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# PRINCIPLES OF

STRUCTURL

STABILITY THEORY

By Alexander Chajes(UOM),

Jiaxiang Tang(HUST)

Background

Mechanics of Material and Elastics: Differential

Equation

Advanced Mathematics: Solving the equation

Ultimate Limit State Design Structural Failure LS Strength

(allowable stress design) Buckling

Serviceability LS

Based on the deformation state:

Superimposed Principle is no suitable

Kirchhoff sigle sluion is not suitable

Chapter 1: Buckling of Column

1.1 Introduction

(1) What is Buckling?

Buckling, means losing the state of stable equilibrium, or

unstable equilibrium.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

(2) Two types of buckling and

their mechanic meaning

axially loaded

column

eccentrically loaded

For the later one, once being loaded, the column is bended.

And bending curvature is a little bigger. The amount of internal

force and the deformation has been increased, but the

equilibrium form doesn•t change in quality. (‚ ƒ „ …)

Fi g. 1• 1

For the former one, when bulking, it

transit from the straight to the bent

configuration; that is to say the internal

force and the equilibrium form has

changed in quality.

•

•

N

cr

e

•

•

N

Two types of stability:

1† First theory• quality difference

The equilibrium form

corresponding to the state

before the structure bulking

become unstable.

And there exists a new

equilibrium form different

with the former one in quality.

A sudden change in quality of

the internal force and

deformation has been

occurred.

Besides the axially loaded

column in Fig.1-1a, the

structure in Fig.1-2 is also of

the case.

Fig. 1• 2

•

•

Fig. 1-1a

2† second theory• • quantity difference

When the structure bulking, the deformation will be greatly

increased, (in quantity) and there will not be a new

deformation form. That is to say the equilibrium form of the

structure will not be changed in quality. See 1-1b

3† some important concepts

The simplest case is axially loaded

member buckling. (ƒ ‡ ˆ ‰)

Š Modes of buckling

The deformation form after buckling is called

modes of buckling.

The behavior of axially loaded column relates to

many factors, and there are three modes of

buckling:

e

•

•

Fig. 1-1b

a) Bending buckling (the cross-section bending in the plane of

one of the principle axis)

b) Twisting buckling (the cross-section twisting around the

axis of the bar‹

c) Combination of bending and twisting (the bending

deformation is coupled with the twisting deformation)

What kind of mode buckling may occur mainly depend on the

form of cross-section, size ,length and restraint at the end of

the column.

ŒMethod of neutral equilibrium

For the slender column, when the axial force is small, there

only generate an axial shortening of the member, and keep a

straight configuration. And if there is a slight transverse

disturbance, the column will bend. And return to the original

straight configuration after the disturbance removed. That is

to say the straight configuration of the column is stable.

When the axial force N is big, a slight transversal disturbance

will lead to a rapid increase of the bending deformation, and the

member will be also damaged. The straight configuration is

unstable at this large load. This phenomena that the member lost

its equilibrium with straight configuration is called Buckle.

There is another possible state between stable equilibrium

and unstable state: after small disturbance displaced, it neither

returns to straight configuration nor continues to bend more. It

remains at the position to which the small disturbance has moved

it. That is to say there exists another equilibrium form in slight

bending state besides the straight configuration state. The

balance between external force and internal force is • Ž …. This

behavior is referred to as neutral equilibrium.

Neutral equilibriumis a state between stable equilibrium

and unstable equilibrium, namely critical state. The feature of

the state is that there exists two types of equilibrium state.

That is to say it can be equilibrium in straight configuration

and slightly bending configuration.

• Critical load

The load of neutral equilibrium state is referred to as the

critical load, N

cr.

It is not difficult to find out that the critical load of the

axially loaded column can keep both of the straight

configuration and the slightly bending state in equilibrium.

This is so called the duality of equilibrium. This theory is not

only suitable for axially loaded column but also for all the cases

of structures belonging to the first theory.(• ‘ ’ ‰“ ” • )

– Explanation of buckling phenomenon

Why does a straight compression member suddenly buckle?

A slender column shortens when compressed by a weight

applied to its top, and, in so doing, lowers the weight•s position.

