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UNIT - II PART A

1. What is a lathe? Lathe is a machine which removes the metal from a piece of work to the required and size. 2. Where do you hold a workpiece in a centre lathe? Between the two centers of head stock and tail stock 3. What is swing diameter? [AU. Nov 03] The largest diameter of work that will revolve without touching the bed and is twice the high of the center measured from the bed of the lathe. 3. Write the specification of typical lathe.[AU. Apr 04] 1. The length of bed 2. Maximum distance between dead and live centers. 3. Type of bed i.e. straight, semi gap or gap type. 4. The height of centers from the bed 5. Swing over the bed 6. Swing over the cross-bed 7. Width of the bed 8. Spindle bore 9. Spindle speed 10. H.p. of main motor and rpm 11. Number of spindle speeds 12. Spindle nose diameter 13. Feeds 14. Floor space required. 4. The tool moves perpendicular to the axis of the work to produce_____________ Flat surface 5. What are the various operations can be performed on a lathe? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Turning Facing Forming Knurling Chamfering Thread cutting Drilling

8. Boring 9. Recessing 10. Tapping 11. Grooving etc. 6. What are the principle parts of a lathe? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Red Headstock Tailstock Carriage Cross-slide Tool post

7. What are the main requisites of a lathe bed? 1. Red 4. Carriage 2. Headstock 5. Cross-slide 3. Tailstock 6. Too, post

8. What are the main requisites of a lathe bed? The lathe bed should be very strong to withstand cutting forces and vibrations during machining. 9. What provisions are made to accommodate other parts of a lathe on the bed? Guide ways 10. What are the uses of headstock? 1. Headstock carries a hollow spindle with nose to hold the work piece. 2. To mount the driving and speed changing mechanisms. 11. What are the types of headstock?

1. Back geared type 2. All geared type 12. Specify the name of the center mounted on the tailstock.

Dead center 13. What is the main difference between live center and dead center? i. Live center drives and rotates along with the work pieces.

ii. Dead center just supports the other end of the work piece. 14. Write down the names of any four lathe Accessories. [Anna Univ. Nov03 & Nov04] Lathe centres, catch plates, carries, chucks, mandrels and rests. 15. How the taper is formed on the work piece by using tailstock? The upper body of tailstock can be moved towards or away from the operator. 16. Mention the position of a carriage.

The carriage is mounted in between headstock and tailstock. 17. 1. 2. 3. 4. 18. State the various parts mounted on the carriage. Saddle Compound rest Cross slide Tool post State the shape and position of saddle.

H shaped component is fitted across the lathe bed. 19. How are holes drilled in a center lathe?

First, the dead center of the tailstock is replaced by a drill bit. The longitudinal movement of the tailstock is locked after setting the approach of drill. Finally, the hand wheel of the tailstock is rotated for making the hole on the specimen. 20. What is a compound rest?

A member or part which is mounted on the top of the cross slide having a base graduated in degrees. 21. For making taper portion of bigger diameter at the left end on the given work piece. How the tool post is tilted? For making taper portion of bigger diameter at the left end, the tool post end should be set towards the bigger diameter. 22. What are the four types of tool post?

1. Single screw tool post 2. Open side tool post 3. Four bolt tool post, and 4. Four way tool post 23. How the cutting tool is fixed on a single screw tool post? And how can vary tool height? A single screw tool is used to hold only single tool, which are clamped by clamping screw. The tool height can be varied by adjusting a rocker placed on the tool post. 24. State the provision for adjusting the tool height in openside tool post. Parallel strips packing is used to adjust the tool height. 25. What is the use of four-bolt tool post?

Two tools may be held in position by two straps and four bolts. 26. In what type tool post maximum number of tools can be mounted? How many? In four way tool post, maximum four tools can be mounted. 27. What is an apron?

