This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Course Book MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
**

By Prof. Dr. Jalal Ahmed Saeed Department of Civil Engineering College of Engineering University of Sulaimani 2010 – 2011

1

shearing force and bending. 3.net • Course Coordinator: Mr. Hardy Kamal Karim Goals: This course has two specific goals: ( I ) To introduce students to concepts of stress and strain.. They must adequately perform all the work assigned by the instructor. All the assigned work must be submitted by the due date and time. BC 22 will consist of 30 studying weeks 2. Make-up exams may be arranged for students with emergencies or special circumstances. Jalal Ahmed Saeed Department of Civil Engineering College of Engineering University of Sulaimani 2010 – 2011 BC 22 : MECHANICS OF MATERIALS: [ October . Students must attend all the lectures. class and Lab activities as follows: .. Jalal Ahmed Saeed • Assistants : Mr.. Dr. Farhad Rahem Karem • Office : Dean's Office. exams. Exam 2 = 12 % .. { There is an allowance of 10 % disattending } 2. exams. 2010 ] • General Information: • Class Room : Studying Halls [ B1 to B5 ] in the department • Class Hours : ( 2 Theory + 2 Applied + 1 Practical ) / Week • Units : 7 • Instructor : Prof. College Building • Mobile : 0770 .. The final grades will be based on the home works. 1st floor .. ( Exceptions can be made for students with emergencies or special circumstances ). 2 . Course Framework: 1.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Course Book MECHANICS OF MATERIALS By Prof. 3. oral discussions.saeed@univsul. Exam 1 = 12 % .. ( II ) To develop theoretical and analytical skills relevant to the areas mentioned in ( I ) above. Final Exam = ( 45 + 15 ) % = 60 % Course Policies: 1. e-mail: jalal. Lab experiments and activities = 10 % . as well as torsion and deflection of some structural elements. Jaza Hassan Muhammed Mr. Students must take the exams on the assigned dates and times. Home works and Quizzes = 6 % . Students will be assigned home works. Dr. class and Lab activities.

students should be able to: ( i ) Understand and solve simple problems involving stresses and strains. Materials and Properties@ • Simple Stress • Simple Strain • Stress – Strain Relationship [ Hook’s Law ] • Torsion of circular shafts • Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams • Stresses in Beams • Combined Stresses • Beam Deflection • Statically Indeterminate Beams • Columns & Miscellaneous Topics Course Objectives: Upon successful completion of this course. They should explain and show all their calculations. • Attendance at the Lectures and Labs is Compulsory. Lectures will also involve the solution of tutorial questions. “ Mechanics of Materials “. The course will be taught through lectures. 3. Tutorial questions are designed to complement and enhance both the lectures and the students appreciation of the subject.Course work assignments will be reviewed with the students. “ Strength of Materials “. moment – area and other methods. ( iv ) Analyze stresses in two dimensions and understand the concepts of principal stresses and the use of Mohr circles to solve two – dimensional stress problems. ( vi ) Compute the bending stresses in beams with one or two materials. 2. Lecture Times: • Details to be Announced by the department. ( vii ) Calculate the deflection of beams using the direct integration. impact and other tests. Beer & Johnson . Students are encouraged to submit their work on clean white engineering paper. A4. ( iii ) Understand and carry out simple experiments illustrating properties of materials in tension. 4.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ 4. Course Syllabus and Outline: • Introduction. Singer and Pytel. 6 . 5. Any textbook under the title of : “ Mechanics of Materials [ MOM ] “ or “ Strength of Materials [ SOM ] “ 3 . “ Mechanics of Materials “. shearing force and bending moment. Including final drawings. compression as well as hardness. ( ii ) Understand the difference between statically determinate and indeterminate problems. Course References: 1. E Popove. ( v ) Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams of simple beams and understand the relationships between loading intensity.

