Review of Current Regulation Techniques For Three-phase PWM Inverters

M a r i a n P. Kaunierkowski*, Maciej A. Dzieniakowslu**
Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, 00-662 Warsaws, ul. Koszykowa 75, Poland phone:+48+2+6280665; fax:+48+2+6256633; e-mail:*,*

Abstrocr This paper presents a review of recently used current regulation techniques for Voltage Sourced Pulse Width Modulated (VS-PWM) inverters. A variety of techniques, different in concept, are described , as follows: On-Off hysteresis free running and fued frequency regulators (phase independent, look-up table based, space vector based), linear regulators (carrier based, working in stationary and rotating coordinates, PI and state feedback), predictive (minimum and constant switching frequency) and dead beat regulators. Also, nowadays trends in the current regulations neural networks and fuzzy logic based regulators are presented Some oscillograms which illustrate properties of the presented regulator groups are shown. The references include 96 actual papers and conference contributions.


The applied performance criteria can be divided in two groups (seetable): - criteria specific for CR-PWM inverters (e), based on current error defition - criteria which are also valid for open loop voltage PWM (seee.g. [34,72,731) Performance Criteria




Criteria definition




Current regulation technique plays the m o s t important role in Current Regulated PWM (CR-PWM) inverters which are widely applied in ac motor drives, ac power supply and active filters. The CR-PWM inverters, also known as current mode PWM hverters, implement an on line current feedback (closed loop) type of P W M [34]. In comparison to a conventional feedfomd (open loop) voltage controlled PWM inverters they shows following advantages: - control of instantaneous peak current (this is of particular importance for tramistor-type power semiconductor devices, which are peak current sensitive), - overload problem is avoided, - pulse droppii problem does not occur, - extremely good dynamics, nearly sinusoidal current waveforms, expect for the hannonics which are basically linked to the switching Erequency, small c m t (also torque in ac drives) ripple in the wide output

h,(k-f,) - discretecurrent spectra h&f) density current spectra



Variable switching frequency hysteresis regulators The simplest current regulation scheme is based on a nonlinear feedback loop with two-level hysteresis comparators (Fig.1) [82]. However, this class of the systems, also known as fke-running hysteresis regulators [73], has the following disadvantages: -the inverter switchmg fiequency depends largely on the load parameters and comparator hysteresis band, - the operation is somewhat rough due to the inherent randomness caused by limit cycle, therefore protection of the inverter is difficult [65].


- compensation of the effect of load parameter changes (resistance
and reactance). The basic problem involved in the implementation of CR-PWM inverters is the choice of suitable current regulation strategy, which affects both the parameters obtained and the fmal configuration of the entire control system. Lastly, the performance and cost criteria are desired factors when designing CR-PWM inverters.





The main task of the control system in CR-PWM inverter is to force the current vector in the three phase load according to the reference trajectory. The basic requirement are as follows: - no phase and amplitude mors (ideal tracking) in wide output Erequencv range, - fast response to provide high dyndmic of the system, -limited or constant switching Erequency to guarantee safe operation of power semiconductor switches, - good dolink voltage utilisation.
0-7803-1328-3/94$03.0001994 IEEE


Fig. 1. Free-running hysteresis regulator: block scheme (a), switching trajectory (b)

