You are on page 1of 5

Lesson Plan SMA School Subject Class/ Semester Learning Material Time Allotment I.

: SMA A Palembang : IPA : VIII/1 : : 1 x 30 minutes

Competency Standards : 1. Understanding the various systems in the human life. : 1.4 Describe the digestive system in humans and its relationship to health.

II. Basic Competency

III. Indicators

1. Compare the mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. Mention examples of disorders and diseases of the digestive system commonly encountered in everyday life and efforts to overcome.

IV. Learning Objectives 1. Students can mention the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. Students can mention the disorders and diseases of the digestive system..

V. Learning Material A. Mechanical and Chemical Digestion Digestion is the process of changing food into a form that the body can absorb and use as energy or as the raw materials to repair and build new tissue. Digesting food is a two-part process that's half mechanical, half chemical.

Mechanical digestion begins in your mouth as your teeth tear and grind food into small bits and pieces you can swallow without choking. The muscular walls of your esophagus, stomach, and intestines continue mechanical digestion, pushing the food along, churning and breaking it into smaller particles. There are two basic types of mechanical digestion.

Mastication: The first step when it comes to digestion actually begins as soon as food enters the mouth. Mastication (chewing) begins the process of breaking down food into nutrients. As a type mechanical digestion, chewing our food is an important part of the digestive process because smaller pieces are more readily digested through chemical digestion.

Peristalsis: Mechanical digestion also involves the process known as peristalsis. Peristalsis is simply the involuntary contractions responsible for the movement of food through the esophagus and intestinal tracts.

Chemical digestion occurs at every point in the digestive system, beginning when you see or smell food. These sensory events set off nerve impulses from your eyes and nose that trigger the release of enzymes and other substances that will eventually break down food to release the nutrients inside. The body then burns these nutrients for energy or uses them to build new tissues and body parts. The presence of these digestive enzymes accelerates the digestion process, where absence of these enzymes slows overall reaction speed. Currently, there exist eight digestive enzymes mainly responsible for chemical digestion. (The following are direct quotes from the online medical dictionary.)

Nuclease: Any of a group of enzymes that split nucleic acids into nucleotides and other products.

Protease: Any of various enzymes, including the proteinases and peptidases, that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins.

Collagenase: Any of various enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin.

Lipase: Any of a group of lipolytic enzymes that cleave a fatty acid residue from the glycerol residue in a neutral fat or a phospholipid.

Amylase: Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.

o o

Elastase: An enzyme capable of catalyzing the digestion of elastic tissue. Trypsin: A proteolytic digestive enzyme produced by the exocrine pancreas that catalyzes in the small intestine the breakdown of dietary proteins to peptones, peptides, and amino acids.

Chymotrypsin: A proteolytic enzyme produced by the pancreas that catalyzes the hydrolysis of casein and gelatin.

The digestive system is also associated with many accessory organs responsible for producing an array of chemical enzymes: salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder. B. Digestive System Disorders and Diseases The digestive system of the body, can have disorders. Disruption of the digestive system can result by abnormalities of the digestive system, the entry of many kinds of harmful microorganisms and the bad food. There are some examples of disorders of the digestive system, especially which occur in the digestive organs. 1. Diarrhea, this disorder occurs due to disruption of water absorption in the large intestine. This disorder can be caused by appendicitis, this disorder is also called appendicitis. This disorder occurs in the appendix. Appendix becomes inflamed due to infection by bacteria. 2. Maag, this disorder may occur due to excess production of stomach acid. Symptoms of this disorder, which feels nausea and burning in the stomach. To avoid such interference, can be done with a regular diet and the right time. 3. Ulcers or peptic ulcer, namely interference of the stomach caused by high production gastric acid (HCl) compared the food intake. 4. Constipation, which is a disorder that occurs due to water absorption in the colon excessive. As a result, the feces become hard. 5. Parotitis (mumps), the gland disorders parotid swelling. This disorder is also called mumps infection by bacteria or germs.


Learning Model and Method Learning Model Learning Method : Mind Mapping : Discussion and presentation

VII. No.

Learning Activities Teacher Introduction Student Activities Time Allotment


Teacher starts the lesson by greeting and checking the

3 minutes

attendance, giving motivation,




and time allotment. Apperception Teacher asks students to Students share about their experience.

demonstrate the range of motion that can be done and then asks them, Do you ever have a diarrhea? Do you know why it can happen? Main Activities Teacher explains and about the

Students listen to the teacher.

mechanical digestive. Teacher give

chemical to


Students think individually.

students to thibk about the difference mechanism. Teacher ask the students to share about their opinion and informs the right concept. 2. Teacher guide students in the formation of groups, each group consist of 3-4 students Teacher gives each group an example of digestive disease to discuss about what, why, and how to do to avoid it. the results of the group discussions The students presented in the classical style. Teacher question asks for students gives of both digestive

Students form some groups and discuss.

24 minutes

Students share the result.


positive feed back and explain

the right concept. Closing Students guided by the teacher to make the conclusion about todays lesson. 3. Teacher gives a homework and informs material. Teacher closes the lesson by greeting. the next meeting 3 minutes Students make conclusion.

VIII. Tools and Learning Sources 1. Stationery (marker, eraser) 2. Laptop, LCD 3. IPA textbook class VIII



Bibliography Campbell, A. Neil dkk. 2004. BIOLOGI Edisi Kelima Jilid 3. Jakarta: Erlangga. Karim, Saeful., Ida Kaniawati., Yuli Nurul Fauziah., dan Wahyu Sopandi. 2008. Belajar IPA: membuka cakrawala alam sekitar 2 untuk kelas VIII/ SMP/MTs. Depdiknas: Jakarta. Depdiknas. 2006. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No 22 Tahun 2006 tentang Standar Isi. Depdiknas: Jakarta.