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Office of the President of the Philippines

Na tional Anti-Poverty Commission at

NATIONAL ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAM
(2010-2016) Part 2
The poverty program of the Aquino administration is a response to two major challenges: the abject failure of anti anti-poverty poverty work under the Arroyo administration and the organizational challenges of maximizing anti-poverty anti efforts with limited public resourc resources. es. In response to the first challenge, Pantawid Pamilya has been designed to provide substantial assistance to the largest possible number of poor people in the shortest possible time. A carefully designed framework maximizing the convergence of economic programs and local initiatives answers the second challenge. Given the enormity of the tasks ahead, this program will remain, for some time, a work in progress, but one that already diverges substantively from past practice. The Aquino administration’s first first budget, the 2011 Reform Budget, established its firm commitment to anti-poverty anti poverty work. The social services sector has the largest allocation with at least 34.1 percent of the budget, substantially larger than the next largest allocation, economic services, services, which received only 22 percent. Infrastructure has been cut from Php 165.1 billion in 2010 to Php 148.2 billion. The relatively smaller budget for economic services (notably for the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Public Works and Highways) Highw will be offset by more strategic support for public-private public private partnerships, which will be directly incorporated into the budget. The largest departmental budget increase is for the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) at 122.9 percent. T The he DSWD allocation for Pantawid Pamilya is Php 21.2 billion, more than double the Php 10 billion allocated in 2010. Another Php 8 billion has been budgeted for various hunger and nutrition programs, for the Supplemental Feeding Program, Food for Work for Internally I

Displaced Persons, while Php 4.234 billion has been budgeted for the Rice Subsidy program alone. Other major DSWD programs include SEA-K and KALAHI-CIDSS. The “supply side” allocations for Pantawid Pamilya include: • Php 12.4 billion for classrooms, 57 percent higher than that allotted in 2010 and more than triple the 6,000 classrooms normally constructed yearly. • Php 1.8 billion for the purchase of an estimated 32.3 million textbooks in 2011. • Php 1.6 billion for the creation of 10,000 teaching positions to meet the ideal ratio of 5:3 teachers to classes. • More than double the allocation for the upgrading of health facilities from Php 3.2 billion in 2010 to Php 7.1 billion in 2011. • Some Php 3.5 billion for the Health Insurance Premium of 4.6 million indigent families.

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I. ANTI-POVERTY THRUSTS
The poverty reduction strategy of the Aquino administration will be anchored on efforts to reduce poverty incidence to 14.2 percent, which is the MDG target. Given the expectation that growth in 2011 and subsequent years may be more moderate than was experienced in 2010, it is likely that economic growth will not adequately reduce the headcount index to this target. If the social services allocation of 34.1 percent of the budget cannot be significantly increased in subsequent years, poverty gains will have to be achieved through greater efficiencies in programming. The extent and depth of poverty is such that the initial thrust of anti-poverty programs will be to reduce the burden of poverty -- to provide income, food, education and health services, as well as jobs, so the poor can provide for themselves. But government anti-poverty programs will be designed to build capacity and create opportunities for the poor in the course of reducing the burden of poverty. The first priority is to provide the basic income, food and nutrition, health and education needs of the poor. The program thrusts of this administration will be the following: Focus on the poorest of the poor. Our anti-poverty interventions are focused towards expanding access of the poor to basic social services, especially education, health and family planning services; providing risk mitigation; and expanding social protection programs so poor households can cope better with economic, social and natural disasters. These will also entail the expansion of economic and social opportunities for the poor so they can increase their incomes and build their assets. Asset reform programs will also be undertaken to ensure redistribution of resources to the poorest of the poor. Focus on poorest areas. We will focus on the poorest regions and provinces so that those who are especially in need of public support can be provided with the mechanisms to improve their lives. Focus municipalities will be from the poorest regions and those with the largest concentrations of the poor in densely populated provinces. We will incorporate projects that address the vulnerabilities of the poor and marginalized, especially those affected by social conflict and environmental disasters, into our anti-poverty programs.
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Strengthening targeting and monitoring mechanisms for poverty reduction. not only to reduce inefficiency and duplication. but also to improve the effectiveness of each program. Poverty deprives people of their dignity and the incentive to make efforts to improve their lives. there were an estimated 66 programs that responded to the needs of the poor. as well overlapping and double counting of program beneficiaries. People’s participation in governance can make poverty reduction work more effective. We will encourage the use of data-based mechanisms. such as DSWD’s National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR). especially in the areas of hunger and disaster relief and mitigation. We will use the NHTS-PR. This multiplicity of programs tends to result in poor coordination. We will ensure that there is coordination of different anti-poverty efforts among national government agencies.People’s participation and empowerment. given existing gaps in anti-poverty interventions. which is already being utilized for the Pantawid program. which reduces the effectiveness and efficiency of antipoverty programs over-all. as the single national targeting system for key social protection programs such as the Page 4 of 34 . But people empowerment can do more than help improve the material conditions of poor peoples’ lives. The National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC) will be the primary agency overseeing the convergence of these anti-poverty programs. People empowerment is the antidote to old-style patronage. Rationalization of anti-poverty reduction programs. At the same time. such as the Kapit Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (KALAHICIDSS). We will systematize existing anti-poverty programs and build new programs. We will continue to expand programs that emphasize community-driven development strategies. non-government organizations and private organizations in targeted communities and sectors. Civil society organizations and social movement groups will be mobilized to organize the poor. In 2009. we recognize the importance of streamlining and coordinating government antipoverty programs.

