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Procedural rights Essential to the implementation of and compliance with substantive rights, procedural rights play an important role in the development of an RBA to conservation. Procedural Rights include: Access to information Participation in decision making Access to justice/judicial review Due process/fair hearing Substantive redress Nointerference with international petition (where applicable)

Conservation activities can undermine the substantive rights of poorer people and communities. Ensuring the protection of procedural rights - such as rights to information, participation, and access to justice produces decisions favourable to environmental protection and reinforces respect for human rights, the rule of law and good governance, by encouraging the integration of democratic values and the promotion of the rule of law in broad-based structures of governance. RBA empowers people to understand, claim and exercise their procedural rights [2] Principle 10 of the 1992 Rio Declaration of Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 14 June 1992) states that access to information, public participation in decision making, and access to effective judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be guaranteed because environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. The Convention on access to information, public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention, Aarhus, 25 June 1998) also establishes procedural rights as a means to fulfill substantive rights. _____________________ Substantive rights Substantive Rights include: Nondiscrimination and equal protection of the law Right to life Prohibition of force and child labour Freedom of movement and residence Right to privacy and home life Right to property Freedom of religion Right to an adequate standard of living (food, medicine, clothing, housing, water) Cultural rights Minority rights Right to safe and healthy working conditions Freedom of assembly and expression/opinion Right to health Right to self-determination of peoples (controversial) Right to a certain quality of environment (controversial; certain aspects of this right have a global consensus, such as safe drinking water and nutritious food).

The foundation for linking human rights and environmental protection in law comes from Principle 1 of the United Nations Declaration on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 16 June 1972) which declared that Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being. The necessity of environmental protection to the enjoyment of human rights has also been recognized by various international human rights bodies and treaties.

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights for example states that severe environmental pollution is inconsistent with the right to be respected as a human being [1]. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (New York, 16 December 1966) guarantees the right to safe and healthy working environment (Article 7 b), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (New York, 20 November 1989) speaks of a childs right to health and to be free from work harmful to their health. At the regional level, the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Banjul, 26 June 1981) recognises that "All peoples shall have the right to a general satisfactory environment favorable to their development" (Article 24). Article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (San Salvador, 17 November 1988) and Article 38 of the Revised Arab Charter on Human Rights (Tunis, 22 May 2004) provide for the right to a safe and healthy environment. However, there is no recognition of a substantive human right to a clean environment in international law.

The number of public and private schools in the city have reached 135. Of this, 75 are elementary, 20 are secondary and 40 are private. For school year 2013-2014, the number of enrolled elementary students is 39,272 and 16,000 secondary students, or a total of 56,055 pupils and students, being guided by 46 principals, 26 head teachers, 903 elementary teachers and 559 secondary teachers. ______________
Sa kanyang ulat, sinabi ni Administrative Officer V Imelda Magay Flores na mayroon silang 27,532 na estudyante na naka-enrol ngayon sa may 75 pampublikong elementary school at 20 highschool: 4,964 sa Kindergarten; 6,338 sa Grade 1; 6,459 sa Grade 2; 4,993 sa Grade 7 at 4,778 sa Grade 8. ____________