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LAO: Strengthening Higher Education Project (Grant 0166) Gender Action Plan Implementation Review Report May 2013

Sonomi Tanaka, Lead Gender Specialist, RSGS I. INTRODUCTION

1. Background of Review Mission: An RSGS mission1 was carried out on 6-9 May 2013 to review the implementation progress of the Gender and Ethnic Groups Action Plan (GEAP) of the above-mentioned project. The GEAP review mission, assisted by Theonakhet Saphakdy, Gender Advisor, LRM, formed part of the Mid-Term Review Mission2 led by the team leader, Khamtanh Chanthy, LRM. The RSGS mission visited Champasak University (CU) in Pakse (one of the three universities supported under the project), and, conducted interviews with scholarships recipients at the National University of Laos (NUOL) in Vientiane. 2. The Mission also discussed progress of the GEAP with the Project Implementation Unit (PIU) at the Department of Higher Education, the Ministry of Education. The mission findings of GEAP implementation and mid-term design adjustments have been integrated into the MOU, which was discussed at the wrap-up meeting on 17 May 2013. This report provides more comprehensive analysis of the GEAP implementation progress and emerging gender equality results of the project. 3. The Project. The project was approved in 2009. The Executing Agency is the Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES). Project impact, outcome, and outputs are as follows: Project Impact: Improved economic competitiveness and increased employment opportunities for higher education graduates (measured as: by 2020 FDI net inflow increased by 5% from 2009 and formal sector employment increased from 9% in 2009 to 15%). Project Outcome: An expanded, improved, and equitable higher education system (measured as: by 2015, (i) the number of students increases from 45,000 in 2008 to 60,000 [30,000 or 50% are female students]; (ii) number of faculty and staff with postgraduate degrees increases by 25%; (iii) female staff and faculty comprise at least 50% of postgraduate degree program recipients under the project). Project Outputs: Output 1: Strengthened management, financing, and governance of higher education system, including (i) strengthened management capacity of Department of Higher Education (DHE) through training, degree programs, and participation in international forums; (ii) improved higher education financing of MOES and public universities through review of budgeting, process, and mechanism to identify weakness and solutions, restructuring of the quota student admission system to improve targeting of the poor and disadvantaged students, and (iii) enhanced governance systems for public higher education institutions. Gender targets/indicators in the DMF include: at least 30% of training recipients among staff and faculty of MOES and three public universities CU, NUOL, and Souphanouvong University (SU) on institutional

The Independent GAP Implementation Review was conducted by S. Tanaka, Lead Social Development Specialist (Gender and Development), RSGS. Other mission members include: Yasushi Hirosato, SEHS (Co-Team Leader) and Khounkham Thammalangsy, LRM.

leadership, strategic management and planning to be female by year 6; and 40% of university council members to be female by year 5. Output 2: Enhanced relevance and capacity for quality improvement, including (i) enhanced relevance of courses, curriculum, and teaching materials through tracer studies, curriculum reform, and core textbooks development; (ii) strengthened quality assurance, accreditation, and credit system in accordance with international standards; (iii) enhanced teaching and research capacities through research proposal support and matching scholarship schemes; (iv) improved teaching and learning environment through ICT-based e-teaching and learning centers at CU, NUOL, and SU, e-library system, and Lao Universities Management System; and (v) strengthened regional and international links through academic and student exchange programs. Gender targets/indicators in the DMF include: at least 30% of staff and faculty trained on curriculum development and assessment to be female; at least 40% of staff and faculty trained on instructional skills and teaching methods by year 6 to be female; at least 50% or 65 teaching staff with postgraduate degrees at CU and SU by year 6 to be female; and at least 50% of participants in the international exchange programs to be female. Output 3: Increased equity and access in higher education, including (i) improved targeted selection criteria and procedures for quota students; and (ii) increased enrollment capacity at CU. Gender targets/indicators in the DMF include: quota students reduced form 50% in 2009 to 20%, comprising most disadvantaged female and ethnic origin students by year 6; student enrollment at CU increased with 50% (4,000) female by year 6; and separate female and male dormitories with sex separate toilet-washing facility blocks provided at CU by year 2. Output 4: Effective project management and implementation.