strengthen inter-LGU systems to coordinate their projects. regional and provincial level. We recognize the importance of buttressing anti-poverty programs with governance reforms. We will further ensure that monitoring and evaluation mechanisms will be integrated into these programs. Institutional aspects of poverty reduction. Local government capacities to reduce poverty will be strengthened.PhilHealth Indigent Program. We will improve the system for providing incentives to better performing local government units (LGUs) to fund their poverty reduction programs. We will ensure that the different government bodies representing marginalized sectors are strengthened by providing them with the necessary resources for their operations. Support for local government initiatives. We will continue to track our progress in terms of reducing income and capability poverty by regularly tracking poverty incidence and severity at the national. and advocate the use of poverty indicators in planning and measuring their progress toward poverty reduction. which will need to be undertaken across the bureaucracy and in the other areas of governance. We will also encourage a more transparent selection process for their representatives so the voices of these sectors can be heard across the bureaucracy through effective and democratic leadership. will be available. using Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. We will ensure the coordination of existing antipoverty databases being undertaken by different national government agencies so that the planning and implementation of anti-poverty programs can be better harmonized. Participation of the poor in policy making. And we will encourage local government units through training and funding support to use Community Based Monitoring Systems (CBMS) so that they can better monitor the effectiveness of their respective programs. Page 5 of 34 . such as the workers in the informal sector. Reforms in existing statistical systems will also be encouraged so more data on marginalized groups.

We will tap overseas development assistance. both grants and lowinterest loans. should provide additional resources. Political Reforms. with an eye to cutting leakage. This will facilitate civil society participation in monitoring programs through a selected number of social accountability instruments. We will ensure maximum transparency in the planning. The financing of anti-poverty programs will be carefully studied. Collecting taxes is also a form of asset reform to the extent that tax reforms succeed in collecting more from those with higher incomes and from the assets of the rich.Corruption and poverty. It should further enforce a comprehensive competition policy. Resource Generation. We will encourage the People Power Volunteers for Reform (PPVR) and organized sectors at NAPC to participate in the localization of anti-poverty programs. Page 6 of 34 . We will also support reforms that increase public resources. It should guarantee independence and objectivity (i. implementation and monitoring of programs. to fund our major anti-poverty programs. The government must be able to reform its institutions so they can initiate and implement key economic reforms without undue influence from vested interest groups. Reforms to increase the excise taxes on alcohol and tobacco products and that rationalize fiscal incentives enjoyed by private corporations will be advocated. we will re-file and work towards the passage of the Freedom of Information law.e. The rationalization of existing programs. and minimize political intervention in business. Anti-corruption reform should then be extended to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. We will extend the spirit of voluntarism during the campaign by engaging business and the private sector in government programs. This asset reform is “clinched” when the national budget is realigned towards social services. especially the reforms that reduce inequality in incomes across economic sectors.. discourage rent seeking. Closing the funding for programs with very little impact and realigning NFA expenditures alone would produce tens of billions of pesos. Anti-corruption work in both the revenue generation and expenditure sides of government will generate additional revenue for propoor programs. As a corollary to this. stop “regulatory capture”) of its regulatory institutions.

who suffer disproportionately from climate change. Environmental aspects of the anti-poverty strategy. and highlights the important role of women as actors in anti-poverty work as recommended in past antipoverty plans (Ofreneo and Acosta. The program should have a carefully worked out communications plan. It is not enough that beneficiaries know what the government is doing for them. Specific programs should be designed to reduce the impacts of environmental changes on the poor.Communications Program. and d) developing gender-based methodologies and conducting research on women in poverty. Gender aspects of the anti-poverty strategy. 2002). The following gender objectives will be incorporated into poverty work: a) adopting macroeconomic policies that address the needs and efforts of women. b) ensuring women’s equal rights and access to economic resources. The general public should also be informed in order for us to achieve maximum political benefit and so that they can participate in the implementation of these programs. The poverty reduction framework recognizes important gender concerns and issues. Page 7 of 34 . c) strengthening the efforts of women to access savings and credit mechanisms.

000 to Php 129.2009 change Average family income 130.467 +19. raising the output of farms and farm-based enterprises is critical.000 -0.725. From 2003 to 2009. GNP grew on the average by 5% during the period 2000-2009 but poverty incidence actually increased.425 11. from Php 130. Rapid economic growth is a necessary. condition for poverty reduction. would be a key component in this regard. Table 19. c) Facilitating economic diversification.000 129. Changes in Average Family Income and Expenditures and GNP and PCE per capita. National Statistics Office. b) Increasing agricultural productivity.000 +0.8 percent. GNP per capita grew by 23. 2003. Source: National Statistics Coordination Board. The latter can be done by undertaking the following: a) Creating productive employment opportunities.495 12. but average family income declined by 0.000 (see Table 19 below).8% Average family expenditure 109. Since 70 percent of the poor live in rural areas.II. Households in many towns and municipalities are reliant on one or two Page 8 of 34 .000 107.997 17. Infrastructure development. STRATEGIES Strengthening the pro-poor response of economic growth. but insufficient.2009 Component 2003 2006 2009 2003. Poverty reduction can be accelerated in two ways.9% GNP per capita 14. from Php 14. including the provision of farm-to-market roads and public markets.8% PCE per capita 10. there will be an emphasis on the development of enterprises that provide the highest value-added to agricultural outputs. especially in rural areas. In particular.8 percent.6% Note: GDP is gross national product. credit and the dispersal of modern technology through training and education are important factors to raise incomes in rural areas. PCE is personal consumption expenditure. The provision of irrigation. through more rapid economic growth and/or by improving the impact of economic growth on the poor.307 15.307 to Php 17.000 125.000 110.725 +23. The growth strategies of the government will ensure that broad-based economic opportunities are available to all Filipinos.

