# Math Analysis Semester 2 Study Guide

Roots/ Polynomials:
If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n where n>0, then f has at least one zero in the complex # system. Know Rational Root Theorem: (factors of last co-efficient/factors of 1st co-efficient) Know Polynomial Division: Ex. π π₯ = π₯ 3 + 11π₯ 2 + 39π₯ + 29

Use Rational Root Theoremβ¦ to get: Β±29, Β±1 as factors -1 1 11 39 29 -1 -10 -29 1 10 29 0 (π₯ 2 + 10π₯ + 29)(π₯ + 1) Then use the quadratic formula

Rational Functions and Asymptotes:
Vertical Asymptotes: where denominator = 0 (only after factoring and canceling) Holes (deleted pts): are what cancels out Horizontal Asymptotes: the # you approach as |x| Steps: 1.factor numerator + denominator 2. Write restrictions (what makes denominator = 0) 3. Cancel (the holes) 4. Denominator = 0 after canceling are the vertical asymptotes. Ex. π π₯ = π₯
2 +2π₯ 2π₯ 2 βπ₯

β (only look @ the dominant term then cancel)

= π₯

π₯+2 π₯ 2π₯ β1 π₯

β  0, 2 π π₯ = 1 2

1 π₯

+2 2π₯ β1

βπππ: π₯ = 0 ππππ‘ππππ π΄π π¦πππ‘ππ‘π: π₯ = 2

1 π»ππππ₯πππ‘ππ

π΄π π¦πππ‘ππ‘π: π¦ =

***BE ABLE TO GRAPH BY HAND AND STATE THE DOMAIN***

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

Slant Asymptotes: only occur when power in numerator is ONE larger than power in denominator To Find: use Long Division π π₯ = π₯
3 +π₯ 2 β2π₯ β2 π₯ 2 + 3

Y= π₯ + 1 + π₯ 2 + 3 π₯ 3 + π₯ 2 β 2π₯ β 1 π₯ 3 3π₯ 2 π₯ β 5π₯ β 1 π₯ 2 3 β5π₯ β 4 Slant:

β5πβ4 π₯ 2 +3

Sequences
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers Ex. An=3n-2 sequence is 1,4,7,10β¦ Factorials review: n! = 1Β·2Β·3...n 0!=1 5! = 5 Γ 4 = 20 3! Summation notation: π ππ

= π1 + a2 β¦ + ππ π
=1

Example:
7

2π β 1 = 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 = 45 π
=3

Arithmetic Sequences A1,A2,A3β¦,An A2 β A1 =d A3 β A2 =d you get the idea d is the common difference 1, 4, 7, 10 d=3 an=a1+(n-1)d Sum of finite arithmetic sequence: ππ = Geometric Sequences: A2/ A1 = A3/ A2=r An=a1rn-1 Sum of a Finite Geometric Sequence ππ = 1 β π π π1 β ππ π = 1 β π 1 β π π
2

(π1 + ππ ) = π( π

1 +π π 2

)

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

Sum of an infinite geometric sequence πβ = π
1 1βπ

Where |r|<1

Study Guide of Examples for Sequences and Functions:
Linear: lim 3x+1 = 3(2)+1 = 7 xο 2 7 β π < 3π₯ + 1 < 7 + π 6 β π < 3π₯ < 6 + π π π 2 β < π₯ < 2 + 3 3 π πΏ =
3

Proof: Choose ο€ = E/3 since all steps are reversible whenever x E <2-ο€, 2+ο€> and x οΉ 2 then 3x+1 E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7

Quadratics: Lim π₯ 2 +5 = (2)2 +5 = 9 xο 2 |( x2 +5)-(9)|<E | x2 β 4|<E |x+2| |x-2|<E let ο€β€ 1 |x-2| <1 -1<x-2<1 3<x+2<5 |x+2|<5 |x+2| |x-2|<E |x-2|(5)<E |x-2|<E/5 ο€<E/5 Rationals: Lim (x+4)/(x-2) = (3+4)/(3-2) = 7 xο 3 |( x+4)/(x-2) β 7|<E |[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E |(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E |(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E |-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 let ο€β€ Β½ Proof: Let ο€β€1 then |x-2|<1 and |x+2|<5. If we also let |x-2|<E/5 then the product: |x+2| |x-2|<E |x2 β 4|<E |( x2 +5)-(9)|<E so choose ο€=1 or E/5 whichever is smaller than whenever x E <2-ο€, 2+ο€> and xοΉ2 then x2+5 E <9-E, 9+E> and the limit is 9

Proof: Let ο€β€ Β½ then |x-3|<1/2 and |1/(x-2)|<2. If we also let |x3|<E/12 then the product: |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 |-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E |(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E |(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E |[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E |( x+4)/(x-2) β 7|<E

so choose ο€=1/2 or E/12 whichever is smaller then whenever x E Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya <3-ο€, 3+ο€> and xοΉ3 then (x+4)/(x-2) E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7

|x-3|<1/2 -1/2 < x-3 < 1/2 Β½ < x-2 < 3/2 2 > 1/(x-2) > 2/3 |1/(x-2)|<2 |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 |x-3| (2) <E/6 |x-3|<E/12 Xο β Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xο β Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xο +β ***notice the positive sign 1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E (x-1)(1-E)<x+1 1-xE-1+E<x+1 -2/E + 1<x true x+1< (1+E)(x-1) x+1<x-1+Ex-E 2/E + E/E < E/E βx 2/E +1 <x Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xο -β ***notice the negative sign 1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E (1-E)(x-1)>x+1 ** here x is a negative so you flip the sign** x-1-Ex+E>x+1 -1-Ex+E>1 -Ex>2-E x<-2/E +1 x+1>(1+E)(x-1) x+1>x-1+Ex-E 1>1+Ex-E 2+E>Ex x<2/E +1 true since xο -β so x is a negative Proof: Choose |x0| = |2/E +1| **choose the value farther from zero if there are 2 different answers** then for all |x|>|x0| (x+1)/(x-1) E <1-E, 1+E> and the limit is 1. Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

5.3 Properties of Logs
y ο½ log a x if x ο½ ay
remember e is just the natural log, and can be used like any other number

ο ο

so log e x ο½ ln x

ο ο

log a x ο½
change of base

log b x log x ln x ο½ ο½ log b a log a ln a

log a(uv)ο ο log a u ο« log a v ο½

log a
ο ο

u ο½ log a u ο­ log a v v

log a un ο½ n log a u
ln(uv) ο½ ln(u) ο« ln(v)

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ο ο
ο ο

u ln( ) ο½ ln(u) ο­ ln(v) v
ln un ο½ nln u

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and the log of 1 is 0 ***remember to use these rules to solve logarithmic equations

3.1 Exponential Functions

A ο½ Pe rt

P is the initial investment and r is the interest rate (write % as decimal)

this formula is used for continuous compounding which means that the investment is compounded an infinite amount of times per year (t). A is the ending amount

ο ο

For n compoundings per year:

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

r A ο½ P(1ο« ) nt t is the number of years and n is the number of times per year the amount P is n
compounded. R is the rate of interest (write 3% as .03) Annuities: some payment over a length of time PV= Present value

ο ο

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan