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Variable

Variable is used as synonymous for construct or property being studied. Variable is a symbol of an event, act, characteristic, trait or attribute that can be measured and to which we assign values. For data entry purpose, we assign numerical value to a variable based on the variables property. A concept that can take on different quantitative values is called variable.

Variable

Continuous variables: Any variable that has an infinite number of possible values. Variable which has the value not necessarily in the complete number is called continuous variable. income, age, education. eg. 0-100, 23.5.. Discrete variable: variables also take on values representing to added categories: such as demographic values of race and religion. Such variable which produces data that fit into categories is called discrete variables. e.g number of children. Also called categorical variable Dichotomous variable: having two values, 1 or 0.. Employed or un-employed. Also called dummy variable

Variable

Dependent variable (Criterion variable) A variable that is to be predicted or explained. Also called criterion variable. Independent variable (predictor variable, explanatory variables) A variable that is expected to influence the dependent variable. This variable is manipulated by the researcher and the manipulation causes effect on the dependent variables.

Hypothesis

Once the research question has been stated, the next step is to define testable hypotheses. Usually a research question is a broad statement that is not directly measurable by a research study. The research question needs to be broken down into smaller units, called hypotheses that can be studied. 2 Greeks words: Hypo means under and Thesis means refers to place Thus hypothesis means anything under consideration Working hypothesis or empirical hypothesis: when a hypothesis is formulated, it is merely an assumption. When it is put for empirical testing, it becomes a working hypothesis. A working hypothesis is one which is provisionally adopted to explain certain facts and which guides the researcher for investigation.

Hypothesis

Proposition is defined as a statement about the observable phenomena (concepts) that may be judged as true or false. When a proposition is formulated for empirical testing, we call it a hypothesis. Hypothesis merely means assumption or some supposition to be proved or disproved but for researcher hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to resolve
A hypothesis is a statement that expresses the probable relationship between variables.

Characteristics of a good hypothesis


A good hypothesis possesses certain features; the most important ones are as follow: Clarity: a hypothesis must be clearly stated. The terminology used should be commonly accepted and understood. The ambiguous statement should be avoided. Relevancy to the problem: a hypothesis is a guiding principle for identification and solution of a problem, so a hypothesis should be relevant to the problem under consideration. Specific: the hypothesis formulated should not be general but it should be specific to a particular problem. Generalization may lead us to irrelevant solution. Empirically testable: empirical testability is the major characteristic of a hypothesis. Testability bifurcate a hypothesis from assumption.

Sources of hypothesis

The major sources from which a hypothesis can be generated are: Personal experience: hypothesis is the product of the researcher mind. Before starting research, the researcher produces a guess of the problem on the basis of his experience. A personally experienced researcher will produce a suitable hypothesis. Imagination and thinking: the imaginations and creative thinking of a researcher also enables him to produce a fruitful hypothesis. If the thinking capabilities of the researcher are high, it will lead him to produce a number of relevant and good hypotheses. Observation: preliminary data Literature research: theory + past work

Types of hypothesis

On the basis of structure: Directional: As clear from the name, it shows direction of the relationship between variables. It states the relationship of two or more variables such as positive or ve, more than, less than etc. e.g.: men are hard working than women Non directional: that postulates a relationship but the direction is normally not known. e.g: there is a difference between levels of hard working between men and women. We dont know what the relation is. Non directional hypothesis is also called as descriptive hypothesis. Non directional hypothesis is formulated either because the relationships have never been previously explored or because there have been conflicting findings in previous research studies. In some cases the relation would be +ve and in other ve, therefore, the researcher is not sure about the relation of variables in question.

Types of hypothesis
On the basis of function

Null hypothesis: null hypothesis means that there is no

difference between the relationship of two variables, or means of two groups in the population. Actually it shows that the correlation of two variables is equal to zero or the difference between means of two groups in a population is equal to zero. It is denoted by H0. Null hypothesis is always formulated for possible rejection. By rejecting the null hypothesis, this means that all the alternative hypothesis relating to a particular relationships can be supported. Null hypothesis does not show any significant relationship between variables or means of groups. Alternative hypothesis: shows a relationship of the variables or indicating differences between various groups. It is denoted by H1

Types of hypothesis
For Directional Hypothesis Men are hard working than women Null Hypothesis H0: M = W H0: M W = 0

Where H0: Null hypothesis M = Mean Hard working level of men W = Mean Hard working level of women H1: M > W

The alternative hypothesis would be:

Types of hypothesis
For non-directional hypothesis: There is a difference between levels of hard working between men and women H0: M = W H0: M W = 0 Alternative hypothesis H1: M W