types of economic enterprises. equity allows growth to be sustainable. As De Dios (1993) has noted. We will focus on Page 9 of 34 . • Ensuring a bias for labor-intensive production technologies. Regrettably. it has a significant contribution to job creation. or if the returns on these outputs increase with growth. and larger families. Poor Filipinos tend to be concentrated in rural areas and in agriculture. As many studies. which in turn enhance the functioning of markets. Although agriculture’s contribution to GDP is small. which is labor. the sector pattern of growth since 2000 has been biased against agriculture and toward sectors that are least intensive in the use of labor. We will shape the government’s infrastructure program to serve these industries. Income distribution in rural areas has worsened. Redistribution is therefore a necessary priority for this administration. have less access to basic services. We will focus on modernizing agriculture because that is where the largest number of our poor work. However. We will promote public and private projects that are biased towards the usage of the main productive resource of the poor. growth strategies adversely affect the productive resources of the poor by constraining returns on labor and agricultural products. particularly the World Bank (2006) have noted. There should be a concerted effort to promote diversification so that households will not be affected by the vagaries of price changes of a single commodity. in the past. All departments and agencies of the government will be instructed to examine policies and programs from a pro-poor perspective. More specific aspects of these strategy components are the following: • Promotion of agricultural growth. lower levels of education. the best policies for poverty reduction involve the redistribution of opportunities to the poor as this allows for the reform of policies and institutions that strengthen property rights. growth impacts on poverty reduction if the production factors and resources that are enhanced are those owned by the poor. At the same time.

But they lack access to credit and finance. but in other areas where the level of urbanization has been dominant. • Maximizing the opportunities in the domestic and international economy. • Tourism as a component of the anti-poverty strategy. • Small and medium scale enterprises. It is also in tourism where the potential for job generation and small-scale entrepreneurship tends to be greatest. we will closely calibrate our tariff and competition policy to maximize benefits for the majority of our citizens. to markets and to technology so that they can connect to the global economy. In some areas. especially for the poorer sectors. using information exchange. We need to revisit the export-oriented policy regime from the vantage point of agricultural growth and international trends in the aftermath of the 2008 international financial crisis. while liberalization has advanced competition and strengthened efficiency in some industries. We recognize that there is no “one size fits all” strategy for poverty reduction. Area-specific strategies for poverty reduction will be studied. • Consideration of local characteristics for poverty reduction strategies. we will encourage the private sector to link up with local firms. SMEs. We will not only encourage microfinance. by giving the private sector appropriate incentives. The growth potential of sustainable and gender-sensitive tourism is large as it will also help sustain and conserve natural resources. especially social enterprises. in addition to providing employment for the poor. At the same time. Page 10 of 34 . we will emphasize human resource development. are the main generators of jobs in the country. For market and technology access. we will also harness the remittances of our overseas workers by creating financial instruments that can attract remittances and be channeled to the rural sector.the development of enterprises that are labor generating and undertake the necessary research to accomplish this. there will be an emphasis on the development of land-based resources.

3 million by the end of 2011. the CCT is expected to reduce poverty incidence in targeted areas by 6. is likely to be available from ODA and IFI sources.000 families at the time of the transfer to the Aquino administration in July 2010 to 1 million by the end of 2010. 1. The latter amount represents.1 percentage points (World Bank. We will target full coverage to families below the income threshold by the end of 2016 to 4. PROGRAMS A.000 a year (with one child who is at least 3 years old) and the maximum is Php 15. including reproductive health care and nutrition services. an additional income of almost 50 percent for families in the bottom decile.7 million beneficiary households.III. a conditional cash transfer program.8 million families below the subsistence threshold. According to studies undertaken by foreign donors. DIRECT SUBSIDIES. The programs under this strategy include Pantawid Pamilya. the full cost of which would reach around Php 50 billion per year. The budgetary requirement for this program. Expansion of the existing Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). Providing the poor with direct interventions across sectoral and geographical lines is. 2009). The program aims to reduce inter-generational poverty by providing health and education services to children of poor families. subsidized PhilHealth coverage for indigents. and various hunger mitigation programs. The 4Ps provides cash transfers (CCT) to the poor conditioned upon: (a) their children attending school and (b) their use of preventive health care.000 (with three children up to age 14). a cash transfer program for poor senior citizens. This is expected to meet the needs of all 1. The minimum amount that a qualified household will receive in exchange for fulfilling certain education and health conditions is Php 9. Page 11 of 34 . There is already a programmed increase from 700. in terms of budget allocations. and almost 25 percent for those in the third lowest decile. and 2. almost 30 percent for those in the second lowest decile. based on 2006 family income data. the most important component of the anti-poverty program.

00 Region IV-B 74.850 6.01% 33.40% 8.00 Region IX 68.00 CAR 9.260.00 Region VII 93.6 384.253.106.8 807.862.080 14.869 monthly income to meet food needs and Php 7.886 9.961.00 Region V 177.680.00 Region I 10.20% 6.460.360.400 for a family with three children in school.770.8 17.90% 5.044.127.939.5 486.00 Region III 2.60% 43.329.660.5 43.48% 20.7 591.00 Region X 124.291.797.00 Region VIII 89.417.39% 55.021 5.2 567.287.876.778 7.73% 5.17% 0.79% 0.00 Region IV-A 65.238 0.74% 0.7 410.589 0.820.20% 40.74% 0.99% 4.326 9.43% 45.00 Region XI 61.691 0.218 0.923 4.410.050.899.300.303.3 1.61% 28.640. Table 20.58% 10.00 Region VI 135.75% 4.048 4.20% 16.996.300.080.In 2009.8 1.140.34% 40.650.8 586.22% 6. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino provides a subsidy of Php 1.8 54.00 CARAGA 61.29% 30.82% 16.60% 26.00 Region Source: Department of Social Welfare and Development Page 12 of 34 .84% 41.1 776.652 4.843 5.55% 30.210. 2010 # of HH % of HH to Budget Allocation % Share in Poverty Beneficiar the Total # of the Total Incidence ies Beneficiaries Budget (2008 NSCB) ARMM 193.538.00 GRAND 1.62% 9.582 10.61% 14. a family of five needed Php 4.374 13.681.7 466.00 Region II 9.67% 31.74% 6.365.1 915.22% 36.810.099 TOTAL 8.468. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Regional Allocation.017 to meet their food and non-food needs.00 Region XII 125.58% 16.830.2 53.

