EXPOSITIO MANVS

An exposition of the hand according to Master Johannes Tinctoris, licentiate in laws and chaplain to the King of Sicily

To Johannes de Lotinis, a youth consummately adorned with the finest character and numerous noble skills, Johannes Tinctoris, least among music teachers, sends fraternal good wishes.

Prologue: The first thing, O youth of the most shining talent, that a well-organized instructor in any skill delivers to young men keen to learn, is the milk – that is, the sweetness – of certain straightforward principles, lest, if he should offer them the gall – that is, the bitterness – of difficulty right from the beginning, he put them off through loss of confidence. Thus it was that a learned musician from Italy, a man of considerable and lofty abilities, with great wisdom put together the principle of the hand, to provide a starting-point in the form of a simple set of instructions, handed down, as it were, for the use of anyone intending to apply himself to the art of sound. Encouraged by these same motives, I have resolved to offer a simple explanation of this hand at the outset, hoping to deal with more difficult matters at a later stage. And I have decided that this exposition should itself be dedicated to your most gracious and noble name, not as a singer ignorant of his own hand, since I know you to be highly proficient in this skill – and there is no more dreadful insult with which to charge a musician than the claim that he does not know his hand – but as my dearest friend and colleague, beseeching you most earnestly that you might deign to accept this humble work as a gift, and that you might read it thoroughly in the same spirit of goodwill as that in which I offer it to you for your studies.

Chapter 1: On the definition of the hand and its distinguishing features The hand is a concise and useful teaching method, demonstrating comprehensively the qualities of musical pitches. In this context, moreover, it is called the hand as from the container rather than the content, for every hand – the outermost recognized member of the human body, according to the physicians, located on the forearm – contains that teaching in the tips and joints of its fingers. For indeed on this bodily hand there are five digits, that is to say the thumb; index finger; middle, which is commonly called the large finger; medical [ring] finger; and the ear finger, commonly known as the little finger. Of these the first, that is, the thumb, has one tip and two joints; each of the others, however, has one tip and three joints. Since there are four of these latter, and since four times four make sixteen, together with the three previously mentioned this makes a total of nineteen. These nineteen, sharing an equal status, are ascribed to nineteen musical positions through intrinsic visual association; but the final joint of the middle finger is assigned to the final position, which is the twentieth, through extrinsic relationship, as will become clearer below. And although this teaching method can be set up using either hand, it is nevertheless universal standard practice to use the left hand,

because it is more convenient to indicate the musical positions on this left hand with the index finger of the right. Having said this, there are some who find it most convenient to indicate the positions on the left thumb with the index finger of the same, and the positions on the remaining fingers similarly with the thumb of the same. As a result, they use only the one hand, that is, the left, in this particular method of instruction. Furthermore, this teaching hand is also known by another name, the gamma, from this letter which is called gamma by the Greeks. And this for good reason, since naming takes place after that which is the more worthy, but that which precedes is seen to be the more worthy; so, since on the hand gamma, that is G, comes first, it is proper that the hand be named the gamma after it. And in my opinion the creator of this method, wishing it to be called by this name, adopted the name of the Greek letter by itself, so that he could properly honour the Greeks as the greatest originators of the art of music, from whom the Latins received this same art. In this system of hand-teaching, then, there are seven topics to be considered, which is to say: positions, clefs, pitch-syllables, properties, hexachords, mutations, and intervals; and I have decided to treat each of these under its own heading for ease of reference.

Chapter 2: On positions With respect to the first topic: a position is the location of musical pitches. Furthermore, there are twenty such positions on our hand, which are most conveniently set out on the tips and joints of the digits in the following way: The first is ut on the tip of the thumb. The second is A re on the second joint of the thumb. The third is mi on the first joint of the thumb. The fourth is C fa ut on the first joint of the index finger. The fifth is D sol re on the first joint of the middle finger. The sixth is low E la mi on the first joint of the ring finger. The seventh is low F fa ut on the first joint of the little finger. The eighth is low G sol re ut on the second joint of the little finger. The ninth is high A la mi re on the third joint of the little finger. The tenth is high fa mi on the tip of the little finger. The eleventh is C sol fa ut on the tip of the ring finger. The twelfth is D la sol re on the tip of the middle finger. The thirteenth is high E la mi on the tip of the index finger. The fourteenth is high F fa ut on the third joint of the index finger. The fifteenth is high G sol re ut on the second joint of the index finger. The sixteenth is highest a la mi re on the second joint of the middle finger. The seventeenth is highest fa mi on the second joint of the ring finger. The eighteenth is c sol fa on the third joint of the ring finger. The nineteenth is d la sol on the third joint of the middle finger. The twentieth is e la above the same joint, that is, the third of the middle finger, on the outside, as is shown in the following diagram:

and so on alternately with the rest. And so we should say: ut is a line A re is a space mi line C fa ut space D sol re line low E la mi space low F fa ut line low G sol re ut space high A la mi re line high fa mi space C sol fa ut line D la sol re space high E la mi line high F fa ut space high G sol re ut line highest a la mi re space highest fa mi line . Hence there are some who call ut 'on the line'. since ut is the line itself. because it is ruled in a straight direction. A re 'in the space'. is a position produced by a straight protraction drawn in some colour. A space is a position remaining above or below a line. But it is the greatest error to speak in these terms. of these twenty positions described above ten are lines and ten are spaces. A line.Moreover. be said to be positioned 'on' the line or 'in' the space. therefore. and so on alternately with the others. which in this context is more often called a rule. they cannot. and A re is the space itself. then. organized alternately.

F and G. and so. just seven letters of the alphabet that make up clefs of this kind. only one is the lowest.c sol fa space d la sol line e la space Of these twenty positions. The last of them. or form. highest a la mi re. and again. high and highest. low G sol re ut and high G sol re ut. since in that position resides the lowest pitch. E. in order that they may be generally distinguished by those unaware of the differences between low. ordering of cleffing letters. which is to say from the second a la mi re through to e la inclusive. C. and highest fa mi are commonly called 'top' notes. and high fa mi are commonly known as 'bottom' notes. that is. high A la mi re. however. that is. albeit in a different form and under a . however. albeit incomplete. those contained within the second complete ordering of cleffing letters. and these are so called because they contain the low pitches. that is. as is shown in the following diagram: Chapter 3: On clefs With respect to the second topic: a clef is the sign of a line. these seven letters are all repeated once in order.or space-position. so that there may also be twenty clefs. those contained within the first complete ordering of cleffing letters. such as low F fa ut and high F fa ut. There are seven low positions. D. that is. position. F fa ut and G sol re ut. ut. and these are called 'high' since their pitches are high. high fa mi and highest fa mi. and these are called 'highest' because in them are positioned the highest pitches. B. distinguished from the others by its name. and then five of them once again. those which are contained within the third. which is to say from the first A la mi re inclusive through to the second exclusive. that is. high A la mi re and highest a la mi re. For each one of the positions on our hand has its own clef. since we have twenty positions. There are. There are seven high positions. low E la mi. Hence. high E la mi. G. But some of these positions without their qualifying adjectives have the same name. There are five highest positions. which is to say A. which is to say from A re inclusive through to the first A la mi re exclusive. F fa ut and G sol re ut. then.

D. whereas the last set uses lower-case. whereas the last five are lower-case. and those which are found in the second set on lines are here in spaces. are distinguished from each other by name. distinguished from each other by name. make twenty clefs. namely C sol fa ut. namely high G sol re ut. And these seven letters repeated for the first time are also distinguished from each other by name. namely high A la mi re. but distinguished from the seven aforementioned by position and not form. the clefs are termed 'low'. As a result. by the lowest position. through further repetition is assigned a. these seven letters in twenty positions. To the sixth. D. To the nineteenth. To the fourth. To the second position. serving. are distinguished from the second five of the same name in both form and position. namely D sol re. And these seven letters are upper-case. To the twentieth. as it were. therefore. since twice seven plus five plus one make twenty. except that where previously they were applied to lines they are here applied to spaces. for reasons to be explained below. and vice versa. is allocated [B]. as it were. as is shown in this diagram: . E. since those letters which are applied in the first set to lines and spaces have also been applied here to lines and spaces in a similar ordering. G. namely high E la mi. And these five letters repeated for the second time. in two-fold form on account of the twofold property of the pitches occurring together in it. by means of the stated repetitions. To the third. To the fifth. d. that is to say D la sol re. that is to say highest a la mi re. namely mi. To the eighth. for the second set. To the thirteenth. is assigned A. Again. that is to say c sol fa. that is to say C fa ut. This distinction of form is necessary. namely d la sol. uses upper-case letters. To the tenth. which differs from the rest in both name and form. and the clefs are termed 'high'. like the others. since they are uppercase just like the first ones. Next. like the first. however. that is to say A re. that is to say low G sol re ut. To the first position. is placed in front of all of these. is assigned this letter . to the high positions. also in two-fold form on account of the two-fold property of the pitches coinciding in it. since these first are upper-case. To the fourteenth. taken up. namely low F fa ut. C. and are distinguished from the first five of the same name in form also. and vice versa. that is to say low E la mi. To the seventh. C. that is to say e la. assigned. These last five. that is to say high F fa ut. and it is called the lowest clef. To the seventeenth. To the fifteenth. F. to the ninth position. Then to the sixteenth position. c. namely highest fa mi. To the eleventh. the low positions. E. as it were.different name. namely ut. To the twelfth. that is to say high fa mi. because it is Greek. To the eighteenth. through repetition is allocated A. F. [B]. G. e. the 'highest' clefs are so called because they are assigned to the highest positions.

