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S. V. Kulkami, Member, IEEE
Transformer Division Crompton Greaves Ltd., Mumbai, India
svkgtone cpl co.in
S.A. Khaparde, Senior Member, IEEE
Indian Institute of Technology
Abstract Survey of current research papers reveals the continued interest in application of advanced techniques for accurate estimation and control of stray loss in transformers. This paper g.ves an overview of research, development and application of various computational tools for stray loss analysis, based on over 50 published papers. All landmark papers are systematically classified. Practicality of application of methods by transformer designers is discussed The report concludes with critical comments on eficacy of all approaches and directions for pursuing further research. I. INTRODUCTION Last couple of decades have seen advent of research orientation towards application of advanced computational methods to estimate and control stray losses. Stray load loss in large ratings of generator transformers and autotransformers can be appreciably lugh. Challenge for designer today is higher loss capitallzation, optimum performance, and low cost, space and weight requirements; for which he needs advanced analysis tools that provide synergistic effect leading to optunum designs and product performance improvements. The paper contains a review of about 50 papers, which have dealt with one or more components of stray loss from the point of view of estimation and reduction. Stray losses include eddy and circulating current loss m windings, losses m flitch plate, core edge loss, loss due to high current field, and frame and tank losses. The paper has compared, for each stray loss component, pros and cons of various methods of estmation, and these methods are reviewed in today’s context, where state-of-the-art analysis softwares are available. Control measures for each stray loss component are discussed.
A . Winding Eddy Loss
11. STRAY LOSS COMPONENTS
References on basic eddy current theory [1-33, since 1950s have tned to make eddy current analysis understandable and practically applicable for solving complex engineemg problems, and even in 1990s such papers give basic foundation to eddy current researcher for analysis of various stray losses components mentioned below.
Two-dimensional Finite Element Method (2-D FEM) is most commonly used to compute eddy loss due to axial and radial leakage fields . The knowledge of flux density distribution in the winding helps in choosing proper axial and radial dimensions of conductors. This is particularly very important for winding having tapings within the main body where high radial component of flux density can cause excessive loss and temperature rise. In large generator transformers, low voltage winding may be designed with Continuously Transposed Cable (CTC) with lower axial and radial dimensions of individual strip, to minimize the eddy loss. Eddy loss 111 individual W d i s c needs to be exactly estimated to calculate hottest spot in the transformer, which is generally at the top of the windings. In case of small distribution transformers with crossmatic LV winding (copper flat conductor), each turn has to be modeled in FEM, as the tliiclmess of flat is comparable to or sometimes more than depth of penetration, in which case modification of leakage field due to eddy currents cannot be neglected. In case of foil windings, radial leakage field will cause higher eddy losses at the ends of the winding. Mullineux et al.  obtain current density as the solution of integral equation (Fredholm type) for a two winding transformer. For specific transformer dimensions given in paper, the coefficient of additional loss is 1.046. Turowski’s method  assumes the foil winding as a vertical section of an infinitely wide and deep conducting plate, which is assumed symmetrically penetrated on both sides by plane electromagnetic waves. Today, 2-DFEM can easily analyze the foil winding eddy losses without any simplifications. The analysis of winding eddy loss by 3-D FEM analysis will be more accurate than 2D methods, but the complexity in calculations increases manifold.
