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‫ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍا ﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺑﻠﻮﻙك‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﺃأﺱس ﻛﺮ‬

‫ﺎﺭرﻭوﻟﺪ ﻭو ﺮﺙث ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‬

‫ﺇإﺩدﺍاﺭرﺓة ﻋﻤﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻮﻻ‪  .‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬

‫‪Rent Control‬‬
‫‪Walter Block‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‪  :‬ﻋ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺱس‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺪﺍاﻓﻊ ﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻋﻮﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻄﻮﺍاﺭرﺉئ ﺍا ﺮ ﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺪ‬

‫ﻭوﻻﻳﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﻋﻦ )ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﻗﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ )ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر(‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭرﻩ ﻃﺮ ﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺯزﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃأﺳﺒﺎﺏب ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻻﻉع ﺍا ﺮﻭوﺏب؛ ﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺸ ﺇإﻟ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﺣﺮﺏب ﺍاﻟﻌﺮﺍاﻕق‬

‫ﻓﻴ ﻨﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم ‪ ،2003‬ﻭوﻟ ﺴﺖ ﺣﺮﺏب‬

‫ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍا ﻥن ﺑﺪﺃأ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫‪  ‬ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك‪  .‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺯزﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺎﻥن ﻣﺮ ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟ ﺎ ﺇإﻻ ﺻﻠﺔ ‪  ‬ﺿ ﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺯزﻣﺔ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺴ ﺐ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤ ﺎ ﻛﺤﻞ ﻟﻸﺯزﻣﺔ‪  .‬ﻭوﻟﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻏﻮﺛﺎﻡم ﻭوﺣﺪ ﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺪﻥن ﻣﺮ ﻜﻴﺔ ﺧﺮﻯى ﺍاﻟ ﺭر‬

‫ﺖ ﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺪﺍا ﻨﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺟﺎﺀء ﺎ ﺬﺍا "ﺍا ﻞ"‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮ ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺍا‬
‫ﻭو ﺪ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﻛﻤﺎ ﻮ ﺣﺎﻝل ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺗﻔﺮﺿ ﺎ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﻌﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡم ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺣﺪ ﺃأﻋ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺿﺎﻩ ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺬﺍا ﺍا ﺪ "ﺳﻘﻒ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر"؛ ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺃأﺭر ﺪ ﻟ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻌﻠﻪﮫ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺩد ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﺮ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺎﻥن ﻟ ﺴﻮﺩد‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝل ﻋﺪﻡم ﻭوﺟﻮﺩد ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‬

‫)ﻓﻠﻮ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﻓﻮﻕق ﻣﺌﺔ ﺃأﻟﻒ ﺩدﻭوﻻﺭر ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﺎ ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺃأﺛﺮ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﺄﻱي ﺣﺎﻝل ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺍاﻝل(؛‬
‫ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺴﻌﺮ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺍاﺯزﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﻠﻮ ﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭوﺯز ﺍاﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻭوﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﺘﺆﺩدﻱي ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺇإ ﺃأﺯزﻣﺔ ﺳﻜﻨﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓ‬

‫ﻭوﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﻴﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺳﻌﺎﺭرﻓﺈﻥن ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﺍا ﺪﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﻠﻮ ﺔ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﺳ ﺗﻔﻊ ﺇإ ﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻳﻘ‬

‫ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺺ )ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟ ﺴ ﺐ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻭوﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺍاﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻄﻠﻮ ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗﻤﻨﻌ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻳ ﺴ ﺐ ﺑﺤﺪﻭوﺙث ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺺ‪  .‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺙث ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺺ‬
‫ﺿﺎ ﺳﻴﻠﻘﻲ ﺑﺂﺛﺎﺭرﻩ ﻋ‬
‫ﻋ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺫذ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺁآﺧﺮ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻔﺮﺽض ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ )ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﺎﻝل‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ‪  :‬ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺸﻐﻠ ﺎ ﺃأ‬

‫ﺎﺏب‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﺍاﳌﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪   ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻟ ﻮﻧﺪﻭو‪(1‬؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻟﻢ ﻳﺨﻀﻊ‬
‫ﻌﺪ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﻤﻴﻞ ﺇإ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺃأﺻﻐﺮ‬
‫ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻷﻥن ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﺨ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﻤﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻟﻴ ﻮﻥن ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪،‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺼﻞ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺇإ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻐﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻀﺎﻑف ﺇإﻟﻴﻪﮫ ﺻﻐﺮ ﺍاﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻭوﺿﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻤﺎ ﺃأﻣﺮﺍاﻥن ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺎﻥن ﻋﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩدﻳﺎﻥن ﺇإ ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع ﺳﻌﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺴﻢ‪  .‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻔﺎﺭرﻗﺔ ﺃأﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻼﺣﻆ ﺣﻴ ﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺣ ﻭوﺇإﻥن ﺎﻧﺖ ﺃأﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺜﻴﻼ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط ﻓﺈ ﺎ ﺳ ﺗﻔﻊ ﺸﺪﺓة‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﺳﺘ ﻮﻥن ﺃأﻋ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺴﻮﺩد‬

‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺗﺄﺟ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻛ ﻞ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻛﻤﺎ ﻮ ﺍا ﺎﻝل‬

‫ﺳﻘﻮﻑف ﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﺧﺮﻯى‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺈﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗ ﺴ ﺐ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺯزﻣﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽض ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻈﺎ ﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﻄﻮﺍاﺑ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍا ﻄﻂ ﺧﺮﻯى ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺳﻌﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﺳﻌﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﻮﺩد ﻧﺠﺪ ﺑﺄﻥن ﻃﻮﺍاﺑ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺧﺮ ﻦ(‪ ،‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭر ﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻄﺮ ﻘﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺃأﻭوﻻ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻋ ﻣﺒﺘﻐﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺍا ﺎ‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﻄﺎﺑﻮﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺤﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺭرﺋ‬

‫‪  .‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳ ﺎﺩد ﻳﺠﻤﻊ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﻮﻥن ﻋ ﺍا ﺮﻭوﺝج ﺑﺎﺳﺘ ﺘﺎﺝج ﻣﻔﺎﺩدﻩ ﺃأﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺪﺍاﻣﺔ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم ‪ 1990‬ﺃأﺟﺮﻱي ﺍاﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉع ﺭرﺃأﻱي ﺷﻤﻞ )‪  (464‬ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻧﺪﻭو )‪:(Condo‬ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﻠﻴﻚ ﺍاﳌﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺤﺘﻮ ﺎ‪].‬ﺍاﳌ ﺟﻢ[‪  ‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ﻭو ﺸﺮ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩد ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪ 1992‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ )ﺃأﻣ ﻳ ﺎﻥن ﺇإﻳ ﻮﻧﻮﻣﻴﻚ ﺭر ﻔﻴﻮ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﺟﺎﺀء ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫)‪  (%93‬ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺤﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻄﻠﻌﺔ ﺁآﺭرﺍاﺅؤ ﺎ ﺗﻮﺍاﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺸ ﻞ ﺎﻣﻞ ﺃأﻭو ﻣﻊ ﻌﺾ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻔﻈﺎﺕت‪،‬‬
‫ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن " ﻭوﺿﻊ ﺳﻘﻒ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺗﺪ ﻲ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭوﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍاﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻭو ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀء‬

‫ﺩدﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﺃأﻥن ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ )‪  (%95‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳ ﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻄﻠﻌﺔ ﺁآﺭرﺍاﺅؤ ﻢ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﻥن ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ 3.‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺍاﻓﻖ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻃﻮﻝل‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩد‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﺎﺋﺰ ﻦ ﺎﺋﺰﺓة ﻧﻮ ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮ ‪  ‬ﻥن ﻓﺮ ﺪﻣﺎﻥن‪  ‬‬

‫)‪  (Milton Friedman‬ﻭوﻓﺮ ﺪﺭر ﻚ ﺎﻳﻚ )‪  (Friedrich Hayek‬ﻣﻦ "ﺍاﻟﻴﻤ ﻥن"‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺼﻞ ﺇإ‬
‫ﻏﻮﻧﺎﺭرﻣ ﺩدﺍاﻝل )‪  (Gunnar Myrdal‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻌﺘ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺎ ‪  ‬ﺋﺰ ﺁآﺧﺮ ﺎﺋﺰﺓة ﻧﻮ ﻞ ﻮ "ﺍاﻟ ﺴﺎﺭرﻱي‪    "  ‬‬
‫ﺩدﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺟﺎﺀء ﺎ ﺣﺰﺏب ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺃأ ﻢ ﻣ ﻨﺪ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﺻﺮﺡح ﻗﺎﺋﻼ‪"   :‬ﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﻝل ﺑﺄﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮ ﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺬﻱي‬

‫ﻌﺾ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ‬

‫ﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺃأﺳﻮﺃأ ﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍاﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺑﻪﮫ ﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺎﻋﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮﺅؤ ﺔ"‪ 4.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺪﺩد ﺯزﻣﻴﻠﻪﮫ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﺴﻮ ﺪﻱي ) ﺷ ﺍا ﻲ(‪  ‬ﺁآﺳﺎﺭرﻟﻴﻨﺪﺑﻴﻚ‬

‫)‪   (Assar Lindbeck‬ﻋ ﺃأﻥن " ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗﺒﺪﻭو‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺎﻻﺕت ﻭوﻛﺄ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﻔﺄ ﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮ ﺪ ﺗﺪﻣ ﺃأﻱي ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﺑﻘﺼﻔ ﺎ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ"‪  5.‬‬
‫ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺍاﺣﺘﺞ ﺃأﺣﺪ ﻢ ﺑﺄﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍا‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﻣﺪﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽض ﻟﻠﺘﺪﻣ‬

