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The Post-jingle Years: Popular Music and Advertising from 2008 to 2012

Katy Flint

 

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Abstract
Studies of music in advertising tend to be either outdated or concentrated on America. Much can change in this field in a small amount of time, so updated research needs to be undertaken, and relevant questions asked about the relationship between popular music and advertising in Britain.

This dissertation focuses on three trends that are currently prevalent in advertisements: the cover song, the female cover song, and world music in advertising. Research has been gained through analysis of three main case studies that embody these current trends. Due to the filmic nature of music in recent adverts, consultation of film literature has aided in analysis. Sociological readings and theories were also consulted for the investigation into world music in advertising. Other secondary sources included scholarly journals, newspaper articles, literature on popular culture, and both advertising and musicological perspectives have been considered throughout the thesis.

This dissertation proposes that there is now a genre of ‘advert’ music, populated by slow tempo cover versions, pianos and female singers. It suggests that advertisers commodify empowerment through female cover versions to sell products to women. It also finds that the genre of world music is often used as an ‘other’ in adverts, to promote a sense of voyage and exoticism. It concludes that music in advertising has changed. The emphasis is now on the lifestyle advert, and popular music acts as a signifier for an experience that in reality does not exist. It also concludes that when a song is recontextualised in an advert, its meaning changes, with the result that it becomes hard to separate ‘advert’ music, from popular music.

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Contents

List of Illustrations and Musical Examples Introduction

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Unfamiliar Familiarities: John Lewis and ‘From Me to You’ ‘It’s a Man’s World’: The Female Cover Version in Advertising World Music as the ‘Exotic Other’: Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Rice Krispies

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Conclusion Select Filmography Bibliography

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List of Illustrations and Musical Examples

Illustrations 1.1 1.2 2.1 Sleepy man featured in opening shot of John Lewis ‘From Me To You’ Tagline of John Lewis ‘From Me To You’ campaign Image of Keira Knightley mounting motorbike for Chanel Coco Mademoiselle 2.3 3.1 View of the action through a shot of a still camera, Chanel A caravan park in rainy weather for the Rice Krispies ‘Lovely Rain’ advert 3.2 3.3 3.4 Image of bucket and spade in rain, Rice Krispies ‘Lovely Rain’ Father leaving nightshift in Heinz advert, 1997 Ancient proverb featured in Heinz ‘Nightshift’ 32 33 34 21 23 30 10 13

Musical Examples 2.2 Figure that acts as a link into the next verse, and next section of narrative 22

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as opposed to a jingle broadcasting the benefits of a product. 2010) 891. A. and Speech about Music’. and forming an association between the lyrics of a pre-existing song and a commodity. 16:1 (1984). Theory. J. ‘Communication. 14.Introduction ‘One cannot say with words what music says without them’. Cohen.       5   . N. and prime memory – or it can serve an entirely                                                                                                                 1 S. Sloboda (eds) Music. ‘Music as a Source of Emotion in Film’. Justlin and J. 2 3 Handbook of Music and Emotion. to mask extraneous noises.3 It can appeal to the masses. Music in advertising now functions more like music in film. to further the visual narrative. Music may be used to provide continuity and coherence. The ethos of the brand may still be communicated musically. Aplications. Feld. Yearbook for Traditional I define pre-existing music as music that has had a life and history outside of the advert. to attract attention to important events on screen or to induce emotion.2 We have entered the age of the ‘post-jingle’. Research. create an aura of ‘coolness’. or in a music video. It seems imperative to research the phenomenon simply due to the sheer percentage of adverts that feature pre-existing music. A. by crossing language barriers.1 Popular music in television advertising is becoming an increasingly prominent feature. but it is instead most frequently implied through the manipulation of meaning. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Music. where the relationship between advertising and popular song grows ever closer and more complex. in P. The functions of using music in advertising are both practical and provocative. It can communicate meaning. yet at the same time target a certain group of people with striking specificity.

in P. ‘Music and Marketing’. Applications. Toscani cf S. North and D. historical and cultural context. N. thus according to Oliviero Toscani. 2010.aesthetic purpose. To talk about meaning in music. who is listening to it. It is also important to consider the place of the listener. Sloboda (eds) Handbook of Music and Emotion. because I will be referring to pre-existing popular song it is impossible to ignore social. Some would argue it is the act of human agency that projects meaning onto music. Juslin and J. perfume. Popular Music. we have to make the assumption that music does indeed have meaning. 13:1. Journal of (1994). in                                                                                                                 4 A. ‘advertising is a Rorschach test of what you bring to the image’. and the polysemic possibilities of music in advertising that my thesis will focus on. J. associations will change over time depending on its use. 6 Therefore it is necessary to examine both the denotations and possible connotations that present themselves. A. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cook ‘Music and Meaning in the Commercials’. it is this negotiation of musical meaning. 6     . Oliviero Toscani was the photographer responsible for designing controversial print campaigns for Benetton. 39. 5 P. Research. C. 6 Advertising. 2010) 916. To summarise. 4 However. and that it is abstract and empty. Kivy 1990. 39:2. and that this gives it meaning. but is not meaningful in itself. ‘Meaning Matters: Polysemy in Advertising’. Theory. cf N. O. and the personal context they may bring to the experience. that it has ‘the potential for the construction of negotiation of meaning in specific contexts’. Hargreaves.5 I would suggest that. and any new information that may arise. Putoni et al. A song’s meaning cannot be pinned or controlled permanently. or department store. Many scholars would argue that music does not inherently have meaning. We then must reflect on the fact that this is music being used in advertising – a field that due to its very nature aims to nudge us in the direction of a particular cereal.

In each case study I will analyse the interaction between music. At the same time I will consider extramusical factors. 17:2 (1990). It cannot evoke a picture of something concrete. ‘Understanding Jingles and Needledrop: A Rhetorical Approach to Music in G. (New York: Columbia L. because                                                                                                                 7 8 Cook. The latter is often wildly unrelated to the ‘pure’ or original. ‘perceived’. and image in an effort to disentangle meaning. sound.8 The subjects of all my case studies use music highly effectively – whether or not the music is antithetical to the product. Music ‘is a subjective art form. C. Journal of Consumer Research. I will assume that ‘music is meaningful and language-like rather than affective and non semantic’. and the use of world music. including socio-historical context. Burt. that may form meaning.accordance with Cook’s words we must talk about ‘what the music means here’ opposed to ‘what the music means’. Gorbman. therefore my arguments will be based on possible audiovisual signs. and ‘advert’ meaning. trans. Scott. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. the significance of a female voice. lyric. codes and meanings. 233. M. 1994) 192 9 Advertising’.10 Chapter one deals with the most unfamiliar of the familiar: the cover version in advertising. nor can it express specific literary ideas’. For each trend I have chosen a case study to illustrate my argument. 10   7   . The Art of Film Music. ‘Music and Meaning’.9 and will discuss the contradictions that may arise through audiovisual dissonance. 1994) 219. whilst asking two of his main questions: ‘what do I see of what I hear’ and ‘what do I hear of what I see’. Chion. I will use Chion’s method of casual and semantic listening to analyse the audio.7 I have chosen to examine three current trends in television advertising: the status of the cover song. or completely inappropriate.   University Press. I suggest that there are three levels of meaning: ‘pure’. 30. (Boston: Northeastern University Press.