924 8. given the scale of the problem.831 11.537. Operationally.378 90.Children 3-5 Children 6-14 Pregnant HHs Grantees 2 years old years old years old Women 2008 333.963 16. the five regions where the program is concentrated (in terms of the number of beneficiaries and budgetary allocation) have the highest poverty incidence. all program efforts should be concentrated in municipalities and barangays.000 238.598.178 799.In Table 20 above.061.604 188.263 267.092 2011 (est.752 2010 350. Eastern Visayas.750* 2.072.060 Subtotal 972. We will enhance the cash transfer program for senior citizens under the Senior Citizen Act of 2010 by developing mechanisms to pinpoint the neediest. We will also examine the possibility of support programs for other socially marginalized sectors. Other cash transfer programs. and will explore increasing financial subsidy to these programs beyond the Php 7.275.144* 48. There are several government hunger mitigation programs that are vulnerable to corruption and. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Beneficiaries. this may entail revisiting the value-added tax discounts granted to the elderly.144 1.194* 283. CARAGA. Page 13 of 34 . and we will explore the possibility of using the NHTS-PR to target households for food assistance.099 1. Table 15 below shows the number of beneficiaries of the program from 2008 to 2011. Table 21. this includes the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao. ineffective. 2008.894 3. Bicol Region and MIMAROPA.775 1. 3.179.9 billion budgeted in 2011.161 466.469 HH Set Source: Department of Social Welfare and Development 2.303.911 211. The intervention will be sustained for six years to reverse the tide of hunger among poor families.915 294.) 1.280 2009 288.277 1.718 36.2011 Number of Female Children 0. Consolidation and expansion of the various hunger mitigation programs.908 160. However.872 484. In December 2009.111 585. We will continue the feeding programs in schools and day care centers in areas that have a high level of malnutrition.210 155.872.053* 675.4 million families).105 494.722 504.354 76.862 84. the proportion of families experiencing involuntary hunger rose to a record high of 24 percent (about 4.179 44.377* Total 2.

its entrepreneurial component will be enhanced since the employment rate for voc-tech education has been below target. We will ensure that resources are devoted towards basic education so that we will achieve universal enrollment (100 percent participation rate) in basic education by 2016. and ensuring participation of the community in the implementation of the program. teacher positions. strengthening management at the national and local levels. textbooks. We will expand the Philippine Health Insurance Program towards universal coverage in order to provide the poor with financial protection against illness and make the public health system more sustainable. review and restructure the content and delivery of curriculum. Specific components of this strategy are the following: • Addressing critical educational needs.10% Cohort Survival Rate 74. Some of the critical infrastructure bottlenecks include: school facilities. National Economic and Development Authority • Universal Philippine Health Insurance Program (PhilHealth) coverage for all Filipinos. health and nutrition. addressing issues concerning teacher training. In addition. several measures will be undertaken to ensure that there is a strong focus on the education sector in the country—implementing a 12 year-basic education cycle.B.38% 84.18% 81. water and sanitation for the poor that can help build their assets.04% Source: Department of Education. textbook procurement and classroom construction. the 4P program and breakfast distribution program will complement these educational reforms. We will enroll more than 5 million indigents in the PhilHealth indigent program and Page 14 of 34 . At the same time. Another strategy of the anti-poverty program is the provision of the full requirements of basic education. there will be continued emphasis on vocational and technical education. Education Indicators and Targets. DIRECT SERVICE DELIVERY. and the provision of training and scholarship programs for poor but deserving underprivileged students. As stated above.01% 98.67% Completion Rate 72. 2009/10 to 2015/16 INDICATOR ACTUAL TARGET (2009-2010) (2015-2016) Participation Rate 85. Table 22. shelter.

Bicol (Region 5).prioritize the expansion of the sponsored program to poor households in ARMM. we will: i. Eastern Visayas (Region 0). Health and nutrition indicators and targets. 100% for PhilHealth Review) identified indigents PhilHealth Benefit Delivery rate 8% (Joint DOH54% PhilHealth Review) Percentage Out-of-pocket expenditures 54% (2007 PNHA) < 30% Percentage accredited facilities (hospitals) 91% (Reyes.000 live 34 (NDHS 2008) 26.000 live 162 (FPS 2006) 52 births) Proportion of births attended by skilled 62 (NDHS 2008) 70% health professional Contraceptive prevalence rate (modern 34% (NDHS 2008) 60% method) PhilHealth Coverage rate 53% (Joint DOH85% PhilHealth Review) PhilHealth Availment rate 42% (Joint DOH92% PhilHealth Review) PhilHealth Support Value 34% (Joint DOH70%. 2010 to 2016 Indicator Baseline Target (2016) Proportion of underweight children 0-5 26. al. et. Part of the PhilHealth reserves will be utilized to upgrade government hospitals and other health facilities in these 7 regions so these can be accredited by PhilHealth. Philippine Health Insurance Corporation. To complement this program.7 births) Infant mortality rate (per 1. National Economic and Development Authority Page 15 of 34 . MIMAROPA (Region 4-B). SOCSARGEN (Region 12) and CARAGA. Build additional health centers required for increased demand. 95% among licensed 2010) Source: Department of Education. Zamboanga Peninsula (Region 9). ii. Upgrade health facilities including hospitals and health centers. Table 23.25% years old Under-five mortality rate (per 1.2% (NNS 2008) 17.000 live births) 25 (NDHS 2008) 19 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100.

