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CHAPTER 1

Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics

Since combustion problems requiring theoretical analysis are primarily concerned with the flow of reacting and diffusing gases, the student of combustion theory must understand-in addition to chemical thermodynamics -the conservation equations of fluid dynamics, including transport properties and chemical kinetics. Condensed but reasonably complete treatments of these background topics are given in the appendixes. Readers unfamiliar with any of the background subjects are advised to read the appropriate appendixes before beginning Chapter 1. The differential forms of the conservation equations derived in the appendixes for reacting mixtures of ideal gases are summarized in Section 1.1. From the macroscopic viewpoint (Appendix C), the governing equations (excluding the equation of state and the caloric equation of state) are not restricted to ideal gases. Most of the topics considered in this book involve the solutions of these equations for special flows. The forms that the equations assume for (steady-state and unsteady) one-dimensional flows in orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate systems are derived in Section 1.2, where specializations accurate for a number of combustion problems are developed. Simplified forms of the conservation equations applicable to steady-state problems in three dimensions are discussed in Section 1.3. The specialized equations given in this chapter describe the flow for most of the combustion processes that have been analyzed satisfactorily.
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(5) In equation (3). REACTING. is In equation (2). q .1.5. (D-35). i= 1 N (3) Conservation of species. which may be combined to give P = [p + ($A . (1) Momentum conservation.p[(Vv) + (VVy]. 1. is p &/dt + pv. equation (D-37). to be used repeatedly. for example.Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics Boundary and interface conditions must be known if solutions to the conservation equations are to be obtained. and energy balances at an interface often are of importance. N i= 1 (2) Energy conservation. which may be written as . v u = .)(V * v)]U . equation (D-40). Since these conditions depend strongly on the model of the particular system under study.. Overall continuity. are derived in Appendixes C and D and may be summarized as follows. For this reason. IDEAL-GAS MIXTURES The conservation equations. The organization of the remaining chapters of the book is discussed in Section 1. equation (D-33).P : (VV) + p 1 y i f i . However. is svpt + v * vv = -(V .p)/p + c Xfi. interface conditions are derived through introduction of integral forms of the conservation equations in Section 1.4. simple mass.v . momentum. q is given by equation (E-46). they may require consideration of surface equilibria (discussed in Appendix A) or of surface rate processes (discussed in Appendix B). it is difficult to give general rules for stating them. THE CONSERVATION EQUATIONS FOR MULTICOMPONENT. p is obtained from equations (E-38)-(E-40). vi. is dp/dt +v * (pv) = 0.

V is the gradient operator.. two dots (:) imply that the tensors are to be contracted twice.1 The Conservation Equations for Multicomponent. T. and the identity In equations (1)-(7). The radiant flux. and (B-59). (8) ROT which are combinations of equations (B-6)-(B-8).. N . . The external forces fi are specified (not derived).1. .1.p v. The reaction rates wi in equation (4) are determined by the phenomonological expressions of chemical kinetics. = j= 1 xixj (&Vj - Vi) + (X - - Xi) + j$ = 1 [rz)r+ .. vector notation is employed. .)?(I% - (T) - + 1I.3k . is also viewed here as specified. it is found fundamentally through the integro-differential equation of radiation transport (see Appendix E). The transport coefficients appearing in equations (5)-(7) are given in Appendix E. N . The symbols appearing here are summarized in Table 1.~T ) Be ~-(&/ROT) j=l fi (-) X. and v.(fi - N - fj) (7) i j = l i = 1.y. the caloric equation of state. (B-58). U is the unit tensor. Vi is determined by equation (E-18) which is vx. N the thermodynamic identity. Reacting. The N + 5 dependent variables in equations (1)-(4) may be taken to be p. w i= k= 1 M 1 (vI:~ V. Ideal-Gas Mixtures 3 In equations (3) and (4)... x. . qR. . i = l . in which case the other variables may be related to these through the ideal-gas equation of state. and the superscript T denotes the transpose of the tensor. .

