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Grammar Vocabulary

GRAMMAR VOCABULARY...................................................................................................................................... 1 1. SENTENCES............................................................................................................................................................. 2 2. VERBS....................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3. NOUNS ................................................................................................................................................................... 24 4. ADJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................................................... 31 5. ADVERBS ............................................................................................................................................................... 36 6. CONJUNCTIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 39 7. PREPOSITIONS...................................................................................................................................................... 41 LISTENING................................................................................................................................................................. 47 TOEFL........................................................................................................................................................................ 48 8. CONFUSED WORDS.............................................................................................................................................. 48 9. NUMBERS............................................................................................................................................................... 52 10. EXPRESSIONS - PHRASES ................................................................................................................................ 54


Main clause + subordinate clause

1.1 Sentence patterns

Introductory modifier N, Adj, S + definiting relative clause + , Appositive (N phrase), non-definite relative clause (V-ing, V-ed) , Adv V V V O O O Adv , V-ing + O and V + O


,, and V + O

Adv Prep. + V-ing + O, V-ing + O, V-ed + O, To inf + O, Adverbial clause,

Ving +O Ved +



Adv modifies clause Adv modifies V active passive purpose

Main clause Main clause

Adverbial clause

It / there + be + adj + to-inf/ that + clause. It / there + be + N + adj - clause. It is likely that + clause That + clause + V + O It is the first (sb) to inf (Sb) + first + V-ed It was 1973 that + clause

It was I/she/he/we/they/you (=subject compplement) who

It is + to be + pp + by 2010 future invention It was + to be + pp + by 1995 past invention Ex. Astronomer now believe them. To influence farmers the most. The very mistakes they make show that + clause. The committee members resented the presidents not informing them of meeting. S V adj N N O The American dancer Maria Tellchief first became prominet in Europe.



Noun, N phrase, N clause, Pronoun, Gerund, Ex. That clause + V + O


IO = sb S + tV + IO (sb) + DO (sth) S + tV + DO (sth) + prep. + IO (sb)

DO = sth Patern:


N, Adj.

S + Linking V + complement ( modify S)


Complement : classification (norminal), description (adjectival), location time (adverbial).

1.2 Subordinate clause

Noun clause Adjective clause Adverbial clause Reduced adj-clause; appositive.


Reduced clause
V-ing Active V- ed Passive adj Main clause (S+V+O)

If, unless, When, after, before, since, while whether, Once, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, as although, though Though While Ex. Take the medicine as prescribed The man took the medicine as having to. After / if permitted, the student will be absent from class.

1.3 Reversion Inversion o ng: o ng t chnh / o tr ng t

adv + aux/defective V + S Strong form

Weak form: emphasize

Ex. Money you shall have if you go and get me a magazine. Negative word: not only, not until, not once, at no tim, by no mean, nowhere, never, seldom, rarely, scarely, hardly, no longer, barely, no sooner, nowhere, not, at no time, nore, neither, on no account, by no means, little, evenless, so, such Ex. Never will I smoke again. Ex. In no circumstances must a soldier leave his cambat position. = A soldier must not leave his cambat position in any circumstances . Only, so, such: only after, only once, only them, only by chance , only today, only yesterday, only on rare occational, only with dificulty, only by luck Ex. So beautiful is she that = such a beautiful girl is she that Only + subordinate clause, + main clause Preposition phrase + V + S: in front of, in the corner of, in, outside o ng t Ex. On the desk lies a spider Here / there + V + S ch t gi Ex. Here comes my taxi! Except: Here you are! If clause: unreal in the past/present; real in the present Ex. Had I met you 10 years ago, I wouldnt have married her. Were I you, I would marry Should she come, Ill tell. Did you study har, you might pass the exam. Comparision o ng t Ex. Helium is not inflamable, and is therefore safer than hydrogen. New York Citys Central Park is nearly twice as large as is the second smallest country, Monaco. o ng t


{long subject}


Finite verb: Non-finite verb: can combine with S complete sentence (chia th v ph hp vi S). to inf; V ing; V ed cannot make a complete sentence.

2.1 Tenses

Simple past

Time expression: Prehistory, deadth, ancestor, during the 1840s, the early___, during the industrial revolution ( meaning finish) Past progressive Past perfect = had + pp 1st action past perfect = had + pp. 2nd action simple past = V-ed Now Present = inf

After + had + pp finish before another action (V-ed) By (before) _____, had + pp.


Simple present Present progressive Present perfect = have + pp finish before another action: lin quan n hin ti, ko di n hin ti

Time expressions: yet, already, often, as soon as, during the past few days, lately, recently, just, ever, never, so far = up to now = for some time now, frequently, finally, after, since, for, over the past few years, during the past three decades, by the end of.

S + has/have (not) + pp + (yet) S + has/have + yet + to-inf + Present perfect progression:S + has/have + been + V-ing

Time expressions: for, since, all day (morning )


Simple future: will / shall + inf

Time expressions:
next time, Future progressive: will / shall + be + V-ing

Time expressions Future perfect: will / shall + have + pp Time expressions: by, by that time, by then, in a few hours, by the end of next year

Dont use perfect tense in time clause, except in reported speech.


2.2 Verb patterns

S+ Auxilary V + Modal V = can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to, had better, would rather Modal verb + (not) bare inf. Primary V = be, have, do Main V + Intransitive V + Modifier = adv

Transitive V + Linking V + To be

IO + DO = Sb + Sth Complement = N, adj, adv


Intransitive V

Intransitive Verbs: cannot be passive form Swap run ry, Collape, run, walk, wait + modifier = adv


Linking verbs: S + Linking V + C (noun / adj / adv)

Linking verbs:
Be = Become Become * tr nn Go Grow Get Turn Remain vn cn Stay Appear * Look * trng nh Seem * dng nh Sound nghe nh Prove t ra Feel Smell Taste Ex. To look ordinary lying on the bed

+ complement = N, adj, adv



Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb)
Subjunctive bng thi cch: S + Vt + DO (sb) + to-inf.

Meaning an order or a request 2 Subj. Transitive V: can make passive forms Formular: S1 + V + DO(sb) + (not) to inf. S1 + V + that S2 + (not) bare inf present subjuctive Verbs: Advise + V-ing Allow * + V-ing + to-inf, = permit Ask + to-inf Cause * Command Convince = persuade thuyt phc Challenge = Defy thch thc Decree ban hnh Demand Desire + V-ing mun Enable Encourage (*) Know + V-ing = + to-inf. Instruct Invite * Move Need + to-inf +V-ing (= need to be V-ed active) Order * + to-inf Permit * = allow + to-inf +V-ing Prefer +to-inf V-ing Propose + to-inf +V-ing Recommend * + V-ing = +(as)+to-inf Remind Request * + to-inf Require * Stipulate quy nh. Suggest * Teach Tell + (sth) * Train Urge thc gic. Wish + to-inf

desire + to-inf

+ (sb) + (not) to inf.

+ V-ing = encourage * that (bare-inf)

- khuyn khch, ng h Expect + to-inf Force + to-inf Help + V-ing = + toHelp + (sb) + to-inf / bare-inf Hire + to-inf Insist * + that = on + V-ing /

Demand, insistance, preference, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion To ask, demand, insist, prefer, propose, order, recommend, require, request, suggest Its Recommended*, suggested*, proposed*, required*, urgent khan Mandatory, obligatory bt buc Assential*, nessessary*, important*, vital*- very important, imperative *cp bch, bt buc (a). S + V + to + be + pp passive

+ that + clause (bare-inf) + main V

+ that + clause (bareinf) Or + to inf active.