The fourth is for both positions of fa mi whenever fa is sung there. whose strict letter form has been altered for I know not what reason. as is shown in virtually all the works of composers. indeed. but if it is void. or thus . who notate this clef thus . that is to say round . especially plainchant. for in order to understand all the positions. but incorrectly. although it is of no consequence if it is filled or void in either the latter or former case. notate this clef thus or thus . in composed music. indicating that in that place . therefore. as is shown in ancient manuscripts. these being common in plainchant. A is the clef of A re and both positions of A la mi re. especially in composed music. of no consequence either way whether it is void or filled. The sixth is G for high G sol re ut. The third is F for low F fa ut: previous generations once used this clef adopting the form of the proper letter itself. because the progression from one to another must follow its fixed and organized scheme. no matter many there may be. however. or thus . and this occurs only very rarely. and even rarer in plainchant. just as its form. although more frequently it is written void. whose name. or even half one and half the other. is the clef of mi and both positions of fa mi. The fifth is C for C sol fa ut. if it is filled it is notated like this . Nor should we pass over the fact that we also use this fourth clef. having learned one position by means of its sign. but – for what reason I know not – modern musicians. for this. is the proper sign of the chromatic semitone. both above and below. it is sufficient to apply only one clef. however. namely square and round. The second is for mi and both positions of fa mi whenever mi is sung there and this is called 'square' from its form. as far as notation is concerned not all of these clefs are in use. is Greek. between round and square both in form and name. The first is for ut. since this particular position is not indicated except in cases where C sol fa ut is missing. And although any composer could adopt whichever of these twenty clefs he preferred in his notation. in order to bestow due honour on the Greeks. There are many. There is a distinction. however. they may be defined in their correct order as follows: is the clef of ut. in all positions where fa is irregularly sung. like this . the use of this clef. I have nevertheless found only six in use. It is. is rare in composed music.This said. because it is round at the bottom. it is like this . for in all music. because it is square-shaped at the bottom. which is two-fold. as has been explained. also in plainchant. and this is called 'round' from its form. it is entirely straightforward to learn the rest. as in the latter or former case. departing from the footsteps of their ancestors. And so that the function of these cleffing letters can be understood concisely. as here . since. however. Square is the clef of mi and both positions of fa mi.

indicating C is the clef of C fa ut. and the same distance from the sixth. Moreover. re and ut. there are only six universally applicable pitch names. Re is the second pitch name.mi should be sung through hard . and e la. and we can define these in their correct order as follows: Ut is the first pitch name. Mi is the third pitch name. La is the sixth and final pitch name. And although. D la sol. namely re. namely sol. Three in low G sol re ut. sol and re. namely la and mi. standing a tone away from the fifth. namely sol. Three in C sol fa ut. Two in low E la mi. Fa is the fourth pitch name. One in A re. it turns out that on this hand forty-two pitch names are found: One in ut. namely sol and re. mi and re. standing a tone away from the first. namely fa and mi. and d la sol. C sol fa ut. there are six universally applicable pitch names. mi. standing a tone away from the second. Three in high A la mi re. standing a tone away from the fourth. and a tone from the fifth. fa and ut. namely la. namely ut. Sol is the fifth pitch name. F is the clef of both positions of F fa ut. fa mi. Round is the clef of both positions of that in that place fa should be sung through soft . nevertheless. standing a tone away from the second. and la. and a minor semitone from the fourth. Two in D sol re. namely fa and ut. standing a minor semitone from the third. Chapter 4: On pitch names With respect to the third topic: pitch is the sound formed from either natural or artificial instruments. sol. Two in high E la mi. namely mi. namely la. namely la and mi. One in mi. fa. and c sol fa. . that is to say ut. re. G is the clef of both positions of G sol re ut. namely fa and ut. Two in high fa mi. and the same distance from the third. D is the clef of D sol re. since in many of the positions on our hand a number of different pitch names are located through repetition. Two in low F fa ut. Two in C fa ut. Three in D la sol re. as I have just said. E is the clef of both positions of E la mi.