the . Unsteady flow The conservation equations in orthogonal.1 Symbols Meaning A constant in the frequency factor for the kth reaction* Specific heat at constant pressure for species i* Binary diffusion coefficient for species i and j * Thermal diffusion coefficient for species i* Activation energy for the kth reaction* External force per unit mass on species i* Specific enthalpy of species it Standard heat of formation per unit mass for species i at temperature T o* Total number of chemical reactions occurring* Total number of chemical species present* Hydrostatic pressuret Stress tensor+ Heat-flux vectort Radiant heat-flux vector* Universal gas constant* Temperaturet A fixed. 1. Since the complete form is complicated and will not be required in subsequent problems.4 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics TABLE 1. ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW 1. standard reference temperature* Internal energy per unit mass for the gas mixturet Diffusion velocity of species it Mass-average velocity of the gas mixturet Molecular weight of species i* Rate of production of species i by chemical reactions (mass per unit volume per unit time)+ Mole fraction of species it Mass fraction of species it Exponent determining the temperature dependence of the frequency factor for the kth reaction* Bulk viscosity coefficient* Thermal conductivity* Coefficient of (shear) viscosity* Stoichiometric coefficient for species i appearing as a reactant in reaction k* Stoichiometric coefficient for species i appearing as a product in reaction k* Density' * Parameters that must be given in order to solve the conservation equations + Quantities determined by the equations given in this section.2. curvilinear coordinatesystems may easily be derived from equations (1)-(4).2.1.

g 2 . g 2 and g3 may depend upon x2 and x 3 .2. ds2 = g2 dx2. s3) and the coordinates (xl. v 3 = 0.1. x2. where a form valid in arbitrary (nonorthogonal) coordinate systems also is given.) t Of course. g3). = 0. and K2 = 0 and K3 = 0. the (mass-average) velocity vector and the body-force vectors all are parallel to one of the three coordinates. . N . however. and all properties are uniform along surfaces in the other two orthogonal directions. (Note that the numbers in brackets refer to references at the end of each chapter. = 0 and d/dx3 = 0 for all flow properties? and that v 2 = 0. are flows in which the radiant heat-flux vector. One-dimensional flow is then defined by the hypotheses that dldx. ds3 =93 dx3.x3) will be taken as dsl = g1 dxl. For brevity we shall assume that g1 dx. the coordinate in the flow direction will be taken to be the actual physical distance in that direction (gl = 1). (13) which essentially defines (gl. . 1 = 1. Equation (6) then 0. [l]. .L2 = 0. One-Dimensional Flow 5 reader is referred to the literature for these equations. in other words. .* Of special interest. s2. for example. The flow will be assumed to be in the x1 direction. and the relation between the physical distances (sl. andx. . = dx and use x in place of x1 in the equations. Equation (7) now reduces to 1 aT j=1 . Here the subscripts 2 and 3 denote the corresponding components of the vectors. From equation ( 5 ) it is found that the off-diagonal elements of p vanish (p12 = p Z 3 = p31 = 0) and that the diagonal elements of p are given by * See. These conditions appear to define the most general type of one-dimensional flow. the components of the vectors in the 1 (x) direction will be identified by italic type without a subscript. yields q2 (14) = and also shows that q3 = 0.

(22) Equations (19)-(22) may also be obtained by specializing the conservation equations given in [l]* to the case in which a/dx. and g1 = 1. in the present case. curvilinear coordinate systems. curvilinear coordinate systems. = 0.i = 1. The simplified form of equation (1) is By utilizing the expression for the divergence of a diagonal tensor in orthogonal. In Cartesian coordinate systems g 2 = g 3 = 1... In combustion problems it is usually more convenient to work with the enthalpy h = u + p / p instead of the internal energy u. the 2 and 3 components of all vectors are zero. = 0. ax wi P I ~- 1 a P9293 ax ( ~ y i V & ~ g 3 ) .. A modified form of the energy equation may be derived from equation (21) by making the * There IS an error in equation (14) of [I].) . the pressure tensor is diagonal. .u./h. a/ax. N .. (pJJ/bJ) should be replaced by (p.6 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics and where use has been made of expressions for the divergence and the dyadic gradient in orthogonal. one can show that equation (2) reduces to Equation ( 3 ) becomes and equation (4) may be written as ar + .u.v 2t -=--- ar.