enhance their understanding of the value of honest work. The provision of sanitation facilities is also an important concern and will be addressed. We will promote programs that will expand the ability of poor communities to organize themselves and support their own development. there were 1. The Department of Health will provide the funding requirements for monitoring the implementation of the water and sanitation facilities in waterless municipalities. corresponding to an unemployment rate of 7. academe and other institutions. 2. Expansion of Self-Employment Assistance Kabuhayan (SEA-K).089. and shall ensure that priority be given to barangays in municipalities with the highest density of poor households. promote entrepreneurship. non-governmental organizations.9 million in 1997. while the underemployed number is at 12 million. while establishing collaborative partnerships with relevant agencies.000 million have been released as seed capital for livelihood projects. pay debts. which numbered 23. Employment generation programs. The program enables the poor to have access to credit.389 SEA-K projects established. In 2009. had increased by more than 50 percent to 39. SEA-K is a capability-building program established by DSWD in coordination with LGUs designed to enhance the socio-economic skills of poor families to establish and manage sustainable community-based micro-credit organizations for entrepreneurial development.• The provision of water infrastructure to ‘waterless’ municipalities is an important aspect of this program. Funds amounting to Php 143. COMMUNITY-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. C. while the Department of Interior and Local Governments shall develop and implement capacity development interventions under the program. a list of 115 municipalities to be initially included in the program is currently being prepared. The labor force. have social responsibility and increase their income.4 percent.2 million by January 2011. Infrastructure will be provided to the 483 municipalities that have less than 50 percent service coverage in terms of sustainable water sources. There are approximately 3 million unemployed Filipinos in the country. benefiting 28. NAPC will serve as the lead coordinating agency in the implementation of the program. The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) projects annual employment increases at only slightly Page 16 of 34 .939 families nationwide. 1.

such that before the end of our term. Initially. the government needs to maximize job-generation in its infrastructure and non-infrastructure projects.more than 1 million new jobs a year. Higher rates of economic growth will generate additional employment. Since one third of public works programs can be implemented using labor-intensive techniques. Design a program for guaranteed employment for victims of disasters. But there will be a time lag before the employment impact of growth kicks in.000 jobs for 100 days at Php 250/day. c. This will have to come either in the form of rapid-disbursing Social Protection Credit Lines or national budget authorizations that allow the executive department to temporarily defer projects in the pipeline. the 40-thousand classroom deficit will be eliminated. which ties in with our program for education. we should explore the possibility of adapting something similar to this job guarantee program. Towards the latter part of the term. One indicative estimate is that constructing 8. b. We will work towards the following: a. 2 This program can focus on: (1) Classroom construction. In the meantime. We will explore the implementation of an employment guarantee scheme (EGS)1 for the poor to ensure that the poor can have work if these are needed. Explore the feasibility of an Employment Guarantee Scheme for the poor. The program is similar to the Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme being implemented in India starting in 2005. DPWH will take the lead in this effort. as well as deploying these in favor of pre-qualified forms of assistance to victims of calamities. The national government will also develop greater fiscal flexibility in order to deploy infrastructure and non-infrastructure budgets in the event of major disasters. the government can employ 300 to 400 thousand additional workers. and 1 Page 17 of 34 . barely enough to provide jobs to new entrants in the labor force. Raise the labor intensity of infrastructure projects in order to increase the number of employed workers in these programs. The new EGS can take the place of the different programs listed above and can be designed together with other agencies2.000 classrooms will produce 40.

as well as those who have been underemployed and are awaiting the emergence of new pathways out of chronic poverty. We will continue to expand KALAHI-CIDSS. It can become a prototype for programs for jobs for disaster victims and for the poor in general. Additional resources can be sourced from the Motor Vehicles Users Charge (MVUC) or Road Tax. 2009). which will provide jobs for small farmers and fisherfolk during lean months. canals and other waterways to lessen. including ensuring that the wage structure meets the self-targeting objectives of the program. It has been allocated a large Php 4. will begin in July 2011. the and NIA in its irrigation projects. NAPC and DOLE will be working together to examine the resource and institutional requirements for implementing EGS for those who have been displaced and affected by calamities. selecting programs that enhance labor productivity. a program for organized participatory development planning at the barangay level. In the design of the EGS.this program can use existing budgetary resources by pushing DPWH towards jobs-biased technologies in road and school construction. such as farm-to-market roads and water impoundment projects. and (4) Other agricultural infrastructure projects. Manasan. The Cash For Training/Work (CFT/W) program of DSWD. including a provision that allows for assistance during the monsoon season when it is difficult to undertake construction. if not altogether eliminate. Quisumbing. Page 18 of 34 . 2004a. Villafuerte and De La Cruz-Dona. (2) Clearing and repair of esteros.2 billion budget for 2011. especially those in the Ondoy path. It replaces the NFA rice subsidy. we will take into consideration several important components. Widening the implementation of the Kapit-Bisig Laban sa KahirapanComprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (KALAHI-CIDSS). the DA in farm-to-market roads. We should explore getting new resources from ODA donors especially for school construction. and reducing leakages in the non-labor costs of the program (Ahmed. 3. and the cost Php 4 billion. flooding. (3) Rehabilitating and repairing the irrigation of canals and ditches.

628 municipalities/cities nationwide. With additional support from the government.areas where clashes between government forces and insurgent groups are taking place. These are spread in 497 out of 1. Over the six years of KALAHI-CIDSS’ implementation. is a critical part of the social protection program of the government. have taken place or where there are evacuees and displaced people as a result of such armed conflict.provision of funds for projects resulting from it. PAMANA will be implemented by phases to allow for capacity building and resource mobilization. We will undertake a pilot program for urban barangays. We will fund the resources necessary to undertake community-driven development.229 barangays in 184 of the poorest municipalities in the poorest 42 provinces. the Millennium Challenge Corporation and the World Bank. sustainable livelihood. and livelihood. the program will expand to 407 municipalities in 48 provinces by 2016. this may be similar to the Strategic Private Sector Partnership for Urban Poverty Reduction (STEP-UP). implemented by the Office of the Presidential Adviser for the Peace Process. tenure improvement. to ensure the delivery of housing and urban development services to the poor with the participation of the business sector. 4.and employment-generation in areas affected by armed conflict. We will also explore the possibility of developing a facility that can support projects chosen through participatory barangay development planning similar to KALAHI-CIDSS. The Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan (PAMANA) Program. local governments and key shelter agencies. the program has covered a total of 4. Page 19 of 34 . Develop and integrate new programs that reduce socio-political and environmental vulnerabilities. The PAMANA program will provide assistance to the 13 percent of all barangays that are conflict-affected -. a project being undertaken by the Philippine Business for Social Progress.