Apron is an integral part of several gears, levers and clutches which are mounted with the saddle for moving the carriage along with lead screw while thread cutting. 28. What type of mechanism is used for giving automatic feed to the tool while thread cutting? Half or split nut mechanism. 29. List any four types of lathes?

1. Engine lathe 2. Bench lathe 3. Tool room lathe 4. Semi-automatic lathe 5. Automatic lathe 30. What is a bench lathe? A small size lathe which has all parts similar to a center lathe which can be mounted on a bench. 31. Define a tool room lathe.

A tool room lathe consists of all the necessary attachments required for accurate and precision machining. 31. What is a semi-automatic lathe?

A lathe in which all the machining operations are performed automatically but loading and unloading of work piece, coolant on or off are performed manually. 31. What are the two types of semiautomatic lathe?

1. Capstan lathe 2. Turret lathe 31. How the semi-automatic lathe differs from center lathe?

A hexagonal turret head replaces tailstock. 31. What are the advantages semi-automatic lathes? 1. Production time is minimized 2. Accuracy will be high 3. Production rate is increased 31. What is an automatic lathe?

In addition to automatic machining operations loading and unloading are also performed automatically. 31. Define special purpose lathe.

The lathes which are specially designed for carrying out specific operations only. 31. What is copying lathe?

The tool of this lathe follows a template or master through a stylus or tracer. 31. What are the various types of headstock?

1. Back geared 2. All geared. 31. Define feed.

Feed is defined as the movement of the tool relative to the work and the work piece by form tool. 31. State the various feed mechanism used for obtaining automatic feed.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tumbler gear mechanism Quick change gearbox. Tumbler gear-Quick change gearbox Apron mechanism List any four work holding devices. 1. 2. 3. 4. Chucks Centres Face plate Angle plate. Mention the use of chucks.

31.

32.

Chucks are use to hold the work piece of small length and large diameter. 31. What are the various types of chucks? 1. Three jaw chuck (or) Self centering chuck. 2. Four jaw chuck or Independent chuck 3. Magnetic chuck 31. What is the application of Air operated chuck? [Anna University Apr04] Heavy work pieces are mounted with the help of air-operated chucks. Because they will require more power to hold the work piece. 31. What is the use of Mandrels?

Mandrels are used for holding hollow work pieces. 31. Define steady and follower rest.

Steady rest: It is fixed on bed ways of the lathe by clamping the bolts. Followers rest: It is mounted on the saddle and moves together with the tool. 31. 1. 3. 5. 7. What are the different operations performed on a lathe?

Centering 2. Straight turning Rough turning 4. Finish turning Shoulder turning 6. Facing Chamfering 8. Knurling etc. Define filing operation.

31.

Filling is the process of removing bars, sharp corners and feed marks on a work piece by removing very small amount of metal.

31.

What is meant by forming operation?

Forming is the process of producing concave, convex and any irregular shape. 31. Define the process grooving. Grooving is the process of reducing the diameter of the work piece over a very narrow surface. 31. Parting off is an operation of _________.

Cutting a work piece after machining 31. What is meant by the term Eccentric?

The axis of one cylinder is off-set with the axis of other cylinder. 31. What is drilling operation?

Drilling is the operation of producing cylindrical hole in a work piece. 31. What is reaming and boring operation?

Reaming: It is the operation of finishing and sizing of already drilled hole. Boring: It is the process of enlarging a already drilled hole. 31. What is milling operation?

The operation of removing metal by using rotating cutter having multiple cutting edges is known as milling. 31. What is meant by tapping?

Tapping is the operation of forming internal thread of small diameter by using a multipoint tool. 31. Define taper.

Taper is defined as a uniform change in the diameter of a work piece measured along its length.

59. Define the term Conicity.

The ratio of the difference in diameters of the taper to its length.

60. 1. 2. 3. 4.