The low pitch names are all those that are contained in this hand of ours from A re inclusive through to high A la mi re exclusive. they sound low. of these forty-two pitch names only one is the lowest. namely sol. Two in d la sol. it sounds the lowest. Three in high G sol re ut. as is shown in the following diagram: Chapter 5: On properties With respect to the fourth topic: a property is a certain individual quality possessed by pitches which are to be strung together into hexachords. One in e la. and they are so called because. namely sol and fa. The highest pitch names are all those that are contained in this hand of ours from highest a la mi re through to e la inclusive. namely hard . namely la. relative to the others below. then. re and ut. that is to say ut in ut. natural. and they are so called because they sound higher than the high ones. namely fa and ut. and soft . and they are so called because. namely fa and mi. relative to the others above. are low. namely la and sol. moreover. relative to the others above. because. Again. Two in highest fa mi. namely la. or above the high ones. mi and re.Two in high F fa ut. The rest. or highest. three properties. . high. they sound high. Two in c sol fa. Three in highest a la mi re. There are. The high pitch names are all those that are contained in this hand of ours from high A la mi inclusive through to highest a la mi re exclusive.

and from this note the other five pitches are then derived in their correct order. different positions and different properties. From this. and secondly because.Hard is the first property. harsh. just as with natural matter. F soft . And it is called soft because through that property fa is sung in any position whose clef is round . so called from their form. and between round and soft : for square and round are the names of clefs. through their different forms. and from this note the other five pitches are derived in their correct order. And it is called hard because through that property mi is sung in any position whose clef is square . so that you may commit the fundamental clefs of these properties more firmly to memory. that is to say with a squared bottom. and this fa is soft. which is to be sung through hard . through which ut is sung in all positions whose clef is F. is more worthy than that which is hard. take note of this verse: 'C gives natural. The common form of this letter 'b'. and G hard. which is to be sung through soft . that is sweet. and this mi is hard. another was invented. so called from the quality of the pitch names fa and mi that are to be sung in the positions of the aforementioned clefs. by which we understand sweet. And it is called natural because all the pitches of this particular property remain in a fixed and stable scheme. since round and square occur together in one and the same position – that is. in comparison with the fa sometimes found in the same position. as has been shown above in Chapter 3. in both positions of fa mi – round comes first. And it is certainly the most fitting reasoning that the more worthy should take precedence. that is to say with a rounded rounded bottom. Natural is the second property.' And at this point it should be noted that there is a great difference between square and hard . but hard and soft are the names of properties. in comparison with the mi sometimes found in the same position. since it takes the primary form. In order to differentiate from this common form of the letter in question. so that. . through which ut is sung in all positions whose clef is G. 'That which nature has given.' Soft is the third property. indicated by means of this same letter. that is. Hence the saying. through which ut is sung in all positions whose clef is C. could be clearly recognized. nobody can take away. remains in both round and soft for two reasons: firstly because that which is soft. that is harsh. and from this note the other five pitches are then derived in their correct order.