4. Gender and Ethnic Groups Action Plan (GEAP) Features: The project was designed to benefit the poor, women, and ethnic groups, especially female students from ethnic groups. It was categorized as a gender equity theme (GEN) project. The GEAP includes the following features: (i) improved targeting of the poor and ethnic groups students (and female students among them) in the admission system of quota students who receive tuition and stipend support; (ii) access to training on curriculum development, teaching methods, textbook writing and research capacity by female DHE staff and university faculty members; (iii) access to domestic and international postgraduates scholarships by female DHE staff and university faculty members; and (iv) additional classrooms and separate dormitories (with wash-toilets) for male and female students in CU. As discussed above, most of the GEAP gender targets and indicators were incorporated into the DMF. A national gender consultant (6 person-months, intermittent) was assigned to assist the Project Implementation Unit at DHE (D-PIU) and coordinate with the three universities in facilitating and reporting GEAP implementation. II. ASSESSMENT OF GEAP RESULTS

5. Overall, the project is delivering important gender benefits by narrowing gender gaps in university enrollments and providing opportunities for female and male faculty and staff to improve teaching quality and relevance, which are highlighted in the subsequent paragraphs. However, the Mid-Term Review found that the original gender targets in the DMF and GEAP were too ambitious in comparison to the baseline and the proportion of eligible female staff and faculty members (in the case of training target). The Mid-Term Review agreed on the revisions of these targets to more realistic levels. The GEAP implementation matrix with the revised targets agreed at the wrap-up meeting are in Appendix 1.

A. Outcome Level 6. Two of the three outcome level targets include gender targets: (i) the total number of students enrolled in the three universities (with a 50% female target) and (ii) the female proportion of the postgraduate degree program recipients 50%) by the end of the project. The Mid-Term Review found the need to adjust the unrealistic targets. These are summarized below.
Design Summary An expanded, improved, and equitable higher education system Original Performance targets/indicators The number of students increased from 45,000 in 2008 to 60,000 by 2015 (30,000 or 50% are female students) Proposed targets/indicators The number of students increased from 34,000 in 2008 to 50,000 in 2015 (40% are female students) Justification In

2012/13, total 38,152 students, 14,785 or 38.7% were female; baseline in 2008 was 34%.

Female staff and faculty comprise at least 50% of postgraduate degree program recipients under the Project

Female staff and faculty comprise 40% of postgraduate degree program recipients under the project

Total # of university enrollments declining due to the transition of school system adding 1 more year to lower secondary education, more emphasis on technical and vocational education and training, termination of the university evening courses. In 2011-2013, a total of 150 faculty/staff received post-graduate recipients, 56 of which are female (37%). Currently, 1,034 female faculty/staff of 2,525 total (41%), hence 40% is proportionate to available female.

B. Practical Gender Benefits 7. Overall, the project has been successfully making progress on providing practical gender benefits, which are mainly in Outputs 2 and 3. Key practical benefits include: (i) female DHE staff and university faculty members with improved access to technical training and postgraduate scholarships to upgrade their qualifications and skills; (ii) female students from the poor and ethnic minority households receiving tuition and stipends as quota students; and (iii) students at CU benefiting from better learning environment with improved school facilities designed with gender-specific needs and safety concerns (additional classrooms and a separate dormitory with toilet facilities). 8. Output 2. Enhanced relevance and capacity for quality improvement. To improve the teaching and research quality at the higher education levels (bachelors, masters and PhDs), the project has provided DHE staff and university female and male faculty members with direct opportunities to improve their qualifications, skills and capacity. These include: 180 university faculty members (36% or 65 female teachers, against the target of 35%) received training for 3,105 person-days on 12 modules of teacher professional development program, including curriculum development and assessment; 451 university faculty members (28% or 126 female members, against the target of 30%) received training in core curriculum development; Gender and ethnicity sensitivity and diversity has been integrated into the curriculum of the teaching method training; 150 DHE and university faculty members received international or national postgraduate scholarships (37% or 56 female, against target 50%) in 2011-2013. In CU and SU, 32 first-batch postgraduate degree holders supported by the project will graduate in June

2013 (38% or 12 are female, against target 50% by year 6). While these fall short of the original 50% female targets, progress is evident against the baseline of only 24% of female having postgraduate degrees at the three universities in 2009. Both female targets were therefore revised to 40%. 753 university faculty members received training on research (36% or 264 female, no gender target set).