‫ﺴ ﺐ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻌﻮﺩد ﺇإ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺩد ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻌﺮﺿﺖ‬
‫ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﻤﺮﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ 6.‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن )ﺍاﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﻳﺠﺎﺭر( ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي‬
‫‪ 2‬ﻞ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺇإﺟﻤﺎﻉع ﺑ ﻥن ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳ ﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺴﻌﻴ ﻴﺎﺕت؟‪  :‬ﺁآﻟﺴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺁآﺧﺮﻭوﻥن )ﻡم‪  .(1‬‬
‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉع ﻋ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺑ ﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍاﻓﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻧ ﻠ ﻳﺔ(‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﺇإ ﺍاﳌﺴﺮﺩد ﺍاﻟﺒ ﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍا‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍاﺟﻊ ﺍاﳌﺬ ﻮﺭرﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍاﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳ ﺍاﺳﻢ ﺍاﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﻴﺔ )ﻡم‪ 1‬ﻣﺜﻼ(‪  ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻓﻘﺮﺓة )ﺍاﳌﺮﺍاﺟﻊ ‪].(References‬ﺍاﳌ ﺟﻢ[‪  ‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ﻧ ﻭو ﻴﺎ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﻜﻨﺪﻱي‪  ..‬ﻧﻤﺎﺫذﺝج ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻉع ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍاﻟﻜ ﻯى‪  :  ‬ﺑﻠﻮﻙك ﻭوﻭوﻭوﻛﺮ )ﻡم‪  .(2‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ﺧﻄﺎﺏب ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡح ﺇإ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺩدﺭرﺍاﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻮ ﺎﻏﻦ‪  :‬ﻣ ﺩدﺍاﻝل )ﻡم‪.(3‬‬
‫‪ 5‬ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﻟﻠ ﺴﺎﺭر ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪ‪  :‬ﻟﻴﻨﺪﺑﻴﻚ )ﻡم‪.(4‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺷﻂ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﻣﺎﺭرﻙك ﻏﺮ ﻦ ‪ "  :(Mark Green)  ‬ﺍاﻧﺨﻔﺾ ﻋﺪﺩد ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺍا ﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺑ ﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪  (%18.2‬ﺍاﳌﺪﺓة )‪ ، (1993-1991‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﺣﻠﻠﻨﺎ ﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺸ ﺇإ ﺍاﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽض ﺃأﻛ ﺑ ﺴﺒﺔ )‪  (%30‬ﺍاﳌﺪﺓة‬
‫)‪ (1996-1993‬؛ ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍاﻧﺨﻔﺾ ﻋﺪﺩد ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺑ ﺴﺒﺔ )‪  (%75‬ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍا ﺪ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻭوﺻﻠﺖ ﺇإﻟﻴﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺣﻞ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺑ ﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﺙث ﻌﺘ ﺃأﻗﻞ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﺍا ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪﮫ؛‬
‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎﻥن‬

‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﻘﺎﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕت ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﻘﻮﺩد‬

‫ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﻟﻢ‬

‫ﺸﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺧﻀﻌﺖ ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮ ﻲ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻃﺎﻟﺖ ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻧﺪﻭو ﺎﺕت ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭو ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺬﺍاﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﻋﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻌﺎ ﺑﺎﻷ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺇإﻻ ﻛﻄﺮ ﻘﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﻔﺎﻑف ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑ ﻥن‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﻮﻥن ﺑﺄﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗﺤﺮﻑف ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﺭرﻩ ﺍاﳌﻼﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺬ ﺐ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺳ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻱي‪ ،  ‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﺃأﻛ‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﻮﻥن ﺑﺄﻥن ﺬﺍا ‪  ‬ﻣﺮﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓة ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭر ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴ ﻠﻚ‪  .‬ﻭوﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﺗﺮﺩدﻱي ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﻠﺔ ﺇإﺻﻼﺣ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﻠﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻧ ﺎ؛ ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﻭوﺟﺪ ﺑﻮﻝل ﻧ ﺒﺎﻧﻚ‬
‫)‪  (Paul Niebanck‬ﺑﺄﻥن )‪  (%29‬ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍا ﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓة ﻗﺪ ﺃأﺻﺎ ﺎ ﺍاﻟ ﺩدﻱي‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﺐ ﺇإﻻ )‪  (%8‬ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻟ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﺩد ﺟﻮ ﻞ ﺑ ﻧﺮ )‪   (Joel Brenner‬ﻭو ﺑﺮﺕت ﻓﺮﺍاﻧ ﻠ ﻥن‬
‫)‪  (Herbert Franklin‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺗﺨﺺ ﺃأﻭوﺿﺎﻉع ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺇإﻧ ﻠ ﺍا ﻭوﻓﺮ ﺴﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن‬
‫ﺍا‬

‫ﺳﺒﺎﺏب‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﺔ ﻻ ﻟ ﺲ ﻓ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺷﺮﺍاﻑف‬

‫ﻮﻣﻲ ﺃأﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺇإﻋﺎﻗﺔ ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺟ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭوﻟﻨﺘﺨﻴﻞ ﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻚ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﻼﻳ ﻥن ﺩدﻭوﻻﺭر ﻭوﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﺑﺎﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺎ‬
‫ﺸﺎﺀء‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻻﺕت ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻭوﺿﺮﺍاﺋﺐ‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻚ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺍاﺳ ﺜﻤﺮﺕت ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل‬

‫ﺳ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻱي ﻓﻴﺠﺐ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻴ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﺇإ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﺇإﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺑﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﺓة ﻋ‬

‫‪ 285,000)   1981‬ﺷﻘﺔ( ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪   .(5‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻌﻮﺩد ﺇإ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺩد ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇإ ﺣﺪ ﻣﻌ ﻥن )‪ 2,000‬ﺩدﻭوﻻﺭر ﺷ ﺮﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻭوﻁط ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ(‪  ‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺗﺨﺮﺝج ﻋﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط ﺸ ﻞ ﺎﻣﻞ؛ ﻭوﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺍاﻟﺘ ﻢ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺴﻜ "ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺧﻦ"‪  ‬‬
‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺑﻜﺜ )ﻡم‪.(6‬‬
‫ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺈﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ‪  ‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻓ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻠﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉع ﻭوﺇإﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺭرﻭوﺗﻴ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﺳﻘﻒ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻞ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻌﺪ ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺐ ﺃأﻧﻚ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡم ﺣﻴ ﺎ ﻋ ﺑﻨﺎﺀء ﺃأﻭو ﺷﺮﺍاﺀء ﺑ ﺖ ﻣﻌﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺟ ؟‪  ‬‬

‫ﺇإﻥن ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﺡح ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﻟ ﺲ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﺑﻚ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻳ‬

‫ﺐ ﻋ ﺍا ﻤﻴﻊ‬

‫ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴ ﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﻥن ﻋﺪﺩد ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺍاﳌﻌﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺟ ﺳﻴ ﻮﻥن ﺃأﺻﻐﺮ ﺑﻜﺜ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭرﻧﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴ ﻮﻥن ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺍا ﺎﻝل‬

‫ﻏﻴﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪  .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﻧﻨﺪ ﺶ ﺣ ﻥن‬

‫ﻧﺮﻯى ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﺡح ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭو ﻮ ﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪﺍاﻗﻴﺘﻪﮫ ﻻ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺮﺽض ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﺍاﻟ ﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻔﺮﺽض ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻮ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬

‫‪  ‬ﻹﺣﺪﺍاﺙث ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺐ ﺴﺮﻱي‬

‫ﺃأﻭوﺻﺎﻝل ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﻱي‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﺪ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﻥن ﺳﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻗﺪ ﺑ‬

‫ﺑ ﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺟ ‪  :‬‬

‫ﻞ ﺍاﳌ ﺸﺂﺕت ﺑﺎﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺀء‬

‫ﺎﻟ ﻮﻧﺪﻭو ﺎﺕت ﻭوﺃأﺑﺮﺍاﺝج ﺍاﳌ ﺎﺗﺐ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﻨﺎﺩدﻕق ﻭوﺍاﻟﻮﺭرﺷﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻟ ﺀء ﺇإﻻ‬
‫ﻷﻥن ﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻝل ﺬﻩ ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻟﻢ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪   ،‬ﻭوﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﻟ ﺲ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺨ‬
‫ﺗ ﺒﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺄ ﺎ ﺳﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻟ ﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ‪   .‬ﻭوﻟ ﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺼﺪﻓﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﺠﺪ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌ ﺸﺂﺕت‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻻﺕت ﺷﻐﻮﺭر ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﻭو ﺄﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗ ﺍاﻳﺪ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺑﻄﻲﺀء ﺴ ﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺑ ﻨﻤﺎ ﻌﺎ ﻲ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕت ﺷﻐﻮﺭر ﺗ ﺎﺩد ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺼﻔﺮ ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط ﻭو ﺄﺳﻌﺎﺭرﻧﺎﺭر ﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺴ ﺜ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻳﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺸ ﻞ ﺧﺎﺹص ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺋﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ ﻳﺒﺪﻭوﻥن ﺣﺬﺭرﺍا ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍا‬
‫)ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻌﻮﺩد ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻟﺬ ﺎ ﻢ(‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥن ﻣﻊ ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻱي‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺎﻻﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺣﺪﺙث ﻓ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻭوﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺳﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﻔ ﺽض ﺑﺄ ﺎ ﻣﺴﺘ ﻨﺎﺓة ﺇإ‬
‫ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻗﺪ ﺃأﺧﻀﻌﺖ ﺇإ ﺃأﺣ ﺎﻡم ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺩدﻭوﺍا‬

‫"ﺍاﻟﻄﻮﺍاﺭرﺉئ‪   "  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻏ ﺎ‪   .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃأﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﺛﻼﺙث ﻣﺮﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﻋ ﺧﺮﻕق‬
‫ﻌ ﺪﺍا ﺎ ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻏﺮﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙك ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗﻤﺎﺭرﺳﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻀﺎﺑﻄﺔ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺭرﺍاﺋﺠﺎ ﺇإ ﺍا ﺪ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺩدﻓﻊ ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﻣﺼﻄ ﺧﺎﺹص ﻟﻺﺷﺎﺭرﺓة ﺇإﻟﻴﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ‪"  :‬ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺳ ﻴﻼﺀء"‪  .‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺇإ ﺗﺪﻣ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﺍا ﻴﺪﺓة‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﻨﻮﺏب ﺑﺮﻭوﻧﻜﺲ‬