Chapter 6: On hexachords With respect to the fifth topic: a hexachord is an ordered string of pitch names. The seventh hexachord is from the ut of high G sol re ut through to the la of e la inclusive. and at two of soft . natural. there are three properties. and this is the second natural hexachord. and this is the third hexachord of hard . The third hexachord is from the ut of low F fa ut through to the la of D la sol re inclusive. as I have said above. and this is the first hexachord of soft . deriving from one position and proceeding to another through any one of the properties. And since. namely hard . and the G of high G sol re ut. namely . the G of low G sol re ut. that is to say three of hard . The fifth hexachord is from the ut of C sol fa ut through to the la of highest a la mi re. whose fundamental clef is C. and this is the second hexachord of hard . namely the F of low F fa ut and the F of high F fa ut. The first hexachord. As is shown here in the following diagram: . whose fundamental clef is F. which is G in Latin. The second hexachord is from the ut of C fa ut through to the la of high A la mi re inclusive. and this is the second hexachord of soft . and this is the first hexachord of hard . namely the C of C fa ut and the C of C sol fa ut. The fourth hexachord is from the ut of low G sol re ut through to the la of high E la mi inclusive. The sixth hexachord is from the ut of high F fa ut through to the la of D la sol inclusive. given that three plus twice two make seven. whose fundamental clef is G. and soft . is from the ut of ut through to the la of low E la mi inclusive. then. two natural. and since there are three Gs in our hand. and two Fs. it is inevitable that there are seven hexachords in this hand of ours. and this is the first natural hexachord. and two Cs containing ut.

and mi through natural. starting from its own position. starting from the position low F fa ut. Low G sol re ut is a space whose clef is G and in which three pitch names. and ut through natural. starting from the position C fa ut. mi is a line whose clef is square and in which a single pitch name. starting from the position C fa ut. re through soft . so that we can have a comprehensive understanding of all of these together. starting from its own position. and re through natural. starting from its own position. that is to say fa and mi. that is to say ut. starting from the position low G sol re ut. are sung: sol through hard . mi and re. and ut through hard . Low E la mi is a space whose clef is E and in which two pitch names. starting from the position low G sol re ut. High fa mi is a space. as has been explained. starting from the position ut. . is sung through hard . re and ut. starting from the position ut. starting from its own position. mi through soft . starting from the position C fa ut. that is to say fa and ut. those grouped through the natural property are said to be sung 'through natural'. starting from the position C fa ut. C fa ut is a space wholse clef is C and in which two pitch names. are sung: la through hard . are sung: fa through soft . starting from the position low F fa ut. and mi through hard . starting from its own position. is sung through hard . that is to say sol.Furthermore. starting from the position ut. one of whose clefs is round . are sung: fa through natural. we may define the positions of the hand in their correct order thus: ut is a line whose clef is and in which a single pitch name. that is to say fa and ut. the root pitch names of every hexachord nevertheless conforming to their own proper positions. and those grouped through the property of soft are said to be sung 'through soft '. and ut through soft . starting from the position low G sol re ut. pitch names. starting from the position C fa ut. that is to say re. Low F fa ut is a line whose clef is F and in which two pitch names. At this point. and re through hard . all those pitches that are grouped. properties. that is to say la. clefs. that is to say sol and re. are sung: la through natural. and ut through natural. C sol fa ut is a line whose clef is C and in which three pitch names. starting from the position ut. starting from the position ut. starting from the position low F fa ut. fa through hard . starting from the position low F fa ut. are sung: sol through soft . D sol re is a line whose clef is D and in which two pitch names. fa and ut. A re is a space whose clef is A and in which a single pitch name. and in which two pitch names. and the other five following on from the positions of these root notes. the other square . and hexachord groupings. are sung: fa through hard . is sung through hard . since in the preceding material I have dealt separately with positions. that is to say [310] mi. are sung: sol through natural. that is to say sol. that is to say la and mi. into a hexachord through the property of hard are said to be sung 'through hard '. High A la mi re is a line whose clef is A and in which three pitch names.