virgin coconut oil. has been declared “owned by government in trust for all the coconut farmers. peppercorn. coconut fiber nets). Page 20 of 34 . 2010.g. non-dairy products. coffee. Some 25 percent of agricultural lands are devoted to coconuts. PAMANA Implementation. etc. 2012 Affected Areas in Luzon and Visayas) Scaling up Jan. bio-lubricants. valued at roughly Php 56. 700. especially in terms of its development. 2011 50 sites (including ConflictJan.5 billion. biofuels.” 3 3 P56 B is when you value the 753 million shares at 75 pesos/preferred share. 2010 50 sites Jan.-Dec.) to raise farm incomes.-Dec. A comprehensive program for developing coconut lands can be financed by coco levy funds.2013 COVERAGE TIMETABLE 7 municipalities Oct. implementation and monitoring. Coconut farmers are among the poorest of the poor in rural areas. total is P82.83 Billion. 5. Support for households dependent on coconut.000 of the 1. fertilization and intercropping strategies with supportive budgetary allocations: this roadmap will engage civil society organizations. 2013 Source: Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process We will undertake a new program to reduce vulnerabilities following natural disasters in coordination with projects undertaken by the government on environmental sustainability and disaster coping mechanisms. the latest price. Coconuts have vast potential in downstream industry development (food/non-dairy. Some 27 percent of San Miguel Corporation stock (or 753 million shares). A roadmap will be created for the sector that will include replanting. at 110 per share.PHASE PILOT PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III Table 24.2013-Dec.2 M hectares of CARP balance are coconut lands.-Dec. The potential impact of promoting productivity growth in coconut areas is great. Coconut products remain the biggest single export earning crop. the technology required to increase the productivity of coconut farms is as simple as using salt as fertilizer for coconut trees and intercropping with other high-value crops (e.

Agrarian Reform.334 2.145.183. Medium LAD balance provinces with LAD balance between 5.749 444.to long-term. one-third of which are large. 2009). the main problem for urban poor is housing. 2003. coconut farms represent the largest balance at 350.763 152. Urban poor programs.440 86. We will end illegal forced evictions.102 million hectares that CARP still has to cover until 2014.015 1.719. ASSET REFORM It is vital that social protection programs are supported so the poor’s assets can become more sustainable in the medium. Source: Department of Agrarian Reform 2.510 747.569 421.777 1. High LAD balance provinces with LAD balance of more than 13.957 237.795 4. The annual accomplishment targets for land distribution under CARP will be doubled from the existing 100. fishery reform and socialized housing. Low LAD (land acquisition and development) balance provinces with a LAD balance below 5.404. ancestral domain.313.758 1. World Bank.316.522 970.808 Target Low LAD balance Medium LAD balance High LAD balance Total Note: *Baseline numbers are as of June 2010.824 1.012 714 1.048.001 609 1.2014 Land Acquisition and Number of Beneficiaries ARCS Distribution (hectares) Number of ARBS in ARCS Baseline* Target** Baseline Target Baseline Baseline 692 871.IV. It has been shown through several studies that an increase in agrarian reform implementation can result in a reduction in poverty (e..500 hectares. ** Targets are set by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law with Extension (RA 9700). Of the remaining 1. 2010.125 646. We will explore Page 21 of 34 . Balisacan and Fuwa. private agricultural lands.167 2. This will entail the implementation of asset redistribution and housing programs. Land acquisition and distribution targets.g. Unlike in rural areas.000 hectares.000 hectares.000 608. 2004.500 hectares. particularly agrarian reform.000 to 13.000 hectares in order to complete land distribution under CARP in five years.218 420. 1.995. Table 25. The Aquino Administration will fast-track the implementation of asset reform programs under existing laws.849 448.

the urban population grew at an average annual rate of more than five percent and. approximately 60 percent of the total population lived in urban areas. credit or social safety nets. 2010). that HUDCC estimates on the number of informal settlers may be low and that the true number of informal settler households could be as much as 1.000 families over our six-year term.398 households are found in NCR. Today.projects for on-site and in-city relocation. We will accelerate the Community Mortgage Program by wiping out the program backlog. For 2011. We will require all major infrastructure projects to include a Resettlement Action Plan. Page 22 of 34 . by 2010. however. unsafe water and poor sanitation. we will increase the number of resettlement units and the number of households with housing assistance (see Table 26 below). and inability to access capital. as well as crime. Based on the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Committee (HUDCC) Housing Need Study.771 households (based on its 2007 survey). We will further ensure the full release and utilization of the Comprehensive and Integrated Shelter Finance Act (CISFA) balance of Php 12 billion within 3 years.000 poor families a year or 300. adequate basic services and sustainable livelihood support. the number of informal settlers nationwide total 550.4 million Filipinos) live in informal settlements. lack of adequate health and educational facilities. where they suffer insecure tenure. where medium-rise buildings in places where studies demonstrate feasibility. such as in the North Triangle area of Quezon City. About 36 percent or 199. We will shift the emphasis to slum upgrading and in-city resettlement through the Community Mortgage Program and Presidential Proclamations. From 1960-2000. The government must provide decent relocation. providing for quality housing. They are further exposed to public health risks due to makeshift housing. It should be noted. over 35 percent of the Metro Manila population (over 3.5 million.2-1. We will proclaim public land for 50. fire and sudden flooding (ADB. given the fact civil society groups note that they compose a third of the urban population.

