Math Analysis Semester 2 Study Guide

Roots/ Polynomials:
If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n where n>0, then f has at least one zero in the complex # system. Know Rational Root Theorem: (factors of last co-efficient/factors of 1st co-efficient) Know Polynomial Division: Ex. 𝑓 π‘₯ = π‘₯ 3 + 11π‘₯ 2 + 39π‘₯ + 29

Use Rational Root Theorem… to get: Β±29, Β±1 as factors -1 1 11 39 29 -1 -10 -29 1 10 29 0 (π‘₯ 2 + 10π‘₯ + 29)(π‘₯ + 1) Then use the quadratic formula

Rational Functions and Asymptotes:
Vertical Asymptotes: where denominator = 0 (only after factoring and canceling) Holes (deleted pts): are what cancels out Horizontal Asymptotes: the # you approach as |x| Steps: 1.factor numerator + denominator 2. Write restrictions (what makes denominator = 0) 3. Cancel (the holes) 4. Denominator = 0 after canceling are the vertical asymptotes. Ex. 𝑓 π‘₯ = π‘₯
2 +2π‘₯ 2π‘₯ 2 βˆ’π‘₯

∞ (only look @ the dominant term then cancel)

= π‘₯

π‘₯+2 π‘₯ 2π‘₯ βˆ’1 π‘₯

β‰  0, 2 𝑓 π‘₯ = 1 2

1 π‘₯

+2 2π‘₯ βˆ’1

β„Žπ‘œπ‘™π‘’: π‘₯ = 0 π‘‰π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘–π‘π‘Žπ‘™ π΄π‘ π‘¦π‘šπ‘π‘‘π‘œπ‘‘π‘’: π‘₯ = 2

1 π»π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘–π‘₯π‘œπ‘›π‘‘π‘Žπ‘™

π΄π‘ π‘¦π‘šπ‘π‘‘π‘œπ‘‘π‘’: 𝑦 =

***BE ABLE TO GRAPH BY HAND AND STATE THE DOMAIN***

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

Slant Asymptotes: only occur when power in numerator is ONE larger than power in denominator To Find: use Long Division 𝑓 π‘₯ = π‘₯
3 +π‘₯ 2 βˆ’2π‘₯ βˆ’2 π‘₯ 2 + 3

Y= π‘₯ + 1 + π‘₯ 2 + 3 π‘₯ 3 + π‘₯ 2 βˆ’ 2π‘₯ βˆ’ 1 π‘₯ 3 3π‘₯ 2 π‘₯ βˆ’ 5π‘₯ βˆ’ 1 π‘₯ 2 3 βˆ’5π‘₯ βˆ’ 4 Slant:

βˆ’5π‘‹βˆ’4 π‘₯ 2 +3

Sequences
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers Ex. An=3n-2 sequence is 1,4,7,10… Factorials review: n! = 1Β·2Β·3...n 0!=1 5! = 5 Γ— 4 = 20 3! Summation notation: 𝑛 π‘Žπ‘–

= π‘Ž1 + a2 … + π‘Žπ‘› 𝑖
=1

Example:
7

2𝑖 βˆ’ 1 = 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 = 45 𝑖
=3

Arithmetic Sequences A1,A2,A3…,An A2 – A1 =d A3 – A2 =d you get the idea d is the common difference 1, 4, 7, 10 d=3 an=a1+(n-1)d Sum of finite arithmetic sequence: 𝑆𝑛 = Geometric Sequences: A2/ A1 = A3/ A2=r An=a1rn-1 Sum of a Finite Geometric Sequence 𝑆𝑛 = 1 βˆ’ π‘Ÿ 𝑛 π‘Ž1 βˆ’ π‘Žπ‘Ÿ 𝑛 = 1 βˆ’ π‘Ÿ 1 βˆ’ π‘Ÿ 𝑛
2

(π‘Ž1 + π‘Žπ‘› ) = 𝑛( π‘Ž

1 +π‘Ž 𝑛 2

)