State the various methods for taper turning operation. Form tool method Tailstock set over method Compound rest method Taper turning attachment method

60. Write down the formula for calculating tailstock set over distance.

60. Write down the formula for calculating taper turning angle by compound rest method.

60. Determine the angle at which the compound rest will be swiveled when cutting a taper on a piece of work having the following dimensions. [Anna Univ. Nov04] 1. Outside diameter 60mm 2. Length of the tapered portion 80mm and 3. Smallest diameter = 20mm Given data: D = 60mm l = 80mm (Length of tapered portion) d = 20mm

S C 20 A 80 olution:

B 60. What is thread cutting operation?

Thread cutting is the operation of producing continues helical groove on a cylindrical work piece. 60. How can the number of teeth on various change gears be calculated?

60.

Define the term Thread catching.

The process of following the same path of the tool when it has traveled in the previous cut is called as thread catching or thread picking-up. 60. Calculate taper of a given work piece having conicity.

60.

Write down the formula to find the following parameters.

60.

Sate the important requires of capstan and turret lathe.

1. Bed 2. Head stock 3. Turret head 4. Saddle and cross slide 60. What are the various types of cross-slide?

1. Reach over type 2. Side hung type. 60. What are the various types of headstock for turret lathes? 1. Back geared 2. All geared 3. Pre-selective stock 60. What is the special provision made in pre-selective headstock? The speed changing for different machining operation can be done by simply pushing a button or pulling a lever to select the speed of the next operation in advance. 60. What type of mechanism is used for indexing the turret head for the next operation? Geneva or indexing mechanism 60. State any two specification of capstan and turret lathe. 1. Number of spindle speeds 2. Number of feeds for the turret of saddle

60. Compare the advantages of turret lathe over capstan lathe. 1. Heavier and larger work piece chucking can be done 2. More rigid, hence it withstands heavy cuts. 60. Name any four work holding devices.

1. Collets 2. Chucks 3. Fixtures 4. Power chucks 60. 1. 2. 3. 4. Name any four tool holding devices.

Multiple cutter holder. Offset cutter holder Sliding cutter holder. Knee tool holder. What is collapsible tap?

60.

Collapsible tap is used for making internal threads. During making threads, the cutting edges of the tap collapses to reduce its overall diameter. 60. What is bar stop?

Bar stop is nothing but workshop. It is used for setting the required length of the work piece. 60. What is tooling?

Planning of operation sequence and preparation of turret or capstan lathe are termed as tool-layout or tooling. 60. What are the three stages of a tool-layout?

1. Planning and Scheduling 2. Detailed sketching of various machining operation sequence 3. Sketching the plan showing various tools. 60. What are the various types of special purpose lathes?

1. Semi-automatic lathes 2. Car wheel turning lathes 3. Camshaft turing lathes 60. What are the different drives used in copying lathes?

1. Mechanical drives

2. Air drives 3. Hydraulic drives 60. What are the components that can be turned on a copying lathe? 1. Camshaft 2. Crankshaft 3. Journal bearings 85. Define automatic machine [Anna Univ.Nov04] Automatic machine or simply automats are machines tools in which all the operations required to finish off the work piece are done automatically without the attention of an operator. 86. 1. 2. 3. 4. State any four advantages of automatic lathes.

Mass production of identical parts. High accuracy is maintained Time of production is minimized The bar stock is fed automatically. Classify automat.

86.

1. Classification according to the type of work material used 1. Bar stock machine 2. Chucking machine 2. Classification according to the number of Spindles a. Single spindle automats 2. Multi spindle automats 2. Classification according to the arrangements of Spindles 1. Horizontal spindle type 2. Vertical spindle type 4. Classification according to the feed control a. Single cam shaft rotating at constant speed b. Single cam shaft with two speeds c. Two cam shaft 5. Classification according to the use a. Single purpose machine b. General purpose machine 86. How does the cam draw power from main spindle? The cam draws the power from the main spindle through a set of gears called cyclic time change gears. 86. What are the tools used in turret of single spindle automatic lathes?