‘From Schizophonia to Schismogenesis: on the Discourses and Commodification and Democracy. Feld. The Commercialization of American Culture: New Advertising. 1996) 125. and compares its cover of ‘From Me to You’ by the Beatles to the original song and places it in wider context. McAllister.. 12 Practices of “World Music” and “World Beat”’.   8     . Chapter three focuses on whether advertising’s use of world music creates an ‘exotic other’. and how Chanel commidifies empowerment in order to sell a certain experience. I will discuss then. through an examination of the female cover version. through analysis of Ladysmith Black Mambazo’s previous                                                                                                                 11 M. This is because Ladysmith Black Mambazo are a South African choir. nonsensical sound that is so often featured in television adverts. Feld and C. it changes the meaning’. Ltd. P. (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc. I will ask if just the fact it is sung by a woman changes the meaning. Control. S. The name ‘Ladysmith’ is even taken from the name of the town where they formed. The choice of the Rice Krispies ‘Lovely Rain’ advert may seem atypical to previous research on world music in advertising. Keil (eds) Music Grooves. and the song ‘It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World’ is covered by Joss Stone. (London: The University of Chicago Press. in S. rather than the consciously constructed rootless.‘advertising does not borrow meaning neutrally. and reference Feld’s paper on ‘schizophonia’ in which he describes the splitting of a sound from its source. Chapter two discusses the portrayal of femininity and masculinity in advertising.12 Furthermore.11 It analyses the John Lewis 2008 Christmas advert. how it is the juxtaposition of image and song that creates a sense of voyage through ‘otherness’.. I will refer to the idea of post-tourism. 1994) 257-289. The chosen case study is Chanel’s Coco Mademoiselle. and will address the relationship between the song and image. This chapter looks at the ‘lifestyle’ advert.

and suggest areas for other research that needs to be enacted in the increasingly intertwining world of popular music and advertising. I will then draw conclusions that link all of my chapters together. I will conclude whether the presence of ‘world music’ in advertising is indeed an ‘exotic other’ or whether it has become a part of British discourse.   9   .relationships with advertising.

Chapter One Unfamiliar Familiarities: John Lewis and ‘From Me to You’ In November 2008. This chapter will analyse the status of the cover in advertising by focusing on this particular advert for John Lewis created by Lowe London. Some notes are laboured – creating the                                                                                                                 13 ‘John Lewis Christmas 2008 TV Ad’. music and text whilst listening for implied musical messages.13 It will examine the relationship between image.youtube. before panning out to look at its place in wider context. 1. and gives the impression that he is perhaps in a dream.com/watch?v=TmQ74XO_Fx0>     10     . The advert begins with the image of a sleepy man. Figure 1. and the performer stumbles over the keys when the left hand joins in. or an imaginary space (Fig. <http://www. slouched in the foreground of a bluish grey monochrome set. a Beatles song was licensed for use in an advert. YouTube. The advert was for John Lewis.1 A piano sounds a major arpeggio figure in the right hand. and featured a cover version of ‘From Me To You’ by Lennon and McCartney.1). for the first time in the UK. The colour of his navy jumper further blends into this most unnatural of settings. The motivation for this chapter is to find out whether the song’s meaning has changed through its recontextualisation.

The next image is of a coffee machine. personal and familiar. due to the quasidiegetic feeling of the music. a man’s voice joins the child’s: ‘if there’s anything I can do’.   11   . so perhaps we are to think he is related to the child in some way. It feels conversational. The next image is of a woman looking knowingly at the camera. who raises his eyebrows on the word ‘want’. The shot is replaced by the image of an older man and an older woman. 2009) 103. Due to the familial nature of both the music and the images. as it bypasses the familiar original introduction. It is now lyrically obvious to Beatles fans that this is a cover version. giving the impression it appeared by magic. The scenario is similar to the situation Klein describes with Royal Caribbean’s use of ‘Lust for Life’ by Iggy Pop: ‘listeners without access to the history of this song had no reason to be upset or find anything odd with its commercial use’ whereas fans tend to be more protective and upset at advertising’s use of a loved song. Klein. needs and excitement.impression that the performer is hesitating whilst trying to locate the next note of the phrase. The cut to this shot is fragmentary. possibly even to the child that started singing at the beginning. and here is where opinion seems to divide on the subject of this advert. ‘Just call on me. and we see the image of a teenage boy. before it cuts to a shot of three red candles alight in silver candlesticks. The next shot is of a chemistry set. we assume they are grandparents. where its bubbling and burning further hints at the theme of wants. or is a projection of the character’s need or desire. and I’ll send it along’ accompanies an image of a satellite navigation device where the vocals are staggered. It is not yet obvious that this is ‘From Me To You’. As Heard on TV: Popular Music in Advertising (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited. A child-like voice enters with the first line of the verse ‘If there’s anything that you want’. and even                                                                                                                 14 B.14 For the next two-bar phrase.

At this point in the narrative more voices have joined the sing-along. The use of an anthropomorphized dog is where it starts to become clear that the advert is aimed at the gift giver. followed by the image of a hair dryer. It creates an intentionally natural. John Lewis knows what you need: they pre-empt that you will forget the batteries. removed from the world of professional singing and recording. Cayte Finlay.johnlewispartnership. The underlying message is that John Lewis knows what your family wants. and indicates that the idea was to sound rough in a highly calculated way. The next member of the family we see is a small boy.forcibly out of line with each other: ‘wi-with love. Next on screen is a longhaired dog pricking its ears up to the sound of ‘I’ve got everything that you want’. John Lewis Partnership. and has it in stock. and he was ‘asked to sing in a relaxed way as the track [wasn’t] meant to be highly polished'. messy feel. A theme that will be central to John Lewis adverts in the following four years. from me. his voice was used in conjunction with professional musicians. and the tag line ‘If you know the person. 2008) <http://www.co. t-to you’. Although it is widely known that John Lewis employee Matthew Spinner was asked to sing on the cover. Yet the musicians employed were professional performers. rather than the gift receiver. The advert continues with the same logic as before. followed by his dream of a toy helicopter and batteries. It is not that John Lewis knows what your family wants: it knows what you want to give your family. staged sense of naturalness.15 This new information reveals a false. The advert does not feature a voice-over.uk>   12     . strengthening the notion of family and friends. (14 November. you’ll find the present’ is instead voiced through the interaction of                                                                                                                 15 ‘All Present and Correct’. and the only overtly festive sign that this is a Christmas advert is a toy mouse sitting beside a bauble.