1. giving pug2g3 = constant.-+ d/dx because only one independent variable remains. then equation (20) reduces to pu du/dx dp/dx = 0. the result is found to be N Actually. One-Dimensional Flow I substitution u = h . chemical enthalpy.” An integrated form of the momentum equation may be derived only under additional restrictive conditions.1. and d/ax .pll)v]. and utilizing equation (19) to eliminate a( l/p)/at. .2. In steady-state flow with fi = 0. considerable simplification in equations (19)-(22) may be effected. substituting the result into equation (21). + * This sum often is called the stagnation enthalpy flux and includes thermal enthalpy. if viscous forces are negligible. a relationship quite similar to equation (21a) may be derived from equations (1)-(3) for general flows. multiplying equation (21a) by pg2g3 and utilizing equation (23) shows that equation (21a) may be integrated once. Equation (24) also illustrates that the enthalpy is of more importance than the internal energy in steady-flow problems. multiplying equation (20) by u. Steady flow In certain steady-flow systems. the additional term p/p. Here a/& = 0. +q - ( p . which appears when equation (24) is written in terms of u.p/p in equation (21). Equation (19) may be integrated immediately. yielding the simplified continuity equation (23) In many steady-state combustion problems. may be explained as “displacement work. When a/& = 0 and fi = 0. body forces are negligible and a consequent simplification in the energy equation is possible. the leading term on the lefthand side in equations (19)-(22) disappears. and kinetic energy. If. 1 = constant.2.pll)u Equation (24) states that the sum* of the enthalpy flux and the ordered kinetic-energy flux may change only because of heat flux (g2g3 q) or viscous dissipation [ g 2 g 3 ( p . u 2 / ( p / p ) < 1. in addition.2. After recombining terms in the appropriate manner. then Id In p/dx I < Id In u/dx I (that is.

ei = pE. i = 1 . . the definitions of yi and imply that equation (22) by p g 2 g 3 and utilization of equation (23) shows that when ajat = 0. we find that pv = constant pv h ( + Z) + . .. the species conservation equation is dei/dx = wi / ( pv g2g3) .f. Utilizing g 2 = g 3 = 1..8 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics fractional changes in the pressure are negligibly small) and the solution of the momentum equation is p = constant. N . i 1. - q - p +K and - ): : = u . . and viscous forces.(u + F)/pv. d / d t = 0 and the above results in equations (22) and (24). one-dimensional flow ( g 2 = g 3 = l). the square of the Mach number [v2/(ap/ap).N . the additional restrictions imposed in the preceding paragraph are not needed in order to integrate the momentum equation.($p + K ) dv/dx according to equation ( 16).= constant d [pyi(v dx + V. (26) + since equation (23) implies that (27) when g2 = g3 = 1.. . When av/at = O. Equation (26) therefore expresses a balance between dynamic (inertial) forces. p1 = p . . .. In equation (26). and g 2 = g 3 = 1. after the rest of the problem has been solved with p = constant).)] = wi. N . equations (22) (with appropriate set of conservation equations. pressure forces. (30) Although ei need not lie between 0 and 1 (it may be negative or greater than ti = 1. In steady one-dimensional flows it is often useful to introduce the mass-flux fraction of chemical species i. (25) The condition v 2 / ( p / p ) < 1 is valid for low-speed flow. equation (20) reduces to pv du/dx + dpll/dx= 0. (31) . specifically. Multiplication of unity). = 0.. onedimensional flow with no body forces. In these cases it is not necessary to use equation (20) (except to compute the actual small pressure change. . s = entropy]-a measure of the ratio of the ordered kinetic energy to the random. When equation (25) is an acceptable ap= 0) through (24) constitute an proximation. the integral of which is pv2 p l l = constant.(. plane. (29) Equations (26)-(29) are the conservation equations for steady. In (steady-state) plane. i = 1. . thermal kinetic energy of the molecules-must be small.