B. Circulating Current Loss in Windings
In transformers, loss due to circulating currents in parallel strands, due to unequal linkage of leakage field, can be reduced to a negligibly small value by continuous transposition (like in CTC) or by employing number of transpositions at pre-determined intervals along the winding height. Kaul  has given analytical method for calculation of circulating current loss in stranded winding with standard transposition schemes. The radial field at Winding ends is not considered in the calculation, which can be easily taken
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The slots are more effective in the stainless steel flitch plate than the mild steel flitch plate. the local temperature rise is much higher due to a higher value of incident flux density and poorer cooling conhtions. However. In large transformers. Experimental analysis of eddy current phenomenon in structure that surrounds the high cment bushings of large capacity transformers is presented in [19. Leakage flux penetration into laminated core poses an anisotropic and three-dimensional non-linear field problem. the method is not so general. D. Advance of 3-D FEM with features of anisotropic modeling (of permeability and conductivity) may help to overcome the difficulties for accurate calculations. is based on some approximations and experimental data. since the network is rigid and has to be modified for any change i n geometry. as the field in case of stainless steel is predommantly radial due to large penetration depth. Simulation of 1aminated flitch plate proved that the loss in lammated case is much lower as compared to stainless steel plate. which due to some assumptions zpd approximations. for quantlfying the effect of vanous factors affecting flitch plate loss. however. The analytical formulation can be used for any transposition scheme. The eddy loss distribution in the flitch plate obtained by 3-D FEM electromagnetic analysis was used in a 3-D FEM thermal analysis to compute the temperature distnbution. These limitations of the analytical formulation can be overcome in FEM analysls .20].The 2-D formulation. penetration of leakage flux into the cores. but the efforts involved for simulations may not be justified for the Inappreciable increase in accuracy. Eddy current pattern has been explained for various configurations of terminations in [ 1 9 ] . Deuring  has presented an empirical formula for eddy loss calculation in steel plates based on an experiment. Current distribution is expressed as made of an inf~te number of sinusoidal distributions with the help of Fourier integral. and then the field due to any current distribution is obtained by superimposition of fields due to sinusoidal components. Means to prevent overheating are also presented. Downloaded on December 4. 2008 at 06:16 from IEEE Xplore. C. Thus it can be seen that most of the papers published from 1970s have concentrated on analytical methods. Carpenter  has solved the problem by formulating differential equations in terms of an electric vector potential T and magnetic scalar potential 0. in which analysis of layer and disc winding has been done for various transpositions cases for strip as well as bunch conductors.  discuss a method to evaluate eddy losses in a semi-infinite solid nearby a filament current.00 (c) 2000 LEEE 2270 Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY. Solution is expressed in the form of three different characterisbc modes in a network model. a laminated flitch plate may be necessary. With improvements in 3-D FEM software capabilities. Literature available on flitch plate loss analysis is quite scarce. The current density within the cross-section of bars is computed using the integral equation technique. reactance and resistance of parallel strands are calculated separately depending on the positions they take along the winding height. Eddy-current losses arising i n metallic parts of rectangular cross-section are calculated by an analytical method. Practical cases. Although the losses occurring in flitch plate may not form a significant part of total losses of a transformer. This paper has compared currents and loss calculated by analytical formulation (based on multi-winding network formulation) and 2-D FEM. Krakowski et al. Formulation in the paper was verified on two experimental models of core [14.  have presented a method for analyzing the electromagnetic field in a system that comprises of parallel current carrying bars placed above a steel wall.Flitch Plate and Core Edge Loss Stray flux departing radially through the inner surface of winding hits the core and fittmgs such as the flitch plate mounted on the core. The paper describes details of statistlcal analysls used in conjunction with 2-D FEM. and the non-sinusoidal nature 1s accounted by multiplying loss by a factor. Performances of mild steel and stainless steel flitch plates are compared by a detailed examination of eddy current patterns. and these are then placed in a network scheme. causes eddy currents and local hot spots. The analytical formulation cannot analyze flitch plate with slots of limited length provided in radial flux zone. now such complicated structures can be easily simulated and analyzed.15]. [la] evaluated field pattern and eddy current losses in a l u " sheet due to current carrying strip bus bars. Recently a detailed 2-D FEM analysis has been reported . Stray Loss due to High Currents Poritsky et al. . The paper also presents results of 3-D FEM simulations carried on slotted and laminated flitch plates. two associated with the core surfaces and the third describing the flux penetration into the interior.mto account by 2-D FEM as given in . which is based on certain approxnnations [l 11. Jain et al. in a complex three dimensional model of h a c e transformer LV lead 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. Hence for higher rabng transformers. Analysis has been verified by measurement of temperature of flitch plate on a transformer. The circulating current loss is also being calculated even more accurately by 3-D FEM [lo]. are useful to only simplified 2-Dgeometries and cannot be applied to complex 3-D structures. involve plates of finite thickness and hence a modification of the solution is required. which are of practical use. in a direction at right angles to plane of lamination. particularly generator transformers. Restrictions apply. Various curves for loss are given. used to estimate the eddy current patterns. The loss density may attain levels that may lead to hazardous local temperature rise if the matenal and type of flitch plate are not selected properly. Field strength at the inner edge of the LV winding is assumed to vary periodically with a sinusoidal distribution in the space along the height of the winding. Methods of slitting the first step or shielding (laminated flitch plate) are adopted to reduce this core edge loss. Analysis of eddy current pattern.
