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ICS 23.020.30
Manufacture and

October 2000 edition Manufacture and testing of joints AD 2000-Merkblatt

pressure vessels

Principles of welding practice

~ HP 5/1

The AD 2000-Merkblatter are preparedby the seven associations llsted below who together form the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehalter (AD). The structure and the application ofthe AD 2000 body of regulations and the proceduralguidelines ard covered by AD 2000-Merkblalt G 1. The AD 2000-Merkbltter contain safety requirements to be met under normal operating conditions. If abve-normal loadings are to be expected during the operation of the pressure vessel, this shall be taken into account by meeting special requirements. If there are any divergences from the requirements of this AD 2000-Merkblatt, it shall be possible to prove that the standard of safety of this body of regulations has been maintained by other means, e.g. by materials testing, tests, stress analysis, operating experience. Fachverband Dampfkessel-, Behlter- und Rohrleitungsbau o. V. (FDBR), Dsseldorf Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e. V., Sankt Augustin Verband der Chemischen lndustrie e. V. (VCI), Frankfurt/Main Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e. V. (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Verfahrenstechnische Maschinen unci Apparate, Frankfurt/Main Verein Deutscher Eisenhttenleute (VDEh), Dsseldorf VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine e. V. (VdTUV), Essen. The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkblatter in line with technicalprogress. Please address any proposals for this to the publisher:

Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine e. V.,

P.O. Box 103834, D-45038 Essen.

0 Foreword 1 Scope 2 Principles of technique for welded joints 3 Principles of technique for brazed, bonded and other joints

0 Foreword
The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisfy the basic safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with Modules G and B + F. The AD 2000 body of regulationsis structured along the lines of a self-contained concept. If other technical rules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related problems, it is assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account. The AD 2000 body of regulationscan be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as specified in the provisions of the relevant sector of the law.

2 Principles of technique .for welded joints

2.1 Welds shall be executed in compliance with verified drawings and their accompanying documentation as well as with the requirements of the procedure qualification test. 2.2 Butt welds and fillet welds as joint welds in pressurised components shall be executed so that from their external assessment they correspond to quality level B as specified in DIN EN 25817 (steel) and DIN EN 30042 (aluminium). As a deviation from this, quality level C as specified in DIN EN 25817 is adequate for the following discontinuities: No. 11 Undercut1), No. 13 Excessive reinforcement of weld (fillet welds), No. 16 Excessive root reinforcement, No. 18 Misalignment h in double-sided circumferential welds, Figure B, No: 19 Incompletely filled groove2),


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This AD 2000-Merkblatt deals with theprinciples of technique for joining pressure vessels or pressure vessel components made of steel as well as aluminium and aluminium alloys by brazing, soldering, bonding and other methods of joining. It applies as appropriate to pressure vessels and pressure vessel components made of other non-ferrous metals.

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) Not permissible if uninterrupted. This also applies to fillet welds. In TIG orbital welding with nofiller metal, the following dimensions of incompletely filled groove/excess penetration in the 12 oclock position and root concavity/top reinforcement in the 6 oclock position are permitted in the PF, PG welding positions: h~ 0,2 f + 0,12 b, max 0,6 mm, where = wall thickness b = width of the weld h = incompletely filled groove/top reinforcement

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AD 2000-Merkbltter are protected by copyright. The rights of use, particularly of any translation, reproduction, extract of figures, transmission by photomechanical means and storage in data retrieval systems, even of extracts, are reserved to the author. Carl Heymanns Verlag has taken all rea~onable measures to ensure the accuracy of this translation but regrets that no responsibility can be accepted for any error, omission or inaccuracy. In cases of doubt or dispute, the latest edition of the German text only is valid.

Page 2 AD2000-Merkblatt HP


10.2000 edition

No. 20 Excessively unequal leg length in case of fillet welds, No. 21 Root concavity (local), and as specified in DIN EN 30042 for the following discontinuities: No. 7 Surface voids, No. 15 Excessive reinforcement of weld, No. 19 Excessive root reinforcement. The provisions in AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3 apply to the internal appraisal.

2.6 Each weld shall be marked so that its position and the
welder concerned can be identified at any time. To comply with this condition, both can be entered on the drawings or on the welding plans. Special arrangements can be made in case of pressure vessels manufactured in series. 2.7 Weld-on parts, including those that are removed later, shall be welded on according to the rules of welding practice which apply to the pressure vessel material, i.e. in two passes if necessary, without significant intermediate cooling. As a rule, welding-on shall be performed prior to heat treatment. Welding work after the final heat treatment is only permissible if the customer/user and the relevant third party have given their consent. 2.8 The requirements in figure 1 apply to misalignment with unequal wall thicknesses in the case of double-sided welds. The requirements in figure 2 apply to unequal wall thicknesses in the case of single-sided welds. If the requirements in Figs. 1 or 2 are exceeded, the thicker wall shall be tapered at not more than 30 degrees towards the thinner wall.

2.3 The following applies to arc strikesand spatter (in

accordance with DIN EN 25817): No. 24 Arc strikes are not permissible away from the welding groove. No. 25 Adhering spatter that has sOlidified and the areas heat affected by this are to be removed both on the weld and on the base metal if adverse effects on the material or malfunctions can be expected. No. 26 Multiple discontinuities in the cross section are not used in this Merkblatt (equivalentto No. 24 as specified in DIN EN 30042). 2.4 The welding points shall be protected against the influence of weather such as rain and wind. The necessary measures shall be taken if welding or cutting jobs are carried out at ambient temperatures below +5C. 2.5 If undercuts can only be removed by hard surfacing, the appropriate rules of welding practice shall be observed. The same applies to other repair welds.

Longitudinal and circumferential welds h 0,1 t1 2 mm max. 3

Fig. 2. Permissible misalignment on the root side for

single-sided welds 2.9 For clad plate, depending on the type and thickness of the cladding, smaller variations may be necessary. 2.10 The instructions given in the regulations, e.g. standards, material specification sheets (Werkstoffblatter) and specifications, shall be observed when processing materials. Stahl-Eisen-Werkstoffblatt 088 (Steel/Iron Material Specification Sheet) applies to fine-grained structural steels.

Longitudinal welds ~0,15~t13mmmax: 0,3 t1 6 mm max. t t) 0,3 t1 6 mm max. 2

h 1 h 2

Circumferential welds h ~ 0,2 t 5 mm max. 1 1 h 0,4 ~t1 10 mm max. 2 t t 0,4 t1 10 mm max. 2 1

Principles of technique for brazed, bonded and other joints

Fig. 1. Permissible misalignment with unequal wall thicknesses for double-sided welds

Until this AD 2000-Merkblatt is expanded to include the above methods, the principles of technique for brazed, bonded and other joints in pressure vessels shall be agreed between the manufacturer, user/customer and the relevant third party.


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