advertisers take advantage of listener habits. before the company name flashes on screen to the sound of an octave leap that fades out. it snows and rains in a location that does not exist. whilst at the same time targeting a mass audience. materialistic way. The memories. ‘From Me to You’ is vitally important to the scene and. predispositions. Figure 1. but the advert itself is completely unrealistic. however.2 All the products associated with the characters conform to middle-class stereotypes: a ‘geeky’ teenage boy wants a chemistry set. Ultimately. 1. For example.16 The advert relies on our own experiences to understand it. The music not only gives coherence to the story – the visuals make little sense without music – but it ‘draws the spectator further into the                                                                                                                 16  Klein. is an extremely clever choice. and familial feelings that we project onto the advert to make sense of it are very real. by modifying the sensory qualities of music. an elderly couple needs a satellite navigation device.2). the advert is what we make of it: ‘advertisers cannot control how a listener makes sense of music. and potential responses’.image. a young woman looks longingly at candlesticks. giving a sense of symmetry and familiarity to the advert. John Lewis plays on the notion of the middle-class family.  As  Heard  on  TV. text and music (Fig.  p.  100. The child repeats the last line ‘with love from me to you’ on their own. which is how it gives the appearance of individualization.       13   . the elements have infiltrated an indoor grey box. and exploits the idea of showing love in a consumerist. disregarding taste.

which means that the melody does not progress in a natural way – as it would if one person had written it. responsive.17 Chion speaks of ‘added value’. There is great repetition of the first and second person pronoun in the lyrics. This builds on the idea of the forced naturalness. 2008) 78. ibid. Macdonald. and feels very familiar.. This then furthers the idea of giving. conversational aspect of the advert. It is not just the music. (Pimlico: Vintage. viii. 5. The reference to ‘a heart that is oh so true’ is also extremely important. It gives ‘the impression that they’re                                                                                                                 17 18 19 20 C. 3rd edn. the idea ‘that this information or expression ‘naturally’ comes from what is seen. the better the image’.19 Ian McDonald talks of the composition process behind the two-bar phrases that occur in ‘From me to you’. Gorbman 1987.18 He affirms that ‘whatever virtues sound brings to the film are largely perceived and appreciated by the audience in visual terms – the better the sound. and rarely a monologue. but also the lyrics that are central to the advert. I.. cf Cook. in combination with the use of staggered voices and a stumbling piano part. as in everyday life conversations are improvised.diegetic… illusion’. yet personalized. He says such phrases happen when writers are ‘tentatively adlibbing each other’ and are in competition to produce musical developments. ‘Music and Meaning’. where in typical early Beatles style. Chion. as it humanizes the company in conjunction with the use of forced naturalness. they evoke a sense of the personal: ‘from me to you’. 39. 14     . Revolution in the Head: The Beatles’ Records and the Sixties.20 This idea of adlibbing seems to fit with the direct. and is already contained in the image itself’ rather than just from the music. Audio-Vision.

For the purposes of this thesis I define ‘pure’ as the meaning the author intended: it is sometimes known. Liverpool Daily Post. rather than its price. Rhodri Marsden. ‘Advert’ meaning is when the perceived meaning is changed through recontextualisation and association with a commodity. 27:1 (2001). just like you … A human vibe is what they want … clapping. 23 Hybrid’. Alex Turner. 24 November. The Independent Online (5 May 2012) <http://www. 21 We cannot ignore the fact that the song’s meaning has fundamentally changed. as musical meaning ‘is modified when its use radically changes’.vulnerable. I got lips that long to kiss you.co.uk/news/media/advertising/singing-with-the-brand7715792. whistling and humming … quirky acoustics. but we found that the lyrics summed up the ad's message that a present's value is in its appropriateness. very natural sounds’. Tom Nester-Smith.html> 22 In the original song. producing a shift in message from the human to the materialistic. ‘perceived’ and ‘advert’ meaning. Poetics.independent.22 and in part due to the fact the song has been placed in an advert. human. the client services director at Lowe London. it sometimes occurs through a                                                                                                                 21 Tom Haines. and keep you Anna Lisa Tota. ‘Perceived’ refers to the widely accepted meaning by fans and critics – of which there are often many.liverpooldailypost. 2008) <http://www.’24 Nester-Smith inadvertently raises the issue of ‘pure’.23 The manipulation of meaning has occurred simply through omission of lyrics and recontextualisation.co. and keep you satisfied’. This is in part due to the omission of the bridge. and sometimes unknown – it is also debatable as to whether it exists. the bridge’s lyrics are: ‘I got arms that long to hold you.uk/ldpbusiness/businesslocal/2008/11/10/beatles-song-to-be-used-in-john-lewis-tv-ad-96026-22222178/>     15   . (10 by my side. which refers to the giving of romantic love (rather than the giving of products). said of the song choice: ‘We didn't set out to specifically create an ad based around a Beatles song. ‘When Orff Meets Guinness: Music in Advertising as a Form of Cultural ‘Beatles Song to be Used in John Lewis Ad’. composer interviewed for ‘Singing with the Brand’. 116.

com/watch?v=DZ7Rz2rmjck> 28 xagkTDU> 16     . and its message: ‘For                                                                                                                 25 26 27 Klein. As Heard on TV. combined with a manipulation of meaning from ‘pure’ or ‘perceived’ to ‘advert’ happens frequently in advertising. Unsurprisingly. Brands wanting emotional soundtracks is nothing new. YouTube. 2009 saw Victoria Bergsman cover Guns N’ Roses power ballad ‘Sweet Child O’ Mine’. downplaying other possible layers of meaning. but now many of them look specifically to put an emotional twist on a familiar favourite. NesterSmith’s ‘understanding of musical meaning is privileging the literal.28 In 2011 John Lewis used Slow Moving Millie’s cover of ‘Please Please Please’ by The Smiths. with the tag line ‘Remember how Christmas used to feel? Give someone that feeling’. The Independent. ‘Singing with the Brand’. with John Lewis firmly at the helm: ‘communicating familiarity is really important. <http://www. or because the artist doesn’t allow it. this formula of a slowed down acoustic cover version.25 he does not acknowledge that the message of the song has been manipulated.’26 In the four years following ‘From Me To You’. YouTube.com/watch?v=mpV- <http://www.27 2010 featured Ellie Goulding covering ‘Your Song’ by Elton John and the message ‘For those who care about showing they care’. ‘John Lewis Christmas Advert 2010’. and music instead of voiceovers in their Christmas campaigns. ‘John Lewis 2009 Christmas Advert’.change in lyric or simply through the act of transporting it to an advert. even as they use them’.youtube. John Lewis has used all female singers. and often the original songs can’t be used – either because of cost licensing. 99.youtube.