Body forces* (fi terms). Bulk viscosity ( K ) .1. 5. and consequently fi is not negligible. 3. Radiant heat flux (qR). from which qR is obtained. whenh equation (14) becomes =0 and thermal diffusion is neglected (for brevity). then g2g3 p u x.( p . (32) Using these same assumptions and the (ideal-gas) condition h = hi one can show by substituting equation (15) into equation (24) that if radiant transfer is neglected. replacing them by the flux fractions. 4. [ (i:l C hiti + - z) - A. * In some low-speed combustion problems natural convection is of importance.3. 1.- + (x .3 Coupling Functions 9 In terms of ti..pll)v dx dT = constant.Xi) V p / p ] . The Soret and Dufour effects (terms involving DT. N . Body forces disappear from equations (3) and (7) and remain only in the momentum equation. COUPLING FUNCTIONS A number of effects contained in equations (1)-(7) are unimportant in a large class of combustion problems and will be neglected in nearly all of the applications to be considered subsequently and also in the equations to be derived in this section. 2. the effect of diffusion on the enthalpy flux is included implicitly in the first term.X i ) .dP P dx i = 1. There are a number of combustion problems in which the neglect of q. .1. is invalid. The above equations serve to eliminate completely the diffusion velocities from the governing equations. Since the acceleration due to gravity is the same for all species. radiation pressure and radiation-energy density. Although the general form-of the equation of radiation transport.. f. 5= dx j=1 (T)(x xixj to j). always appear to be negligible in combustion..+ Reasons for neglecting these phenomena are discussed in Appendix E. Other radiative influences.i). is quite complicated. is the same for all i in these problems. and the only term from the heat-flux vector that remains explicitly is that of heat conduction. some combustion problems remain tractable when radiation is included because the effects of scattering and absorption often are negligible except at interfaces. (33) In this form of equation (24).. Pressure-gradient diffusion [ ( y . The fact that equations (31) and (33) appear to be less complicated than equations (22) (with = 0) and (24) often justifies this transformation. These include: 1.

There are many approaches to the derivation of equations for coupling functions.Vi = 0. Utilizing equations (10) and (34) in this expression./X. approximately. and Y.10 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics Introduction of additional restrictive assumptions is useful in analysis of many problems. This enables the chemical-source term to be removed from many equations by considering suitable linear combinations of dependent variables.. may be rewritten as v . species conservation. (36) When the binary diffusion coeflcients of all pairs of species are equal. as pointed out in Section 1. equation (l). the resulting equations remain valid. .2. N in the present approximation.h.. One involves equations given in early papers of Shvab [ 2 ] and Zel’dovich [ 3 ] . The objective of the following manipulations is to express the equations for conservation of energy and of chemical species in a common form. steady-flow problems. and the resulting formulation often is called the ShvabZel’dovich formulation. The assumptions needed limit the range of applicability of the formulation to a considerably greater extent than do the approximations given in the preceding paragraph. the use of coupling functions often enhances understanding of the physical processes that occur.= Xi j= 1 cXjVj N - XiVi. In view of equation (34). p is a constant. . Since Y. ) ] = w. ) N . ) . i = 1.[pY(v + V . i = 1. . equation (4). for many of the problems considered in later chapters. The substitution of equation (6) into equation (3) yields. and summing over i yields a relation for X j V j that may be .(v + V . Nevertheless. in this approximation. where D = D i j .. multiplying this equation by = 1. In addition to providing significant simplifications in analysis. we obtain Y. viscous effects are often negligible and. . the momentum equation implies that.i lV T i =1 1 = 0 (35) for the energy equation. equation (7) reduces to D VX.reduces to v . X i = 1 by definition. (34) For low-speed. For s t e a d y j o w overall continuity. in a reasonable approximation. . These linear combinations often are descriptively called coupling functions. (pv) = 0.