3200 2.5321 No. as well as secure new living spaces for the urban poor.873.567.092.806.6731 Source: National Commission for Indigenous Peoples Page 23 of 34 .048. Table 27 below shows the 4. Table 27. Status for Approval of Ancestral Domain/ Ancestral Land Delineation and Titles.955. SURVEY COMPLETED II. UNDERGOING SOCIAL PREPARATION GRAND TOTAL No of ADs 56 41 107 204 Area (Hectares) 1.will be used in infrastructure projects both for post-disaster mitigation and disaster preparedness. 3. FOR SURVEY III.013. Resettlement and Other Housing Targets.247.179 80.4 million of which are already in the pipeline. of ALs 46 17 434 497 Area (Hectares) 8. We will work towards the distribution of ancestral domain titles as provided by the Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act. as of November 30.1300 3. 2011 Particular Baseline Target (2011) Resettlement 57.infrastructure projects that make an optimal use of labor as the predominant resource -.5000 15. Recent appointments to NCIP should strengthen its reform credentials and lessen its image as a corrupt body.119 Units Other Housing 7.8800 2. Labor-based.767. 2010 PARTICULAR I. Distribution of ancestral domain titles. 3.5221 834. will benefit a large number of people.073. equipment-supported (LBES) public works -.432 7.8531 3.873.2 million of the targeted 10 million hectares still have to be distributed. A public works program that aims to improve the safety and habitability of existing informal sites and resettlement areas.386 Assistance Source: Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Committee We will make infrastructure construction in urban poor areas a focus of our job generation program.Table 26. The national government will invigorate the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) to fulfill this program.

063.2679 56.014 55 1.912 2.180. Fisheries and aquatic resources reform and management.9648 190.425. of Area of CADTs CADTs (Hectares) No.790.3615 1. will be hastened by issuing an Administrative Order within the next six months for the delineation of municipal waters for those LGUs with offshore islands. of No.361.376 12 449. as of November 30.833.841 38 389.5814 1.550.Table 28 Status of Registration of Ancestral Domain/ Ancestral Land Delineation and Titles. DENR & DAR Completion of documents required by ROD Total 12 3. of Rightholders 540 Transmitted to ROD thru RO/PO for reg CALT taken by claimants for registration to ROD Transmitted to LRA.204 21 224.5788 No.318.4760 332.9662 725. of Area of Rightholders CALTs CALTs (Hectares) 18 1.247.116 122 3. provided for in the Code.641 16 3. and will encourage municipalities to pass their comprehensive fisheries Page 24 of 34 . DENR & DAR for projection Transmitted to LRA.5804 543 15 366. 2010 PARTICULAR No.5514 289 40 1.818 135 12.814. We will work with fisherfolk groups towards the implementation of the Fisheries Code. DENR & DAR for reprojection Completion of documents for projection/reprojection and issuance of certification to LRA. The delineation of municipal waters.294.799.132 30 3.878 Source: National Commission for Indigenous Peoples 4.5655 5.2575 146.996.

Funding for the Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan. while funding for a comprehensive fisheries plan will be developed. needs to be prioritized. sustainable livelihoods for fisherfolk and rehabilitation of coastal and marine ecosystems.ordinance. Page 25 of 34 . a 25-year planning document that provides for capacity building. Guidelines for the development of fisherfolk settlement areas as mandated by the Fisheries Code will be undertaken. promoting inter-LGU management of water resources will also be pushed.

forestry and fishing. Benguet. including more research. 8 out of 10 of the chronic poor were in rural areas (Reyes. almost 75% of the poor were found in rural areas. Taguig and Metro Manila. Promote agricultural productivity growth. grains terminal and cold chain facilities. Sta. including La Trinidad. Establish rice self-sufficiency by 2013. Dupax Sur. which are the main trading centers of the country. We will undertake the following: 1. 2. Benguet. Nueva Vizcaya. Provide marketing assistance. Nueva Vizcaya. In 2006. Establish infrastructure support to agriculture (food supply chain). 4. 3. we will undertake the hard policies to correct economic distortions that reduce economic and social opportunities for the poor in rural areas. and 5. the Department of Agrarian Reform and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Establish trading centers in proposed areas. Digos.g. Maximize the value of production by increasing the value-chain aspects of primary agricultural products. Davao del Norte. especially in coconut areas.. The creation of non-farm employment activities or rural industrialization is another. better extension services and labor-intensive small infrastructure construction. mostly working in agriculture. We will further aim to achieve the following: Increase the average annual agricultural household income by 6 percent per year or 42 percent in six years.V. Buguias. Fe. Davao del Sur. There are many steps that can be taken to promote growth in agriculture. Tagum. By 2010. Agricultural growth. Page 26 of 34 . e. 2010). Strengthen an integrated and holistic approach by converging the efforts made by the Department of Agriculture. AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES At the same time.