and the line ‘Give a little more love this Christmas’.youtube. Lynskey. <http://www. D. ‘Singing with the Brand’. The Independent.                                                                                                                 29 ‘John Lewis Christmas Advert 2011’. ‘The Tweelight of the Gods’.com/2012/02/03/the-tweelight-of-the-gods/> 33 whilst take-away coffees often inform you that ‘I’m hot’. a genre made up of the ‘fetishization of naivete’ and infantilization of language that is popular with brands such as Innocent smoothie. and all inhabit a ballad-style. Using a folky soundtrack has traditionally been one way of doing that – "Heartbeats" by Jose Gonzalez [from a 2005 Sony Bravia campaign] is a good example – but using a female vocal sends out a reassuring. comprised of a folk female voice.youtube.29 2012 made use of Gabriele Aplin’s cover of ‘The Power of Love’ by Frankie Goes to Hollywood. but it is interesting to note there is almost a genre of advert music that has formed.com/watch?v=0N8axp9nHNU> 31 32 <http://33revolutionsperminute. Innocent Smoothies feature copy such as ‘stop looking at my bottom’ underneath the bottle.com/watch?v=pSLOnR1s74o> 30 <http://www. Dorian Lynskey refers to this style of music as ‘Innocentese’.wordpress.gifts you can’t wait to give’. and a cover version performed at a slow tempo – the piano seems to have become a signifier of domesticity and family life in advertising. ‘John Lewis Christmas Advert 2012’ YouTube.33 it is used in an attempt to create a friendly and familial relationship between a business and its consumer.31 The use of the female vocal will be discussed in chapter two. YouTube. it makes people feel comfortable. Tamar Carr-Madindale from the music consultancy Hear No Evil says that: It's important for some brands to communicate fragility.30 All of the singers apart from Victoria Bergsman are English. presence of piano or guitar.32 In a world where it is increasingly common for a take-away coffee or a smoothie to be humanized. personal message. all feature a simple piano accompaniment in a prominent position.   17   .

somehow implied by child-like sincerity and performance of ‘if there’s anything that you want. W. ‘Tweelight’. Leppart (ed. cover versions in advertising are fundamentally standardized but give the illusion of individualisation. 32. John Lewis will do anything for you. It hides under the guise of individualization.34 which is precisely what ‘From me to you’ does. and its connotations are forever changing depending on its context. if there’s anything I can do’. The cover manipulates the familiarity of sound. 36 The lyrics are the same. and situation to forge a relationship between consumer and product: it pretends to be specific when it is in fact highly generic. To borrow Adorno’s critique on popular music. in a profoundly white and middle-class way which connects with its affluent customer base’. This leads me to conclude that a fixed meaning cannot be assigned to a song. ‘Music and Meaning’. 2002) 446. but the meaning has changed and become capitalist. In the words of Cook ‘purely musical relationships are being used to assert a message that only has to be expressed in words for its absurdity to be obvious’. song. in R. Cook. Adorno. the song has been altered just the right amount to make us think that this advert is different.                                                                                                                 34 35 36 Lynskey. yet familiar.) Essays on Music. ‘On Popular Music’. (California: University of California.35 In other words.   18     . T.Lynskey explains: ‘Innocentese is relentlessly chirpy and nice. Musically and lyrically.

It will discuss the supposed dichotomy of masculinity and femininity. Musical style and genre become extremely important as they ‘offer unsurpassed opportunities for communicating complex social or attitudinal messages practically instantaneously’. and can change depending on musical or lyrical alterations and recontextualization. This chapter will discuss the use of the female cover version in advertising.Chapter Two ‘It’s a Man’s World’: The Female Cover Version in Advertising In the previous chapter I discussed how the meaning of a song is flexible. and what possible meanings may arise out of its choice. YouTube.com/watch?v=KifjdV1h6X8> 38   19   .38 In the case of ‘It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World’ the advertiser hopes not only that the ‘attributes of the music are transferred’ to the product.youtube. Furthermore they                                                                                                                 37 ‘Coco Mademoiselle con Keira Knightley’. Furthermore. I will evaluate how this advert fits into the genre of perfume adverts. and how it may enhance or relate to the visual narrative. with particular reference to Joss Stone’s version of ‘It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World’ in the latest Chanel advert for Coco Mademoiselle perfume. I will ask why this song has been chosen for this particular advert. ‘Music and Meaning’. and whether it conforms or rejects the stereotype. <http://www. advertisers have to become increasingly creative in how they portray a lifestyle. As a result. Cook. 35. It will analyze Stone’s rendition. or experience that the perfume could provide the consumer. and music’s place in this ideology. but that the attributes of the cover singer are transferred. There is one main problem that perfume advertisers face: their audience cannot experience the product visually.37 This chapter focuses in detail on the contradictions and synchronizations between music and image.

a famous actress. riding through the streets of Paris on a motorbike (0.20). It gives the most back-handed of compliments: ‘this is a man’s world. We hear the familiar minor scalic brass stabs of ‘It’s a Man’s World’: ‘She is isolated. and riding once more through Paris (3.55).563.use the power of Stone’s voice to empower Knightley’s character. Rolling Stone Magazine. The protagonist waking up (0. stars. It portrays clearly defined gender roles. Mulvey. the photo-shoot (0. (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. The narrative of the Chanel commercial can be divided into a symmetrical four-part structure framed by the act of travelling. in that the masculine role is to build.11-3. records.19).39 The interplay between a cover of a famous song.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time20110407/james-brown-its-a-mans-mans-mans-world-20110526> 42 L. Here there is a temporal intersection between Knightley opening her eyes and the                                                                                                                 39 40 41 Cook.’ 42 The strings descend in a flurry as the camera spirals downward to focus on her face.rollingstone. and the feminine is to support. 20     . <http://www. cf Scott.. glamorous. sexualized. The song then becomes infinitely more contradictory when placed in this advert and sung by Joss Stone. Visual and Other Pleasures. ‘Understanding Jingles’. The commercial opens with a shot from above Keira Knightley lying in bed. 232.11). the lyrics are ‘biblically chauvinistic’. 1989) 22. Originally written by Betty Newsome and James Brown in 1966.21-0.00-0. and videos ever closer together’. on display. 41 The song portrays a history of active men and passive women. Frith 1998. ‘Music and Meaning’.40 The use and meaning of ‘It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World’ is problematic. 29. and a famous singer offers a rich field for analysis and ‘draws the meanings of products. ‘James Brown: It’s A Man’s Man’s Man’s World’. but it wouldn’t be nothing without a woman or a girl…you see a woman makes a better man’.