. (37) a simple and well-known diffusion equation that often is merely postulated. ( P V ~ pDVY. i = + If= 1. we find V . 1''' Y. by subtraction of the chemical enthalpy. that is. The derivation given for these equations required neither that any transport coefficient or the specific heat of the mixture is constant nor that the specific heats of all species are equal. & cp. dT] according to equation (38). showing that D VlnXi. . N . This integral represents the thermal enthalpy.) = w i . Le = A/pDcp = 1. . d T .and species-conservation equations of Shvab and Zel'dovich. h. i = 1. . Equations (40) and (41) are the energy.VlnXj j=1 [ N Substituting equation (12) for X i into all terms on the left-hand side of this expression. we obtain Fick's law.hp. Coupling Functions 11 substituted back into the equation.* Assuming that the Lewis number (Le) is unity. i = 1. not derived from fundamentals through explicit hypotheses. . .1. N. the integration is performed * Here. Coupling functions may now be identified from equations (40) and (41). N. precisely j& c p dT = at constant composition. V i = -DVlnyi. By substituting equations (11) and (36) into equation (39. (41) In view of equation (39). (39) we may substitute equation (37) into the above form of the energy equation to show that since V JFoc p dT = c p VT [(Vyi) & cp. 1 = -Vi. .. Equations (36) and (37) imply that V.. .3..xE.i i= 1 N (38) is the specific heat of the mixture.. [ p v ( f T l c p d T ) pi:lyiVi + N N where cp = 1 yiCP. the similarity in the forms of equation (40) (for the thermal enthalpy iFo c p d T ) and equation (41) (for the mass fractions yi) is striking. . obtained from the total enthalpy.

. The nonlinear rate term may be eliminated from all except one of the relations corresponding to equation (44) by subtraction.a. d(pa)/at. diffusive. in the absence of the assumptions of low-speed flow and of a Lewis with P = . where the linear operator L is defined by L(a) E v * [pvGl . the first term represents convection and the second diffusion.mi + 1v. assume further that chemical changes occur by a single reaction step. N . . and equations (40) and (41) may both be expressed as L(a) = 0.a1 = ji( i # 1). i = 1.. i= 1 N N i= 1 where mi is the symbol for chemical species i. then an additional term. the quantity w i / w ( v i .. (44) (45) and *T for equation (40). . while = YI / W 1 ( V~ v:) ai. N .. 1v. (47) for equation (41). for example.mi. and reactive effects. if I. If the steady-flow approximation is relaxed. . E PT and P = ai . (43) is the same for all species (see Appendixes A and B). then the other flow variables are determined by the linear equations for the coupling functions P L(P) = 0.(@]) = w (48) can be solved for a l .appears in L .. i = 1.v:) = o.this term represents accumulation of thermal energy or chemical species. Equation (44) therefore describes a balance of convective.12 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics To emphasize more explicitly the similarity of equations (40) and (41). In this case. (49) aT . Such balances are very common in combustion and often are employed as points of departure in theories that do not begin with derivations of conservation equations. equations (48) and (49) may be derived with this generalized definition of L. In the operator L. For species conservation.pD V a l .

2. and 3. Conservation Conditions at an Interface 13 number of unity. be pointed out that equation (49) is deceptively simple in appearance. burning rates often may be determined by solving equation (49). the equality of diffusion coefficients. t ) over a given volume V is where d is the surface bounding V. without attacking equation (48) [4]. coupling functions obeying equation (49) still may be derived through use of atom conservation. thus the formulation is appreciably less general for energy conservation than for species conservation.2). unless additional approximations are made. In such cases. However. momentum. it is often important in detailed investigations to replace equation (42) by a kinetic scheme of greater complexity. It should. equation (A-36). The time rate of change of the integral of an arbitrary functionf(x. in addition. equation (39) and the approximation of low-speed flow. and energy at an interface may be derived by writing equations (1)-(4) in integral form and then passing to the limit in which the volume of integration approaches a surface. however. as well as replacement of the steadyflow approximation by an additional assumption.so that L depends implicitly on p [see equation (45)]. To obtain equation (44) for energy conservation in time-dependent problems necessitates. CONSERVATION CONDITIONS AT AN INTERFACE Relations expressing the conservation of mass.4. n is the outward-pointing normal to this surface. Nevertheless. the formulation is of reasonably wide applicability for species conservation.1. . Although the one-reaction approximation is sufficiently accurate for k? many purposes in combustion. Integration of equation (1) over V and utilization of the divergence theorem and of equation (50) forf = p yields f ( J v p d V ) + Jdp(v - g)- nd d = 0. more than one rate equation of the type given in equation (48) remain to be solved. 1.4. pv [which is determined by equation (34). a result like equation (49) often can be derived for the total enthalpy h through reasonable approximations (see Section 3. For systems in which reactants initially are unmixed. and the assumption of a one-step reaction are needed .therefore.4. the retention of assumption 5. an equation of state with p = constant and in some cases an approximate form of the momentum equation] and p D may depend on pi or j T . Only the restrictions 1. to the effect that aplat is negligible in an expression like equation (21a). and equation (49) actually becomes nonlinear. and the term involving d x l d t accounts for the changes associated with motion of the control volume.