The paper contains test results of t a n k loss with magnetic and eddy-current shielding. 2008 at 06:16 from IEEE Xplore. These analytical methods may not be easily applied to complicated tank shapes and for finding the effect of magnetideddy-current shielding on tank. Sat0 et al. Two-dimensionalMethodr Boyajian  has given a method for estimating leakage field. a sum of trigonometric functions in between core and tank (two half spaces). flitch plate. eddy current reactlons with phase shift. The paper compares methods based on differential formulation (analytical.  have presented analogy between magnetic field equations for twodimensional Cartesian and axi-symmetric problems. practicality and flexibility. and useful formulae. FEM)on attributes such as accuracy. Tank Loss Valkovic has  presented an analytical method in which current sheet. El Nahas et al. but may not be as accurately as that by FEM . In addition to describlng 2-D and 3-D analytical methods for loss calculation. RNh4). in which any kind of current density distribution can be resolved into space harmonics by a double Fourier series. frame and core edge losses). A.  have almost analyzed all the above mentioned stray loss components. hot-spots seldom develop. placed to cover tank wall. The designer can define locations of magnetic and I or eddycurrent shield on the tank wall. as they progressed from 2-Danalytical methods to 3-DFEM. Turowski's 3-D Reluctance Network Method [283 fulfills designers' requirements of quick estimatlon of tank loss. Due to large surface area and efficient cooling. two-dimensional methods are preferred for routine calculations of stray losses. as given below. the methods can be broadly classified into three categories. the research reported for calculatlon of tank loss has been mainly concentrating on vanous analytical methods mvolving complex mathematics.which now can be comfortably done by 3-D FEM. Karsai et al. B. It can be concluded that even in this era of 3-D calculations. For estimation of stray losses in transformers. and usefulness of this analogy for numerical calculation has been mentioned. mathematically less complex and can be used for calculation of eddy loss and circulating current loss in windings. represents " f of winding. Effect of change in permeability of magnetic shunts on the tank loss has been analyzed. F.termination.  have presented an overview of methods for eddy current analysis. which are mostly based on approxlmation of 3-phase transformer geometry. serving to clamp the yoke and support the windings. et al. are in a vicinity of stray magnetic field of windings. Losses in frames have been calculated by Finite Difference Method (FDM) and analytically. and loss in frames made up of mild steel. ease of use. The method can only be applied for a particular t a n k shape and effect of shields on tank wall may not be easily estimated. Total eddy loss estimated is found to be in close agreement with that observed during testing of the transformer. The loss in frames can be reduced by either aluminium shielding or by use of nonmetallic platforms for supporting the windings. Turowski  has also covered number of topics useful to practicing transformer engmeers. Downloaded on December 4. 1 1 1 . aluminium and non-magnetic steel are compared in . The method is very useful. curves are given to take quick and reasonably accurate decisions in the area of stray loss esnmation and control.00(c) 2000 IEEE 227 1 Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY. [2S] have emphasized the need of analyzing the eddy and stray losses as a complete system and not on an individual component basis. integral formulation (volume integral. Geometric parameters affecting t a n k loss are explained through graphs. and losses in t a n k are calculated by analytical formulae. Restrictions apply. on the other stray loss components (winding. The authors have done a number of 2-DFEM simulations to understand the effect of magnetideddy-current shields. Pavlik et al.  developed a method to calculate 3-D magnetic flux density on tank wall using a 2-Dsolution for one phase of a 3-phase transformer. The RNM3D approach for tank loss estimabon has been verified  on various ratmgs of power transformers.  have formulated analytical approach. Three-dimensional Formulations Sironi.  have formulated quasi 3-D method in which mi-symmetric leakage flux of the transformer in the absence of tank wall is superposed with that of the images reflected in the magnetic surface. is reported in . non-linear permeability inside solid metals and effect of eddy current shield. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF METHODS Krawczyk et al. Loss in frames can also be calculated efficiently by 3-D Reluctance Network Method (RNM) . Komulainen and Nordman  have used 2-D FEM to get static magnetic field solution. Szabados et al. The incident flux density is expressed in terms of double Fourier sixies. thumb-rules. Reluctances for conductive tank parts are calculated analytically by taking into account the skin effect. 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. . Performances of various shieldmg arrangements are compared. Since 1960s. boundary element method) and variational methods (weighted residual. E Frame Loss Frames (yoke beams). practical guidelines are given for reducing losses due to leakage and high-current fields. FDM. which requires the knowledge of incident flux density on tank wall obtamed by any other method.