Form tools, turning tools and, drilling tools 86. Mention the other names spindle automatic lathes. Screw cutting machines 86. What are the types of single spindle automatic lathes?

1. Automatic cutting off machine 2. Automatic screw cutting machine 3. Swiss type automatic screw machine 86. How threads and machining holes are cut in automatic cutting off machine? To cut threads and machining holes, special attachments are used. 86. State the purpose of providing lead can in single, spindle automatic screw cutting machine? The turret slide travel is controlled by a lead cam. The lead cam gives a slow forward and fast return movement to the turret slide. 86. Mention the applications of single spindle automatic screw cutting machine. It is used for producing small jobs, screws, stepped pins, taper pins, bolts etc. 86. What are the advantages of a sliding head automatic lathes? The advantages of a sliding head automatic lathe is that long slender work pieces can be machined with very good surface finish, accuracy and concentricity in sliding head automatic lathes.

86. What are the four major parts of Swiss type automatic lathes? 1. The sliding headstock through which the bar stock is passed and gripped by a carbide-lined guide bush. 2. The camshaft, controlling the bar stock and cutting tool movements. 3. The tool bracket supporting five tool slides and a bush for stock 4. Auxiliary attachments for performing various operations such as knurling, drilling, tapping, screwing, slotting and recessing etc.

86. State the advantages of Swiss type screw cutting machine. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. It has five tool slides Wide range of speeds Rigid construction Micrometer tool setting Interchangeability of cams simple design of cams Tolerance of 0.005 tom0.0125mm are obtained Numerous working stations State the principle of multi spindle automats.

86.

The principle advantage of the multi spindle automat is that it has a tool slide working on the jobs on all spindles simultaneously 86. Classify multi spindle automats.

Multi-spindle automatic lathes are classified as follows: 1. According to the type of work piece (stock) used 1. Bar type machine 2. Chucking type machine 2. According to the arrangement of spindle 1. Bar type machine 2. Chucking type machine 3. According to the principle of operation 1. Parallel action type 2. Progressive action type 86. Mention the other name of parallel action multi spindle automats. Multi-flow machine 86. Compare the parallel action and progressive action multi spindle automatic lathes.
Sl.N o 1 Parallel action machine Progressive action machine

Same operation is done on all jobs in all the spindles

Different operation are done on jobs at each station one after another

In one cycle, the number of components produced simultaneously is equal to the number of spindles

It is not so, (i.e) the number of components produced in one cycle is not equal to the number of spindles. For every indexing of component (spindle) one component is produced Rate of production is moderate If anything goes wrong in one station, the production is completely affected in all the stations.

Rate of production is very high If anything goes wrong in one station, the production in that particular station only is affected

PART B
Problem 1. The minimum and maximum speed of a head stock spindle of a lathe are 50 rev/min and 1500 rev/min. The number of speeds available is 18. Find the intermediate speeds. Given data: Nmin = 50rev/min Nmax = 1500rev/min Z = 16 Solution: Step ratio is given by the formula

2. Calculate the gears for cutting metric threads of the following pitches. I. 4mm pitch ii. 5.25mm pitch

the lead screw of the lathe contains 6tpi. The lathe supplied with 20 to 120 teeths in steps of 5 and an additional gear wheel of having 127 teeth. Solution:

The gear train will consist of 120 teeth on the spindle gear and 127 teeth on the lead screw. Ii. 5.25mm pitch

( numerators and denominators are multiplying by 10) for 5.25mm pitch, compound gear train to be used with 105 teeth on spindle gear and 127 teeth on the intermediate gear, 60 teeth intermediate gear drives a 40 teeth gear on the lead screw. Problem 3 Calculate the cutting speed on a piece of mild steel of 100mm diameter and rotting at 300rpm. Given data: D = 100mm N = 300rpm Solution:

4. Find the gear train for cutting 2mm pitch thread on a lathe having lead screw of 10mm pitch. Solution:

the gear train consists of 20 teeth on the driver and 100 teeth on driven (lead screw gear) to be used without intermediate gear. Problem 5 Determine the required change gears for cutting 1.25mm pitch thread on a lathe having lead screw of 8mm. Solution:

The compound gear train is to be used since 32 teeth gear is not available in the standard set of gears which are supplied. The driver gears will have 50 and 20 teeth and driven gears of both 80 teeth Problem 6 The pitch of the lead screw of a lathe is 6mm. If the pitch of the thread to be cut is 1.5mm, find the change gear wheels. Available gear wheels are 20 to 120 in steps of 5. Draw a sketch showing the gear arrangement. Given data: Pitch of the lead screw = 6mm Pitch of the thread to be cut = 1.5mm Available gear wheels are 20 to 120 in steps of 5 Solution:

compound gear train to be used for making the above thread. The driver gears will have 30 and 20 teeth. The driven gears will have 20 and 120 teeth. Problem 7 calculate the time taken to turn a brass component 75mm diameter and 125mm long if the cutting speed is 52m/min and the feed is 0.8mm/rev. Only one cut is to be considered. Given data: D = 75mm L = 125mm V = 52m/min F = 0.8mm/rev Solution:

Problem 8 Calculate the time to face a work piece of 80mm diameter. The spindle speed is 115rpm and cross feed is 0.4mm/rev Given data: D = 80mm N = 115rpm F = 0.4mm/rev Solution:

Problem 9 Calculate the number of teeth on change gears to cut a mild start thread of having 4 starts and pitch 1.25mm. The pitch on the lead screw is 8mm. Given data: N=4 P = 1.25 Pitch of the lead screw = 8mm Solution:

Therefore, the driver will have 25 teeth and driven will have 40teeth. Problem 10 A shaft of diameter 60mm is to be turned on a lathe at a cutting speed of 45m/min. Find the required rpm of the shaft. Given date: V = 45m/min D = 60mm To find: Speed in rpm Solution:

Problem 11 Calculate the time required for one complete cut on a piece of work having 250mm long and 40 mm diameter. The cutting speed is 32m/min and the feed is 0.4 mm/rev. Given data: L = 250 mm D = 40mm V = 32m/min F = 0.4mm/rev Solution:

TOOLING 1. Simple tool layouts Turret and capstan lathes are mainly used for machining workpieces on a rapid rate. Before starting the production, the following works are carried out 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Selection of tools Designing of special tools Selection of speeds Selection of feeds Setting the required length of work piece and tool travel length.

These planning of operation sequence and preparation of turret of capstan are termed as tool-layout. The accuracy and cost of product are largely dependent on an efficient tool layout. The tool layout mainly consists of three stages. 1. Planning and scheduling stage: preparation of operation sheet with order of operation. 2. Detailed sketching of various stages of machining operations in sequence of operations. 3. Sketching the plan showing the various tools into the hexagonal turret face and cross slides with proper sequence. 2. Step by step procedure for preparing tool layout of turret and capstan lathe in detail as below 1. The component to be machined is thoroughly studied and the required total length of the work is calculated. 2. The number of operations involved in the component starting from the right end is roughly listed. 3. From the rough list of operations, the proper operation sequence is decided. 4. Various tools according to the sequence of operations are selected. 5. The selected tools are fitted either or hexagonal turret or on cross-slide according to the operation sequence. 6. The proper cutting speeds, feeds and depth of cut for each and every operation are selected. 7. The total time required per piece is determined. The total time includes the following time terms. A. Total machining time of each and every operations. B. Idle time between successive operations and c. Time required for loading and unloading the components. 8. The detailed drawing of the work piece is drawn along with the turret tools and cross-slide tools in position. The above procedure can be recorded either on a Plain paper or on a simplified process planning sheet called operation sheet or process layout. Before doing the actual layout, the tool designer should be familiar in the filed of capstan and turret lathes tools, and operations. 3. Solved examples on tooling. Problem 12