‫ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك‪   ،‬ﻭو ﺴﺒ ﺖ ‪  ‬ﺑ ﺩدﻱي ﺣﺎﻝل ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻭو ﺮ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕت ﺍا ﻤﺴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘ ﻮﻥن ﻣ ﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك؛ ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡم ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﻣﺘ ﻨﺔ ﺣﻮﻝل ﺮ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﻭو ﻠﻴﺎﻡم ﺗﺎﻛﺮ )‪  (William Tucker‬ﻳﺨﻤﻦ ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻮ‪  ‬ﺣﻮﺍا )‪  (30,000‬ﺷﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻞ ﻋﺎﻡم ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍاﻡم )‪  (1982-1972‬ﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﺸ ﺪ ّ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ‪  ‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﻛﻨ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻌ ﺧﺴﺎﺭرﺓة ﺣﻮﺍا ﺛﻠﺚ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥن ﺷﻘﺔ ﺧﻼﻝل ﻋﻮﺍاﻡم‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍاﻟ ﺷﻤﻠ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻤ ﻥن؛ ﻓ ﺴ ﺐ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍا ﻮﻑف ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻼ ﻲ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺪ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺒﺪﻳﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﺍاﳌﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺇإﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺪﺩد ﺃأﻛ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬

‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﺴ ﺜﻤﺮﺍا ﻋﺎﻗﻼ ﻭوﺍاﺣﺪﺍا ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﺑﻨﺎﺀء ﻭوﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺳﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺟ ﺇإﺫذﺍا‬
‫ﺎﻥن ﺗﻤﻮ ﻞ ﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻉع ﻻ ﻳﺄ ﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻴﺐ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌ ﺗﺒﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻨﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﺇإﻻ ﺑﺎﻟ ﺎﺩد‬
‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر؛ ﻓﺤ ﻭوﺇإﻥن ﺎﻥن ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺃأﺳ‬

‫ﻇﻞ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﺍاﻳﺎ ﺍاﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎﺭر ﻒ ﺍاﳌ ﺍاﻳﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﺩد ﻭوﺃأﺟﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﺎﻝل ﻭوﻓﻮﺍاﺗ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺩد‪ ،‬ﻧﺎ ﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺩدﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻘﺘﻀ ﺎ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗﻤﻮ ﻞ ﺍاﻟﺮ ﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﺎﺭرﻱي‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺩدﻓﻌ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺯز ﺎﺩدﺓة ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺑﺘﻘﺎﺿ ﺎ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺇإﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺮ‬

‫ﻇﻞ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺇإ‬

‫ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﺍاﻳﺎ ﺍاﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻘﻠﺺ ﺸﺪﺓة ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺤﻔﺰ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪﮫ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻇﺮﻭوﻑف ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق‬
‫ﺍا ﺮﺇإ ﺍاﻟ ﻭو ﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻳﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻏﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺭر "ﻣﺤ " ‪  ‬ﺑﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺎﻻﺕت ﻋ ﺻﻔﻘﺔ ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺴ ﺐ ﺳﻮﺀء ﺍاﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ‪  ‬ﻭوﺭرﺩدﺍاﺀءﺓة‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﻄﻼﺀء ﻭوﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻟ ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻳﺔ ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﺮﻏﻢ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺫذﻟﻚ‪     .‬ﻭوﺗﺘﻘﻠﺺ ﻣﺘﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف ﺇإ ﺍا ﺪ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳ ﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻁط‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺗﻤﺮ ﻋﻘﻮﺩد‬

‫ﻭو ﻮ ﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  .‬‬
‫ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻜﺴﺐ ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍاﺀء ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪،‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺎﻷﺧﺺ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﻏﻨﻴﺎ ﺃأﻭو ﻳ ﺘ‬
‫ﳌﺠﺮﺩد ﺿﺮ ﺔ ﺣﻆ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪﮫ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮﻭوﻥن‬

‫ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭو ﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕت ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃأﻭو‬
‫ﺍاﳌ ﺎﻥن ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﻈﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬

‫ﻌﺾ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﺀء ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭرﻙك ﺟﺰﺀءﺍا ﺻﻐ ﺍا ﻣﺸ ﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮ ﻹﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﻖ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪   :‬ﺑﺪﺍاﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴ ﻴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺸﻐﻠﻮ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﺎﻥن ﺍا ﺎﻛﻢ ﺇإﺩد ﻮﺥخ ‪ (Ed Koch)  ‬ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍا ﺷ ﺮ ﺎ ﻗﺪﺭرﻩ )‪ 441.49‬ﺩدﻭوﻻﺭر(‪  ‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺳﻜﻨﻪﮫ‬

‫ﺷﻘﺔ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺎ ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺣﻮﺍا )‪ 1,200‬ﺩدﻭوﻻﺭر(‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺎﺏب ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥن ﺷﻘﻘ ﻢ ﻭوﻛﺄ ﺎ ﻏﺮﻑف‬

‫ﺃأ‬

‫ﻓﻨﺪﻕق‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺰﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺇإﻻ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺓة ﻣﺮﺍاﺕت ﻞ ﻋﺎﻡم‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻀﺎﻑف ﺇإ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ "ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﻮﺯز‪ ،"  ‬ﻭوﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺛ ﻟﻨﺘﺨﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭوﺟﻮﺩد ﺃأﺳﺮﺓة ﺗﺘ ﻮﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺏب ﻭوﺃأﻡم ﻭوﺃأﺭر ﻌﺔ ﺃأﻃﻔﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺳﺮﺓة ﺴﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻏﺮﻑف‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻤﺮﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻳﻜ‬