Eddy current shields are generally used in case of odd t a n k shapes. using different conductor width and thickness at the winding ends.  have evaluated effect of tank and tank shields on stray loss in the windings by detailed measurements on a 150 M V A transformer.it is now easy to assess the effect of such eddy current shields on t a n k loss performance even for 3-D complex structures. whereas skin depths are in millimeters resulting into errors due to poor aspect ratio of elements. Bereza [S 1 3 has compared effectiveness of flat and edge-wise magnetic shunts by finding their effective anisotropic permeability.Curves are given for calculation of tank loss with and without shielding in . and the diverted flux f r o m the shield may cause overheating in the nearby structural part. Holland et al. Magiretic Shielding In today’s competitive environment. Eddy current loss in nonmagnetic shields of air core reactors is evaluated by image method using Fourier Bessel integral in . The work is extended in [48-493 to study the effect of a small gap between shunt and yoke on leakage field distribution. STRAY LOSS CONTROL Inui et al. Principles for selection of the type and thickness of tank shields are presented.have been successfully applied. first step of core. The paper has analyzed all the components that constitute the stray loss in a transformer from the point of view of m e t h o d s of estimation. is calculated by assuming infinite permeability. accurate estimation and subsequent optimization of stray loss by advanced techniques such as FEM will give a competitive advantage. there is extra loss in the eddy current shield itself. Merits and de-merits of magnetic and eddycurrent shielding are explained in . in turn. Dexin et al. Restrictions apply. E 4 5 1 have given experimental results of a 37 MVA transformer with various propomons of tank shielding by magnetic shunts. Downloaded on December 4. eddy and circulating current loss. if not studied properly. which is of practical significance. Loss measured under various combinations of shielding (yoke shunts. et al.C Tliree-niwie~uional FEM Analysis Haack and Girgis  have verified 3-D FEM calculations of flux densities along the height and breadth of the windings on experimental shell type transformer. The effect of positioning inter-phase connections of high current carrying leads of generator transformer on the tank loss has been explained with e vperimental verification.Kozlowski and Turowski have given formula for calculating the hmitmg value of conductor width to avoid hot spots in wmdings. 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. Bose et al. where magnetic shunts can not be used.  have given guidelines and useful curves for preventing overheating hazard due to stray field m various components such as windings. A power transformer has dimensions in few meters. Laminated iron is treated as solid anisotropic block. Measures for stray loss control are discussed with reference to large power transformers in [40-42). 2-D methods. Kazmierski et al. The paper has also given permissible values of tangential components of magnetic field strength on various constructional elements to eliminate local overheating. B. The 3-D FEM analysis.00 (c) 2000 IEEE 2272 Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY. 2008 at 06:16 from IEEE Xplore. analytical or FEM. Girgis et al. and thus p e m t designers to calculate tank losses efficiently and accurately.The papers [47-49] give useful practical guidelines for designing of horizontal magnetic shunts. For computing and controllmg stray loss components in windings. D’jurovic and Carpenter  have studied the effects of a horizontal shunt assuming that the shunt is connected directly to the yoke. flitch plate. Methods of reducing the loss in vanow structural components due to high current and Ieakage field are described in bnef in [ 4 0 ] . Now by tools such as FEM.  have outlined the method of modeling tank wall and other fittings with surface elements removing the need of complex layers of brick elements to account for skin effects and this. This is because.  have presented three-dimensional FEM analysis of eddy current problems using the complex magnetic vector potential. . - V. particularly for eddy and circulatmg current losses in windings. The parameters of such a block include the directional effects of both the material anisotropy and lamination stacking factor [ 5 0 ] . Many commercial 3-D FEM softwares now have the feature of this surface impedance element modeling. which started gaining importance in 1980s. 2-D approximations and end effects make the formulation less accurate. With developments in FEM. viz. frames and tank. is being constantly upgraded to improve its modeling capabilitles and accuracy for eddy current analysis.reduces the complexity and size of models. for example. and the shielding efficiency is discussed. Subsequently. control and elimination of hot-spots. Eddy Current Shielding Mullinem. IV. it is easily possible to optimize the total winding losses (I’R and eddy losses) by. It has been emphasized that the gap between shunt and yoke must be kept reasonably small for effective control of leakage flux. efforts required for 3-D analysis may be justified only for large power transformers where improvement in accuracy will be appreciable. Eddy current losses in steel materials are computed by combining numencal method with analytical formulation because of problem of discrehation due to very thm skin depth of about 1 mm.  have given analytical formulation wherein the windings are replaced by infinite array of line currents by using the theory of images.  have assessed the need and estimated the benefits of using 3-D magnetic field calculations. which is shielded by aluminium shield. CONCLUSIONS A . The flux carried by tank. flux collectors and flux diverters) are reported.