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

Sum of an infinite geometric sequence π‘†βˆž = π‘Ž
1 1βˆ’π‘Ÿ

Where |r|<1

Study Guide of Examples for Sequences and Functions:
Linear: lim 3x+1 = 3(2)+1 = 7 xοƒ 2 7 βˆ’ πœ– < 3π‘₯ + 1 < 7 + πœ– 6 βˆ’ πœ– < 3π‘₯ < 6 + πœ– πœ– πœ– 2 βˆ’ < π‘₯ < 2 + 3 3 πœ– 𝛿 =
3

Proof: Choose  = E/3 since all steps are reversible whenever x E <2-, 2+> and x ο‚Ή 2 then 3x+1 E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7

Quadratics: Lim π‘₯ 2 +5 = (2)2 +5 = 9 xοƒ 2 |( x2 +5)-(9)|<E | x2 – 4|<E |x+2| |x-2|<E let ≀ 1 |x-2| <1 -1<x-2<1 3<x+2<5 |x+2|<5 |x+2| |x-2|<E |x-2|(5)<E |x-2|<E/5 <E/5 Rationals: Lim (x+4)/(x-2) = (3+4)/(3-2) = 7 xοƒ 3 |( x+4)/(x-2) – 7|<E |[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E |(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E |(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E |-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 let ≀ Β½ Proof: Let ≀1 then |x-2|<1 and |x+2|<5. If we also let |x-2|<E/5 then the product: |x+2| |x-2|<E |x2 – 4|<E |( x2 +5)-(9)|<E so choose =1 or E/5 whichever is smaller than whenever x E <2-, 2+> and xο‚Ή2 then x2+5 E <9-E, 9+E> and the limit is 9

Proof: Let ≀ Β½ then |x-3|<1/2 and |1/(x-2)|<2. If we also let |x3|<E/12 then the product: |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 |-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E |(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E |(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E |[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E |( x+4)/(x-2) – 7|<E

so choose =1/2 or E/12 whichever is smaller then whenever x E Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya <3-, 3+> and xο‚Ή3 then (x+4)/(x-2) E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7

|x-3|<1/2 -1/2 < x-3 < 1/2 Β½ < x-2 < 3/2 2 > 1/(x-2) > 2/3 |1/(x-2)|<2 |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 |x-3| (2) <E/6 |x-3|<E/12 Xοƒ βˆž Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xοƒ βˆž Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xοƒ +∞ ***notice the positive sign 1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E (x-1)(1-E)<x+1 1-xE-1+E<x+1 -2/E + 1<x true x+1< (1+E)(x-1) x+1<x-1+Ex-E 2/E + E/E < E/E –x 2/E +1 <x Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1 xοƒ -∞ ***notice the negative sign 1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E (1-E)(x-1)>x+1 ** here x is a negative so you flip the sign** x-1-Ex+E>x+1 -1-Ex+E>1 -Ex>2-E x<-2/E +1 x+1>(1+E)(x-1) x+1>x-1+Ex-E 1>1+Ex-E 2+E>Ex x<2/E +1 true since xοƒ -∞ so x is a negative Proof: Choose |x0| = |2/E +1| **choose the value farther from zero if there are 2 different answers** then for all |x|>|x0| (x+1)/(x-1) E <1-E, 1+E> and the limit is 1. Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

5.3 Properties of Logs
y ο€½ log a x if x ο€½ ay
remember e is just the natural log, and can be used like any other number

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so log e x ο€½ ln x

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log a x ο€½
change of base

log b x log x ln x ο€½ ο€½ log b a log a ln a

log a(uv)ο‚ ο€ log a u  log a v ο€½

log a
ο‚ ο€ 

u ο€½ log a u ο€­ log a v v

log a un ο€½ n log a u
ln(uv) ο€½ ln(u)  ln(v)

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u ln( ) ο€½ ln(u) ο€­ ln(v) v
ln un ο€½ nln u

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and the log of 1 is 0 ***remember to use these rules to solve logarithmic equations

3.1 Exponential Functions

A ο€½ Pe rt

P is the initial investment and r is the interest rate (write % as decimal)

this formula is used for continuous compounding which means that the investment is compounded an infinite amount of times per year (t). A is the ending amount

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For n compoundings per year:

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

r A ο€½ P(1 ) nt t is the number of years and n is the number of times per year the amount P is n
compounded. R is the rate of interest (write 3% as .03) Annuities: some payment over a length of time PV= Present value

ο‚ ο€ 

Β© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan

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