9. Female and male staff and faculty members reported the usefulness of various training opportunities and the postgraduate scholarships. However, as pointed out during the focus group discussions with NUOL female postgraduate scholarship recipients, most women of this age group have families and sometimes children. Managing family responsibilities means women are less likely to apply for postgraduate scholarships away from home. As part of the GEAP, the project has attempted to provide additional support for female postgraduate scholarship recipients to go abroad. In one case, the project provided the cost differential for the female dormitory fee in Sophia University, Japan, which is set higher than for male dormitories. However, no provisions such as child support have been proactively pursued, for in-country scholarships recipients, particularly for those studying in Vientiane from CU and SU. Further, it was observed that female staff and faculty members require further encouragement to utilize the built capacity for research; only 3 of 17 research grant proposals accepted (18%) came from female researchers (while 36% of research trainees were female). 10. Output 3. Increased equity and access in higher education. This output has provided gender and social inclusion benefits in two major areas: application of standardized selection criteria of quota students who are exempted from tuition fees and receive stipends, and improved school facilities and separate dormitories at CU. They are summarized below, with more details provided in the paragraphs that follow. 7,328 female quota students (41% of total 17,663 quota students; no female target among the quota students was set in the GAP) received tuition and stipend support in 2011-2013 from the 4 universities (NUOL, CU, SU, and SNKU) as guided by the revised criteria of quota student selection; Student enrollment at CU has reached 39% female (total 3,323; against 50% target) in 2011-12 and to 44% (total 762) in 2012-13 (baseline for CU not available, but the 2008 baseline of all 3 universities was 34%). Five multipurpose buildings with a total additional 60 classrooms are being built at CU (although construction is behind schedule) to support male and female students and faculty members learning and teaching environment; and Construction of one female students and one male students dormitories (each accommodating 300 students) with each having six toilets and wash facility completed, which will be used from the next school-year. 11. Quota students. The project supported MOES to provide standardized selection criteria to four universities to decrease the proportion of quota students (baseline: 50% in 2009 for male and female students) and improve the targeting of quota students to students from the poor and ethnic minority households. Financial support to stipend and tuition has been provided by the respective provinces. Overall, the proportion of quota students has been decreasing (35% in 2011/12 and 21% in 2012/13, approaching the target of 20% by end of project. No gender target among the quota students was set). Unfortunately, the project has not collected student data by household income level and ethnicity and hence, it is not possible to assess whether the poverty/ethnicity targeting has been strengthened. However, the proportion of female students among quota and non-quota students are similar (41% and 40% respectively in 2011-2013).

This may indicate that efforts are being made to ensure sufficient female students intake for both quota and non-quota students. Table 1: Summary of Student Intakes by NUOL, CU, SU, and SNKU 2011/2012 2012/2013 NUOL Total Female Total Female Non-fee paying (quota) 5698 2270 7363 3087 Fee paying (non-quota) 23361 9307 20834 8237 Sub-total 29059 11577 28197 11324 CU Non-fee paying (quota) 918 392 1040 452 Fee-paying (non-quota) 2607 985 2282 859 Sub-total 3525 1377 3322 1311 SU Non-fee paying (quota) 1021 400 1222 507 Fee paying (non-quota) 2872 1091 2460 1253 Sub-total 3893 1494 3682 1760 SNKU Non-fee paying (quota) 123 55 278 165 Fee paying (non-quota) 492 267 515 246 Grand Total Non-fee paying (quota) 7760 3117 9903 4211 Fee paying (non-quota0 29332 11650 26091 10595 Grand total 37092 14767 35994 14476 Source: Department of Higher Education, May 2013, MOES

Total 2yrs Female % 41% 40% 40% 43% 38% 39% 40% 44% 43% 55% 51% 40% 41% 40%

12. A major challenge identified by male and female quota students during the focus group discussion is the difficulty of balancing part-time work and studies to cover the out-of-pocket living costs, registration fee, schools uniforms and other expenses not covered by the entitlements. The project already recognizes this and has recommended MOES to change the policy to increase the level and amount of stipends for quota students.

Photo Left: Male ethnic quota students at CU: Right: Female student at CU

13. Facilities at CU. During the Missions visit to CU, focus group discussions with both faculty and students raised the issue of crowded classrooms and dormitories. The construction of additional facilities are very positively received by both faculty members and students,

particularly, improved water supply, ICT, and dormitories and toilets. However, the construction of the two dormitories (one for male, one for female) with 2 separate buildings for toilet and wash facilities are located too close to each other. Female students raised concerns over their safety. They also complained about rampant thefts and mosquito problems. The project has already agreed with CU to build a fence between the female and male dormitory/toilet areas, install security bars and provide mosquito nets in the dormitories (photo below left: current female dormitory; right: new female dormitory).