Ex. There is (sth) to be passive



Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + IO (sth)

List of verbs: Write Read Sing Tell Paint Draw Pass Hand Give Send Borrow (sb) (sth) = borrow (sth) from (sb) Lend * (sth) to (sb) Mail Bring Find Get Leave Promise Offer Throw Sell Buy Loan Owe n Advance t trc Teach Show Make Feed Cut Build S + V + IO (sth) + to/for (DO) (sb) Explain Describe Introduction Lend Say Report Repeat

+ (sb) + (sth)

+ (sth) + to/for (sb)



Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + Bare Inf. causative form


To have/get + (sb) + bare inf To have/get + (sth) + pp. passive To help + (sb) + bare-inf. / to inf To make + (sb)/(sth) + bare-inf = force (sb) + toinf. bt buc. To let + (sb)/(sth) + bareinf Would you please * + (not) + bare-inf. Please * + (dont) + bare-inf. To say/ tell + (sb) To think / believe Passive: S + Vt + IO (sth) + pp. / Adj + that + clause (bare-inf)

Have / get/ make + (sth) + pp. nh (ai) lm Ex. To have my hair cut To have the floor cleaned Let us do (sth) = lets do (sth)


Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + V-ing (present participle) V2 ang tip tin

Catch Find Keep Leave Set Start + (sb) + V-ing (present participle) V2 ang tip tin

List of verbs:


Perception verbs: S + Vt + DO (sb) + Gerund / Bare inf.

Perception verbs: sense of humor/community: hearing, seeing, touch, smell, taste Observe See * Look at Watch * + (sb) + Gerund / Bare inf. Hear * Listen to Notice * Feel * Smell Taste


Transitive V: S + Vt + O (sb/sth) + (as / to be) + OC (complement)

List of verbs:


Call Name Make Consider * (sb) (as) N = regard * (sb) + as + N xem nh Appoint * b nhim Assign phn cng, ch nh Designate (ch nh) Choose Select Pick out

+ O (sb/sth) + (as / to be) + OC




S + V + (not) + Gerund (V-ing) han thnh cng vic, qua, passive

Past action: V + having + pp. Passive: V + being + pp. Keep (*) Like (**) + V-ing like + to-inf Love (**)+ V-ing love + to-inf Mention Mind * would you mind / do you mind Miss Need (*) + V-ing passive. Pardon Permit (*) + V-ing = permit (sb) + to-inf. Practise Prevent Quit * Remember (**) + V-ing remember + to-inf Recall Recollect Recommend (*) + V-ing = recommend (as) + to-inf Regret + V-ing regret + to-inf tic Report Resent * phn n, ni gin, ghen Resist khng c Resume Risk liu Suggest passive. Top, End (**) Tolerate tha th, chu ng Try (**) + V-ing try + to-inf Understand Want (*) + V-ing want + to-inf = want (sb) toinf.

List of verbs:
Admit * tha nhn passive. Advise (*) + V-ing = advise + (sb) + to-inf Anticipate * n trc Appreciate (*) + V-ing = advise + adj + V-ing Avoid * Allow (*) + V-ing / to-inf = allow (sb) + to-inf. Complete Consider * xem nh. Control * Defend Defer = Delay + V-ing = Postpone + V-ing tr hon Delay *+ V-ing = Postpone* + V-ing + to / until + Deny *+ V-ing = Refuse * + To-inf. ph nhn Desire * passive. Detest Discuss Dislike Encourage (*) + V-ing = encourage + (sb) + to-inf Enjoy * Escape Excuse Fancy tng tng Fear Finish * Forbid (*) + V-ing = forbit (sb) + to-inf. Forgive + V-ing = forgive (sb) + to-inf. Hate (**) + V-ing = hate + to-inf. Imagine Involve * lin quan

S + V + Gerund = S + V + DO(sb) + to-inf. Advise Recommend Encourage khuyn khch, ng h Allow Permit Forbid * cm

+ V-ing = + (sb) + to-inf



2.2.10 S + expression + Gerund (V-ing) Expression / phrasal verb Cant help Cant bear = cant stand khng th chu ng have a hard time have fun trouble spend time go ( sport / hobby) be worth passive. Give up = abandon t b, u hng Get through = use up; finish + V-ing Go on = continue, work on Keep on Put off = postpone (hon) Prep. + Ving Approve of Be letter off Count on Think about / of Forget about To object to To look forward to To be accustomed to = get/ be used to + V- ing used to + inf. To go ( sport / hobby) Accustom to + V-ing + V-ing



2.2.11 S + V + to + V S + V + (not) to inf. (khng c ngha mc ch) hng ti tng lai: mong mun, bt buc Afford (p ng) Agree* + to-inf refuse + to-inf Aim Appear* Arrange Ask+ to-inf = ask (sb) + to-inf. Attempt Beg Care Choose Claim tuyn b. Consent tn thnh, ong y. Dare Decide Demand* + to-inf = demand + that (bare-inf) = demand (sb) + to-inf Deserve* xng ng. Desire (*) + V-ing/To-inf. Determine Expect* Force* + to-inf = force (sb) + to-inf Fail* Forget (**) + to-inf forget + V-ing Happen Hate Help (**) + V-ing = help + to-inf. Hesitate Hire + to-inf = hire (sb) +to-inf. = engage Hope* Intend* Would like + to inf invitation, want To be likely + to inf c l. There is to be + to inf passive Learn nghe tin Like / dislike (**) + to-inf + V-ing Love (**) + to-inf + V-ing Manage Mean Need* + to-inf = need (sb) + to-inf + V-ing Offer Order + to-inf = order (sb) + to-inf Plan Prefer Prepare Pretend gi v Promise* Refuse * Request Seem Strive phn u, c gng = try + to-inf Struggle Swear Tend Threaten e do Undertake m nhn Warn cnh bo Want * + to-inf = want (sb) + to-inf. want + V-ing = want to be + V-ed. Wait Wish Volunteer Vote * bu c.

+ to-inf

S + V + Wh-question + toinf.



Ask Tell Show Advise Teach Learn Know Remember Forget Explain Understand Wonder Decide Ex. I want to know how to prepare a lecture.

+ Wh-question + to-inf

2.2.12 S + V + to-inf / V-ing Dont change meaning

Begin Start Intend Continue Bother Help Know

+ toinf / Ving

Change meaning:



Remenber Forget Regret Love Like /dislike (would you like) Hate Want Prefer Try + to-inf c gng Try + V-ing th Need* + to-inf active Need* + V-ing = need + to be + pp. passive Advise + to-inf/V-ing = advise (sb) on (sth) Agree Allow Permit Attempt Leave Mean Neglect Dread s hi Study Stop Propose Go on Cant help Cant bear + V-ing qua, b ng (c lm), cng vic; meaning: tinh thn, tnh cm + to-inf s lm, kt qu meaning: vt cht,

2.2.13 Series of V S + V + to + V Purpose nhm, . S + V and V Consecutive cc hnh ng lin tip. S + V (,) present participle Simultaneous cc hnh ng cng mt lc.



2.3 Modal verbs ng t hnh thi

Present tense: Modal verb + (not) bare inf. Modal verbs: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to, had better, would rather, 1. Request Yu cu lch s Will you Would you + inf. + inf. invite have (sb) do (sth)

2. Permission Xin php May, can 3. Ability kh nng Can + inf = to be able to + inf. c th + inf.

4. Guess, posibility Phn n 50%: may*, might* (unreal), could + inf 90%: should*, ought* 95%: must 5. Advisibility khuyn bo Should*, had better*, ought to + inf nn, tt hn l + inf + inf c th expect mong mun c l l chc l

Should* have + pp l ra nn ( past) 6. Necessary / obligation / logical conclusion cn thit, yu cu Must + (not) inf = (dont) have to + inf (past tense: had to) = be to + inf. = have got to + inf = be supposed to + inf. Past tense: Must* + have + pp. logical conclusion in the past. 7. Logical conclusion Must + have + pp. logical conclusion in the past. Must + be + V-ing / adj logical conclusion in the present. logical conclusion events that repeat.

Must + bare inf every day, often 8. Preference ngh Present / Future:

Would rather / would sooner + (not) inf. (present subjunctive inf.) Would rather than S2 + past subj. = S1 + wish + S2 + past subj. S1 + wish + S2 + present subjunctive (inf.) S1 + wish + S2 + past perfect subjunctive (had + past sub.)

Present contrary to fact: Past contrary to fact:

9. Past habit Thi quen trong qu kh Would + inf. = used to + inf. To be used to + V-ing to be accustomed to To get used to + V-ing to become accustomed to 10. Would rather thnh thc m ni Would rather + (not) bare-inf = Prefer + to-inf Would rather* + S + (didnt) + inf unreal thnh thc m ni. Ex. Id rather you didnt do anything about it for the time being.



11. Spectation about the past - c on hnh ng trong qu kh - chc hn l Past tense: modal + have + (not) past participle Should + have + pp l ra nn Must + have + pp. certain chc chn. May + have + pp. possible c th. Could + have + pp. possible c th. Might + have + pp. less possible it kh nng. Cant + have + pp. impossible, almost impossible hu nh khng th. Ex. You should have done (sth) = you didnt do (sth).

2.4 Condition
2.4.1 Tense
If- clause Present simple Do * Past subjunctive V-ed (were) ** Past perfect subjunctive Had + past subj. * Inversion of had + omit if Past perfect subjunctive Had + pp. (unreal in the past) Main clause Future simple Will + inf. Conditional simple Would + inf. Conditional perfect Would + have + pp. Conditional simple Would + inf. (unreal in the present)

Real in the present / future Unreal in the present / future Unreal in the past

Mixed time Result of the action in the past Tense Conditional tense: Past subjunctive: Past perfect sub.: would + inf V-ed (were) had + past sub.

expresion action in the future expresion action in the present expresion action in the past

Could = would be able to Might = may be would Inversion o ng *** Ex 1. Ex 2. If I had a car I would go to class on time. If he should be here he would see her nu tnh c. nu c c hi. Had I a car I would go to class on time. a little chance to happen an opportunity

Reduce form dng rt gn * V-ing / Ved + S + V + O


Conditional conjunction
If, only if In case = in the event that Provided that * = providing that = as long as (adv) + phrase Unless = If not Or else = otherwise = or nu, ch khi. trong trng hp. min l, vi iu kin. nu khng. nu khng.



2.4.3 c

Unreal expression
c m, gi m, gi m. + clause (unreal past) Would + have + pp. future present past

Wish = If only V-ed Might / could / would + inf

Would to God = would rather that c g

Might / could / would + past sub. Might / could / would + past perfect sub. (had pp)

Nh th l
Main clause + as if / as though Present simple past sub. Past simple past perfect sub. + clause = Would + have + pp.

n lc
Its (high / about) time + for (sb) + to - inf punctual present n lc. Its time + clause (V-ed = past sub.) qua l ra complaining / criticizing: phn nn, chng i, ch trch.

Unfulfilled desires in the past **

Had hoped + that + would + (not) + bare inf. Ex. She had hoped that he would stay longer.


To Wish
want unreal in the future / present / past Ex. I wish you luck. We wish you a Merry Christmas He wished himself dead. He wishes for money.

Wish + to-inf = wish + (sb) + to-inf Wish + would + bare inf Wish + V-ed (past subjuctive) Wish + had + V-ed (past perfect) Wish + (sb) + N Wish + (sb) + adj Wish + for + N



2.5 Active - Passive voice

2.5.1 Active form
Meaning: Express habitual, natural, realy actions Compare these cases: Active: Active: Active: Active: Active: Passive: If the sake bakes much longer, it will burn. Brick exposed Mecury expand in direct proporttion to temp. the sale ends City lies in City is locatied in


Passive form
DO (sth) + be + pp. + IO + by + S IO (sb) + be + pp. + to + DO + by + S

S + V + DO (sth) + IO (sb)

S + get + pp sth happen unplanned, unexpected. S is said that + clause = S is said + to inf. ngi ta ni rng S is supposed + to + inf. = It is planned / arranged / expected There is / are + sth + to be + pp. dn c lm Be + to be + present/ pp. intention d tnh. Its believed Its hypothesized Its known Its said Its thought Its true Its written Ex.

+ that + clause (simple present) expresses, knowledge

Fish have been found to contain a particular type of fat that helps lower blood cholesterol levels



2.6 Reported speech

ask, believe, forget, knowm remember, report, say, think, tell + that + clause.

Pronoun, possessive pronoun he, she, they, him her Time:

Today that day Yesterday the day before. The day before yesterday two days before Tomorrow the next day, the following day. The day after tomorrow in two days time . A year ago the previous year, a year before. Khng i theo bng khi c thi gian c th. Ex, On Monday Jack said to Tom: Im leaving the day after tomorrow. On Tuesday Jack said to Tom he was leaving tomorrow. Adjective: This, that the, it These, those them Next the following Last the previous Wh question Cu mnh lnh 2 i t lin tc Wh word + S + V + O Verbs: beg, remind, warn, advice, recommend, ask S + O + to inf. Mnh din t mt s tht, chn l iu kin khng tht khng i th ca ng t. Khng i trt t ca i t: simple present, simple past



2.7 Verb + prepositions

Accede to tn thnh Accommodate to sp xp Accommodate (sb) with (sth) cung cp Accompany by (sb) with (sth) theo Account for = as of (prep?) tnh n Add (sth) to (sth) Adjust to Admit to nhn vo . Advise on (sth) Appeal for ku gi Apply to (place) for (position) xin vo Appose to + V-ing Approve of Arive at place, in country, in city, home Attach to Attribute to Believe in, belief(s) in (n) Belong to (sth) Confess to th nhn Confine to giam cm , hn ch. Contribute to ng gp Consist of = compose of gm = include =incompass. Delicate (sth) to (v-ing) Devide into Devote (sth) to (sth) cng hin Differentiate between + in khc nhau gia + ch Enter + (place) enter into (problem) Expose to Face + with (sth) Feed on = eat Fight for. Forget about (sth) Infuse A into B / B with A thm, ngm Interfere with tr ngi, cn tr Introduce into (sth) Lead to Object to (sth/ ones V-ing) Refer to Regard to Relate to (sb) Remind (sb) of (sth/sb) Search for tm kim Serve as position Succeed in successful success thnh cng Succeed to successive succession k tha, k tc Worry about Talk + to (sb) about (sth) Talk with (sb)(sth) trnh by .

Be noted for work Be well-known for work + as person/position Be respected for work Be appreciated for work Win prize / award for work thng cho cng trnh Receive prize / award for work Reward (sb) for (sth) Pay for (sth) Buy / sell / purchase + (sth) + for (money) Gain prominence for c ch y v Mistaken for (sth) b nhm vi Pay for (sth) with cash Spend (money) for (sth) Qualify for Register (sb) for (course) To cast off = to give up t b, u hng To get rid of + V -ing = do away - r b Associate with lin kt vi Connect with (sb) to (sth) Deal with Depute with tranh ci vi Compare with Compete with cnh tranh. Comply with (sth) tun theo. Mingle with = mix with = blend with trn ln= sth Blend into trn ln vo Come from = stem from = derive from Detach from tho ra Detract from ly i, lm gim Differ from (sth) in (sth)/ that clause Emerge from ni ln, hin ln Escape from Forbid (sb) + from + V-ing be forbidden + to inf Obtain from Prevent (sb/sth) from Profit from Suffer from Remove from Result from l do = Result in dn n kt qu = the result of Withdraw from rt ra khi.


To catch (sb) in + V-ed bt gp To be caught in + V-ed To be opposited + to To be better off + V-ing Confide in gii by vi Engage in tin hnh, ha hn Observe in (light, flame) Participate in Rank in (value) xp hng theo Range in (size) phn loi theo Succeed in Vary in (sth)

Advise (sb) on (sth)/ of (sth) advise (sb) agaisnt doing sth Aggree with / on Concentrate on tp trung Count on (sb/sth) Decide on * Depend on * Design on * Focus on * Insist on / that (inf) khn khon i, nht nh * Plan on (V-ing) * Rely on: to be dependent tin vo. Spend (time) on (sth) = spend (time) doing (sth) * Spend (money) for (sth) * Vote on (sth) *

Ex. I forgot about our asking them V prep.-Adj-Gerund-Obj

2.8 Verbal phrases

To make
To make means to produce, creat contruct. Ex:Make an advances in Make a forcast make an attempt Make a law make choice Make a mistake make a comparision Make a point make a contribution Make an investment make an exception Make a plan make a decision Make a prediction make a discovery make a distinction To make a grant to (sb) = to grant (sb) (sth) ban, cp. Ex. Make it possible for people to live Make possible the first settlment Make a profit Make a promise Make an offer Make a suggestion Make a sound / noise Make use of

To make + Obj (short form) + adj + to inf. = To make + adj + Obj (noun phrase).

To do
To do means to perform, act, accomplish Do an assignment Do bussiness with Do a job (errand, chore vic vt) Do ones duty Do ones work Do homework Do research Do someone a favor Do ones best c gng ht sc Do manufacture Do contribution to Do damage Do wonder Do a service Do kindness Do harm Do wrong Do justice to nh gi ng

To Advise
Advise (sb) not to do (sth) Advise (sb) of do (sth) = inform (sth) Advise (sb) on (sth) = should do (sth)


Advise (sb) against (sth)/ doing (sth) = should not do (sth) Advise (sb) that + clause Advise (sb) how to do (sth)

To have
To have a lack of (sth) = to lack To have a chance to do (sth)/ of doing (sth) To be to + inf = have to + inf = must + inf

To mind phin lng

To make up my mind to inf Would you mind + to inf ?

To play
To play the guitar/ the piano To play football To play the key role in + V-ing = to be in charge of = To be responsibility for To play the key role in structure of Cell membranes

To please vui lng

Please dont do it Would you please tell me

To prefer
Prefer + (O) Prefer (N1) to (N2) = prefer to do (sth) rather than do (sth) Prefer to-inf = prefer + V-ing

To take
To take a dicision = To make a dicision = to decide To take a turn To take credit for (sth) To take precaution against / for It takes (sb) (time) + to do (sth) = (Sb) spend (time) + doing (sth) = (Sb) spend (time) + on (sth) To take a day off work ngy khng lm vic. To take a dim view of

To be equal to = equal To get married to (sb) = to marry (sb) To remain loyal to trung thnh vi To owe much to nh vo To be called by the term banner To be made up to Dont have to be refined To conduct on the role of hormone To work on Dont have to be refine Drop a line Go skiing





To put in your diary = remember to do. To give me a hand = help, aid, assisst,

3.1 Nouns agree with V
Here / there + be (S) + S Great quantities of + N Lot of = a lot of None + of the No, half, any Almost of the, almost all, Most, all, some, majority All but tt c, ngoi tr Of many things, trong s Fractions / percentages The rest Not only + S1 + but (also) + S2 Either/ Neither + N1 + or/nor + N2 S1 + as well as + S2 (cng nh) S1 + along with + S2 i theo S1 + accompanied by + S2 thp tng bi S1 + together with + S2 S1 + in addition to + S2 All of S1 but S2 tt c, ngoi tr Ex. Of all the law suits, 95 percents of them are Singular V Singular count noun, non-count noun Anything, nothing, something, every, A pair of, each, everyone, someone, anyone, no one Neither of, either What, whatever, whoever Plural V Plural count noun Both + S1 + and + S2 = both of the + N= both +N A few, several, various, many, some, numerous + (Of the)

+ N + V (N)

+ V (N2)

+ V(S1)

One, a, an, one of the + N Quantities of time/ money/ value/ distance The number of + plural N s lng A great / large / big/ increasing amount of + noncount N Vietnamese language Ex. A Flock of birds, sheep A Herd of cattle A Pack of dogs A School of fish A Pride of lions

Two, three A number of + plural N nhiu A great / large / big / increasing number of The adj = adj + people = N Vietnamese people Eye glasses Jeans - qun jean Pants - qun di Shorts - qun sooc Trousers - qun ty Pliers - km 24


Tweezers - nhp Scissors - keo Tongs - kep

500 dollars a year a large supply of pens Olympic series

Most of the + N = most + N Most of them = almost all Both of the + N = both + N A few of us girls = a few girls vi trong s bn con gi chng ti. The young, the woulded, the deaf, the blind, the dead, the living Olympic games

Singular nouns Mumps - bnh quai b . Meases si. Arthritis vim khp. Appendicitis vim rut tha. Rickets ci xng. Herpes Economics. Mathematics. Statistics. Physics. Politics. Civis cng dn. Ethics o c. Genetics. News Learning, shopping working

3.2 Countable and uncountable nouns

3.2.1 countable nouns 3.2.2 Uncountable nouns
T i km The, this, that, these, those, (a) few, pieces of A, all, each, one, two, none Some, any, many, A lot of, several A great number(s) of, The number of (sing. V), A number of (plural V), fewer than , more than Few = not many a few = some 3 + plural count N, Only a few of

The, this, that, these, those, (a) little, piece of Some, any, much, a lot of A large/ big/ great/ increase number of, The amount of, less than , more than, less Little = not much a little = some = a small amount of sth