and we hear her footsteps on the pavement. It is a moment Chion would refer to as synchresis. She comes to a sudden halt at a red traffic light. 63. along with the idea of liberation through consumerism. At this point the audio uses an effect Chion calls ‘rendering’. There is then a prolonged shot from behind of her mounting the motorbike (Fig 2. and ornaments.1).   21   .55) begins with Knightley walking towards a motorbike. followed by the sound of the engine roaring as she takes off through the deserted streets of Paris. ‘the spontaneous and irresistible weld produced between a particular auditory phenomenon and visual phenomenon when they occur at the same time’. as Stone sings ‘This is a man’s world’. where the screeching of brakes                                                                                                                 43 Chion.final note of the opening passage.21-0. a picture of herself with her perfume. Audiovision.1 We see and hear the sounds of her preparing to leave. where there is a bottle of Coco Mademoiselle perfume. which recur later in the photo-shoot scene. wallpaper. The scene closes with the image of Knightley dressed in a sheet putting on perfume.43 She looks over to the nightstand. and an ornamental bird. These objects seem to signify a degree of narcissism. The next development (0. The theme of liberation continues through the metaphor of a bird as we see an open birdcage. where three men dressed in black join her. Figure 2.

2 again signifies the change in scene. Audiovision.                                                                                                                 44 Chion. 224.  Visual  and  Other  Pleasures. followed by a tutti silence.conveys the effect of the jolt Knightley felt on screen. in her beige catsuit. event. Figure 2.3). The implication is that although he may be taking suggestive pictures of her. it is her choice to participate.56-3. Only a few other people are in the scene.11).  21.2 becomes an important structural device that marks the end of one scene and the start of a new narrative development. 45  Mulvey. Knightley continues to ride through the empty beige streets.2). Its rhythm is heard in the all instruments that are playing.45 The next portion of the advert is dedicated to the relationship between Knightley and a photographer during a photo-shoot (0. mood. Figure 2. but they all turn to look at her. The set mimics the character’s bedroom. 2. and a descending piano figure mimics a zoom into the still camera (Fig.2 The link into the next verse is marked by three quavers voiced in octaves in the piano.44 The green light in the visuals combined with a cadential sequence in the piano and tutti silence leads into the next section of narrative and the next verse (Fig. whilst passing a print advert of herself on the side of a building.     22     . Figure 2. and the bird metaphor reoccurs. This phrase signifies a change in scene. and the audience. She is the erotic subject for the characters on screen. or plot development. 2.

  Figure 2. and the audience becomes more voyeuristic. Just as the main characters are about to kiss. nothing without a woman or a girl’. The quiet sound of Knightley unzipping her catsuit it heard over the music. watching her through his camera. Stone’s increasingly agitated performance coincides with the lyric ‘It wouldn’t be nothing. Her exit is signified by the use of a chime tree. expressing his desire ‘man. but it could be said that the character tries to subvert what is expected of her. that hints towards the magical to explain the temporal ambiguity that allowed her to dress and depart so quickly (2. her tone changes when we view Knightley through the photographer’s lens. The protagonist tucks her bottle of perfume away into her jumpsuit and rides off through the Parisian streets. but the loud sound of the photographer shouting is muted. We are voyeurs to another voyeur. whilst the voiceover (Knightley) whispers ‘Coco Mademoiselle. Knightley whispers ‘lock the door’ over the sound of the nondiegetic band. However. he needs a woman’.   23   . Whilst his back is turned. Having previously been aligned with the female protagonist it is as if her performance shifts to his point of view. This narrative twist is never explained. This irrational diegetic logic places emphasis on Knightley’s body.55). she leaves through the window. Chanel’.3 The action slowly becomes more intimate.

by being the focus of the action. not just the supporting role. She is indeed breaking the stereotype of the male hero. concrete. P. Tagg’s findings suggest that the images his sample group associated with masculine music were ‘action. but the musical characteristics of the song that break the familiar advertising gender stereotypes. The performance of the line could also be read as Stone vehemently agreeing with this statement. YouTube. (New York: Berghahn Books. Moving Images. ‘Music. as it was featured in the previous campaign for Coco Mademoiselle with a cover of ‘L. with the phrase ‘it wouldn’t be nothing without a woman’. sad.47 If we take into account his research that people associate short phrases. Stone’s voice becomes a leitmotif for Knightley’s character. whilst feminine were ‘love.com/watch?v=PbMNjSx-L-Q> 47 Brown and U. before perhaps expressing anger.46 It is not just Stone’s performance of the lyrics.E’. riding.youtube.   24     . calm.The fact that there is so little musical change from the original song places real significance on the change of singer. Volgsten (eds) Music and Manipulation. summer. brass stabs. fast. A similar picture appears when considering the visuals used. modern and tough’. couple.V. jazz. repeated notes and angular basslines as male musical characteristics. Stone is in control of her band members as Knightley is control of the situation on screen. streets. Semiotics. Tagg. and playing with the notions of masculine and feminine behaviour. 2006) 177. Stone’s voice aligns itself with the protagonist. <http://www. Stone’s performance is distinctly masculine. Tagg’s study outlines the associations people make between ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ musical characteristics and image. and the implication of its use is that the protagonist is breaking stereotypes.O. city.                                                                                                                 46 ‘Chanel Coco Mademoiselle Perfume Commercial’. and vocally plays on the seductress stereotype in parallel with Knightley. in S. and the Democratic Right to Know’.

YouTube. ‘Voice of the Beehive’. Stras (ed) She’s So Fine: Reflections on Whiteness. Placing this advert in the wider world of television advertising. It is clear that the images used in this particular advert conform more to the masculine than feminine stereotype.51 In order to create this particular genre of ‘advert’ music. beautiful’. it seems female voices are very often used to sell female products. Stahl’s cover featured ‘over-sweet sound colours. It could be argued that female singers are frequently used in four ways: to portray a sense of naiveté. but it has influenced the world of female performers in advertising more than any. in L.52                                                                                                                 48 49 ‘Nissan Juke TV Advert’.youtube. or omitted. Companies such as Nissan. (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited. The festishization of naiveté was discussed in chapter one. who featured Lenka’s ‘Everything at Once’ are typical of this style of ‘Innocentese’ music. Adolescence and Class in 1960s Music. YouTube. France. Stras.50 and advertisers use such songs to infuse their product with a sense of child-like fun and sincerity. functioning like musical cookies and candies’ and advertisers used it in an attempt to free the listener from the adult responsibility of driving.youtube. 49 The vocal techniques and language used in these songs purposefully create the sound of an untrained younger voice. to sexualize a product. 2010) 35.48 and Windows. Blondie’s ‘Sunday Girl’ was transmogrified from its roots as a song about Debbie Harry’s lost cat ‘Sunday Man’.com/watch?v=ZZ2cftjyHys> 50 Femininity.com/watch?v=BqqyXNqtyvc> ‘Windows 8: Lenka – Everything At Once (TV Spot: Microsoft’. <http://www. who used Frederika Stahl’s cover of the nursery rhyme ‘Twinkle Twinkle Little Star’. 450. <http://www. YouTbe.youtube. language may also be changed. <http://www. For example. to promote familial feelings. L. ‘Blondie interview. or to empower the consumer. sitting. 51 52 Adorno. ‘Popular Music’. “Later with Jools Holland” 1998’.com/watch?v=A12rMWfMBmA>   25   .countryside.