Stress – Strain Relationship.. Examples and Problems …. Week One 02 / 10 – 07 / 10 / 2010 Week Two 09 / 10 – 14 / 10 / 2010 Week Three 16 / 10 – 21 / 10 / 2010 Week Four 23 / 10 – 28 / 10 / 2010 Week Five 30 / 10 – 04 / 11 / 2010 Week Six 06 / 11 – 11 / 11 / 2010 Week Seven 13 / 11 – 18 / 11 / 2010 Week Eight 20 / 11 – 25 / 11 / 2010 Week Nine 27 / 11 – 02 / 12 / 2010 Week Ten 04 / 12 – 09 / 12 / 2010 Week Eleven 11 / 12 – 16 / 12 / 2010 Week Twelve 18 /12 – 23 / 12 / 2010 25 / 12 – 30 / 12 / 2010 Week Thirteen 03 / 01 – 06 / 01 / 2011 Week Fourteen 08 / 01 – 13 / 01 / 2011 Week Fifteen 15 / 01 – 20 / 01 / 2011 Week Sixteen 22 / 01 – 27 / 01 / 2011 29 / 01 – 03 / 02 / 2011 05 / 02 – 10 / 02 / 2011 Week Seventeen 12 / 02 – 17 / 02 / 2011 Week Eighteen 19 / 02 – 24 / 02 / 2011 Week Nineteen 26 / 02 – 03 / 03 / 2011 Week Twenty 05 / 03 – 10 / 03 / 2011 12 / 03 – 17 / 03 / 2011 19 / 03 – 24 / 03 / 2011 Week Twenty – One 26 / 03 – 31 / 03 / 2011 Week Twenty – Two 02/ 04 – 07 / 04 / 2011 Week Twenty – Three 09 / 04 – 14 / 04 / 2011 16 / 04 – 21 / 04 / 2011 Week Twenty – Four 23 / 04 – 28 / 04 / 2011 Week Twenty – Five 30 / 04 – 05 / 05 / 2011 Week Twenty – Six 07 / 05 – 12 / 05 / 2011 Week Twenty – Seven 14 / 05 – 19 / 05 / 2011 Week Twenty – Eight 21 / 05 – 26 / 05 / 2011 Week Twenty ..… Combined Stresses.. Moment Diagram by Parts Second Examination Deflection Applications Three – Moment Equations.… Combined Flexural – Shear Stresses. Examples and Problems …….……. Examples and Problems …. Review Problems Poission's Ratio. First Examination First Examination Shear Stresses in Beams. Shear Strain.Nine 28 / 05 – 02 / 06 / 2011 04 / 06 – 23 / 06 / 2011 Details A Review on Engineering Mechanics: Equilibrium. Reactions ……. Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams. Thermal Stresses.… Simple Stress: Shear Stress.… Economical Sections. Double Integration Method Area – Moment Method.. Thin – Walled Cylinders Simple Strain: Axial Strain. Examples and Problems …………… Vacation Reactions. Bending Moments. Examples and Problems ….. Examples and Problems …. Continued Stresses in Beams. Shear Force. Solving by Mohr's Circle Beam Deflections. Examples and Problems …. Examples and Problems …….. Examples and Problems …. 4 . Examples and Problems …..MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Course Details Week No. Solving by Equations Spring & Nawroz Vacations Spring & Nawroz Vacations Combined Stresses.. Examples and Problems ……. Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams. Examples and Problems ………….. Review Problems Torsion of Circular Shafts. Types. Bearing Stress.. Units.. Introduction to Mechanics of Materials & Analysis of Internal Forces Simple Stress: Axial Stress. Hook's Law.… Review Problems Statically Indeterminate Beams Applications Columns Final Examinations Note: Examination times may change due to unexpected circumstances. Flexural Stresses.

kN/mm2.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Introduction to MOM • • • • • • When an external force acts on a body. The body is said to be under Stress or strained. C and result from forces acting perpendicular to the plane of the cross-section SHEARING STRESS Forces parallel to the area resisting the force cause shearing stress. and if the resisting area is Two its called Double Shear .e “ Statics and Dynamics “ which you studied last year. τ=V/A If the area resisting the shear force is ONE area its called Single Shear . This resistance by which material of the body oppose the deformation is known as “Mechanics or Strength of Materials “ “ Mechanics of Materials ( MOM ) “ is an extension of “ Engineering Mechanics “ . In Engineering Mechanics bodies are assumed to be rigid and in equilibrium. the body tends to change its shape or deform.A = cross sectional area Direct stress may be tensile. It differs to tensile and compressive stresses. T or compressive. i. Due to cohesion between the molecules . which are caused by forces perpendicular to the area on which they act. the body tends to undergo some deformation. GPa σ =P/A @ Where: .P = applied force . MPa. Applied Force ( F or P ) • • Direct Stress = Cross Sectional Area ( A ) Units: Usually N/m2 ( Pa ). τ = V / 2A 5 . In MOM bodies are in equilibrium but no longer rigid ……… Deformations are of great interest. CHAPTER ONE STRESS DIRECT OR NORMAL STRESS • When a force is transmitted through a body. Shearing stress is also known as Tangential stress.σ = axial or normal stress [ T or C ] . the body resists deformation.