starting from the position high F fa ut. sol through hard . starting from the position C sol fa ut. Fa into two others. High E la mi is a line whose clef is E and in which two pitch names. starting from the position high G sol re ut. mi through soft . Mi into two others. starting from the position high F fa ut. that is to say sol and fa. and mi through natural. . fa and sol. and fa through hard . mi and re. that is to say la. are sung: la through hard . starting from the position high G sol re ut. mi. are sung: la through soft . starting from the position low G sol re ut. the other square . starting from the position C sol fa ut. starting from the position high F fa ut. are sung: la through natural. are sung: sol through natural. starting from the position C sol fa ut. e la is a space whose clef is e and in which a single pitch name. are sung: fa through soft . and mi through hard . that is to say into ut.D la sol re is a space whose clef is D and in which three pitch names. re and ut. is sung through hard . and re through hard . starting from the position C sol fa ut. fa and la. Chapter 7: On mutations With respect to the sixth topic: mutation is the changing of one pitch name into another. re through soft . Highest fa mi is a line. starting from the position high F fa ut. All pitch names. Sol into four others. that is to say la. Highest a la mi re is a space whose clef is a and in which three pitch names. that is to say la and sol. then. that is to say into re. re. High F fa ut is a space whose clef is F and in which two pitch names. d la sol is a line whose clef is d and in which two pitch names. that is to say fa and ut. starting from its own position. that is to say ut. sol and la. c sol fa is a space whose clef is c and in which two pitch names. starting from the position low G sol re ut. are sung: fa through natural. and sol through hard . are sung: sol through soft . sol and re. La into three others. starting from its own position. and ut through soft . starting from the position C sol fa ut. and ut through hard . that is to say fa and mi. starting from the position high G sol re ut. that is to say la. moreover. others less: Ut. that is to say re and la. starting from the position low F fa ut. that is to say ut and sol. High G sol re ut is a line whose clef is G and in which three pitch names. that is to say la and mi. and re through natural. that is to say sol. that is to say re. starting from the position high G sol re ut. mi and sol. are sung: la through soft . but some more so. Re into four others. are mutable. starting from the position high F fa ut. starting from the position high G sol re ut. is mutated into three other pitch names. one of whose clefs is round . and in which two pitch names.

' To descend: Ut–fa. or from natural to hard . as here: Example 2: . And although. sol–fa. which is the first position of mutation. and ut–fa to descend from natural to hard . because all of the pitch names and hexachords of our hand (albeit some more than others) are repeated. every ascent takes place either from hard to natural. namely sol–re and re–sol: sol-re to ascend from hard to natural. and mi–la. as I have said above. and nine in order to descend from one property into another. sol–ut. la–re. And sol–re. Whence the verses: To ascend 'Ut–re. and re–sol to descend from natural to hard . fa–sol. or from soft to hard . and fa–ut and sol–ut. mi–la. ut–sol. there are fifty-two mutations in all found in this hand of ours: Two on C fa ut. re–mi with mi–re. Of the eighteen mutations. mi–re. nine take place in order to ascend from one property into another. la–mi enable you to rise. fa–ut. sol–la. fa–sol. or from natural to soft . sol–la. la–sol head for the bottom when you sing. or from hard to natural. re–mi. there are eighteen universally applicable mutations. sol–re. to an attentive observer.' Furthermore. and la–sol. re–sol with re–la. or from natural to soft . or from soft to natural. or from soft to hard . ut–sol. or from soft to natural. or from hard to soft . ut–fa. And sol–fa. la–mi. on account of the large number of positions. And every descent takes place either from natural to hard . therefore. la–re. or from hard to soft . as here: as here: Example 1: Two on D sol re. namely fa–ut and ut–fa: fa–ut to ascend from hard to natural. there are only eighteen universally applicable mutations. re–ut. re–la. re–ut. nevertheless. re–sol. namely ut–re.As is clear.

namely la–mi. as here: Example 4: Six on low G sol re ut. namely sol–re and re–sol. la–re.Two on low E la mi. and ut–re to ascend from hard to soft . and mi–la to descend from natural to hard . and re– mi to ascend from hard to soft . ut–sol. ut–re: sol–re to ascend from natural to soft . mi–la to descend from soft to natural. mi–re and re–mi: la–mi to ascend from natural to soft . namely la–mi and mi–la: la–mi to ascend from hard to natural. and ut–fa to descend from soft to natural. as here: Example 3: Two on low F fa ut. mi–la. la–re to ascend from natural to hard . re–la. re–sol to descend from soft to natural. re–ut. sol–ut to ascend from natural to hard . mi–re to ascend from soft to hard . re–ut to ascend from soft to hard . sol–ut. re–la to descend from hard to natural. ut–sol to descend from hard to natural. as here: Example 5: Six on high A la mi re. namely fa–ut and ut–fa: fa-ut to ascend from natural to soft . as is shown here: Example 6: .

and ut–re to ascend from hard to soft . namely fa–ut and ut–fa: fa–ut to ascend from natural to soft . as is shown here: Example 11: . and mi–la to descend from natural to hard . sol–ut to ascend from soft to natural. re–la to descend from natural to soft . ut–sol. and ut–fa to descend from natural to hard . as here: Example 9: Two on high F fa ut. sol–ut. just like low G sol re ut. re–sol. as is shown here: Example 10: Six on high G sol re ut. as is shown here: Example 7: Six on D la sol re. ut–sol. just like low F fa ut. ut–sol to descend from natural to soft . ut–sol to descend from hard to natural. namely sol–fa. la–re. fa–sol to descend from hard to soft . namely la–mi and mi–la: la-mi to ascend from hard to natural. sol–re et re–sol: la–sol to descend from soft to hard . fa–sol. as here: Example 8: Two on high E la mi. fa–ut to ascend from hard to natural. namely sol–re. fa–ut. just like low E la mi. ut–fa: sol–fa to descend from soft to hard . re–sol to descend from soft to natural. sol–re to ascend from hard to natural. la–re to ascend from soft to natural. re–ut to ascend from soft to hard . re–ut. and ut–fa to descend from soft to natural. ut– re: sol–re to ascend from natural to soft . and re–sol to descend from natural to hard .Six on C sol fa ut. sol–la to descend from hard to soft . re–la. namely la–sol. sol–la. sol–ut to ascend from natural to hard . sol–ut.

however. Nor should I neglect to mention that mutations were invented to account for the movement across from one property to another.Six on highest a la mi re. mi–re to ascend from soft to hard . that is to say one which is mutated and the other which is taken up through the process of mutation itself. such as the fa and ut of C fa ut. and re–mi to ascend from hard to soft . Hence. namely la–mi. . namely sol–fa and fa–sol: sol–fa to descend from soft to hard . and e la. just like high A la mi re. and sol–la to descend from hard to soft . re– mi: la–mi to ascend from natural to soft . la–re to ascend from natural to hard . re–la to descend from hard to natural. la–re. after we have entered one particular property. as is shown here: Example 14: On ut. since where all mutation is to take place two pitch names are required. and so we understand by this that mutation should occur as rarely and as late as possible. no mutation takes place. because mutation has necessarily to occur between two pitch names coinciding on a unison: that is to say. because in each of these positions there is only a single pitch name. mi. but rather they stand at a distance of a major semitone from one another. it is impossible for either to be mutated into the other. A re. but where there is only a single pitch name no mutation can occur. as is shown here: Example 12: Two on c sol fa. no mutation takes place on high and highest fa mi. re–la. mi–re. since fa and mi are never of one and the same sound in any position at all. and fa–sol to descend from hard to soft . as is shown here: Example 13: Two on d la sol. and so on. Hence. we must never mutate before its last available pitch name. mi–la to descend from soft to natural. or the sol and re of D sol re. In addition. mi–la. namely la–sol and sol–la: la–sol to descend from soft to hard . that the pitch name which is mutated and the other which is taken up through the process of mutation itself must be of one and the same sound.

and on C sol fa ut in order to ascend from soft to natural. Fa–ut is the mutation that takes place on C fa ut and C sol fa ut in order to ascend from hard to natural. Re–sol is the mutation that takes place on D sol re and D la sol re in order to descend from natural to hard . so that we can understand comprehensively the function of each mutation. Re–la is the mutation that takes place in both positions of A la mi re in order to descend from hard to natural. and in both positions of F fa ut in order to ascend from natural to soft . Re–mi is the mutation that takes place in both positions of A la mi re in order to ascend from hard to soft . Fa–sol is the mutation that takes place on C sol fa ut and on c sol fa in order to descend from hard to soft . . From the foregoing. Re–ut is the mutation that takes place in both positions of G sol re ut in order to ascend from soft to hard .Again. and in both positions of G sol re ut in order to descend from soft to natural. when we solmize. and in both positions of A la mi re in order to descend from soft to natural. and in both positions of F fa ut in order to descend from soft to natural. for solmization is indeed the sung performance of notes by means of their names. Sol–re is the mutation that takes place on D sol re and D la sol re in order to ascend from hard to natural. Ut–sol is the mutation that takes place in both positions of G sol re ut in order to descend from hard to natural. Mi–re is the mutation that takes place in both positions of A la mi re in order to ascend from soft to hard . and on D la sol re in order to descend from natural to soft . and in both positions of G sol re ut in order to ascend from natural to soft . but only its name. let us define them in their correct order as follows: Ut–re is the mutation that takes place in both positions of G sol re ut in order to ascend from hard to soft . Ut–fa is the mutation that takes place on C fa ut and C sol fa ut in order to descend from natural to hard . Hence. and on C sol fa ut in order to descend from natural to soft . mutation on any note does not alter its sound. Sol–ut is the mutation that takes place in both positions of G sol re ut in order to ascend from natural to hard . Mi–la is the mutation that takes place in both positions of E la mi in order to descend from natural to hard . we mutate only because at that particular time we are performing the notes by name.

and in both positions of A la mi re in order to ascend from natural to soft . which can be grasped most easily by means of the following diagram: . La–re is the mutation that takes place in both positions of A la mi re in order to ascend from natural to hard . La–mi is the mutation that takes place in both positions of E la mi in order to ascend from hard to natural. and on D la sol re in order to ascend from soft to natural. Finally. it should be noted that in the layout of these mutations a certain divine pattern is held.Sol–fa is the mutation that takes place on C sol fa ut and c sol fa in order to descend from soft to hard . La–sol is the mutation that takes place on D la sol re and on d la sol in order to descend from soft to hard . Sol–la is the mutation that takes place on D la sol re and d la sol in order to descend from hard to soft .

with nothing else in between. sol–re. and it is called a diatessaron from 'dia' with Latin 'i'. as is were an imperfect tone. as it were an interval composed of two tones. which can be produced ascending or descending. and 'tone'. two dytones [major thirds]. fa–ut. three diatessarons [perfect fourths]. so that the essential qualities of these intervals may be grasped. that is to say through descent. Moreover. which is 'four'. mi–la and la–mi. The diatessaron [perfect fourth] is the interval formed from the span of a tone and a semidytone [major third]. they may be defined in their correct order as follows: The tone is the interval formed from the span of two minor semitones plus one comma: of this type are ut–re. -um'. because it takes up four positions. And the word 'minor' is added to differentiate it from the major semitone. as is shown here: Example 15: At this point. every interval can be made by arsis. or by thesis. and from the noun 'tone'. . The dytone [major third] is the interval formed from the span of two tones: of this type are ut– mi. From this. two semidytones [minor thirds]. and it is called a dytone from 'dy' with Greek 'y'. two diapentes [perfect fifths].Chapter 8: On intervals With respect to the seventh topic: an interval is the joining of one note to the next. which is 'through'. as it were an interval made up of four. it should be known that in each hexachord there are fifteen intervals. one minor semitone. The minor semitone is the interval formed from the span of two diaschismata: of this type are mi–fa and fa–mi. namely: four tones. mi–ut. -a. sol–fa. fa–sol. re–mi. and 'tessaron'. that is to say through ascent. re–ut. that is to say 'imperfect'. which is 'two'. mi–re. and one diapente plus tone [major sixth]. re–sol. which is composed of two diaschismata and one comma. or vice versa: of this type are ut–fa. fa–la and la–fa. and it is called a semitone from 'semus. sol–la and la–sol.

as here: And it is called a diapente from 'dia' with Latin 'i'. in my Speculum musices. can never occur in one and the same hexachord. Tinctoris. indeed. There are. Hence they necessarily belong to different properties. as being the very foundation of music. For. which is 'through'. la–re. as all the best reasoning teaches us: where there is no foundation. would strongly urge them to study it most earnestly. however. as it were an interval made up of five. The diapente plus tone [major sixth] is the interval formed from the span of a diapente plus a tone: of this type are ut–la and la–ut. re–la. of each of these last two species of diapente. . sol–ut. and 'pente'. because it takes up five positions. or else a tritone and a semitone. many other genera and yet more species of interval to be found in our hand. and it is called a diapente plus tone because in this interval a diapente is placed along with a tone. which is 'five'. Chapter 9: Conclusion of the work Finally. then. and since it has been my wish here to proceed with ease. and the result of this is that without a proper knowledge of the hand nobody can emerge outstanding in this art of music. namely mi–mi and fa–fa. there no building can be done above.The diapente [perfect fifth] is the interval formed from the span of a diatessaron [perfect fourth] plus a tone. But since these hold not inconsiderable difficulty. along with those described here. The notes. whether through ascent or descent. may this exposition of the hand be sufficient for the needs of young men. mi–mi and fa–fa both through ascent and descent. I. of this type of ut–sol. which are explained in the greatest detail. I would refer readers desiring to know about them to this same Speculum.

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