which may be integrated over Y to show that by the procedures described above. In the limit. which-upon integration over V”-reduces to (54) Equations (51)-(54) are the integral forms of the conservation equations. namely. We now let the control volume ^Y be a thin slab. then equation (1) may be used to obtain an equation which is essentially identical with equation (D-36). the integral over d is composed of two parts. Integrating this result over -Y. integrals over each face of the slab. If equation (2) is dotted into v and substituted into equation (3). Control volume for the derivation of interface conditions. Let us arbitrarily choose one face as the “positive” side of the slab and identify quantities on this side by the subscript + and those on the other t nFIGURE 1.1).we find that The substitution of equation (I) into equation (4) yields equation (D-39).1.14 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics By multiplying equation (1) by v and adding the result to equation (2). the thickness of which is allowed to approach zero (see Figure 1. one obtains equation (D-34). .

wi dd. In equations (55)-(58). JdI [p+(v+ - g) - p-(v. n+] + (P+ ...n + I dd + q+ . then wi -+ wi 6 ( y . .v - ( + vi.dx)]-n+ dt - d d = lim JYwi d V 77-0 ( JvpX d V ) . It is clear that n. momentum. y is the coordinate normal to the surface..- .. The terms involving limY+oof volume integrals remaining in equations (55)-(58). or a chemical species at the interface.yi. (58) from equations (51)-(54). -n+ at corresponding points on the two faces.q . respectively.P. For example. i = 1. . if the interface is taken to be a solid surface at which chemical reactions are proceeding at a finite rate.. surface reactions.)I- n+ d d = -V lim +O [it J/ - d 4 (55) Jd1{P+V+[(Y+ -%).. yi+(v+ JdI + vi+ - g) d - p .) . or a nonzero time rate of accumulation of mass. y = y .. n + d d 1 and [i’. By substitution. at the surface. energy. Conservation Conditions at an Interface 15 side by the subscript -.4. and 6 is the Dirac 6-function.y l ) . where wi is the surface reaction rate (mass of species i produced per unit area per unit time).N . the volume integral essentially approaches a surface integral). and in the limit the integral over the surface of V may be yielding replaced by an integral over the interface area d.P + .+I - P-V-[(V- - 3.v .1..+ v + . which is we then find that in equation (58) limv+o Jy wi d V = SdI . limv+o is to be interpreted as the limit in which the thickness of the slab becomes infinitesimal (that is.P . account for the possibility of surface forces.

n + >+ P . p + v+(v+ n + ) + P+ n+ (59) (60) - = P . n + .16 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics the mass rate of production of species i on the surface. Using equations (5) and (6) and the identity h = u + ( p / p ) . then equations (55)-(58) simplify considerably. If it is also assumed that the interface is not moving (dx/dt = 0). the V i values are determined in terms of concentration gradients at the interface either by the form of equation (7) in which the last three terms are omitted or.that the differential forms of equations (55)-(58) reduce to p + v + -n+ = p .3 are valid. and that approximations 1-4 of Section 1. In equations (61) and (62). equations (59). qR has been retained because radiative heat losses from surfaces often are substantial.) d V dt Y-0 = . Detailed discussions of the importance of . and respectively. then p x + pf S(y . In many problems. with additional approximations (see Section 1. by Fick's law. all terms in equations (55)-(58) involving are zero. (61). there is usually no excess mass at the surface so that limY+of p d V = 0 in equation (55). It is apparent that corresponding interpretations may also be given for equations (55)-(57).v-(v-. Equation (58) therefore expresses the following physically obvious conservation condition.v . that viscosity is negligible.. and the remaining term on the right-hand side of equation (58) is p yi d V = - d . The difference between the mass flux of species i leaving the surface and that entering the surface equals the mass rate of production of species i at the surface minus the mass rate of accumulation of species i on the surface. for example. which is the negative of the rate of accumulation of mass of species i on the surface. and (62) often will be needed as boundary conditions for equations (1)-(4).3). S(y .n .we find by passing to the limit of small d. In equation (61). lim I V p . Although equation (60) will not be used explicitly in the subsequent applications.-IdTpi d dt dd.yI).y. If pi is the mass of species i per unit surface area. .