Vocabulary 3.2.3 Countable nouns 3.2.4 Uncountable nouns

Singular Plural Alga algae to Nucleus Nuclei nhn TB Bacterium Bacteria Fish Fish Fungus Fungi / funguses Mouse Mice Wolf Wolves ch si Man Men Child Children Person People Alumnus Alumni Foot Feet Thought - Thoughs Feeling Feelings Byssinosis Byssinoses - bnh bi phi do bng Datum - Data Basis Bases Criss Crises Criterion Criteria Stimulus Stimuli - tc nhn kch thch Phenomenon Phenomena Dialysis Dialyses tham tch Medium media Radius Radii Index Indices Appendix Appendices Singular nouns (plural): Improvement(s), mammal(s), fossil(s), color(s), regulation(s), mural(s) tranh tng; vegetable(s), collection(s); skin (s), superstition(s), culture(s) Food (s) Fruit, Apple, Bread (s), Butter, Cheese, Coffee, Pepper (s), Salt, Sugar (s), Tea (s), Milk, Rice (s) oil Clothing, Jewelry General Ns: Equipment, Furniture, Machinery Materials: wood, iron, glass Traffic, Transportation Homework, Housework, Information, Knowledge, Music, training, movie Sunshine Evidence (bng chng), Intelligence, Violence, Air, steam, smoke, water, ice, Soil, Silver (s) Advice Courage Damage Fun, Luck, Honesty (s thnh tht), Happiness, Sadness, beauty, peace, Luggage, Postage Money Pottery, Poverty, Progress, Scenery Abstract Ns: Significance, ignorance


Count and noncount noun meanings

Agreement(s) Bone(s) Business(es) Cloth(s) Damage s thit hi; damage(s) tin boi thng. Decision(s) Education(s) Fire(s) Glass(es) History(ies) Honor(s)




Collective nouns + singular / plural Verbs

Government Group Jury (boi tham on) Majority * Minority Orchestra ban nhc. Organization Public Police Series Staff Variety 2,3,4 dolars 2,3,4 miles

Army (on qun) Assembly Audience Band, Team Class Client khch hng ca lut s Club Chorus dn ong ca. Committee + singular V Congress Crowd Crew Faculty Family Ex. Eat plenty fruit and vegetables. Ordinary: + sing V The majority believes him to inocent.

The majority of students believe him to inocent (v ti). Most of the car is No remain are Many a student knows this N1 N2, they d nhm ln vit r ra. N = V + post position Ex. A drop out. A sit in. a look out. A break out. A lift out



Position N, apposition, V + O N + Prep. + N N + prepositional phrase + V Ex. Training program It was they who + clause emphasize


Noun phrase =

Adv + Adj + Noun

Compound Noun: N (name, as an adj) N Position / function + N. Ex. Inventor John Hollan N V-ing/ V-ed + N Ex. Wheat producing country V-ing + N = Printing paper, making blacksmiths, Adj + Adj + N. Ex. direct physical experience; efficient flying capabilities Such + (a/an) + adj + N So + adj + (a) + N. Ex. So far north

Noun phrases
Sch gio khoa biology book compound noun Sch ni chung book of biology



No single alphabet = not a single alphabet Frances Independence Day His first / last years of office as President of us N, so called, N N, both of which + V Those people who = those who The other ngi cn li trong 2 ngi Another ngi kia, (ngi khc) Vietnam (n) nation. Vietnamese (n) nationality. Vietnamese (n) vietnamese language A vietnamese (n) a person. The Vietnamese (n) viet nam people

Number + N
Ex. Most students = most of the students = almost all of the students The more most student in ___ We girls some / few of us girls - mt s trong bn con gi chng ti Only a few nations = some nations only few nations negative meaning First act of Half an hour Many a mile = many miles


Noun clauses

1. Statement:

That clause + V + O S + V + that clause

Verbs: hope, think, say, believe 2. Wh-question:

S + V + Wh-question clause
Wh question: what, where, when, why, how Verbs: ask, know 3. Y/N question:

whether / if + N phrase / clause

If cannot begin a sentence as a subject Ex. That the rest of the universe does not circle around the earth was proven by Gallieo.

3.2.10 Article
Ngha chung land Vng t c th the land Ex. The Mecican Government The only means of land transportation was the horse The worlds most extensive ranges Rich people = the rich Talented people = the talented

3.3 N + Verb



3.4 Preposition
Cause of Choice of Conponent of Content of Cost of Danger of Effect of (cause) + on (receiver) Equivalent of Evidence of Example of Form of Group of Instance of trng hp Intention of Method of / for Native of , native to (adj) Origin of Possibility of / for Price of Probability of Quality of Result of Supply of Use of Approach to Attention to Belief in Contribution to Cure for Decrease in Demand for Exception to Excuse for Experience with Expert on Improvement in Increase in Influence on Interest in Need for In Opposition to Reason for Reliance on tin cy, tn nhim Requirement for (V-ing) Solution to


me, you, him, her, it, us, them. my, your, his, her, its, our, their. + The + N mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, their. myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

Subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Object pronouns: Possessive adjectives: Possessive pronouns: Reflexive pronouns:

Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that. Infinitive pronouns + singular verb Everybody Everyone Everything somebody someone something anybody anyone anything nobody no one nothing + Singlular Verb


Noun phrases

To give me a hand = help, assist, aid On the other hand On hand = in present possession or readily available In stock out of stock On sale. On view: open to public inspection : on exhibition On pins and needles


In advance


N Idioms

A piece of cake very easy A piece of her mind Out load On the double In her own good time On schedule Thats that. In bad taste ?



4.1 Position of adj. in clause
Adj + N N + adj (+ prep.) + obj (adj clause) Linking verb + adj:
Linking verb: be, become, remain, feel, look, see, smell, state, sound, stay, appear.

Indefinite proN + adj N + adj

Adj [//] = available, alive, aflont, asleep, above N = something, anything, nothing Ex. Something new

To make it possible for (sb) to do (sth) = to make possiple + long N

4.2 Possition of adj in phrase: OPSHACOM

Opinion how big how old color where from made of + N Sng ti: Pale Light Bright Dark Color: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Pattern: Check Stripped Plain Flowered Splot

4.3 Patterns
4.3.1 Sentences
Its + adj + of + sb + to inf. Adj + V-ing Busy + V-ing Eager - hm h Foolish - in ro Fortunate may mn Happy Adj + to-inf Anxious bn khon. Boring Dangerous Difficult Easy Lucky Prepared = Ready sn sng Please Sorry Worth

Good Hard Pleased Prepared Ready

Strangle Usual

It is + (much) too + adj. + a day + for + sb + to + inf (khng dng vi that) It is + (much) so + hot + a day It is + such + a hot day It is + quite + a hot day N + adj/adv + enough + to + inf. = sufficiently + adj. = enough + N = N enough (*) Enough + N + to inf. = N + enough + to inf. (*)

+ that + clause. Except: busy + Ving + that + clause


However / No matter how + adj + S + V Whatever / No matter what + N + S + V Ex. (*) Much too cold to = much so cold that. Much too much for (sb) = excess d tha. Much too hot a day too much days As far as is known,


Adjective clause

Which, whom, where, when, that, whereby nh + clause (S + V) Who, which + V Of which, Whose + N + V

Prep. + which/who never use prep + that That the best That hn hp : person + thing Ex. The racket with which she is palying was offerd her on her birthday. The racket that she is palying with was offerd her on her birthday.

Reduced adjective clause

Khng th b relative pronoun khi n l subject, whose, of which, where, whereby

Restrictive clause
V-ing (active); V-ed (passive) As an object omit relative pronoun: whom, which, that Ex. Thats the book which I bought 2 days ago. Standing overthere, the girl smile with me. The girl standing overthere is clever. While I was young, I = while being young, I = while young, I Built in 1976, capital is still in use. The man I saw was a Native American.

Non-restrictive clause
That cannot be used Which, whom as a object cannot be omitted Ex. Heres her book, which you borrowed to her 2 days ago.

Active, passive
Symptions, ranking from mild to severe,

4.4 Comparison
4.4.1 Equal comparision
(Not) + so + adj / adv + as + (number) as + adj / adv + as + The same + noun + as + Vocabulary: Heavy / light weight 32


Wide / narrow width Deep / shallow depth Long / short length As far as is known It costs twice as much as Big / small size Ex. Five times as fast as comparable areas during the industrial revolution



(far / much) + (less / more) + adj / adv - ER + than + clause. S + V + the + adj-ER + of the two + N = of the two + N + S + V + the + adj-ER Number multiple + as + many/much + N + as Multiple number comparative The more + S + V + the more + S + V + Double comparatives so snh kep Cng Cng Ex. Herry is the smarter of the two boys. This encyclopedia costs twice as much as the other one. The hotter it is, the more miserable I fell. The more you study, the smarter you will be. Has a longer history than any region of North America. Much too much for (sb) = excess = d Much more quickly Much too fast



(Much) + the (most / least) + adj / adv EST + in / of + N One of the + (most / least) + adj / adv EST + plural N + single V + The first + adj / adv + S + to inf Ex. One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Bjorn Borg. Vocabulary = 1 syllable

Short adj/adv

Single vowel single consonant double the consonant Ex. Bigger, redder, hotter, Long adj/adv Short/ Long adj/adv: 2 syllables: -ed, -ful, - ish, - ous. Ex. More useful, more boring, more stylish, more cautious -some, - y, er, - el, - ow, -le.

4.5 Vocabulary
4.5.1 Descriptive adj
Color: white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet Size: large, tiny, Quality of person: find, kind, nice, cute Quality of thing: beatiful, intersted , important, colorful


Limiting adj
a, an, the. one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth my, your, his this, that, these, those 33

Article: Cardinal number: Ordinal number: Possession: Demonstratives:



few, many, much


Irregular comparatives and supperatives

Farthest Furthest Least Most Best Worst Last Oldest Eldest Xa t Nhiu Tt Xu Tr Gi

Farther Further Little Less Many / Much More Good / Well Better Bad / Badly Worse Late (adv) Later Old (adj) Older Elder V-ing = adj Animal / thing V-ed = adj people



4.6 Preposition
Acceptable to Adquate for Afraid of Amenable to chu trch nhim. Analogous to tng t. Aware of / that nhn thc. Capable of Charactersistic of Close to Concern with (sth) about (sth) Contrary to Dependent on Independent of Different from differently than (sb/sth) in (sth) Eligible for Equal to Equivalent to tng ng. Essential to / for = vital to / for (sth) Except for Expert at (sb) is Familiar with (sb) (sth) is Familiar to (sth) Fond of Free from Good at Guily of Important to (sb) = importance of Inferior to kem hn, di. Jelous of (sth/sb) ghen t, ganh ghet vi. Native to (a), native of (n) Necessary for / to Next to = Near + (obj) Perfect for Popular with (sb) in / on (sth) Possible for Preferable to thch hp Regard to Regardless of Relevant to thch hp Responsible to (sb) for (sth) Rich in fat Sensitive to Similar to Successful in Shy of / about (sb/sth) Thanks to Typical of Unusual in (sth) bt thng ch. pp. form Accustomed to Adapted to Applied to Appreciated for Based on Bored with Compared to Composed of Disappointed in /with Divorced from Engaged in Equipped with Interested in Isolated from Married to Opposed to i lp Opposited of i din Related to Satisfied for Suprised at / by Related to Tired of To be famous for To be granted for To be known for To be noted for To be respected for



5.1 Definition
Adverbs modify verbs, except linking verbs. Adverbs modify adjectives or other adverbs.

5.2 Adverbial phrases = MPT = Manner + Place + Time

S + (be) + adv + Ex. Corn is usually grown V-ing (present participle) V-ed (past participle) Adv + Adj Prep. Conjunction Ex. Long before Almost all (adv + adj) Almost exactly (adv + adv)

5.3 Building words

Adverb = adjective + ly

5.4 Vocabulary
Vocab. Always, usually, frequently, often, generally Sometimes, occasionally, random Seldom, rarely, barely, hardly Never, scarely thng. thnh thong. kh m, him khi. khng.


Seldom, rarely, hardly ever almost never , almost not at all kh m, him khi. Hardly, barely, scarely almost nothing Negative + inversion Ex. Never did she work. khng.




cc k.

Extremely, Very, so, too, quite, rt. Fairly, rather, pretty kh. Quite = fairly = kh; = complete = rt, hon ton, thc s. Very rt; ngay.

It is + too + a day + for + sb + to + inf (khng c dng vi that) It is + so + hot + a day It is + such + a hot day It is + quite + a hot day N + adj + enough + to + inf. Enough + N + to inf. = N + enough + to inf. It is + enough + adj + a + N + that + that + clause + that + clause


Quality/manner tnh cht, cch thc

well fast late hard joyfully vui v. ill ni xu.

Good Fast Late Hard Joyful Ill

Ex. Speak ill. Like (prep.) As (conj.) + clause.



Here there + Pronoun + V Back, straight ahead Home Away, far




Time - thi gian

Now Today

Last week

Two days ago = The day before yesterday



In two days Next week = the day after tomorrow

The day after The day later Again, once agai Every day Then Soon Early, late Before, after, during By the end of this year + fulture perfect (will + have + pp.) Prior to During period of time When point of time By the end of this year + fulture perfect (will have + pp) Now Today At the end of this year


Purpose mc ch

Vocab To, in order to, so as to Patterns: can reverse

5.4.7 5.4.8 5.4.9

Reason nguyn nhn Concession nhng b

d .