Photo Left: Existing female dormitory; Right: New female dormitory financed by the project

C. Strategic Gender Benefits 14. Output 1. Strengthened management, financing, and governance of higher education system: The GEAP was designed to support the following strategic gender benefits under Output 1. The first is to include more women representatives in the decision-making forum (university councils) at the three universities to give women voice in high-level decisions related to operation and management of the universities (target: at least 40% to be female by end of the project). Council members comprise: faculty, local community, mass organizations and students. However, the selection of the university council members has already been done (Prime Minister Decree has already been issued for NUOL and the ones for CU and SU are soon to be approved). At NUOL, only 5 of 29 council members are women (14%); at CU, 10 of 23 members are women (44%), and at SU, 6 of 24 members (25%) are women. Even though the female % is lower than envisaged, the Mission was informed by the PIU that there is no plan to change the appointed members, as the decrees for CU and SU have been already prepared based on the appointed members. Given the lengthy process to issue these decrees, no changes are envisaged before the project closing, and unfortunately, this female target (also a DMF target) will not be achieved. This remains a missed opportunity primarily due to: the limited womens representation in the faculty management level, and the limited opening of the council to outside university members to the local communities, despite the original intention. 15. The second intended strategic gender benefit under Output 1 is to ensure female staff and faculty members access to institutional leadership, strategic management and planning. Both DMF and GEAP include a target that at least 30% of participants in such training should be women by the end of the project. To date, only 5 female of a total 28 staff/faculty attended training on strategic planning (25%); 4 females out of a total 26 staff/faculty attended training on strategic management and budget issues (15%). The mission was informed that there are insufficient numbers of eligible female staff/faculty members for such training. As indicated in

the table below, although 23% (44 women) of 193 university management (vice-head of office and above) are women, the majority of these women come from NUOLs heads of departments, and that the senior management level women are still limited. It is true that promoting more women in the university senior management will take longer time, and that the projects support such as postgraduate scholarships are expected to contribute to this in the longer term. Nonetheless, female access to higher level management training builds a cadre of future pipeline women in the senior management level. Therefore, PIU should encourage each university to make best and extra efforts to nominate women from one rank lower than the training eligibility to expand the opportunity for pipeline women towards achieving the female target higher than the current female percentage of the eligible ranking. Table 2: University Management by Sex
NUOL Total Female 44 7 (16%) CU Total 18 Female 3 (17%) SU Total 13 Female 1 (8%) Total Total 75 Female 11 (15%)

Rector and ViceRector; Dean and Vice-Dean Head of Department/ Office Vice Head of Dept/Office Total

95 N/A 139

30 (32%) N/A 37 (27%)

6 6 30

1 (17%) 0 (0%) 4 (13%)

6 5 24

1 (17%) 1 (20%) 3 (13%)

107 11 193

32 (30%) 1 (9%) 44 (23%)

Source: Mission through Universities 16. Output 2. Enhanced relevance and capacity for quality improvement. One of the potential strategic gender benefits of this project would be that female graduates obtain relevant formal sector employment (particularly bachelor graduates as postgraduates generally remain in the universities). The labor market relevance of university curriculum content is therefore crucial. Although not specified in GEAP, Output 2 includes a tracer study which was conducted in February 2013 among 1,500 graduates from the three universities. At the time of the mission, the detailed results were not available. The detailed analysis of the findings of the tracer study should include a gendered analysis to assess whether female graduates obtained relevant formal sector jobs, in which sectors, and the factors that influence female and male graduates access to jobs. 17. On the other hands, the preliminary findings of the employer survey indicate that the labor market relevance of the three universities teaching quality and curricula content may be limited. About 50% of the surveyed companies/organizations located in Vientiane, Luang Prabang, and Champasak noted that the skills and knowledge of their employees (graduated from the three universities) are not in line with current labor market demands and that the university courses are more theoretical than practical. 18. The missions focus group discussions with female and male students at CU identified similar findings with regard to the labor market relevance of bachelor-level courses. Students clearly expressed doubts about professional training of some of the teachers. They also expressed lack of ability of teachers in the areas of ICT and English. There was also a high demand from student for career counseling from the university, which currently does not exist. Although the project already supports a range of teacher training, improvements to make course content more labor market relevant is urgently needed. III. OTHER FACTORS