Isolating the right half of the tank. developed across longitudinal and transverse sections.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ BEARING STRESS: Bearing stress is the contact pressure between the separate bodies. as it is an internal stress caused by compressive forces. we get: 6 . which resist bursting. TANGENTIAL STRESS Or ( Circumferential Stress ): Consider the tank shown below being subjected to an internal pressure ( p ). Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels A tank or pipe carrying a fluid or gas under a pressure is subjected to tensile forces. It differs from compressive stress. The length of the tank is ( L ) and the wall thickness is ( t ).

This linear relation between elongation and the axial force causing was first noticed by Sir Robert Hooke in 1678 and is called Hooke's Law that within the proportional limit.: Consider the free body diagram in the transverse section of the tank CHAPTER TWO STRAIN AXIAL STRAIN: Also known as unit deformation.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ LONGITUDINAL STRESS. Stress-Strain Diagram: PROPORTIONAL LIMIT (HOOKE'S LAW) From the origin O to the point called proportional limit. strain is the ratio of the change in length caused by the applied force. Then : σ=Eε @ P/A=E(δ/L) or δ = PL / AE 7 . The constant of proportionality is called the Modulus of Elasticity E or Young's Modulus and is equal to the slope of the stress-strain diagram from O to P. to the original length. the stress is directly proportional to strain. the stress-strain curve is a straight line.

The ratio of the sidewise deformation (or strain) to the longitudinal deformation (or strain) is called the Poisson's ratio and is denoted by ν. For most steel.25 to 0. which are accompanied by strains εx.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ SHEAR STRAIN: Shearing forces cause shearing deformation. and is denoted as G. in GPa. it lies in the range of 0. and εz. The amount δT . The change in angle at the corner of an original rectangular element is called the shear strain and is expressed as: The ratio of the shear stress and the shear strain is called the Modulus of Elasticity in Shear or Modulus of Rigidity. Poisson's Ratio: When a bar is subjected to a tensile loading there is an increase in length of the bar in the direction of the applied load. Thermal Stress: Temperature changes cause the body to expand or contract. TRIAXIAL DEFORMATION: If an element is subjected simultaneously by three mutually perpendicular normal stresses σx.3. and 0. σy.20 for concrete. and σz. 8 . An element subject to shear does not change in length but undergoes a change in shape. respectively. is given by deformation due to equivalent axial stress. εy. but there is also a decrease in a lateral dimension perpendicular to the load.

For a solid or hollow circular shaft subject to a twisting moment T. For solid cylindrical shaft: For hollow cylindrical shaft: ANGLE OF TWIST: The angle ¸ through which the bar length L will twist is: POWER TRANSMITTED BY A SHAFT: 9 .MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ CHAPTER THREE TORSION Consider a bar to be rigidly attached at one end and twisted at the other end by a torque or twisting moment T equivalent to F × d. as shown in the figure. which is applied perpendicular to the axis of the bar. the torsional shearing stress τ at a distance ρ from the center of the shaft is: where J is the polar moment of inertia of the section and r is the outer radius. Such a bar is said to be in torsion.

STATICALLY DETERMINATE BEAMS: STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS: TYPES OF LOADING: 10 . According to determinacy. a beam may be determinate or indeterminate.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ CHAPTER FOUR SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS A beam is a bar subject to forces or couples that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal of the bar.

the moment diagram is concave upward. When the shear diagram is increasing. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment at that section. Shear Force: is the algebraic sum of the vertical forces acting to the left or right of the cut section Bending Moment: is the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces to the left or to the right of the section taken about the section The following are some important properties of shear and moment diagrams: 1. The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point. The couple M is called the resisting moment or moment and the force V is called the resisting shear or shear.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Shear and Moment Diagrams: Consider a simple beam shown of length L that carries a uniform load of w (N/m) throughout its length and is held in equilibrium by reactions R1 and R2. the moment diagram is concave downward. 2. 6. 11 . When the shear diagram is decreasing. 5. The portion removed must then be replaced by vertical shearing force V together with a couple M to hold the left portion of the bar in equilibrium under the action of [ R1 ] and ( wx ). 4. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear at that point. The maximum moment occurs at the point of zero shears. Assume that the beam is cut at section [ C ] a distance of ( x ) from the left support and the portion of the beam to the right of C be removed. 3.