91. " 0 m 40 b ) o . if all three CuITent are considered as the space vector [80].61. only one of the inverter legs will change its state during sampling period l/fs This guarantees only neighbour voltage vectors selection and collsequently better quality of current formation (lower RMS.6 Fig. This can be used for the torque ripple minimisation in the vector controlled ac motor drives (hysterese for torque current component is set lower then for flux current component) [45].It is characteristic for the hysteresis regulators that the instautaneous current is kept exact in tolerance band except systems without zero loaders. 4. space vector based regulator with three-level comparatos and look-up table working in the stationary @) and rotating (c) coordinates 0 In the synchronous rotating coordinate systems. The main advantages: simplicity. the hysteresis regulators offer additionally the y t of independent harmonic selection by choosing different hysteresis values [45.95]. is shown in Figure 4.3).151 -0.10. phase current error (b). and extremely good dynamics t i l l attractive to researches and make the hysterese based regulators s designers.6 i. Number of inverter s w i t c h s N of three different types of current regulators: three two-level hysteresis comparators (a). known as Delta regulator [SO]. in each S&H block (FigSa).79.62]. Moreover.45. can be created [28. 5.94].83].44. and many variants of regulators known as space vector based. -0.15 E a 015 I 1 I 0 m 20 -0. l ~ - - Fig. that the delta modulation technique can also be applied in the space vector based regulators working in the stationary or the rotating coordinate systems [93. Fig. If the sampling signal in the three-phase system is shifted 120"el. if a look-up table with three-level comparators will be applied. the interaction effect can be compenwed. It is noteworthy. The amplitude of current hamoNcs is not constant but is determined by load parameters. Delta modulation current regulator basic block scheme - Thanks to a S&H block applied after ideal comparator. band [87. The nowadays works enable limit cycle suppression by introducing a suitable offset signal to either current references or hysteresis 568 0 T O T Fig.46.2).05): output currents (a).. the s w i t c h fi-equency is limited to the sampling fresuency f. output vector current loci (d) This is due to the interaction in the system with three independent controllers. 3. However.47. Delta modulation current regulator: sampling techniques (a) and quality factors (b) This type of the discrete cutTent regulators have found a wide application in the three-phase resonant b l i n k converters with zero voltage switchmg technique where the sampling signal is delivered fiom zero crossing dc link voltage [27. The basic scheme. This is thanks to appropriate selection of zero voltage vectors [44] (Fig. Limited switchingfrequency regulators A special class of On-off current regulators are systems based on the delta modulation principle [sa]. load parameter changes independence. The comparator state change in one phase influences the voltage applied to the load in two other phases (couphg). 2. Also systems with variable hysteresis width to keep the switching fiquency in very limited variation range are proposed [6. Free-running hysteresis regulator (Ah4. 0. b l i n k voltage and sampling frequency.92].93].94]. l ~ o .61] (Fig. a d d e r a b l e &creasing of the inverter Switching 6quency can be achieved [1.47. lack of tracking errors. J) at this same sampling 6quency fs (FigSb) [18].44. vector current area (c). where the instantaneous emx can reach double value of the hysteresis band [12.50. .

Based on work [88] (where it has been demonstrated that is possible to perform current regulation in an arbitrary coordinates). As shown in Fig. the use of PI regulator makes it i n i m i s e the tracking possible.g.The main advantages are an extremely simple and adjustment hardware implementation and good dynamics. optimum switch pattern. Fig. etc. The constant mean switchmg kquency can be achieved by approPriate reduction of the inverter phase interaction and PLL control of the hysteresis width [61. which generate the inverter switches control signals SA (SB. 8. thankst o applied coordinate transformations. or amplitude errors causes i n m t system operation (e. &bus utilisation. Fixed kquency hysteresis regulator In many industrial applications the ideally impressed current is required. Fixed switchingfrequency regulators h of I A serious drawback of the fiee-running hysteresis and delta modulation based regulators is the variable switchmg fkquency. This class of regulators guarantee fast response without traclung errors. in contrast to the hysteresis regulators. - 569 . which always produces reference volt. which produces an unpleasant Bcousfic noise. generates the command ~ U & . use is also made of additional P U circuits [20]. Conseqwtly. Its disadvantage is inherent traclung error [12. there are linear regulators which operate in association of conventional voltage type PWM modulators. k)values.61.49. wC). the inner loop of the regulation system (consisting two integrators and multipliers) is a variable kquency generator. even when in the steady state the age % current ermr signals are m. To achieve compensation of the phase errors. there follows comparisonwith the triangular carrier signal in the comparators. This concept allows to take such advantages of feedforwad modulator (sinusoidal PWM. In each phase there is a linear PI regulator which. i . This is the essentiaI advantage of this technique.upc for PWM modulator. in a definite fieqwcy band. Fig. Therefore. optimal PWM) as: constant switching frequency. by comparing the command iAc (i%. In this way one obtains asynchronous sinetriangle PWM in which the current error constitutes a modulating signal [12]. but the umtrol algorithm is m m complex and the main advantage of the hysteresis umtrol namely the simplicity is lost. fidl independent design of the overall umtrol structure as well as open loop test of the inverter and load can be easy perfmed. in [85] a synchronous regulator working in the stationary COoTdinafes with ac components is presented. and isy are dcunnponents.9 by dashed line. 6. 7. Vector current regulator working in synchronous coordinates with dc components Figure 8 illustrates the control principle involving the use of two PI regulators of current vector components defined in rotating synchronous rectangular coofdinates [14. because even small phase. k c ) and measured iA (iB. In such cases the regulation schemes based on space vector approach are applied. For that reason in commercial applications only fmed-kqwcy based regulatm are applied. This is achieved by using carrier signal which may be delivered to the comparator input as shown in Fig. In keeping with the sinusoidal modulation voltage U A ( principle. Three PI regulators The regulation principle is shown in Fig. welldehed harmonic spectrum. space vector modulator. 6. Practical implementation of this technique in ac drive systems involves the use of field oriented umtml. - - Lmm REGULATORS In addition to nonlinear Onregulators. 7 [14]. However. 6.62]. and is based on idonnation about the flux vector position ys A characteristic feature of such control syst e m is that. the inverter becomes switched with the triangular wave frequency and produces well4ehed harmonic spectrum [73]. to m errors of the output currents. and the use of linear PI regulators makes it possible to attain very high accuracy in the steady states.Sc). vector controlled ac motors). Current regulator with threePI controllers 4 1 The properties of this regulator are similar to regulator type presented on Fig. S p c e VectorBased Synchronous Regulators Fig. this class of the systems have clearly separated current error compensation and voltage modulation parts.57].80]. Also.

. Therefore the system has to be appropriately protected. 11. the group of modern predictive regulators performs real-time optimisation algorithm and. therefore.. . error a r e a actual I . . S u p pose only one hysteresis regulator. the linear regulators make well defined harmonic spectrum available. This regulator works in synchronous rotating coordinates and is synthesised on the base of linear multivariable state feedback theory. . . The location of the error curve is &terminated by the current command vector i. . . but one acting on the current error vector. . . t h a n k s to use of PWM modulators.. . .r. PREDICTIVE REGULATORS . : . which can be implemented in both hardware or software way. . . 12).10). 9. I .. the voltage vector which minimises the mean inverter switching fieqwcy is selected. " . one for each of seven possible (six active and zero) inverter output voltage vectors.kk] is derived by utilising the pole assignment technique to guarantee sufficient damping.I In contrast to the above presented on-off and linear regulators. output voltage U . but the absolute criterion on pole placement is not yet established. the boundary of the error area (also calls as switching or error curve) might have any form (Fig. I Fig. .. . could substitute the set of three. In such case. Vector current regulator woriung with ac components In general. the system loses its stability and high peak current can occur [85] (Fig. 10.. The example of error area in the predictive algorithm If the PWM modulator operation region is overstepped. . . . 12.. . . . seven Merent trajectories of the current are pmhcted. When the current vector is reaches a point on the error curve. Finally. . the transient error may be unacceptable large. . 1b). .. : . . Therefore.. I . . Fig. The overmodulation operation of the vector current regulator working with ac components: output current ia (a). :j i . . can be realised by using microprocessor technique only. : . State Feedback Regulators The conventional PI regulators in the current error compensation part can be replaced by state feedback regulator (Fig. State feedback current regulator 1 1 .: . While with integral part (k~) the static error can be made zero. . (c).53. current amplitude command signal (e) 0 Fig. output voltage up (d). . feedforward signals for 5 70 The boundary delimiting the current error area in the case of independent regulators with equal tolerance band + H in each of three phases d e s a regular symmetrical hexagon (Fig. : . . 'TA . . . based on optimisation procedure.iLl l a I reference @f) and disturbance (&)inputs are added to the feedback control law. 11) [22. For fast transient states the strategy which minimises the response time is applied. but their dynamic properties are inferior to those of On-Off regulators. . . .71]. . .:-. Minimum switchingfmquency algorithm The concept of this algorithm [31] is based on space vector analysis of the hysteresis regulators. B e c a u s e of m o r e complex control algorithm the performances of the state feedback regulator &e Superior to conventional PI regulators [53].. . A feedback gain matrix k=B~. . output cment ip (b). . n Fig. .