A. Resources Allocated in the Project for GAP Implementation 19. Overall, the project has allocated sufficient resources. The GEAP activities are well aligned with the DMF and project activities. Therefore, besides the budget allocation of a national gender consultant (6 person-months, intermittently), no special budget allocation was required. Resources were also allocated to the MIS database development and utilization. Nonetheless, the national consultants inputs have been intermittent and not systematic, and there have been delays with the completion of the MIS database (to be sex- and ethnicitydisaggregated). In consultation with the EA, the Mid-Term Review agreed that a more systematic effort through a GEAP focal point from PIU (technical level person) with clear TOR is required, assisted by LRMs gender specialist. B. Monitoring and reporting of GAP implementation 20. The mission found that the GEAP implementation and monitoring has not been conducted until recently. On the side of ADB, the mission was informed that GEAP implementation review was not conducted until the review mission in November 2012 after the project was delegated to LRM in mid-2012. On the side of the PIU, GAP implementation matrix has not been included in the regular reports to ADB. The gender consultant was only recruited in 2012. But pdates of the GAP implementation matrix was not introduced until the LRM gender specialist joined the review mission in November 2012. Further, although the gender equality elements of the governments overall policy frameworks for higher education has been widely disseminated in MOES and universities, specific GEAP measures and targets of the project have not been fully communicated to each of the participating university PIUs. 21. Despite the need to adjust some of the gender targets, the project has collected sexdisaggregated data. However, no data has been collected on household income level and ethnic data of quota students vs. non-quota students, and data on DHE staff/ university faculty members accessing training, scholarships and other project opportunities.. The PIU informed the Mission of the difficulty in collecting ethnicity data, as students and scholarship recipients tend to identify themselves as Lao. However, ethnic and poverty data could be easily collected by changing the format of the registration form, and this must be done in order to track the nongender actions of the GEAP. The delays in the completion of the MIS database have also contributed to the lack of poverty and ethnic data. 22. On a minor note, some of the original GEAP actions were too generic (e.g., ensure involvement of women and ethnic participants in workshops) or incorrectly interpreted (e.g., access to ICT network). Some overlaps were also found (e.g., construction of female dormitories appearing three times; quota student items appearing twice in different outputs). Some of the gender targets in the DMF were not included in the GEAP (e.g., female % of total student enrollments). The revised GEAP (Appendix 1) already incorporates the streamlining and adjustments. IV. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENHANCING GAP IMPLEMENTATION

23. The Mid-Term Review agreed that in order to build on the positive developments to date in providing direct benefits to female students and faculty/staff in the higher education system, the gender targets need to be more realistic. At the same time, an urgent need was recognized to conduct more systematic and regular GEAP implementation monitoring and collection of sex8

disaggregated and ethnic data. Further, the three project universities need to be fully informed of the regular reporting requirements on the GEAP implementation. 24. The following actions were recommended and generally agreed at the wrap-up meeting (details are in Appendix 1): Budget, personnel, and GEAP monitoring/reporting PIU to appoint a technical-level gender focal point staff3 to work closely with a project gender consultant and LRMs gender specialist to systematize GEAP implementation monitoring. Accelerate completion of the MIS database (sex- and ethnic-disaggregated). For quota students, collect data of their household income level and ethnic data by revising the entry sheet. Fully inform each university of the need for regular updating of GEAP progress and submission of data to Central PIU. Include GAP implementation progress in regular EA reports to ADB (quarterly and annual reports). GEAP and project designs Streamline the original GEAP so that the actions and targets are clear (already incorporated in Appendix 1). Adjust gender targets to a more realistic level (adjustments agreed on female targets on university student enrollment, postgraduate scholarship recipients, faculty/staff training on curriculum and teaching methods, teaching staff with postgraduate degrees, and international exchange programs). GEAP Implementation and enabling policy environment Enhance efforts in achieving gender targets that are yet to be achieved, including student enrollments, postgraduate scholarships, high level faculty/staff training, and research proposals from female faculty. Monitor the result of recommendation made to MOES to increase the level of stipend coverage for the quota students (Output 1) Encourage each university to increase the number of female management (director and above). Where possible, expand the eligibility of leadership training for women so that one-rank lower pipeline female faculty/staff management can access to such training (Output 2) Ensure the findings of the tracer and employer surveys inform faculty training curriculum so that male and female faculty members can provide more practical teaching that fits to the labor market needs (Output 2). Consider including a career guidance training for faculty (Output 2). Continue to make efforts to provide special assistance to female postgraduate scholarship recipients to manage family life and study (e.g., child support, female dormitory subsidy). Build a fence between the new female and male dormitories and toilet/wash facilities to ensure safety (Output 3).

One gender focal point from PIU was already appointed but the person was too high level and unable to allocate sufficient time and attention.

Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1: GENDER AND ETHNIC GROUPS ACTION PLAN (GEAP) IMPLEMENTATION PROGRESS Grant 0166 LAO: Strengthening Higher Education Project GEAP Implementation Review Report Version June 2013
Progress to Date (May 2013, MTR) Gender and Ethnic Groups Action Plan (GAP Activities, Indicators and Targets, Timeframe and Responsibility)
(This should include information on period of actual implementation, sex-disaggregated qualitative and quantitative updates (e.g. number of participating women, women beneficiaries of services, etc.). However, some would be in process - so explain what has happened towards meeting this target.

Issues, Challenges, and Recommended Actions

(Please include reasons why an activity was not fully implemented, or if targets fall short, or reasons for delay, etc. and the suggested actions and next steps for improvement)

Outcome: An expanded, improved and equitable higher education system The number of students increased from 45,000 in 2008 to 60,000 ( 50% are female students) by 2015 in accordance with the ESDF target Original target unlikely to be achieved but moving steadily towards revised target. Currently, among the total 38,152 4 students, 14,785 or 38.7% are female. Agreed revision: By 2016, 50,000 students (40% female). Baseline: 34% female of 34,000 total in 2008. Total # of university enrollments declining due to the transition of school system adding 1 more year to lower secondary education, more emphasis on technical and vocational education and training, termination of the university evening courses. Gender implication of this is not clear at the moment, but at least a projection of a jump in female percentage is unlikely. Agreed revision: By 2016, 40% female. No baseline available. A comparable data could be the current proportion of female staff/faculty in 3 universities and DHE: Female 1,034 (41%) of total 2,525 staff. Considering this, 40% is achievable.

Female staff and faculty comprise at least 50% of postgraduate degree program recipients under the Project by 2015

Original target unlikely to be achieved but moving steadily towards revised target. The final postgraduate scholarship totals are 94 male and 56 female staff (37.3%). In terms of scholarships at NUOL, 41.5% are for females, and for scholarships to foreign universities the percentage of females is 32.4%

Outputs 1. Strengthened management, financing, and governance of higher education system (1). Ensure that DHE undertakes policies and plans to maximize opportunities for females and ethnic origin

Partially achieved. ESDF, national education sector development plan, and

Data source: 3 universities. EA also later provided 35,201 students, 14,395 or 40.9% were female. Data consistency check is ongoing .


Appendix 1

university applicants and students.

higher education master plan (currently undergoing finalization) explicitly includes maximizing opportunities for females and ethnic students. However, awareness of specific GEAP targets and requirements for this project has not been made widespread in each university (see Output 4 for details).


Disaggregate data in the education management information system by gender and ethnicity


Utilize review questionnaires and other data collection instruments to ensure gender and ethnic-specific information is collected. Ensure that university councils and other management committees have maximum representation of ethnic and female members (at least 40% female by Year 5). [DMF target]

Not yet done. MIS Database not yet completed at DHE and the 3 public universities. In general, sexdisaggregated data is collected, but by ethnic group not commonly collected. Concept paper for Lao Universities Management System (LUMS) approved and equipment procurement under way. Protocols and TORs for software adaptation prepared. CQS procurement for software developers to be launched in April, as soon as IT equipment supply schedule confirmed. Not yet done. GEAP has been provided to the 3 universities, but they have not been requested to provide regular updates. Unlikely to be achieved by end Project. NUOL Council established (present gender ratio is 14% female (5 female out of 29) but only 5% members from outside NUOL/MOE. CU and SU Councils not yet established. However, the proposed list (awaiting Prime Ministers decree issuance) includes 10 female out of total 23 members (44%) at CU and 6 female out of total 24 members (25%) at SU. Total: 21 female or 27.6% out of 76 Council members.

Recommendation: Accelerate MIS database development. In the meantime, coordination between Central PIU at DHE and PIUs in the 3 universities should be improved for more systematic and regular updating of sex- and ethnicity- disaggregated data.

GEAP implementation monitoring matrix to be provided to each university with request and procedure for regular updating. Council members comprise: faculty, local community, mass organizations and students. CU met the target but two other universities did not. Given that the council lists need to be approved by the Prime Ministers decrees and those recommendations were already made, no further actions are likely to be taken and the project will not be able to achieve this target. EA informed this is beyond their capacity to meet this target. Recommendation: Female participation in other university management committees than the University Council should be explored and captured.



Appendix 1


Ensure at least 30% of staff and faculty members from MOE, NUOL, CU, and SU to be trained in institutional leadership, strategic management, and planning are female by Year 6. [DMF target, with total of 100 staff and faculty members]

Not yet achieved. 28 staff trained for 296 p-days (7 female or 25%) on strategic planning. 26 staff from 3 universities and DHE (4 females or 15%) trained for 234 p-days on strategic management and budget issues (in total, 14 female or 18% of total 76 staff). In addition, nine staff attended a five days strategic planning training in Malaysia (female # and % not provided).

Only Vice Rector, dean, director of administrations are eligible (currently 44 of 22.7% female of total 193Details as follow: NOUL: 2 female out of 11 Dean level 5 female of 33 Vice- Dean 30 out of 95 Head of Dept. CU: 1 female out of 3 Rector/vice rector Level Dean level only men (5 people ) Vice Dean 2 female out of 10 Head of the office is 1 female out 6 Vice- head of the office only men (6people) SU. Dean level only men (6 people ) Vice Dean 1 female out of 7 Head of the office 1 female out 6 Vice- head of the office 1 female out of 5 Three university: 44 female (or 22.7%) out of 193 Recommendation: 30% target to be retained. Where possible, consider expanding female eligibility to one-rank lower level.

Output 2: Enhanced relevance and capacity for quality improvement (6). Ensure at least 35% of staff and faculty members trained in curriculum development and assessment are female by Year 3. [DMF target, total 300 staff and faculty members] Ensure at least 30% of participants in curriculum development workshops are female. Achieved. 180 teachers (36% female) trained for 3,105 p-days on 12 modules of Teacher Training Professional Development programme, including curriculum development and assessment Not achieved. 14 subjects of textbooks identified. 451 (126 females or 28%) faculty members received training in core curriculum development for 1967 p-days. Done. Gender and ethnicity sensitivity integrated into teaching method modules. Data not available Recommendation: Collect QAC members (# and % by sex and ethnicity) and explore ethnic and gender diversity. Agreed revision: This and the next one are under the same training program. The two DMF targets and GAP targets can be combined and target consolidated to 35%.


Given the current % of female faculty members (28%) 50% is unrealistic. Agreed revision: This and the previous one should be integrated and set 35% target.


Develop curriculum materials and train staff and faculty members on teaching methods that are sensitive to gender and ethnic group issues. Ensure maximum possible female and ethnic participation in the Quality Assurance Center at MOE, as well as all other quality assurance strengthening



Appendix 1


(10). Ensure PDUs at NUOL, CU, and SU have optimal participation by ethnic group and female members

(11). Increase the number of teaching staff with postgraduate degrees at CU and SU increased from 50 in 2009 to 130 (40% or 65 female teaching staff) by Year 6 [DMF].

In the university level had PIU and also plays the role of PDU. CU 1 out of 6 PIU members (17%) is a woman and there is no ethnicity data. NOUL: 5 all are men and there is no ethnicity data (0%) SU 1 out of 6 PIU members (17%) is a woman and there is no ethnic Unlikely to be achieved. First batch of post-graduate degree holders under SHEP will graduate in June 2013 (32 MAs, including 12 (38%) female).

Recommendation: Explore ethnic and gender diversity.

(12). Include pro-poor female and ethnic group policies in selection criteria for postgraduate scholarships to ensure at least 50% of recipients of postgraduate degree program are female

(13). Provide support for female awardees to study abroad, including child support provisions.

(14). Ensure ethnic and female lecturers access to research proposal and capacity training in 3 universities.

Gender monitored but no ethnic data collected on postgraduate scholarships. In 2011-2013, SHEP provided 150 scholarships to national and international postgraduate programs at MAs and PhDs (56 or 37% female). Of this, 43 (15 female or 35%) at SU and 50 (20 female or 40%) at CU. Action taken. 22 (32%) female postgraduate students received scholarships (total 68) in 2011-2013. In one case, higher cost of female dormitory accommodation in Japan (higher than male one) was covered in scholarship. No case of child support reported. Partially achieved. 753 lecturers

The baseline of teaching staff with postgraduate degrees at NUOL, CU and SU was 554 in 2009, of which 134 (24.2%) were female. Given this, 50% target by Year 6 is considered unrealistically high. Agreed revision: Target reduced from 50% to 40% Agreed revision: Target reduced from 50% to 40% Recommendation: Establish the current baseline of scholarship recipients (2011-2013) by ethnicity and set a numerical target for application before beginning of the SY 2013-2014.

Recommendation: D-PIU and University PIUs to encourage female students by informing them of child support availability.

received training on research for 38 days in total, of this, 264 female (36%) participated. No data disaggregated by ethnicity is collected. Of 17 proposal grants accepted, 18% (3) are from females.

Agreed revision: Original action ensure research topics to address ethnic and female disadvantage was considered not relevant (topics depend on the research area) and hence has been revised.

Appendix 1

(15). Provide measures to ensure women and ethnic students have equal access to computer and ICT.

ICT at CU and SU not yet installed. CU students complained currently limited access to computer use but reported no ethnicity/gender-based obstacles.

(16). Provide new buildings and campus facilities at CU to reverse the reported high dropout rates for disadvantaged groups. (17). Ensure at least 50% of participants in international exchange programs under the Project are female, with preference given to qualified ethnic students. [DMF]

CU buildings under construction.