This formula is also known as the Jourawski formula 12 .that the beam is initially straight and of uniform cross section and 3. If couples are applied to the ends of the beam and no forces act on it. I = Moment of Inertia of the entire cross sectional area. and 2. the bending is called ordinary bending.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ CHAPTER FIVE STRESSES IN BEAMS Forces and couples acting on the beam cause bending or flexural stresses and shearing stresses on any cross section of the beam and deflection perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam. where V = total shear force at the location in question. Q = statical moment of area = A` y' t = thickness in the material perpendicular to the shear. If forces produce the bending. FLEXURAL STRESS: Stresses caused by the bending moment are known as flexural or bending stresses. the bending is said to be pure bending. it is assumed that: 1.that the modulii of elasticity in tension and compression are equal. ASSUMPTIONS: In using the following formulas for flexural and shearing stresses.a plane section of the beam normal to its longitudinal axis prior to loading remains plane after the forces and couples have been applied. SHEAR STRESS: Beam shear is defined as the internal shear stress of a beam caused by the shear force applied to the beam.

If EI is constant. 2. The deflection is measured from the original neutral surface of the beam to the neutral surface of the deformed beam. These two constants must be evaluated from known conditions concerning the slope deflection at certain points of the beam. 5. the first two are the ones that are commonly used. which involves the area of the moment diagram.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ CHAPTER SIX BEAMS DEFLECTIONS The deformation of a beam is usually expressed in terms of its deflection from its original unloaded position. The resulting solution must contain two constants of integration since EI y" = M is of second order. These methods include: 1. - Methods of Determining Beam Deflections: Numerous methods are available for the determination of beam deflections. The configuration assumed by the deformed neutral surface is known as the elastic curve of the beam. 2 – Area–Moment Method: Another method of determining the slopes and deflections in beams is the area-moment method. 1 – Double Integration Method: The double integration method is a powerful tool in solving deflection and slope of a beam at any point because we will be able to get the equation of the elastic curve. 4. the equation may be written as: - The first integration ( y' ) yields the slope of the elastic curve and the second integration ( y ) gives the deflection of the beam at any distance x. Double-integration method Area-moment method Strain-energy method (Castigliano's Theorem) Conjugate-beam method Method of superposition Of these methods. 3. 13 .

Theorem II: The deviation of any point B relative to the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at any other point A.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Theorems of Area-Moment Method Theorem I: The change in slope between the tangents drawn to the elastic curve at any two points A and B is equal to the product of 1/EI multiplied by the area of the moment diagram between these two points. is equal to the product of 1/EI multiplied by the moment of an area about B of that part of the moment diagram between points A and B. and 14 . in a direction perpendicular to the original position of the beam.

negative if the point is below the tangent. Deflections in Simply Supported Beams : Area-Moment Method: The deflection ( δ ) at some point B of a simply supported beam can be obtained by the following steps: 1. The moment-area method of finding the deflection of a beam will demand the accurate computation of the area of a moment diagram. Compute 2. Compute 3. the change of slope is positive. negative if θ is clockwise. this section will deal on how to draw moment diagrams by parts and to calculate the moment of such diagrams about a specified axis. Solve ( δ ) by ratio and proportion (see figure above). Measured from left tangent. if θ is counterclockwise. To pave its way. as well as the moment of such area about any axis. 15 . The deviation at any point is positive if the point lies above the tangent.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ Rules of Sign 1. 2.

and a radius" R (which is just equal to the maximum shear stress). Then we can define the average stress. and the shear stress equals the maximum shear stress when the stress element is rotated 45° away from the principal directions. Recall that the normal stresses equal the principal stresses when the stress element is aligned with the principal directions. σavg. To establish Mohr's Circle. and the maximum shear stress is shown in orange. we first recall the stress transformation formulas for plane stress at a given location.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ CHAPTER SEVEN COMBINED STRESSES Mohr's Circle: Introduced by Otto Mohr in 1882. This is the equation of a circle. and τxy as being the maximum shear stress. Mohr's Circle was the leading tool used to visualize relationships between normal and shear stresses. and to estimate the maximum stresses. Even today. The two principal stresses are shown in red. Mohr's Circle illustrates principal stresses and stress transformations via a graphical format. 16 . the normal and shear stress components will always lie on Mohr's Circle. plotted on a graph where the abscissa is the normal stress and the ordinate is the shear stress. Mohr's Circle is still widely used by engineers all over the world. before hand-held calculators became popular. As the stress element is rotated away from the principal (or maximum shear) directions. This is easier to see if we interpret σx and σy as being the two principal stresses. Using a basic trigonometric relation (cos22θ + sin22θ = 1) to combine the two above equations we have.

******************************************************************************** ************************************************************ ************************************ ******************** 17 . and has a radius R equal to the maximum shear stress. The circle is centered at the average stress value. as shown in the figure below. The formulas used in this article are.MECHANICS OF MATERIALS COURSE BOOK { 2010 – 2011 } – Second Year @ The circle equation above now takes on a more familiar form.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd