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GE304: FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Chapter 1 | Prepared by: Ariane Joyce Gara Learning Objectives 1.

List six different property classifications of materials that determine their applicability. 2. Cite the four components that are involved in the design, production, and utilization of materials, and briefly describe the interrelationships between these components. 3. Cite three criteria that are important in the materials selection process. 4. a. List the three primary classifications of solid materials, and then cite the distinctive chemical feature of each. b. Note the four types of advanced materials and, for each, its distinctive feature(s). 5. a. Briefly define smart material/system. b. Briefly explain the concept of nanotechnology as it applies to materials 1.1. Historical Perspective Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Concrete/Steel Polymer Age Silicon Age Information Age

It was discovered that the properties of a material could be altered by heat treatments and by the addition of other substances.

1.2. Materials Science and Engineering Materials Science Materials Engineering Involves investigating the Designs or engineers the relationships that exist structure of a material to between the structures and produce a predetermined set properties of materials of properties Create new products or systems using existing Develop or synthesize new materials, and/or to develop materials techniques for processing materials Four components that are involved in the design, production, and utilization of materials:
Processing Structure Properties Performance

Thermal property the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the material Magnetic property the response of a material to the application of a magnetic field Optical property The stimulus is electromagnetic or light radiation Ex. Index of refraction, reflectivity Deteriorative property chemical reactivity of a material

Performance of a Material A materials performance will be a function of its properties Example: All have the same material, aluminum oxide. Processing: Each material was produced using a different processing technique Structure: Different in terms of crystal boundaries and pores, which affect the optical transmittance properties (Optical) Properties: (1) transparent (2) translucent (3) opaque Performance: If optical transmittance is an important parameter relative to the ultimate in-serve application, the performance of each material will be different. 1.3. Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? Three criteria that are important in the materials selection process: The in-service conditions must be characterized, for these will dictate the properties required of the material o Ex. Normally, a material having a high strength will have only a limited ductility The deterioration of material properties that may occur during service operation o Ex. Significant reductions in mechanical strength may result from exposure to elevated temperatures or corrosive environments The cost of a finished piece o Ex. A material may be found that has the ideal set of properties but is prohibitively expensive

Processing of a Material - The structure of a material will depend on how it is processed. Structure of a Material arrangement of its internal components Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei Atomic structure encompasses the organization of atoms or molecules relative to one another Microscopic structure contains large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together and is subject to direct observation using some type of microscope Macroscopic structure structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye Property of a Material material trait in terms of the kind of magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus Mechanical property - deformation to an applied load or force Ex. Elastic modulus (stiffness), strength, toughness Electrical property the stimulus is an electric field. Ex. Electrical conductivity, dielectric constant

-35,000 Years -1,800 Years -3,300 Years -60 Years -50 Years -35 Years -15 Years

Early civilizations have been designated by the level of their materials development (Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age) The earliest humans had access to those materials that occur naturally only like stone, wood, clay, skins. They discovered techniques for producing materials like pottery and various metals that had properties superior to those of the natural ones.

1.4. Classification of Materials Metals composed of one or more metallic elements (e.g., iron, aluminum, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and often also nonmetallic elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively small amounts Metal alloy a metallic substance that is composed of two or more elements Familiar objects that are made of metals and metal alloys: silverware, scissors, coins, a gear, a wedding ring, and a nut and bolt Ceramics compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements; they are most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides Ex. Aluminum oxide (or alumina, Al2O3), silicon dioxide (or silica, SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride (Si3N4), traditional ceramics (those composed of clay materials (i.e., porcelain)), cement, glass Common objects that are made of ceramic materials, scissors, a china teacup, a building brick, a floor tile, and a glass vase



Ceramics - Relatively stiff and strong stiffness and strengths are comparable to those of metals - Typically very hard - Exhibit extreme brittleness - Highly susceptible to fracture - Typically insulative to the passage of electricity - Typically insulative to the passage of heat - More resistant to high temperatures than metals and polymers - May be transparent, translucent, or opaque - Some of the oxide ceramics (e.g., Fe3O4) exhibit magnetic behavior - More resistant to harsh environments than metals and polymers