A tool layout is prepared for the manufacture of square headed bolt from a square bar stock using a turret lathe as shown in figure. Solution: Stage i:1. The component drawing is drawn 2. The total length of the work is calculated and 10mm is added to provide clearance. 3. The number of operations involved is roughly listed. 4. The sequence of operation is assigned. 5. The proper machine of 75mm turret lathe is selected. 6. The proper material of mild steel square bar is selected. 7. All the tools and equipments as per operation sequence are collected and fitted on turret faces or on cross slides as per out convenience. Stage ii:1. The tool layout is drawn as shown in figure

[note: number tools fitted in the turret face are only four. So, for providing uniform balancing tools are arranged like the first two are in successive faces and other two are in next successive faces by leaving one face left to free] Stage iii:Tooling schedule chart (to machine square bolt) Machine : 75mm turret lathe Material: square mild steel bar
Operatio n Sequenc Description of operation Tool position Tools

e Holding the square bar in collet and setting the required length of 100mm (90+10) Turn to 20mm diameter to a length 70mm (from the right end) Form the right end of the bolt Turret positions Bar stop

1.

Turret position 2

2.

Roller steady box turning rod

3.

Turret position 3

Roller steady bar ending tool. Self opening die head with chases of 20mm

Make the external thread cutting of 20mm diameter to a length of 40mm (from the right end) Chamfering the bolt head.

Turret position 4

Front cross slide tool post-1 Rear tool post

Chamfering tool

Parting off the work piece 6.

Parting tool is placed in inverted position (making the rotation of work anticlockwise with respective to tool)

Description of operations to be performed I. Setting the bar stop: the bar stop (1) is set at the distance of 100mm from the collect face by using slip gauge. An extra length of 10mm is allowed for parting off (4mm) and clearance off the collect face (6mm). This clearance is allowed to penetrate the parting tool deep into the work piece without any interface. Ii. Setting of the roller steady box turning rod: this tool is set on turret face of 2. This tool (2) is used for turning the work piece to 200mm diameter and 80mm long from the right end. Iii. Setting of bar ending tool: this tool is set (3) on fourth turret face but turret position-3. This is used to chamfer the right end of the work piece.

Iv. Setting self opening die head: this tool (4) is set on the fifth face of the turret. The proper blades of chasers are selected and fitted into the die head to cut a thread of 20mm diameter. V. Setting of chamfering tool: this tool (5) is set on the cross-slide front-end position-1 used to chamfer the bolt head edges by giving cross feed. Vi. Setting of parting tool: This tool is set on the rear end of cross-slide. It is used to part off the work piece after completing all operations. Note: distance of each tool movement is set by positioning the stop with the help of slip gauges] Problem 13 Draw the tool layout for manufacturing knurled screw and nut as shown in figure on turret lathe.

Solution: Stage i: 1. The component drawing is drawn. 2. The total length of the work is calculated and 10mm is added to provide clearance 3. The number of operations is listed 4. The sequence of operation is listed 5. The proper machine of 75mm turret lathe is selected. 6. The proper material of mild steel square bar is selected. 7. All the tools and equipments as per operation sequence are collected and fitted on turret faces or on cross-slides as per our convenience. Stage ii:1. The tool layout is drawn as shown in figure

Note: number tools fitted in the turret face are only four. So, for providing uniform balancing tools are arranged like the first two are in successive faces and other two are in next successive faces by leaving one face left to free] Stage iii:Tooling schedule chart (to machine given component) Machine: 75mm turret lathe Material: square mild steel bar.
Operatio n sequenc e

Description of operation

Tool position

Tools

1.