V. Downloaded on December 4. 1991. “Stray current losses in stranded wndings of transformeis. PAS. vol. P Jam and L. F. Templeton.” Proc. for permitting publication of the paper. will help overcome computational difficulhes. “Evaluation of flitch plate losses in power transfonnm. D. B. and 1.12. CIGRE 1988. pp. Large Power Transformers.April1987. New York. Part-1: Expenmental models and test results.” Proc. pp 239-245. 124. Power Greaves Ltd. May 1954. Hemming and G. December 1977. S A Khaparde. D. which again poses a real 3-D asymmetric problem. vol. Furman. 10. vol.Accurate analysis of loss m vanous types of flitch plates (mild steel. O t a n i . A. 167-173. and I. January 25-30. pp. 1181-1 186.” Paper no. K.1973. Warszawa: WNT.pp.  C J Carpenter.” 1191 S. New Delhi Omega Scientific Publisher. [la] H. - . pp. “Finite element analysis of eddy ciimnts in transformer parallel conductors. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  D A Koppikar. “Effect of current distnbuhon in parallel bars on clectromagnetx field at nearby steel wal1. “Additional losses in foil and bar wound transformers. J. Jha. M Kazmierski. Tank loss estimation. Kulkami. 0.Johnson. with features such as surface impedance elements. pp.” IEEE Trans. “Calculahon of winding losses in shell form transformers for improved accuracy and reliability. Kersz. pp. Eddy C u r r e n t s in Linear and Non-Linear Media. July 1989. IEE Science.pt. Ghosh.ll. New York. 97-106. 12-07.November 1981. K . 136-140. M. January 1993. The Analysis of Eddy Currents. Part-II: Computed results.” Proc. L. “Theory of flux penetrahon into laminated iron and associated losses.” Proceedings of the 1976 IEEE PES Winter Power Meehng. Power accurate finite element modeling technique. and L. no. vol. H J Kaul.Paper No A-76-151-1 o p p i k a r . pp 127-129 J Tumwski. “Eddy current losses in a sm-infinite solid due to a nearby altemating current. Ivankov. “Eddy currents in structure surrounding large current bushings of a large capacity transformer. for w h i c h sufficient indications are given m t h x paper. IEE. and S. “Field pattem and associated losses in The authors are thankful to the management of Crompton [lS] M. 273 1 .2737 0-7803-5935-6/00/$10. Y. Kulkami. and then finally to 3-D FEM for complex geometry like that of LV terminations of large furnace or generator transformers. Bhavsar. Pontsky and R. Estmabon of loss due to field of high currents has progressed from analytical methods to 2-D FEM for simple geometnes. N Mullineux.” AIEE Trans. 0 W Anderson. pp. has graduated from 2-D/3-D analytical. VI.n0. May 1959.” 1231 D Electromagnebc Fields in ElectncaI Engineenng. IEE. VII.Kerenyi.pp. and L. July 1977. 011 high speed and memory computers. T Tokumasu. J. January 1997. no. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Kondo. Power Appai-atus and Systems. 169..Girgis. S.  R. S V. J. June 1957. and K. 144. Use of user-friendly 3-D FEM software. V. Bereza.C. IEE Science Measurement and Technology. July 1998.  D. V. “Induced losses in steel plates in the presence of an altematmg current. no. Koppikar.  M R Krakowski.” Proc.r 1970. Savini and J. vol. Kerenyi. January 1969. Sam. 682489. Kulkami. no. IO74 V Subbano. 124. India. 1993. N Snnivas. “Calculation and reduction of stray and eddy losses in core form transformers using a highly r a n s . Scott. and M Djurovic. no. and methods of their reduction. vol. Kiss. Nizhnik.vol. 113-1 18. S.J. Restrictions apply. . Inui. RNM to FEM formulations.” IEEE T Delivery. A Yannucci. 1064-1072.” IEEE Trans. problem of evaluation of exact stray loss in core due to leakage field is quite complicated. 124. analytical formulation is less accurate due to many approximaQons.. no. J R.pp. vol. Girgu.7.” Roc. 1. Carpenter. P. 161-167. 4. G. I121 D. Ray. T. B. Measurement and Technology.” Pmc IEE. pp. vol.” AIEE Trans. 