives. organizational culture. The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on four aspects[citation needed] :1. The CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) model is widely used to implement Quality Assurance (PPQA) in an organization.Wikipedia. "QA" is sometimes used informally as a synonym for software testing. success was possible if the management led the quality improvement process. and may include ensuring conformance to one or more standards.

org/qualityprogress/index.interscience. particularly where the relevant skills and expertise are not available within the organization or when allocating the available internal resources are not available.htm?id=qae). Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement 5 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM . In manufacturing and construction activities. Quality Function Deployment (QFD).Wikipedia. Published by the American Society for Quality Quality Assurance in Education (http://www. the free encyclopedia http://en. John Wiley & Sons QP . Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).com/products/journals/journals. the work being carried out was shop floor inspection which did not reveal the major quality problems. auditing and procedural documentation writing CMMI.asq. ISSN 0968-4883.Quality Progress magazine (http://www. Consultants and contractors will often employ Quality Management Systems (QMS).wiley. Six Sigma.org/wiki/Quality_assurance Consulting Banking Insurance Computer software development Retailing Transportation Education Translation It comprises a quality improvement process.wikipedia.com/journal/15634/home). Using contractors and/or consultants Consultants and contractors are sometimes employed when introducing new quality practices and methods. which has come into being recently. and Advance Product Quality Planning (APQP). In the system of Company Quality. these business practices can be equated to the models for quality assurance defined by the International Standards contained in the ISO 9000 series and the specified Specifications for quality systems. Emerald Publishing Group Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality.html). ISSN: 1087-8378.emeraldinsight. which is generic in the sense it can be applied to any of these activities and it establishes a behavior pattern.Quality assurance . This led to quality assurance or total quality control. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA). This in turn is supported by quality management practices which can include a number of business systems and which are usually specific to the activities of the business unit concerned. Bibliography Journals The Quality Assurance Journal (http://www3. which supports the achievement of quality.

S. "the PointZERO vision". doi: http://doi. Vol 1. 2003. February). ISBN 0-8247-4614-7 Godfrey. the free encyclopedia http://en. part of a quality assurance programme in which identical samples are analysed by different laboratories Software testing Software quality assurance 6 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM .springerlink. November 6). Wagner. A Component quality assurance process. T.Quality assurance .doi: http://doi. S. "Juran's Quality Handbook". M. Taylor P. ISSN: 0950-3293 Issues Almeida.org/10. Meria. S. ISBN 978-90-75414-55-4 See also Best practice Data quality Data integrity Farm assurance GxP. Foundations of Software Engineering. Foundations of Software Engineering. (2006. Quality assurance: much more than testing. ISSN: 0949-1775 Print.1145/1046931. (2007.1295093 Feldman..Wikipedia. "Quality Engineering Handbook"..cws_home/405859/description).acm. A. (2005. 3(1). ISBN 0-07-034003-X Marselis. September 3–4). 1999.wikipedia.. ISBN 978-92-79-12021-3.1188906 Books Majcen N.org/10. doi: http://doi. Queue. measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry.elsevier.org/10.acm. 2010. (Editors): Practical examples on traceability.1046943 Meisinger.1145/1188895. E. ISSN: 1432-0517 Food Quality and Preference (http://www. B. Alvaro. A. Integrating a Model of Analytical Quality Assurance into the V-Modell XT. & Roodenrijs. a general term for Good Practice quality guidelines and regulations ISO 9000 Mission assurance Program assurance Quality control Quality infrastructure Quality management Quality management framework Quality management system Ringtest. 38-45.1145/1295074. Pyzdek.com/wps/find/journaldescription.. E.org/wiki/Quality_assurance (http://www.acm. R.com/content/q922ehvpaq49pw6q/).. 2012.

^ Statistical Process Control (SPC) .flexstudy.org/common-language-project/).org/w/index.cfm?coursenum=9561a).wikipedia. James R. pp 1-13 4. Quality World 4 (2). ^ Thareja..wikipedia.edu/jpt/pdf/JPT%208-2%20Smith_Chaudhry. 7 of 7 8/21/2013 11:50 AM .ssrn.org/wiki/Quality_assurance Total Quality Management Verification and validation References 1. "The Quality Brilliance Through Brilliant People" (http://papers.html) 6. By using this site.cfm?abstract_id=1498550). Retrieved from "http://en.pdf 5. Mannu.themasb. 3. Fundamentals of Statistical Process Control.com /sol3/papers. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Quality assurance . you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.html) 2. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/learn-about-quality/quality-assurance-quality-control/overview/overview.ASQ (http://asq. Retrieved 2010-01-11. ^ ASQ Definition (http://asq. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. ^ a b Evans. additional terms may apply.org/learn-about-quality/statistical-process-control/overview/overview. Inc. Priyavrat (February 2007). Thareja. (1994) Introduction to Statistical Process Control (http://www.Wikipedia.php?title=Quality_assurance&oldid=569355067" Categories: Evaluation Quality assurance This page was last modified on 20 August 2013 at 08:29.com/catalog/schpdf. ^ The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses this definition as part of its ongoing Common Language: Marketing Activities and Metrics Project (http://www.nctr.usf. ^ http://www. a non-profit organization.