‫ﺷﻘﺔ ﺗﺘ ﻮﻥن‬

‫ﻃﻔﺎﻝل ﻭو ﻭوﺟﻮﻥن ﻭو ﺘﻘﻠﻮﻥن ﻟﻺﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺁآﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻳﻤﻮﺕت ﺏب ﻭوﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻡم ﻟﻮﺣﺪ ﺎ‬

‫ﻣ ﺎﻥن‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺸﻘﺔ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻻ ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡم‬

‫ﺇإﻻ ﻏﺮﻓﺘ ﻥن ﺃأﻭو ﺛﻼﺙث ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ‪   ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﺎ ﻐﻠﻖ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﻓ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺭر ﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻟ ﺎﻧﺖ‬

‫ﺳﺘ ﺘﻘﻞ ﺇإ ﺷﻘﺔ ﺃأﺻﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍاﻟﺒﺪﺍاﺋﻞ ﺃأﻗﻞ ﺟﺎﺫذﺑﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﻭوﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻨﺎ ﻟﻨﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﳌﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺃأﺯزﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﺇإﺑﻄﺎﻝل‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺳﻴﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺗﺤﺮ ﺮ ﻻﻑف ﻣﻦ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﻑف ﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺳﻴﺨﻤﺪ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع‪  .‬‬
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‫ﻣﺎ ﻮ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺤﺪﺩد ﻣﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر؟‬
‫ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﺍاﳌﺒ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻌ ﺶ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻳﻘﻊ‬

‫ﺟﻴﺪ ‪  ‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥن ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇإﺑﻄﺎﻝل ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻴ ﺎ ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻟﺪﻯى ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺸ ﻞ ﻛﺒ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻔﺰﻳﺪﻓﻌﻪﮫ ﺇإ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍاﳌﺒ ﺍاﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭرﺍا ﻣﻨﻪﮫ ﻟ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﻴﺪ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺘﻌﺰﺯز ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺤﻔﺰﺇإﺫذﺍا‬
‫ﺎﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺒ )ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ‬

‫"ﻋﺪﻡم ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍاﻟﺸﻐﻮ ‪  ‬ﺭر"‪  ‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍاﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ(‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻧﺪﻭو ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻤﻠﻮﻛﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺧﺎﺹص‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻳ ﺒ‬

‫ﻋ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻘﺪﻡم ﻟ ﺎ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﺛﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺸﻌﺮ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻥن ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ " ﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉع ﺍاﳌﺠﺎ ﻲ" ‪  ‬ﻋ ﺣﺴﺎﺏب‬
‫ﺟ ﺍاﻧﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺍا ﺎﻻﺕت ﻛ ﻧﻤﻄﻴﺔ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺑﺄﻥن ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻤﻴﻞ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺪﻓﻮﻉع‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻮ‪ ،‬ﻋ‬

‫ﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺳ ﺴﻮﺩد‬

‫ﺍا ﺎﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺍاﺯزﻧﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻧﻮﺍاﻳﺎ ﺻﺎﺩدﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﻓﻀﻞ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺼﺮﺓة ﻟﺴ ﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻋ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻘﻮﻡم‬
‫ﺑﻤﺎ ‪  ‬ﻮ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺽض ﺍاﻟﻘﻴﻮﺩد ﻋ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎ ‪  ‬ﺭرﺍاﺕت‪  :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜ ﺎ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﻥن ﻌﻤﺪ ﺇإ ﻓﺮﺽض ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻋ ﺃأﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﻞ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭوﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺍاﳌﺲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺤﺎﻭوﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد‬
‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺧﺮﻯى ﻭوﺟﻌﻠ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺹص‬

‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎ ﻲ ﻭوﺣﺴﺐ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻌ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻻ‬

‫ﺭر ﺐ‪ ،‬ﺭرﺿﻮﺥخ ﺎﻓﺔ ﺃأﻭوﺟﻪﮫ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﻟﻼﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻋﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﻪﮫ ﺩدﻭوﻝل ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓة ﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍا‬
‫ﻟﺴ ﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻋ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍاﺀء ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺠ ﺓة‬

‫ﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍاﺭر ﺑﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻟ ﺎ ﻓﺮﺽض ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺻﺎﺭرﻣﺔ‬

‫ﻋ ﺗﺄﺟ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺭر ﺔ ﻭوﺇإﻟﻐﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻛ ﺗﻮﺍاﺿﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﺍاﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺪﺙث ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﻴ ﺎ ﺳ ﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫ﻣﺤﻔﺰﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎﻥن ﺭرﺃأﺳﺎ ﻋ ﻋﻘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳ ﺘﻮﻗﻔﻮﻥن ﻋﻦ ﺇإ ﺸﺎﺀء‬
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‫ﺴﺜ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺒﺎ ﻲ ﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺭر ﺔ‪   ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭوﺳ ﺘﻮﺟ ﻮﻥن‪  ‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍاﺀء ﻭوﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻛﺄﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ "ﻳﺪﺍا ﺧﻔﻴﺔ"‪  ‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﻓﻌ ﻢ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡم ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍا ﻠﻮﻝل‪    ‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭوﺻﻠﺖ ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﺍاﻗﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟ ﺸﺮ ﻌﺎﺕت ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺇإ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺮﻋﺐ ﻭوﺫذﻱي ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﻋﻜﺴﻴﺔ ﺣ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻤﻦ ﺎﻥن ﻳﺪﻋﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﻭو ﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺚ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﺠﺎ ﺮ ﺑﺮﻓﻀﻪﮫ ﻟ ﺎ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ‪،‬‬

‫ﻟﻐﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﺴﺮ ﻊ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﻡم ﻌﺾ ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻠ ﻥن ﺇإﻻ ﺍاﻗ ﺍاﺣﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡح ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻟ ﺮﻭوﺝج ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺿﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﺘﻔ ﻢ ﺳﺒﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇإ ﺍا ﺮﻭوﺝج ﺬﺍا ﺍا ﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﺪﺩد ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﻦ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭوﺯز ﻋﺪﺩد ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻜ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻢ ﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭوﻥن‬
‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺗﺼﺐ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺼ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀء ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﺓة ﺑﺄﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﻢ ﻳﻤﻴﻠﻮﻥن ﺇإ ﺍاﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍا‬
‫ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﺪ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡح ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻟﻚ " ﺸﺮﺍاﺀء"‪  ‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﺿﺔ ﻟﻺﺻﻼﺡح ﺭر ﻤﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﻃﺮ ﻘﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀء ﻋ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  .‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻜ ﻥن ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻟﻺﻓﻼﺕت ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺴﻘﻂ ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣ ﻢ‬
‫ﻴﺔ ﻟﻪﮫ ﻻ ﻌﺘ ﻃﺮ ﻘﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﻨﺤ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴ ﻴﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻟ ﻴﻊ ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉع ﺍا ﺎﺹص ﻋ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎﻥن ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺇإﻃﻼﻕق ﺇإﺷﺎﺭرﺓة ﻟﻠﻤﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ ﺸﻌﺮ ﻢ ﺑﺄﻥن ﻗﻄﺎﻉع ﺳ ﺎﻥن‬
‫ﻟﻦ ﺗﻄﺎﻟﻪﮫ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻃﺮ ﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫذﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺇإﻟﻐﺎﺀء ﺇإﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﻦ‬

‫ﺸﺮ ﻊ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺩدﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺒﻼﺩد ﺸ ﻞ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ‪    .‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﳌﻔﺎﺭرﻗﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﺍاﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ ﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻟﻚ‪  .‬‬
‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻭو ﺸﺮﺓة ﻧﺒﺎﺀء ﺸ ﺪ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻧﻴﻮﺩدﻟ ‪  :‬ﺃأﺩدﻯى "ﻣﻔ ﻮﻡم ﺭرﻭوﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻟﻼﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﺇإ ﺗﺪﻣ‬

‫ﻋﻮﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻠﺖ ﺣﺮﺏب ﻓﻴ ﻨﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺗﺼﺮ ﺤﺎﺕت ﺃأﺩد‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﻔﻴ ﻨﺎﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺎ ﻳﻮﻡم ﺍا ﻤﻌﺔ ﻭوﺯز ﺮ‬

‫ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻐﻮ ﻦ ﻮ ﺛﺎ ﺶ‪  .(Nguyen Co Thach)  ‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ‬

‫ﻔﻲ ﻏﻔ ‪  ‬ﻋﻘﺪﻩ ﺍاﻟﻮﺯز ﺮ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻨﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻋ ﻑف ﺛﺎ ﺶ ﺑﺄﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺼﻄﻨﻊ ﺇإ‬

‫ﻴﻊ ﺍاﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭوﺗﺜ ﻴﻂ ﺍاﻟﻌﺮﺽض‪   ،‬ﻭوﺇإ‬

‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀء ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽض ﺃأﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﺇإﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﻣﻨﺎﺯزﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺎﻧﻮﻱي ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝج ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﻣﻴﻢ؛ ﻭوﺃأﺿﺎﻑف‪"   :‬ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺮ ﻜﻴﻮﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﻣ‬

‫ﺎﻧﻮﻱي‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻧﺤﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡم‬