where the female character took on the role of a princess in a ‘strange melding of the doll and the real girl’. 56 L. sung by a trained singer with vibrato from the chest voice. Stras.  2. music can also be used to ‘sell women empowerment through buying products’. Stras (ed) She’s So Fine: Reflections on Whiteness. Femininity. 55   ibid.to a song about ‘rainbows and mystery’ in an advert for Nina Ricci’s ‘Elixir’ Perfume.com/watch?v=OjhhNej3Se8>   54  Walter. <http://www. (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.55 Such music often features a powerful vocal melody.56 It seems then.54 In opposition to the world of glockenspiels and ukuleles. that Coco Mademoiselle and Joss Stone belong in this category of empowerment.                                                                                                                 53 ‘Nina L’Elixir Music Video’. ‘Introduction’ in L. The sickly sweet lyrics were combined with a rose-tinted fantasy world.53 Hurry up Hurry up and wait Until the sun comes up and breaks the day Cherry trees and honeybees Won’t you come and hide with me? She can catch up with the fireflies Dance across the blueberry skies Live in dreams Sunday girl. rather than the ‘girl singers’ featured in the Nissan Juke and Nina Ricci campaigns. YouTube. These singers may be referred to as ‘women singers’. Adolescence and Class in 1960s Music. 2010) 5 26     .  Living  Dolls.youtube.

2010) 1268. yet she is mostly taciturn in the advert. but as a reinforcement that our ‘highly sexualized culture is…a sign of women’s liberation and empowerment’. She is mysterious and aloof negating the need to understand her. Knightley is portrayed as a powerful character. (London: W.uk/news/2011/03/21/joe-wright-on-muse-keira-knightley> 61   27   . Walter. and presumably. wear Chanel. <http://www. in V Leitch (ed. 2011. this advert provides a contrast to the infantilization of girl singers in advertising. the message the advert seems to portray is that to be a powerful woman you have to be beautiful. some aspects of it could be seen as flawed. Vogue Magazine Online.60 This seems to undercut the veneer of power the character has. Living Dolls.57 The protagonist in the drama suffers from the beauty myth purported by advertisers: her ‘silent beauty [is] held up as the perfect specimen of womanhood’. 5. Living Dolls.vogue.co. Living Dolls. 213. Stone’s vocals have been used as a commodification of empowerment.) The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism.Although the commercial attempts to break out from the tired genre of the perfume advert. 21 March. Walter. ‘The Second Sex: Myth and Reality’. Norton & Company. De Beauvoir. 2nd edn. as most viewers would not see the sexualization as ironic. ‘The Perfect Muse’. Walter. but becomes about the female gaze’ it cannot be denied that the character is portrayed in a sexualized way.59 Although the director may maintain that the advert is a ‘story about the male gaze.W. Nonetheless. and through exploitation of sexual allure. 44. to draw attention to your sexiness’.58 The advert seems to portray the idea that power can only be gained through beauty. 58 59 60 N. Even if the aim and effect of the advert is                                                                                                                 57 S..61 It is also hard to ignore that the aim of using such a powerful character and song is to sell a product. ‘It is the one kind of power that is sanctioned for women – the power to look sexy.

contradictory. it is refreshing to see an advert that tries to play on the gender stereotype – rather than completely conforming to it. 28     .

or if it has become a part of British discourse.63 I will discuss why the song may have been chosen. It will then examine the audiovisual dissonance that may arise from contradictions between image and music. S. Through an analysis of the ‘Lovely Rain’ commercial for Rice Krispies. Feld. (London: Sage Publications Ltd.64 I will also consider whether the advert unwittingly plays on the idea of post-tourism and distributed tourism through music.youtube. 62 or enhance cultural difference. global flows either produce a ‘unified. Keil (eds) Music Grooves. ‘From Schizophonia to Schismogenesis: on the Discourses and Commodification <http://www. Appelrouth and L Desfor Edles (eds) Sociological Theory in the Contemporary Era. Appelrouth and L. ‘The Global Society’. with reference to Feld’s article on ‘schizophonia’. in S. or a commodification of ‘Africanness’. This chapter will ask whether world music is used in advertising as the ‘exotic other’.. YouTube. 1994) 259. Desfor Edles.   29   . (London: The University of Chicago Press. Feld and C. in S.Chapter Three World Music as the ‘Exotic Other’: Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Rice Krispies World music in advertising can either be seen as a form of cultural homogenization.com/watch?v=rb7oGkqhht4> 64 Practices of “World Music” and “World Beat”’. In other words. The history between Ladysmith Black Mambazo and British advertising will be explored. 63 ‘Leo Burnett – Kellogg’s – Rice Krispies – Lovely Rain’. Ltd. before asking if the pairing has become the ultimate form of hybridization. interconnected society’. or heterogenization. 2007) 566.                                                                                                                 62 S.

Lovely Rain’. Rice Krispies comes to the rescue with the Colouring In pack. which gives her and her child something fun to do together in spite of the rain. Music. Official copy for Leo Burnett London ‘Leo Burnett . as only one father figure is seen on screen – and he is in the driving seat of a car.youtube. Leo Burnett London explain that the advert is about: mums looking for things to do with their child.67                                                                                                                 65 66 S. sodden sand and caravans dominate the scenery (fig 3. because the majority of potential consumers will have experienced the situation. 2010) 210.66 The relationship between father and child is portrayed as distant and non-interactive. YouTube. Images of rain. Mum is left looking for things with which to entertain her bored children cooped up inside.1 A caravan park in rainy weather. Feld. It relies on Feld’s concept of ‘locating’. The advert seems to promote the damaging stereotype of the British family that women are naturally more nurturing and empathetic than their male counterparts.1).Rice Krispies . In an effort to represent a typical British family. < http://www. Walter. where a retrieval of the experience is necessary to understand the visual meaning.Figure 3.65 As a result of this. 8. As the rain pours down outside. ‘Lovely Rain’ depicts a stereotypically British holiday.Kellogg's . and Speech about Music’. the advert also seems to stereotype gender roles. ‘Communication. the advert is able to reach a mass market. Living Dolls: The Return of Sexism (London: Virago.com/watch?v=rb7oGkqhht4> 67 30     .