The calculated voltage vector usc(T)is then implemented in the PWM modulator algorithm. . the regulator can be implemented in any rotating or stationary coordinates. a further switching frequency reduction can be achieved by selection a rectangular error curve with higher length along rotor flux direction.. where only discrete type of modulation can be used.(ca2+cp2)1n. mphg Optimal discrete modulation algorithm for Resonant DC Link Converters (RDLC) error 'd For the RDLC converters.RMS & J of e(t) - 571 .is separated. The inverter voltage us(T) and EMF voltage e(T) of the load is assumed to be constant over the sampling interval T. (Fig. 15. Constant switching frequency predictive current regulator Also algorithms based on dead-beat control approach and predictive state observers of the whole control plant (e.-. II i. .calculates the voltage vector commands usc(T).g.. : . 14). So. vector controlled ac motor or U P S systems [4.16a and Fig. the time needed for prediction and optimisation procedure limits the achieved switching frequency. -2. space vector modulator [28.up. Fig.14) only voltage vector selector is required (Fig. Therefore. . As shown in [go] this is equivalent to selection the nearest available voltage vector commands usc(T). the inverter switching fresuency is fixed as 1/2T.. . In practice.15). 13. 16b respectively.5 ? C . ITI . . therefore. Note that while the current ripple cannot be explicitly detenninated.similarly as in linear regulators (see Section I V ) . Optimal discrete modulation regulator for RDLC The typical waveforms for discrete delta modulation and optimal (minimum RMS error) current regulation are shown in Fig.40]) as well as hybrid regulators combined hysteresis with predictive technique are proposed [55]. which will force the current vector according to its command i. . the error compensation and modulation parts . optimal algorithm selects voltage vector which minimalise RMS current error for each resonant pulse [27].g.81]. once every sampling interval T. A modulation (a) 2. The disadvantage of this algorithm is that does not guarantee the inverter peak current limit. Constant switchingfrequency algorithm I ~ -b load model U Fig. Minimum switching frequency predictive current regulator Similarly to the three level hysteresis regulator working in field oriented coordinates x-y [45]. . ' d b 0. instead of PWM modulator algorithm (Fig. in more recently developed algorithms a reduced set of voltage vectors consisting of the two active vectors adjacent to the EMF vector and the zero voltage vector are considered for optimisation without loss of quality [32].81].Current regulation in RDLC.3 optimal modulation (b) In this case the predictive algorithm [64.80.. ' . .- . I V . I I. e. Thus. 14.ip. based on discrete modulation I .. 16. 0 ms 20 0 ms 20 Fig.Note that the shape of the error curve is independent of the choice of particular coordinates and.0 Fig.

0 0 ms 20 Fig. Fuzzy Logic Controller: auto-tuned PI controller a) block scheme of FLC b) control surf.20.ZOb). for implementing the predictive regulators can be avoided by using delkq&ation and fuzzy rules need not be described on the basis of new class regulators based on fkzy logic and neural network theory. very fast operation. is shown on Fig.If parameter perhubation or model uncertainty exists.5 1. i J = L Fig. random selected data b m the output pattern of the simulated optimal regulator of Fig. I . The three layer feedforward neural network. because of high 572 . 17.5 0.ip III ( E ~ ~ + E & ~ Q . 19. Typical waveforms in the NN current regulator (compare with Fig. knowledge of exact mathematical m o d e l l i n g of the controlled sy-Neuml Netwonk based regulators In basic applimtions t h e fkzy controller is used as the substitute of typical cutrent regulator (Fig. However. 17. nonlinearity of the system. RDLC (Fig.20. including fuzzy inference mechanism.15 are applied. Figure 21 presents one phase VSI output current in the case of using classical PI and FL based regulators. 19) [69]. Fuzzy current controller U U Fig. States of PWM modulator inputs are fkzy current regulator crisp output commands. in whole control range. however. N . a> I INFERENCE MECHWISM -€ I J -2. In such applications FL is used for improving properties of classical (e.5 -1.RMS 8t J ofgt) - - The robustness. Fuzzy The problem of exact knowledge of the load parameters needed logic application solves this problem because fuzzvfication.2Oa and Fig. in which the optimal discrete current regulator for current regulation structure is similar to the conventional system. N e d Network discrete modulation regulator for RDLC A s training signal. Its gives possibility to form static and dynamic c " g to p i t i c regulator properties (Fig. 16b) I -up. The waveform obtained in the system with NN regulator are shown in Fig. 2. PI) regulators. Therefore.g. is trained by back propagation algorithm [13].5 The current error and its derivative are regulator input crisp values. the design (learning) procedure is time the p e r f i i c e of the predictive regulators +. used "d as regulator.15) is replaced by off line trained neural network is shown in Fig.5 V error 0. the ~ccuracy and robustness of the controller can be improved by introducing an Fuay Logic based current regulators integral compensation [56]. have NEW NETWORK ANDFUZZY LOGIC BASED REGULATORS complexity coupled parameters and it is generally difficult to apply any known analytic technique to design regulator structure.18. The block scheme of An example. The basic block scheme of FLC. II ia. Typically the power electronic plants are nonlinear.of classical PI controller c) control surface of FL controller The contents structure of all blocks largely depend on expertising knowledge base. Fig. Note that NN can regulate the output cutTent very well without on line calculation needed in the case of the optimal regulator. insensitivity to load parameter changes and -1 ability are the main advantages of neural network based regulators. a needs of whole regulation structure.rapidly deteriorated consumingbecause it does not involve integral part.18.

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