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April 1964. no 9 . “Three dimensional computation of the effect of the horizontal magnetic shunts on transformer leakage fields. CIGRE 1972. power system security. He IS cunently professor of electncal engineenng at IIT Mumbai.  T. M.“Eddy current shielding of transformer tanks. Magnetics. Burke. pp 32 12-32 I7  R. Kroon.’’ Paper no.1981.October 1954. Carpenter. S. vol. “A new approach to determine eddy current losses in the tank walls ofa power transformer. S . 12-10. lSEF‘95. 5. vol. and X Zihong.” IEEE Trans. Turowski. Kulknrnl (M’ 1999) was bom at Dombwli of Maharashtra state in India in 1967. Mag -14. Turowski. received his B. 8 15-818. pp. and D Perco. May/June 1980. 2142-2150. He has several publications to his credit and his research interests include p a t t e m recognition. ” Paper no. Van Hulse.” Paper no. SM’ 1991) was bom at Anuavati of Maharashtra state in India. September 1995. pp. “lndusmal verification of 3D hybrid analytically numerical calculation of stray field and losses in 3-phase power transformers. 5. MAG-11.” ptoc. in 1971. “Effect of tank and tank shields on magnetic fields and stray losses in transformer wndings.September 198J. 8. PAS-99. CIGRE 1988. pp 156-159. ”Calculation of the losses in three-phase transformer tanks.vol. 12. 291 1-2917. 1280-1287. and L. no.  M.” Proceedings of the 1973 IEEE PES Summer Meeting. no. He i s senior member of IEEE and Intemahonal Neural Network society.  V L. DJU~~VIC shunt of a transformer yoke with a horizontal magnetic shunt. “FEM analysis of 3D eddy cuiwnt field in power transformer. Kazmierski. C73-401-7  M Djurovic and C. vol. no 5. Ph.  M. 117. in I988 and M. POlOujadOff. pp. vol. C E R E 1988  G G Simni and J R. He is currently pursuing his Ph. no.p~2708-2713 I381 X Dexrn.” IEEE Trans. PAS102.V. September 1975. Kharagpur. MAG -23. Girgis. “Hot spot identification and overheating hazard p e n t i n g when designing a large transformer. pp. Crompton Graves Ltd. R. Djurovic and 1. vol. h i . no.p~. E. March 1992. “Eddy current losses in reactor flux shields. 1 11.1261 Z Valkoric. Restrictions apply. L. “Leakage reactance of imgular distributions of transformer \rindings by the method of double Founer series.” IEEE Trans. 12-12. B.E. “Three dimensional flux calculahon on a 3phase traiisfbmr. 823-832. “Recent developments in eddy current analysis. “Some topics on designing transformers with IOWload loss. H. Komulainen and H Nordman. no 3. “Stray losses and local overheating hazard in transformers. Monson. “Three dimensional computation of transformer leakage fields and associated losses:’ IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems. Okuyama.  1. vol 127. Power Apparatus and Systems.no 1. Hulsink. T Ishii. “Designing magnetic shields for transformer tanks. September 1978.” Intemational Symposiuin on Electromagnetic Fields. pp. Y. Khnpnrde (M’ 1987. Templeton.” Proceedings of the 1977 IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting. and M. and H. vol 28. no 9.” Paper no. August 1982. R Reed. pp.Tech.” Paper no 12-02.” IEEE Trans. vol. Beaumont.D. He received his B.  A. M.E. pp 3032-3037. Szabados. 5. no. M. R. Power ApparahJs and Systems. “Performance panmeters of power transformers using 3D magnetic field calculations. and J. vol. Turowski. no. no. pt C. Magnetics. Findlay.1137-1139. vol. “Stray losses in the step of a magnetlc  M. 1990. and J. Power Apparatus and Systems. “Method of 3dimensional network solution of leakage field in three-phase transformers. and G. in 1980 from Indian Institute of Technology. Mumbai in Electrical Engineenng. vol MAG-23. 3. no 3. 1461 Y. S. IEE. 1 1 . “Loss calculation in laminated steel utilinng anisotropic magnetic permeability. Yannucci.
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