Due to, thanks to, owing to, because of

Despite, In spite of

Contrast i lp

However = no matter how In contrast to

5.4.10 Vocabulary
Somehow (adv) khng hiu v sao, cch ny hay cch khc. Somewhat (adv) = slightly mt cht, hi. In addition to = besides = moreover According to Well and trylly Honestly speaking,



6.1 Vocabulary

Coordinating conjunction
And Verb (S1)

Both + S1 + and + S2 (c v ) Plural Verb S1 + as well as + S2 (cng nh) Not only + S1 + but (also) + S2 (khng nhng m cn) Verb (S2) Ex. Can not only receive messages from sense organs, but it can also transmit messages throughout the body. Yet Nevertheless Still Whereas (ngc li trong khi ) Or V (S2) V (S2) V (S2) But (contrast) oposite meaning

However = no matter how (adv)

Either + S1 + or + S2 Neither + S1 + nor + S2 (khng cng khng) Nor ph nh mnh sau Whether or So Thats why Clue: Lead become So



Subordinating conjunction

Where, wherever Before After When (chc chn) If (khng chc chn) While + N / clause Time As Since: from that time to present t khi Once As soon as As long as, So long as: from beginning to end Every time = when ever (bt c khi no) The next time The last time The first time By the time (cho n khi)

When When While While Before + clause (V-ed = simple past) + clause (had + pp = past perfect) + clause (V-ed = simple past) + clause (was/were + V-ing = past cont) + clause (was/were + V-ing = past cont) + clause (V-ed = simple past) Clause (V-ed, had + pp, was/were + V-ing) Clause (V-ed) Clause (V-ed) Clause (V-ed, was/were + V-ing) When + clause (V-ed = simple past) Clause (V-ed, had + pp) 39


After After

+ clause (V-ed = simple past) + clause (had + pp = past perfect) Purpose Lest + clause (should) For fear that (s rng) = should not

Clause (V-ed) Clause (V-ed)

That So that In order that + (can / could / may / might) Condition

If Only if In case In the event (that)

As long as (tr phi) Unless (nu khng) Ortherwise (nu khng) Or else (nu khng) Whether or not

Supposing that (gi nh) Granted that (gi nh) Provided that (min l) As though, as if (nh th l)

Reason, Cause nguyn nhn For In as much as Now that So Thus In order (that)

Because Since As Therefore (v th) Thats why So + adjective + that Such + noun + that

Result, Consequence kt qu

Cause and effect nguyn nhn v hu qu

Concession nhng b Even though Even if Yet But (tuy nhin) Despit the fact that, In spite of the fact that Whereas (trong khi)

Though (mc d) Although Contrast However Nevertheless Clue: object to, not Comparison so snh Than As Manner So + adj +that Such + N + that



7.1 Meaning
About Xung quanh Khp ni Khong chng For From In Of By K bn Cho n khi Ch thi gian ni chung Ngang qua Bi, do Nh, theo ch o lng To With Ch ni chn Ch s di chuyn n Gii thiu IO (sb) Ch thi gian Ch s thp tng Ch s s hu Ch th cch Ch phng tin. Ti (place) Vo lc (time) Trng thi Chiu hng S lng On Ch ni chn Ch thi gian V vn V s l thuc S hu Ngun gc Khong cch V vn Nguyn nhn Thnh phn, ni dung ch ng Ch ni chn (place) Ch thi gian Ch trng thi V, cho (mc ch) Nguyn do Ch thi gian Ch chiu hng (ni n, mc ch) Trao i (tr tin cho) Ngun gc, t (place) Ch thi gian S khc bit Nguyn nhn, ly do

V vn g Above After Trn Hn

Sau (place / time) Against At Chng li, tri li ng phi Da vo i vi, snh vi Chuan b, d tr (ng u)



7.2 Phrases
In: On: At: century, decade, year, season, month, part of day days of a week, date time of day; at night duration of time; point in time For three days, since 29th July From 8 am. to 5 pm. On time, in time at 6 PM, at noon At the time of the revolutionary war at some + future time


From to: In the 21st century, in the 2000, in 2003, in July, in the morning, in the evening on Wednesday on 2nd Sep = on July 29

In: continent, country, state, city, building, room, the world. On: street, floor of a building, earth At: address In Los Angeles In Califonia In Japan In africa From Alaska to California In cars, in a taxi On a board, on the telephone, on a bus/train At the speed of 90 miles an hour At about 17,000 feet per second 5 times as far as comparable 90 degree of Celcuise to be measured in units Differnce in size

From to At 200 Main street On Kings road On the second floor In the drugstore

Means of transportation
By car, by plane, by phone, by express mail By land, by sea, by air

Large in propotion. 3 inches in length 30 feet high = 30 feet in heigh a heigh of over 30 feet 1 kilo of weigth

at the age of 20 = 20 years of age = 20 years old a person of any age the cost of being sick

About Above After Against





As soon as possible As far back as As far as know As a consequence of

At best / worst At first = initially at last At least At once = immediately At times = occationally At the peak of At birth At death At random At home / work / school At the age of 20 = 20 years of age = 20 years old At some + future time At night At the same time as At times At the moment At the greatly reduced price At no charge At the core of

By means of By way of = via By hand By chance tnh c By accident = on pupose By far = considerably ng k. By contrast ngc li By day, by night By then cho n sau . By making + V-ing For now For the first time For an injection to be effective agaist tettanus, it must be admistered

For instance For example For free For (sb) i vi

Part from

The probability of Rather than = instead of The same of Instead of (adv) as result of = Resulting from = to result in

Off the coast of ngoi khi

Within 72 hours of the injury



In advance = Ahead of = before In vain = without success tht bi In the wrong direction In the large multilevel structures In effect, In use ang lu hnh In existence In detail on the whole In general In common In part = partly In practice, In theory In line, in a row In style In popularity In luck In motion In the street obstructing tc nghn. In conflict tri vi In greater number In charge of In danger of In favor of thin v, ng h . In spite of In need of In search of In consideration of In term of In the process of In view of In: continent, country, state, city, building, room, the world. In the world = All over the world In the house = domestic In the night sky In the front / middle / back In army/ air force / wavy In a book/ magazine/newspaper In bills The first stage in the manufacturing of In some culture In a/an adj (hnh thc adv) + manner Rich in fat In parnership with cng tc vi In particular with (get) In contact with = in touch with In common with In addition to = besides In opposition to In: century, decade, year, season, month, part of day (in the morning, in the evening) In the forth century In the century BC In the mid-1980s In the future, in the past

On diet On fire On the other hand On hand available ? On radio / television / the telephone On the whole = in general On sale On the average On purpse On the clear night On time = punctual On account of On behalf of On the basis of On top of the world On place On land On Earth On the frontier On long sea voyages On the slope trn sn dc . On the street, on the cooner, on the side walk, On the way = enroute, On the right / left On the 5th floor, On train



Out of
Out of town away Out of date old Out of fashion ?? Out of work jobless, unemployed Out of question impossible Out of order not fuctioning, broken

All over the world

To some degree mt chng mc no Prior to According to theo.

Under consideration for a job

Upper middle class

With regard to With the exception of With the purpose of With + instrument Together with In parnership with cng tc vi In particular with In contact with In common with



Listening Agreement
Neither do I. So do I. I dont either. I do, too. I do also.




Percent percentage
Percent (n v) + singular verb Percentage (con s)

Kind type
Kind + count noun Type + noncount noun

Not only but also not but

Not only but also c hai not N1 but N2 khng N1 m N2. But = except I am but a fool only - ch l ngi kh di

No not none
No (a) + noun Not (adv) + verb / adj None (pronoun)

Besides beside
Besides (prep, adv) = in addition to, moreover hn na, ngoi ra. Beside (prep) = near, next to bn cnh.

Instead of instead
Instead of + N/ adj/ adv Instead (adv.). at the end of a sentence.

Most (a) Almost (adv)

Almost all (of the) = most (of the)

After (prep) Afterward (adv)

After (prep) + phrase sau. Afterward (adv) + clause sau .

Around (prep) Round (a)

Around (prep) - vng quanh . Round (a) trn.