Holding the square bar in collect and setting the required length of 47mm (37+10) Turn to 10mm diameter to a length 37mm (from the right end) Turn to 5mm diameter and form the right end of the bolt for a length of 25mm and form the end Make the external thread cutting of 5mm diameter to a length of 23mm(from the right end) Knurling on the required length

Turret position. 1

Bar stop

2.

Turret position. 2

Roller steady box-turning rod.

3.

Turret position. 2

Roller steady bar ending tool

4.

Turret position. 3 Turret position.4

Knurling tool holder with knurls

5.

Knurling tool holder with knurls

6.

Chamfering the bolt head on 10mm diameter

Front cross slide tool post Chamfering tool position Rear cross slide. 1 Turret position. 5 Turret position.6 Parting tool

7.

Parting off the screw

8.

Drill and face the nut

Drill and facing tool

9.

Threading by tap

Tap

10.

Parting off the nut

Parting tool placed in inverted position (for making the Rear tool post rotation of work anticlockwise with respective to tool movement)

Description of operations to be performed I. Setting the bar stop: The bar stop (1) is set at the distance of 47mm from the collect face by using slip gauge. An extra length of 10mm is allowed for parting off (4mm) and clearance off the collect face (6mm). This clearance is allowed to penetrate the parting tool depth into the work piece without any inference. Ii. Setting of the roller steady box turning rod: this tool is set on turret face of 2. This tool (2) is used for turning 10mm diameter to a length 37mm (from the right end) Iii. Setting of the roller steady box turning rod: this tool is set on turret face of 2. This tool (3) is used for turning 5mm diameter to a length 25mm (from the right end) and the right end of the work piece is formed. Iv. Setting self opening die head: this tool (4) is set on the third face of the turret. The proper blades of chasers are selected and fitted into the die head to cut a thread of 20mm diameter.

V. Setting of knurling tool: this tool (5) is set on the turret position 4 which is used to knurled portion on the bolt head. Vi. Setting of chamfering tool: this tool is set at the front end of the cross-slide position2. It is used to chamfer 10mm diameter. Vii. Setting of parting off tool: this tool is set on the rear end of cross-slide position 1. It is used to part off the screw. Viii. Setting of drilling and form parting off tool: this tool is set on the turret position 5 used for drilling and facing the nut. Ix. Setting of thread chasers: This tool is set on the turret position 6 used to make internal threads using chasers. X. Setting of parting off tool: This tool is set on the rear end of cross-slide position 2. It is used to part off the nut. [Note: distance of each tool movement is set but positioning the stop with the help of slip gauges] 14. Comparison of parallel action and progressive action multispindle automatic lathes
Sl no . 1. Parallel action machine Progressive action machine

Same operation is done on all jobs in all the spindles In one cycle, the number of components produced simultaneously is equal to the number of spindles

Different operations are done on jobs at each station one after another.

2.

It is not so,(i.e.) The number of components produced in one cycle is not equal to the number of spindles. For every indexing of component (spindle),one component is produced

3.

Rate of production is very high If any thing goes wrong in one station, the production in that particular station only is affected. Small parts of simple shapes are produced.

Rate of production is moderate

4.

If any thing goes wrong in one station, the production is completely affected in all the stations.

5.

Parts of complicated shapes can be produced.

15. Comparison of single spindle and multi spindle automatic lathes


Sl Single spindle no 1. 2. There is only one spindle Only one work piece is machined at a time The rate of production is low Machining accuracy is higher. Tool setting time is less Tooling cost is less It is more economical for shorter as well as longer runs. The time required to produce one component is the sum of all the turret operation times Tools in turret are indexed Multi spindle

There are 2, 4, 5, 6, or 8 spindles A number of work pieces are machined at a time.

3.

The rate of production is high

4. 5. 6.

Machining accuracy is lower

Tool setting time is more Tooling cost is more It is more economical for longer rungs only.

7.

8.

Time required to produces one component is the time of the longest cut in any one spindle.

9.

Work pieces held in spindles are indexed

(progressive action machine)