It has also been deliberately angled to assist the Aquino government’s anti-corruption drive by contributing to DILG programs for good local governance. Support for non-focus municipalities will be demand driven. It is here where organizational problems are most malleable and participation is easiest to organize. LOCALIZATION AND EMPOWERMENT STRATEGY FOR CONVERGENCE NAPC’s localization strategy is designed to maximize the anti-poverty impact of existing programs by generating greater LGU and civil society participation. Pantawid Pamilya and PhilHealth are topdown programs. deliberately so Phase 2 programs have to be organized from the bottom-up. We need to develop what might be called Phase 2 programs geared towards “helping the poor help themselves”. municipalities in the poorest regions where Pantawid Pamilya and PhilHealth are in place will be given priority in the implementation of Phase 2 programs. It is in these programs where community organizing work is essential. To maximize the impact of Phase 2 programs. This list will be pared down based on which municipalities fulfill the requirements of the program. and from high population density provinces such as Cebu. and providing a frame for linking local and national anti-poverty planning. PAMANA and PhilHealth focus areas. Pantawid Pamilya. and supply side intensification of health and education services. Special attention will be given Page 27 of 34 . Selected municipalities are thus from the poorest regions. We are currently compiling a list of roughly 600 municipalities based on a combination of criteria: poverty incidence statistics. The goal here is to have maximum impact in the shortest possible time on the poorest of the poor. where the incidence of poverty may not be particularly high but where the absolute number of poor is high. The center of gravity of the localization program approved by the poverty cluster will be the municipality.VI. and undercutting channels of corruption by locating decision-making in inter-agency bodies. Our poverty program is anchored on substantial and direct benefits to the poor – on Pantawid Pamilya and PhilHealth. Baseline data for the selection of focus municipalities will be poverty incidence and magnitude of poverty (density of the poor per area).

Fighting Patronage. We propose a “Salubungan” fund for supporting small projects developed through: (1) a participatory planning process at the barangay level. NAPC is now in the middle of a long. barangay development planning and “top up” local contributions. These reforms will feed into the DILG’s “performance based grants” program. and to devise programs where they actually work with the poor to produce goods and services.to congress persons and/or governors who want to undertake poverty programs by supporting component municipalities and projects cutting across more than one municipality. We have developed a frame for community-driven development (CDD) that will enable civil society organizations and/or LGUs outside of the 400 municipalities planned for the expanded KALAHI-CIDSS to implement CDD projects. and (3) financial contributions by the barangay and municipal governments. The fund would finance community organizing. NAPC has instructed the sectors to get away from their preoccupation with consultations and conferences.” CBMS will complement NHTS-PR and provide a monitoring tool for anti-poverty work. allowing for larger projects. would be put under an inter-agency secretariat. District and provincial wide projects will also be encouraged. etc. legislated process for selecting sectoral councils and representatives. they have tasked the sectors with identifying/devising empowerment frames/programs for their own sectors. rural electrification. We propose that anti-poverty programs be grouped into packages such as “infrastructure for the poor. We need to be able to support the organizing component of these programs. To get away from undue focus on issues of representation.” where water. farm-to-market roads. (2) community participation through labor and materials donation. This would facilitate the salubungan of intensified national and local anti-poverty Page 28 of 34 . and (3) a set of administrative and organizational reforms based on the DILG “seal of good housekeeping. Concrete targets in the poverty action plan will facilitate monitoring. Good governance reform will strengthen the capacity of municipal governments to plan and implement poverty programs. Participating municipalities will be required to undertake: (1) CBMS surveys. which will serve as the base for (2) Anti-Poverty Action Planning.

we propose dividing the country (in our case. 2. Poverty programs with intensified community participation provide a service/delivery-based connection between municipal officials and voters. direct assistance and service delivery in Zone 3. most importantly land and water. rather than going to many different national agencies. focus municipalities) into three economic zones: 1. At the local level. the bayanihan-salubungan program breaks local patronage circuits by locating decision-making on the initiation of publicly financed projects at the community level. which flow through departmental lines. 3. moving political relations away from highly personalistic exchanges of money and other favors. Poverty and Economic Growth. production and roads in Zone 2. Poverty programs can then be differentiated based on the needs of each zone: marketing and business development in Zone 1. Here agriculture and other production by rural poor can be more easily connected to markets and other factors of production. Rural and peri-urban areas close to logistical and industrial hubs in urbanizing growth areas. Community involvement in the implementation of projects makes them more transparent. To correlate poverty programs with programs for promoting economic growth. Areas further away from urban growth centers but with good resource endowments. Areas with neither good resource endowments nor logistical connections to urban areas. instead of with the mayor in the municipal hall. It will also open up the possibility of linking poverty programs with other Page 29 of 34 . Town mayors with anti-poverty projects requiring national government financing and/or technical support would only have to go to a couple of interagency secretariats.mapping. This ‘economic geography’ approach to poverty reduction will enable us to link the bottom-up planning at the municipal level and the top-down approach of programs like Pantawid Pamilya. The DPWH secretary would then be able to fend off congressmen and/or governors by simply saying decisions are now being made at the interagency level. This would have the effect of breaking circuits of patronage.

economic development programs and help shape budget allocations and multiyear investment plans. Page 30 of 34 .

the NAPC Enhanced Integrated and Monitoring System for Anti-Poverty Programs can play a role in this regard. At the end of 2011. whenever practicable.VII. especially in the management of value chains and common facilities. Page 31 of 34 . provincial and municipal level outcomes. and in the renewal of natural resources. The role of LGUs in pursuing these outcomes will also be strengthened so that anti-poverty programs can be pursued in the context of strengthening devolution through greater autonomy and accountability. The specific community empowerment methodology outcome for each of the major anti-poverty programs will also be specified so that local community organizations can participate in the implementation process. CBMS will be employed as the main assessment instrument for evaluating local poverty reduction action plans of LGUs and operationalizing performance-based grants for LGUs and community-led service providers. Monitoring and evaluation schemes will also be developed for public-private partnership agreements that will draw budgets and financial guarantees from government. this will be supplemented by work that would express the targets in terms of regional. it is suggested that gaps be identified in the implementation of anti-poverty programs and can be made a priority in the designing/re-designing of the Bayanihan-Salubungan agenda. Government communication backbones and mapping efforts can support the monitoring and assessment of programs. benchmarks for performance will be developed. MONITORING AND ADMINISTRATION The Philippine Development Plan indicators will be the basis for monitoring the targets in the anti-poverty plan. and for projects that create social capital by fostering inter-local government cooperation. Local organizations will be encouraged to participate in the monitoring and evaluation of programs so that bottom-up solutions can be undertaken to improve the effectiveness of anti-poverty programs.

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