Translation Method The Definition of Translation Translation is one of the skills that should be learned and developed by the

students, but in reality they still have the same problems in learning it. It is because translation involves two languages, source language and target language. In other words, it can be said that translation requires a transfer from English to Indonesian language, which is different one from the other in many aspects. Translation method is a teaching technique which has been used in teaching English. Translation consists of changing from one state or from to another, to turn into one’s own or another’s language (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974). Furthermore, Newmark (1988: 1) claims that translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language. The Types of Translation Method The central problem of translation has always been whether to translate literally or freely. Furthermore, Newmark (1988: 45-47) suggests that there are some types of translation method which can be used for teaching and learning activity. They are as follows: 1. Word-for-word Translation This method is often demonstrated with the target language (TL) immediately below the source language (SL) word. The SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. 2. Literal Translation The SL grammatical construction are changed to their nearest TL equivalent, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. 3. Adaptation It is the ‘freest’ form of translation. It is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry. The SL culture changed to the TL culture and text rewritten. 4. Free Translation It reproduces the matter without the manner or the context without the form of the original. It is usually a paraphrase, much longer than the original. 5. Idiomatic Translation It reproduces the message of the original, but tends to distort nuances of meaning and idioms where these do not exist in the original. 6. Communicative Translation It tries to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such way that both content and language are accepted and comprehended by the reader. References: Webster, Merriam. 1986. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice-Hall International Ltd.

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