69 Oh Rain oh rain (Oh rain oh rain). (never come) Oh come (never come) Oh come to me beautiful rain. 69 70 Klein. Don’t disturb me beautiful rain.   31   . V. Rain. (Oxon: Routledge. As Heard on TV. ‘Fantasies of Home’. Frith (ed) Popular Music: Music and Identity. and whose ‘songs constitute an African discourse about Africa’. 278. and it is sung in English rather than Zulu. Oh come. an all male choir sings softly with ‘velvet-textured sounds’ in close harmony. 99.The music itself is a structurally modified version of ‘Rain. The music is punctuated by the sound of rain. Beautiful rain. matching the location of the visuals.                                                                                                                 68 V. Erlmann. which changes as we move from outside to inside. 2004) 267. as they tie together the image and diegetic sound of rain. ‘Fantasies of Home: The antinomies of modernity and the music of Ladysmith Black Mambazo’ in S. Vol. Beautiful Rain’ by Ladysmith Black Mambazo. In accordance with the traditional isicathamiya style.68 it is pertinent to ask why they have been featured in an advert that depicts such a stereotypically British scene. It is the lyrics that hold the most obvious answer.70 There is interaction between the choir leader and the rest of the choir. mimicking the ‘snap. Once again. Erlmann. the advertisers are ‘privileging the literal’ and ignoring other layers of meaning and functions the song may have. As a South African choir who embodied black traditions under apartheid. crackle and pop’ that normally frequents Rice Krispies adverts. 4. Perhaps the rain could be said to center the advert on the product.

rain and a bucket and spade are signifiers for the British seaside holiday. and personal identities’.campaignlive. Although Anne Cassidy claims that ‘the soundtrack is perfect’ 71 there are contradictions between audio and visual that must be noted. 566.72 It could also be argued that the use of South African music in this particular advert is used to evoke a sense of travel – a voyage into the exotic to escape from the dreary British weather. although Taylor argues this is ‘giving way to a                                                                                                                 71 ‘Pick of the Week. In this instance the music appears to be used as ‘a touch of the exotic as local colour’. The message of the advert seems to suggest that ‘Rice Krispies can take you away from this rainy boredom’.uk/news/1140690/Pick-Week---Leo-Burnett-Rice-Krispies > 72 32     . A South African choir are used in an advert where the landscape and images are cultural signifiers for Britian (fig 3. as the Northern British accent of the voice-over states: ‘pick up your rescue pack’.2 Mud.2). Campaign Magazine. Appelrouth. ‘Colouring in’ is equated to overcoming boredom. This is furthered by the notion of the ‘colouring in pack’. Leo Burnett/Rice Krispies’.Figure 3. It could be said that this is a form of cultural fusion. where ‘the local meets the global producing an ever-expanding mixture of cultural practices.co. where the children use bright felt tip pens to colour in the white picture. tastes. <http://www. ‘The Global Society’. and escaping normality. meanings.

  Figure 3. American Music. Perhaps the song was used purely for aesthetic values. It could be suggested the proverb is used to give the company an air of worldly wisdom. <http://www.com/watch?v=QH_tfzR-xO4>   33   . D.youtube. 18:2 (2000). to add a ‘nice’ sound to a familiar story.more pervasive series of representations and icons of otherness as a cultural dominant. and that non-Western music is featured to authenticate its use. not simply as an occasional style’.74 a father is seen returning from work to eat Heinz spaghetti with his family (fig. 180.73 This is not the first time Ladysmith Black Mambazo have been used in combination with British stereotypes in an advert. not the words themselves. baked beans and tomato ketchup.4). The series of adverts all close with traditional poems. In the ‘Nightshift’ advert.3 Heinz spaghetti. or ancient proverbs followed by an image of the Heinz logo (fig 3.                                                                                                                   73 74 T. 3. The choir’s ‘Inkanyezi Nezazi’ (The Star and the Wiseman) was featured in a 1997 campaign for Heinz soups. somehow implying a natural sense of wisdom through ‘otherness’. Given that the lyrics were in Zulu and the advert was for a UK audience. Taylor. A father returns home from his nightshift. ‘World Music in Television Ads’. it can be presumed it is the sound of the words that are deemed important.   ‘Heinz Spaghetti Ad “Nightshift” UK 1997’ YouTube.3).

76 to world music stating that ‘the splitting of sounds from sources simultaneously implicates matters of music. 181.75 He applies Schafer’s term schizophonia. the use of Mambazo’s music as a form of escapism is worrying. Taylor.78 thus reducing Mambazo’s music to non-western and ‘other’. In opposition to academics who are optimistic about such musical diversity and transcultural flows. and social class’.77 The use of Ladysmith Black Mambazo in advertising lies in a space between the tensions of anxiousness and celebration. ‘a synthetic soundscape in which natural sounds are becoming unnatural’.                                                                                                                 75 76 77 78 Feld. cf Feld ‘From Schizophonia’ 259. It is of course culturally repressive to segregate musics. Feld states that ‘such perspectives. 263. Feld ‘From Schizophonia’ 262.   34     . Schafer 1977. by signifying “the world”’ through one choir. ‘World Music in Television Ads’. however. race. money. risk confusing the flow of musical contents and musical expansion with the flow of power relations’.Figure 3. It connotes ‘old western notions of escaping the ordinary. geography.4 Ancient proverb featured immediately before Heinz logo. M. time. ‘From Schizophonia’. of the voyage. drawing on the more normative conceptualization of a world in creolization.

1/2 (2004) 221. and Distributed Tourism’. whether they are literally mobile or only experience simulated mobility through the incredible fluidity of multiple signs and electronic images’. although it flows from a deep sense of alienation and from the bitter experience of being part of modernity and at the same time excluded from it. 79 Taylor argues that ‘sounds obviate those risks [of travelling] for those who don’t want to. ‘Would You Like Some World Music with your Latte? Starbucks. 181. 82 83   35   .’ 83                                                                                                                 79 80 81 Lash and Urry. 181.This usage also raises issues about post-tourism and the distributed tourist. is deeply caught up with modernity and some of its specifically global fictions.81 World music can also become a positive signifier for the brand. Erlmann. Taylor concludes that this process is ultimately ‘homogenizing. and currently tourism has lost its specificity: ‘People are tourists most of the time. reducing difference between places through the proliferation of essentially the same signs and images’. Twentieth Century Music. Tourism can become a particularly useful lens through which to understand change. or don’t have the opportunity. ‘World Music in Television Ads’. 181. cf Taylor ‘World Music in Television Ads’. A. ‘World Music in Television Ads’. V.82 Erlmann suggests that the very genre of isicathamiya represents: the search … for an identity and some kind of rootedness in indubitable spacetime structures. to take them’. Kassabian.80 Travelling through music is a safe way of escaping boredom without actually moving: the listener becomes a ‘distributed tourist’ who moves between spaces without changing places. ‘Fantasies of Home’. 267. Taylor. it somehow implies that they are well travelled and well versed in ‘other’ cultures. Putumayo Taylor.