Data not collected.

Recommendation: Gender team was informed International Exchange Programs (which is different from the study abroad for Lao students through postgraduate scholarships) are not directly supported by SHEP. If so, this DMF indicator/target should be deleted. If it should still remain, a revised and realistic target should be set.

Output 3. Increased equity and access in higher education

(18). Reduce quota students from 50% (2009) to 20% (2015), comprising mostly poor, female, and ethnic students by Year 6 [DMF]. Partially demonstrated. Female target strengthened for both quota and total (i.e. quota+non-quota) enrollment increased. But no ethnicity and poverty data of quota students collected. Increased number of female students had access to free tuition and stipend. In academic year 2011/12, the planned enrolment ratio for the whole country was 35% quota and 65% nonquota students, while the actual registration data in the three SHEP universities was 20.9% quota and 79.1% non-quota (actual figures SU 26.2/73.8, CU 31.3/73.8, NUOL 19.6/80.4). A large part of the variation results from students not registering for courses to which they had been allocated. For 2012/13, on the basis of entrance examination results the average enrolment of quota students is 27.3% and non-quota 72.7% for the three 14 Quota students from non-Lao ethnic background and poor households, however, expressed difficulties in balancing studies and part-time jobs to cover out-of-pocket expenses, such as high living cost, registration fee, school uniform, etc., making it difficult to continue to stay in the university. Recommendation: Immediately start collecting and analyzing ethnicity and household income-level data of the quota students to demonstrate the effectiveness of targeting of quota students. Continue to monitor female targeting, both for quota and non-quota students. Consider increasing stipends given the current low level to avoid dropout of quota students (not a project-funded resource).

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(19). Ensure 50% of students enrolled at CU by 2015 are female (approximately 4,000 students) by Year 6. [DMF]

universities, but there are wide variations between universities. In addition, MOES established enrolment ceilings for the universities in order to increase enrolment into TVET institutions. This issue will be discussed during the national education conference in June 2013. Unlikely to be achieved. Total enrolment in AY 2011/12 was 3,322 (39% female), while total enrolment in AY 2012/13 was 3,322 (39% female). Among the new enrollments, 338 female (44%) of total 762 students. Note: new enrolments increased, but numbers reduced because of graduations from larger cohorts. Completed but girls safety issue emerged. Two new dormitories for 600 students, one for male, and one for female were constructed but not yet furnished (expected in September). Toilets/wash rooms were built outside the dormitories for completion by October. The female and male toilet buildings are too close and there is no fence, raising security concerns for female students. Both university staff and students were raising Spaces built. To be completed by October 2013.

Agreed revision: Target reduced from 50% to 40%.

(20). Expand dormitory facilities at CU to enhance opportunities for ethnic students to undertake tertiary study (one male dormitory and one female dormitory) by Year 2 [DMF].

Recommendation: make fence to cover girls toilet and wash rooms. Additional safety from theft and mosquito nets to be provided.

(21). Provide six separate male and female toilet and washing facility blocks at CU.

Output 4: Effective project management and implementation

(22). Representatives from the Lao Women's Union and Lao Front for National Construction help to facilitate girls, women, and ethnic group national and sub-national participation. LWU of SU and NOUL were involved in the providing information related to women in their university.


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(23). Incorporate gender expertise in the terms of reference of key consulting team members. Recruit a national gender and social development specialist (6 personmonths) to help the PCU and other consultants mainstream and monitor gender activities in project implementation.

(24). EA to assign a technical-level GEAP focal point in D-PIU and university PIUs to regularly follow up and report on the progress in GEAP implementation to work closely with ADB-LRM gender specialist. (25). EA to include a section on the implementation progress of the gender and ethnic groups action plan in the regular progress reports to ADB.

Done. A national consultant recruited intermittently for 6 months, but no evidence of the consultant visiting universities directly to update GEAP implementation progress. 3 university PIUs have not been fully informed of the GEAP targets and requirements. There is particularly a need to improve gender targets at SU. PIU appointed a focal staff to monitor and update the GEAP

Recommendation: If PIU focal persons are assigned and effectively collect required data and disseminate information, there is no need to recruit a new consultant.

Recommendations: Add this new item of action in GEAP. Prepare clear TORs for the central and university level gender and ethnicity focal points to work closely with LRM Gender Specialist to establish the mechanisms for effective GEAP implementation and monitoring. Recommendations: GEAP implementation matrix progress update to be attached to quarterly and annual reports to ADB.

The Matrix review of the Action Plan was first included in Progress Report for Q3.12