The arrangement of the remaining chapters is less strongly dependent on pedagogic considerations. The current status of our theoretical understanding of turbulent flames is reviewed in Chapter 10. The next three chapters address from a basic viewpoint three classes of combustion problems that are of high practical interest.1. where relations between the properties on the upstream and downstream sides of combustion waves are developed from overall (algebraic) conservation equations. the least complex and proceed to successively more-complicated problems. developed therein. fundamentally. and spray combustion. [ 5 ] for an analysis of equation (61). Chapter 4 deals with problems in which finite chemical reactionrates must be considered. presented in Chapter 7. addresses a problem of engineering importance and also provides a vehicle for systematic amplification of basic concepts. Chapter 3 is concerned with problems in which transport effects are of importance but the chemical reaction-rate terms appearing in equation (4) and given by equation (8) need not be considered in obtaining first approximations for most of the information of interest. [6] and [7] for applications and generalizations of equations (61) and (62).5. The analysis in Chapter 8 of classical aspects of flapmability emphasizes the influences of heat losses and of finite-rate chemistry. The bases of theoretical descriptions of unsteady burniqg in a wide variety of combustion problems are given in Chapter 9. turbulent combustion. Processes in which both transport phenomena and finite chemical reaction-rates must be considered simultaneously even in the most elementary descriptions are encountered in Chapter 5 on laminar flame theory and also appear in the discussions of detonation phenomena given in Chapter 6. namely.* 1. but the transport phenomena [the most highly differentiated terms appearing in equations (2)-(4) after use is made of equations (5)-(7)] all are negligible. .3 is useful in these problems. and [S] for an amplification relevant to equation (62).5. None of the differential conservation equations discussed in this chapter are needed in Chapter 2. combustion instability. Results of Chapter 3 are employed in Chapter 11 to apply the spray-combustion theory. the formulation developed in Section 1. to problems of steady-state. Chapter 12 concerns basic aspects * See. Approach Adopted in the Development of Combustion Theory 17 various terms in equations (59)-(62) for particular systems may be found in the literature. for example. The study of combustion of solid propellants. DISCUSSION OF THE APPROACH ADOPTED IN THE FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENT OF COMBUSTION THEORY In the following chapters we shall begin with problems that are. one-dimensional burning in liquid-propellant combustors and of deflagrations in sprays.

Scala and G. Gos. Memo. English translation. Williams. Scripta Book Co. A. Tekhn. New York: Wiley. Zel’dovich. Enery.18 Summary of Relevant Aspects of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Kinetics of problems of flame attachment in combustion devices and of flame-spread processes such as those occurring in fires. 5. 343 (1958). izd. Zhur. A. S. Spalding. Williams. 1974. 1 199 (1 949). A. Y . Aero. (1957).. No. 4.. Penner and F. “Condensed-Phase Mass and Energy Balances”. M. Tech. 7. NACA Tech.. Pasadena. F. L. Moscow-Leningrad (1948). B. W. Social Aspects. 8. P. . Sci 25. 19. 1152 (1965). Williams. S. Shvab. Williams. (1953). A. an attempt has been made to cite references that can be pursued in advancing to any frontier of the subject. J. F. Since a thorough presentation of every aspect of combustion theory cannot be included in a volume of this size. Economic Impact. P. DA-04-495Ord-446. Contract No. B. AZAA Journal 3. 1296 (1950). 2. S. No. 847-864. 141 (1959). A . 4th Symp. Blackshear. Sutton. 6. ed. 19. Fiz. A. California Institute of Technology. 18CL-182. V. 3. chapter 3 of Heat Transjer in Fires: Therrnophysics. A R S Journal29. REFERENCES 1. D. Rept. Libby and F.