it becomes clear to see that advertisers can easily exploit this pursuit of identity.If we take this into account.                                                                                                                 84 85 ibid. Large Issues: An Introduction to Social and Culural Anthropology.’84 It seems then that ‘every culture must liberate its creative potential by finding the correct equilibrium between isolation and contact with others’. 36     . provided it is not exploitative. The case of Rice Krispies and Heinz are troublesome. the search for ‘what isicathamiya performers call home … draws them ever more inexorably into the West and the modern world. Ultimately. 2010) 307. Claude Lévi Strauss cf T. or commodifying the ‘otherness’ of a culture that is different to their own. Hylland Eriksen. (New York: Pluto Press. but it almost passes unnoticed as ‘world music’ gradually becomes a normal part of advertising within British society. the music used is antithetical to the situation.85 The blending of cultures through music can be an extremely positive act in western society. 3rd edn. Small Places.

YouTube. <http://www. 85.com/watch?v=q_UFaKt5Yqo> 88 Bob Dylan 1985 cf Klein. Jingles became extinct along with the product-based advert. ‘Introduction to Simulacra and Simulations’.87 Having once said ‘You know things go better with Coke because Aretha Franklin told you so … The Corporate world. Desfor Edles. Appelrouth and L. and were replaced by a complex interdependent relationship between the popular music industry and the ‘aspirational’ advert.youtube. and an indication that the times really have changed.Conclusion “The Times They are a-Changin’”: A Commentary on the State of Music in Advertising The relationship between popular music and advertising has evolved considerably. As Heard on TV.   37   .’86 Attitudes have also changed towards popular music in advertising. Desfor Edles (eds) Sociological Theory in the Contemporary Era. L. 2011) 419-420. The trend for musicians to permit the use of their music for advertising was truly given credence when Bob Dylan licensed ‘Blowin’ in the Wind’ for a Co-operative advert in 2009. Appelrouth.                                                                                                                 86 S. in S. In this relationship music becomes a signifier for a world or lifestyle that does not exist. reproductions are experienced as real – all creating a condition of hyper reality … a “reality” that is rooted in reproduction rather than in “reality” itself. 87  ‘Co-operative group – good for everyone – cinema version bob dylan’. In accordance with Baudrillard’s theory of the simulacra: ‘the signifier is mistaken for the signified. (London: SAGE Publications Ltd. when they figured out what [rock ‘n’ roll] was and how to use it they snuffed the breath out of it and killed it’88 – it was a surprising move.

 C. rather that to the musician.  Mood.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=aMok-RBgj1I>   90 91  G. This in turn. music now belongs to the advert. Sony Music Entertainment. could suggest that the meaning consumers associate with the song is not their own. and it is now possible to purchase ‘best of’ TV advert music compilations. The next step for research on music in television advertising must be an investigation into why it works.90 These compilations generally feature all pre-existing music.89 Numerous websites are dedicated to finding music featured in television adverts.  54/4  (1990)  98-­‐99.  ‘Music.  Bruner.91 Both disciplines need to work together to find answers to the common problem of how music evokes such sentiment in the listener.  and  Marketing’  Journal  of  Marketing. 2013. It may also be interesting to research music in advertising from a phenomenologist perspective: to what extent does music allow people to move away from the perception that they are being sold something? Advertisers should then take heed of                                                                                                                 89 See Florrie for Nina Ricci L’elixir.   38     . or too vague. For many people ‘Please Please Please Let Me Get What I Want’ will forever be associated with a small boy in tartan pajamas and John Lewis. but have associated them with advertising rather than with the artist.For many consumers.     <http://www. and Beyonce for H&M See: ‘The Very Best TV ad Songs’. or an endorsement of the product – or both. Previous psychological research has proved too simplistic and unhelpful to musicologists who find the results a statement of the obvious. Findings such as ‘Music in the major mode expresses more animated and positive feelings than music in the minor mode’. or one they would have naturally interpreted by themselves. In some cases it is hard to distinguish whether the advert is a music video for the artist featured in it. and ‘music used in marketing-related contexts is capable of evoking nonrandom affective and behavioral responses’ are either too simple.

the results. and treat music with care. considering its effects and meanings before using such familiar and well-loved songs in their advertisements.   39   .

youtube.Filmography Coco Mademoiselle (2007. 0’60”) dir: Joe Wright prod: Chanel actors: Keira Knightley music: ‘L.O.E’ Bert Kaempfert and Milt Gabler singer: Joss Stone < http://www. 1’10’’) music: ‘Inkanyezi Nezazi’ (The Star and the Wiseman) singers: Ladysmith Black Mambazo <http://www.com/watch?v=QH_tfzR-xO4> John Lewis (2008. 0’60’’) agency: Lowe London prod: Morgan Van Dam music: ‘From Me to You’ John Lennon and Paul McCartney singer: Matt Spinner and unknown. music: ‘It’s a Man’s Man’s Man’s World’ James Brown and Betty Newsome singer: Joss Stone <http://www.com/watch?v=Uk5BR9YR6tc> Coco Mademoiselle (2011. music: ‘Twinkle Twinkle Little Star’ singer: Frederika Stahl <http://www.com/watch?v=TmQ74XO_Fx0> Nissan Juke (2010. Alberto Amman.youtube.V.com/watch?v=KifjdV1h6X8> Heinz Spaghetti (1997. 2’) agency: TBWA/London.youtube.youtube. <http://www.com/watch?v=BqqyXNqtyvc> 40     .youtube. 3’20’’) dir: Joe Wright prod: Chanel actors: Keira Knightley.

Rain. 0’30’’) agency: JWT: Beijing music: ‘Everything at Once’ Lenka Kripac singer: Lenka Kripac <  http://www.com/watch?v=wojQuAnBFb4> Windows 8 (2012.Rice Krispies (2012. 2’05’’) dir: Nez agency: TBWA/365 music: ‘Sunday Girl’ Chris Stein.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=rb7oGkqhht4> Nina Ricci L’elixir (2010.com/watch?v=ZZ2cftjyHys>   41   . 0’31’’) dir: Joanna Bailey agency: Leo Burnett London music: ‘Rain.youtube. Debbie Harry singer: Florrie <  http://www. Beautiful Rain’ singers: Ladysmith Black Mambazo <  http://www.

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