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V O LU M E 1 , I SS U E 3 JUNE, 2009
Leadership, Not Just For Leaders Anymore part 1
“Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.” Dwight D. Eisenhower Leadership is? Leadership is a word used in everyday news and conversation. However, frequently the folks discussing leadership can have completely separate perceptions of what is expected of a leader and won’t even know it. No wonder there can be some big discrepancies in what is expected from a person in a leadership roles. According to project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness), leadership is about influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. happens in all productions and organizations. This type of leadership model isn’t always formally recognized, particularly where there is a strict preference for for-
I N S ID E T H I S I S S U E :
Leadership is? Types of Leadership Competency Based Behavioral Leadership Contingency Model 1 2 3 4 5
From the above definition it is pretty clear that leadership is not exclusively the domain of the boss, head of department, production manager, best boy etc. How do you define leadership? Leadership can be, and is often develmal or vertical leadership oped and displayed by models. anyone in an organization. This model is ~ Kathleen Higgins known as shared leadership. As most of us know intuitively, shared leadership,
Transformational Leaders 6 Implicit Leadership References 7 8
S E L F RE F L E C T IO N ?
AFTER READING THIS A R T I C LE , M A Y B E J O T TING DOWN SOME IDEAS FOR YOURSELF WILL BE HELPFUL.
• How did you definition of leadership differ? How did it change? Part 1 • Consider your favorite boss or leader, what leadership styles do they use effectively? • What’s your type of leadership? • What leadership style brings out the best in you? Why? • How can knowing more about leadership help you in the workplace?
Types of Leadership ~ A brief overview. - part 2
So what are these leadership types? Leadership is one of the most researched and possibly the most complex topics in the study of organizational behavior. The resultant research has generated an enormous volume of literature which can be pretty much organized into five perspectives: These five leadership perspectives are: Competency Based Behavioral Contingency Transformational Implicit
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Competency Based Leadership—Part 3
In the competency model of leadership there is a notion that effective leaders possess specific personal characteristics or competencies. There is a belief that these skills, knowledge, aptitudes and personal characteristics lead to superior performance in leaders and performance of subordinates. The main categories of leadership competencies are: personality, self-concept, drive, integrity, leadership motivation, expertise, cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence. The competency perspective is currently quite popular. It does have some limitations. It does assume that all leaders have the same characteristics and personal traits can apply to all situations. This is a false assumption. There is also an emphasis that leadership is something mythical within a person. Experts emphasize that leadership is
purely relational. Effective leaders are so because of their favorable relationship with followers. Leadership can not be identified without considering the quality of those relationships.
Behavioral Leadership - Part 4
What are the behaviors that make leaders effective? The behavioral leadership perspective looks at what behaviors make leaders effective. There are two clusters of leadership behaviors which dominate this model. The first is peopleoriented behaviors identified by showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates, demonstrating genuine concern for their needs. The other cluster represents a taskoriented leadership style and includes behaviors that define structure work roles. Task-oriented leaders assign employees specific tasks, clarify duties and procedures and ensure they follow company rules and challenge employees to push beyond their normal standards.
T H ER E A R E TWO CLU S TERS
O F B EH AV I O RA L LEA D ER S H I P PERSPECTIVES :
♦ P EO PLE O RIE N TED ♦ T A S K O RIEN TED
Contingency Based Leadership - Part 5
The “it depends” perspective. The contingency leadership perspective is based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the situation. There is an assumption that leaders must be both insightful and flexible, this is difficult for most leaders to do and most leaders typically have a preferred style. It takes a lot of effort for most leaders to continually choose and implement a different style for every situation and readiness circumstance.
Contingency Based Leadership is situation based
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Transformative Leadership - Part 6
How to define the ability to transform and inspire people? Transformative leadership perspective explains how leaders change teams or organizations. These leaders enact change by creating, communicating, and modeling a vision for the organization and inspiring employees to strive for that vision. These leaders are agents of change. An excellent example of a transformative leader is Guy Laliberte’ creator of Cirque du Soleil. Be careful though— this style of leadership is often confused with charisma, which is strictly personal trait which helps build allegiance in followers. Charisma does not necessarily create change in an organization. Charismatic leaders often produce highly dependent followers. Transformative leaders often have the opposite effect – they Guy Laliberte—Cirque du Soleil build follower emTransformative Leader powerment. Ultimately follower empowerment reduces dependence ~ Kathleen.Higgins on the leader and builds creative positive environments.
Implicit Leadership Perspectives - Part 7
Preconceived Leadership Implicit leadership theory states that followers evaluate a leader’s effectiveness in terms of how well that person fits their own preconceived beliefs about the behaviors of effective leadership. These people or followers have an innate ability inflate the influence of these leaders on normal organizational events. These preconceived beliefs by followers are called leadership prototypes. This prototype comparison process occurs as a result of the follower’s inherent need to quickly evaluate people as leaders, even though leadership effectiveness if often ambiguous and might not be apparent for a lengthy period of time.
W O R K I N G M ATTERS
Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership, New York, New York: Harper & Row House, R., Javidan, M (2002) “Project Globe: An Introduction” Journal of World Business 37. George, J. (2002) “Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence” Human Relations 53 McShane, S.L., (2009) Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Toronto, Ont,: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Raelin, J.A., (2003) “Creating Leadersful Organizations: How to bring out Leadership in Everyone” SanFrancisco, BerretKoehler
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