‫ﺑﺘﺪﻣ ﺎ ﺑﻮﺍاﺳﻄﺔ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟﺪﺍا‪   .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﺩدﺭرﻛﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺮﻑف ﺃأﺣﻤﻖ‬
‫ﻭوﺃأﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻐﻴ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ"‪  7.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﺮﺮ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﻓﻮﺭر ﺸﻦ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(7‬‬
‫ﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍاﺭر‪  :‬ﺳﻠﻴﻐﻤﺎﻥن؛ ‪  ‬‬
‫‪11‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍاﺟﻊ ﻟﻼﺳ ﺍاﺩدﺓة‪  ‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻞ ﺁآﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻥن ﳌﺮﺍاﺟﻌﺔ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  :‬ﺁآﺭرﻧﻮﺕت‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  ..‬ﺍاﳌ ﺰﻟﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓة‪  :‬ﺑ ﺩد‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﺡح ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮ ﻲ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﺍاﳌﺆ ﺪ ﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  :‬ﺑﻠﻮﻙك‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  ..‬ﺍا ﺮﺍاﻓﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍا ﻘﺎﺋﻖ‪  :‬ﺑﻠﻮﻙك ﻭوﺃأﻭوﻟﺴ ﻥن )ﺗﺤﺮ ﺮ(‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺃأﺭر ﻊ ﺩدﻭوﻝل ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ‪  :‬ﺑﺮ ﻭوﻓﺮﺍاﻧ ﻠ ﻥن‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭر‪  :‬ﻏﺮﺍاﻣﺐ‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺣﻞ ﺃأﺯزﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻦ‪   ..‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﺇإﻟﻐﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺼ ﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪  :‬ﺟﻮ ﺴﻮﻥن )ﺗﺤﺮ ﺮ(‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .8‬ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﻳﺠﺎﺭرﻭوﺳﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺟ ﻱي ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻮﺭر‪  ‬ﻙك‪  :‬ﻧ ﺒﺎﻧﻚ‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .9‬ﺇإﻳ ﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍاﻟﺪﻣﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻜ ‪  ..‬ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺴﻜ ‪  :‬ﺳﺎﻟﻴ ‪  .‬‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻣﺮ ﻜﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺒﻌﺪﻭوﻥن‪ ..  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﺩد ﻭوﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺎﻥن‪  :‬ﺗﺎﻛﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪References‬‬
‫‪1. Richard  M.  Alson,  J.  R.  Kearl,  and  Michael  B.  Vaughan,  “Is  There  a  ‬‬
‫‪Consensus Among Economists  in  the  1990’s?”  American  Economic  ‬‬
‫‪Review 82, no. 2 (1992): 203–209.‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

2. Walter  Block  and  Michael  A.  Walker,  “Entropy  in  the  Canadian  
Economics  Profession:  Sampling  Consensus  on  the  Major  Issues,”  
Canadian Public Policy 14, no. 2 (1988): 137–150, online at:
http://141.164.133.3/faculty/Block/Blockarticles/Entropy.htm
3. Gunnar  Myrdal,  “Opening  Address  to  the  Council  of  International  
Building  Research  in  Copenhagen,”  Dagens  Nyheter  (Swedish
newspaper),  August  25,  1965,  p.  12;  cited  in  Sven  Rydenfelt,  “The  
Rise,  Fall  and  Revival  of  Swedish  Rent  Control,”  in  Rent  Control:  
Myths and Realities, Walter Block and Edgar Olsen, eds. (Vancouver:
The Fraser Institute, 1981), p. 224.
4. Assar Lindbeck, The Political Economy of the New Left (New York:
Harper  and  Row,  1972);  cited  in  Sven  Rydenfelt,  “The  Rise,  Fall  and  
Revival  of  Swedish  Rent  Control,”  in  Rent  Control:  Myths  and  
Realities, Walter Block and Edgar Olsen, eds. (Vancouver: The Fraser
Institute, 1981), pp. 213, 230.
5. http://www.tenant.net/Alerts/Guide/papers/mgreen1.html
6. http://www.housingnyc.com/html/resources/faq/decontrol.html
7. From a news report in Journal of Commerce, quoted in Dan
Seligman,  “Keeping  Up,”  Fortune,  February  27,  1989.

13

Further Reading
1. Arnott,  Richard.  “Time  for  Revisionism  on  Rent  Control?”  Journal  of  
Economic Perspectives 9, no. 1 (1995): 99–120.
2. Baird, Charles. Rent Control: The Perennial Folly. Washington D.C.:
Cato Institute, 1980.
3. Block,  Walter.  “A  Critique  of  the  Legal  and  Philosophical  Case  for  
Rent  Control.”  Journal  of  Business  Ethics  40  (2002):  75–90. Online
at: http://www.mises.org/etexts/rentcontrol.pdf.
4. Block, Walter, and Edgar Olsen, eds. Rent Control: Myths and
Realities. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1981.
5. Brenner, Joel F., and Herbert M. Franklin. Rent Control in North
America and Four European Countries. Rockville, Md.: Council for
International Urban Liaison, 1977.
6. Grampp,  W.  S.  “Some  Effects  of  Rent  Control.”  Southern  Economic  
Journal (April 1950): 425–426.
7. Johnson, M. Bruce, ed. Resolving the Housing Crisis: Government
Policy, Decontrol, and the Public Interest. San Francisco: Pacific
Institute, 1982.
8. Niebanck, Paul L. Rent Control and the Rental Housing Market in
New York City. New York: Housing and Development
14

Administration, Department of Rent and Housing Maintenance,
1968.
9. Salins, Peter D. The Ecology of Housing Destruction: Economic
Effects of Public Intervention in the Housing Market. New York: New
York University Press, 1980.
10. Tucker, William. The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and
Housing Policies. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1990.
 

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