- Relatively stiff and strong - Ductile - Resistant to fracture

Polymers - Not as stiff nor as strong as metallic and ceramic materials - However, many times their stiffness and strengths on a per-mass basis are comparable to the metals and ceramics - Many of the polymers are extremely ductile and pliable (i.e., plastic) - Low electrical conductivities - Have tendency to soften and/or decompose at modest temperatures

Electrical Polymers include the familiar plastic and rubber materials. Many of them are organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements (i.e., O,N, and Si). Ex. Polyethylene (PE), nylon, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and silicon rubber They have large molecular structures. Several common objects that are made of polymeric materials: plastic tableware, billiard balls, a bicycle helmet, two dice, a lawn mower wheel, plastic milk carton Composites composed of two (or more) individual materials, which come from metals, ceramics, and polymers. Design goal of a composite o to achieve a combination of properties that is not displayed by any single material o to incorporate the best characteristics of each of the component metals Some naturally occurring materials that are composites: wood and bone Most common familiar composites: o Fiberglass/glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite small glass fibers are embedded within a polymetric material (normally an epoxy or polyester) Relatively stiff, strong, and flexible, low density o Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite carbon fibers that are embedded within a polymer Stiffer and stronger than glass fiber-reinforced materials, but more expensive Used in some aircraft and aerospace applications, high-tech sporting equipment, automobile bumpers

- Extremely good conductors of electricity - Extremely good conductors of heat - Not transparent to visible light - Has a lustrous appearance - Has desirable magnetic properties




- Nonmagnetic - Relatively inert chemically - Unreactive in a large number of environments


Notes: Ductile capable of large amounts of deformation without fracture Brittleness lack of ductility Newer ceramics are being engineered to have improved resistance to fracture; these materials are used for cookware, cutlery, and even automobile engine parts Insulative have low electrical conductivities Pliable they are easily formed into complex shapes

1.5. Advanced Materials Semiconductors Have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electrical conductors (i.e., metal and metal alloys) and insulators (i.e., ceramics and polymers) The electrical characteristics of these materials are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentrations of impurity atoms these concentrations may be controlled over very small spatial regions Used for integrated circuitry Biomaterials These are employed in components implanted into the human body to replace diseased or damaged body parts They must not produce toxic substances and must be compatible with body tissues They must not cause adverse biological reactions Smart (or intelligent) materials A group of new and state-of-the art materials now being developed that will have a significant influence on many of our technologies The adjective smart implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environment and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners Components of a smart material (or system) o Some type of sensor detects an input signal Ex. Optical fibers, piezoelectric materials (including some polymers), and microelectromechanical systems o Actuator performs a responsive and adaptive function may called upon to change shape, position, natural frequency, or mechanical characteristics in response to changes in temperature, electric field, and/or magnetic fields.

4 types of materials that are common used for actuators: Shape-memory alloys metals that, after having been deformed, revert back to their original shape when temperature is changed Piezoelectric ceramics expand and contract in response to an applied electric field (or voltage); conversely, they also generate an electric field when their dimensions are altered Magnetostrictive materials Their behavior is analogous to that of piezoelectrics, except that they are responsive to magnetic fields Electrorheotological/ magnetorheological fluids liquids that experience dramatic changes in viscosity upon the application of electric andmagnetic fields, respectively Examples: o Used in helicopters to reduce aerodynamic cockpit noise that is created by the rotating rotor blades o Piezoelectric sensors inserted into the blades to monitor blade stresses and deformations ; feedback signals from those sensors are fed into a computer-controlled adaptive device, which generates noise-canceling antinoise

Rankings: Density: Relatively Densed: 1. Metals 2. Ceramics Relatively not Densed: 3. Polymers 4. Composites Stiffness: Relatively Stiff: 1. Metals 2. Ceramics 3. Composites Relatively not stiff: 4. Polymers Strength: Relatively Strong: 1. Metals 2. Composites 3. Ceramics Relatively not Strong: 4. Polymers Resistance to fracture: Relatively high: 1. Metals 2. Composites Relatively low: 3. Ceramics 4. Polymers Electrical conductivity: Relatively conductive: 1. Metals 2. Semiconductors Relatively insulative: 3. Polymers 4. Ceramics

Nanomaterials May be any one of the four basic types metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. These materials are distinguished according to size