Somewhere (adv) = slightly Direct directly High highly Fast fastly Hard
Hard (a) = difficult kh khn; Hardy (a) = rigid - cng, chc. Hard (adv) = with great effort kh m. = heavily (rain), strongly (wind), deligently, induostriously (work) Hardly (adv) = barely, scarely, almost never khc nghit, kh m, hu nh khng.



Hardly = never negative meaning khong dng not

Considerate = throughtful, polite (a) chu o. Considerable (a), rather lager amount or degree ng k.

Real (slang) = very great (t lng)

Whole Wholly
Wholly = completely hon ton . As a whole = generally tng qut, ni chung.

Effect (n) to affect (v) Alive (a) to live (v) As high as as soon as
As high as = (cost) As soon as (adv) (time) + clause ng du cu

No longer = not any more (when) khng na .

Can nolonger see

Sometime sometimes
Sometime at some time in the indefinite future (when) mt lc no . Sometimes = occationally (how often) thnh thong.

Earliest (a) Soonest (adv): Once one time in the past Like as
As (conj) + clause sameness As (prep) + phrase sameness (job, robe, fuction, task) vi chc nng l. Like / unlike (prep) + phrase similarity ging nh. Like (a) Alike (a) at the end of clause; Unlike (a) + N, clause Like (v) + V-ing like + to-inf Dislike (v) Do you like ? question. Would you like + to-inf invitation - mi. Likely (a) c kh nng. Ex. Like A, S + V As a policeman, I want you to I am a policeman Like a policeman, I I am not a policeman A is like B. A and B are alike. Its likely that + clause Earliest (adj) Sooniest (adv)

Late (a,adv) no longer living, not punctual, Later (adv) sau. Latter former (a) last of 2 things mentioned.



Lately (adv) = recently Last = final (a) Lastest = renewest, most recent

Near nearly
Near (prep, adv) = gn (distance) Nearly (adv) = almost hu nh.

May be - perhap
It may be + phrase Perhap (adv) + clause

Raise rise
Raise raised raised (tv) + (obj) Rise rose risen (iv)

Lend - Borrow
Lend lent lent Borrow borrowed borrowed lend (sb)(sth) = lend (sth) to (sb) cho mn. borrow (sb)(sth) = borrow (sth) from (sb) i mn.

Let Leave
Let let let (tv) Leave left left (iv) let (sb) + bare inf yn, hy. leave (sb/sth) + place b li

Tell say
Tell told told (tv) Say said said (iv) Ex. To tell joke To tell the truth. tell (sb) (sth) ni. say (sth)

Set sit
Set set set Sit sat sat set (sb/sth) + place t, ti. sit + place ngi xung

Lay lie
Lay laid laid (tv) lay (sb/sth) t, xung . Lie lay lain (iv) lie + place nm xung

To used to
Used to + inf discontinue habit thi quen trong qu kh. Be used to + inf passive Be used to + V-ing quen vi. Get used to + V-ing = be accustomed to + V-ing tr nn quen vi .

Mind object to phn i.

A. do you mind + V-ing? Would you mind + V-ing? c phin khng? B. No, I dont mind at all B. Not at all

Would you please / Please + bare-inf.



The mecican government



9.1 Ordinal numbers s th t
A third of all students = 1/3 of + are + One of the first educations The second gate = gate two The forth volume of = Volume four of N Cotton used to rank first among alabamas crops The First Act of

The second year of production For the first time ln u tin. I first came here ln u n y past The first / the last + to-inf. ln u tin The first person to get ngi u tin It was the first time + have + pp (present perfect) ln u tin Is + to be + pp + by 2010 future invention Was + to be + pp + by 1995 past invention

9.2 Cardinal number s m

Half an hour About half the total output Culmulative grade point average GPA = 3.0 on a 4.0 scale = 3.0 out of 4.0. My 2 children You two 2 bedroom appartment compound noun 17 in 100 business calls Hundreds of thousands of toursits A few of us girls = a few girls vi a trong s bn con gi chng ti. Large in propotion

It was priced at $ 850. Millions of dollars worth of property = sth (which is) worth a sum of money ngi. To rise by 100 USD

Subject : Book: Boiology 457, Chemistry 101 Biology book (SGK); book of biology

The second lesson = lesson 2 The forth chapter = chapter four The forth volume of = Volume four of N

9.3 Time,
30 Dec = Dec 30 = 30th Dec = Dec 30th = Dec the 30th = the 30th of Dec (formal) On the 12th day of each month


For the 12th of June In: century, decade, year, season, month, part of day On: days of a week (date ) At: time of day On time kp gi, (before, sm hn) In time : punctual, in a nick of time - va kp lc. At some + future time It takes (sb) + (time) + to-inf. It was in 1761 that she came to Bostom. As early as 1937 Only 10 years ago Over the past few years (time not definite) For 3 years + For 3 years + now c 3 nm nay For the last 3 years trong 3 nm cui. For the past 3 years trong 3 nm va qua. Since 2000 Since 3 years ago cch y 3 nm. 3 years ago today ngy ny cch y 3 nm. Ex. Train is a hour late It was a waste time writing that letter. It was during the Industrial Revolution that the US was able to increase productivity through mechanization. In the last 10 years, the Mexican govement has reduced the number of its state-owned Companies to about half. Ex. In the early / mid / late 1980s/nineteenth century. In the next few years. (a number - N) In the morning, in the evening On the second of Sep. = on Sep second On Wednesday, On Newyears morning At 6 pm, at noon; at night At the time of the revolutionary war + Clause (V-ed = simple past) + Clause (perfect)

+ Clause (have been V-ing = present perfect cont.)

9.4 Age
Reach the forties nhng nm 40. Reach forties tui 40. At the age of 20 = 20 years of age = 20 years old To change with age thay i theo tui tc.

9.5 Measurement units

A large pecentage of employees At 43 percent interst At 43 percent of all murders Has a membership of some 10,000 To be measured by light-years To be measrued in units = express in unit To increas in size over time 3 inches in length 1 kilo of weigth = 12 inches in diameter 30 feet high = 30 feet in heigh a heigh of over 30 feet At the speed of 90 miles an hour At about 17,000 feet per second / a second An earthquake of magnitude eight on the Richter scale


To cover area of 120 square miles. Half a degree Celsiuse, One degree centigrade, 90 degrees Celsuse, 55 degrees Farenhei the lowest temperature possible is -273.16 degrees centigrade

9.6 Comparative
5 times/ twice as far as comparable More/less than 200 nation states = over 200 nation states Cost me 3 times as much as the last pair Although there was appoximately 120 intensive languas institutes in the US in 1970s, ther are more than times as many now.

9.7 Maths
A third = 1/3; 2 fifth = 2/5. To rise on half a degree Celcuise To be reduced by 400 meters To expend the bed by 10 to 50 percent. To reduce (sth) to about a half gim xung .


Once a busy city Skin(s) Improvement(s) uncount noun: sunshine on foot, by canoe, on houseback by car, in cars, in a car from one to another Of all the lawsuits, 95% of them are filed To be second only to Ones ability to inf Nassau hall is the oldest building now standing on the campus of Princeton University. Wage rates depend in part on the general properity of the economy. On pins and nedles The sales figures con s doanh thu Each and every word

Already not yet Near = next to = close to + place Trickly speaking, thng thn m ni. Many a time = many times - nhiu ln Just as much as we do By no meas = not at all On the contrary - ngc li