The tendency of all weights to lower their position is a basic law of

nature. It is another basic law of nature that, whether there is a

choice between difference paths, a physical phenomenon will

follow the easiest path.

Confronted with the choice of bending out or shortening, the

column finds it easier to shorten for relatively small loads and to

bend out for relatively large loads. In other words, when the load

reaches it buckling value the column finds it easier to lower the

load by bending than by shortening.‚ By Salvadori and Heller

(3) Buckling in engineering

1† Member in compression

1974, an 90-meter arc bridge in construction collapsed.

2† Steel in compression

The vicinity of the column node in the structure is

destroyed in earthquake. The steel in compression is

destroyed in shape of lantern.

3† Beam

1969,the girder of the fourth bridge of Danube in Vienna

in construction was collapsed.—˜ ™210š › œ• ž ‹

1970, Melbourne West Gate Bridge in construction

collapsed. (35 people dead, 18 people injured)

—144+327+144š Ÿ • ž ‹

1972, the vicinity of the middle span support of Milford

Bridge in British broke off.—˜ ™213š › œ• ž ‹

4† Slab

Ningbo Bridge collapsed in construction.

(4) Method of neutral equilibrium

1† Theoretical basis

The main content of buckling problem: determine the critical load

The theoretical basis: neutral equilibrium

Basic approach: static approach and energy approach

2† Static approach

According to the concept of neutral

equilibrium, the system is in equilibrium both

in the dashed state and in real line state.

Especially the latter one.

Discuss the system in Fig1-3 which

only have one degree of deformation

freedom -- single degree of freedom

system.

Fig. 1• 3

Consideration¡

Assume that a state of equilibrium exists at the newly deformed

state first. (Fig1-3) Then find out the condition that satisfies the

equilibrium. And the critical load can be found.

EI=•

δ

•

N

cr

•

•

γ

N

Approach¡

Š Write the static equilibrium

equation of the deformed structure.

N

cr

y

1

-R

1

l= 0 —a‹

where R

1

• • reaction force of spring

and —b‹

γ• • stiffness coefficient of spring

Substitute Eq.—b‹ into Eq.—a‹ ¢ we have

(1.1)

1 1

y R γ ·

0 ) (

1

· − y l N

cr

γ

EI=•

δ

N

cr

•

l

R

1

y

1

•

γ

•

Œ Determine the critical load from the equilibrium equation

Eq.—1.1‹ is a homogeneous equation with indeterminate

displacement. If and can both satisfy

the equation, the mechanical notation of :

the original straight configuration is in equilibrium.

0 ) ( · − rl N

cr

(proper equation), predicate that there

exists a newly deformed equilibrium form besides the original

equilibrium form. That is to say there are more than one

equilibrium forms, and the system has duality. The system is in

a critical state.

0 · − rl N

cr

0

1

·

y

0

1

·

y

The critical load can be obtained from the proper equation:

—1.2‹

l N

cr

γ ·

3† Energy approach

Consideration¡

There is no energy increment

from the original state to the

deformed state.

Approach¡

Š Find out the energy increment

between original state and the

deformed state

γ

EI=•

δ

N

cr

•

l

R

1

y

1

•

•

Potential energy increment of load ∆V¡

∆V= -Nδ —b‹

Since

l

y

l

y

l l

l y l l y l l

2 2

1

/ 1

2

1

2

2

1

2 2

1

2

1

2

·

,

_

¸

¸

− − ≈

− − · − − · δ

—c‹

—a‹

2

1 1 1

2

1

2

1

y y R U γ · · ∆

Strain energy increment of

spring ∆U¡

γ

EI=•

δ

N

cr

•

l

R

1

y

1

•

•

Equation—b‹ leads to

l

y

N V

2

2

1

⋅ − · ∆

(d)

The total potential energy increment ∆Πcan be evaluated

from equation (appendix 1-1)¡

2

1

2

1

2

1

2 2 2

1

y

l

N l

l

Y

N y

V U

,

_

¸

¸

−

· − ·

∆ + ∆ · ∆Π

γ

γ

—1.3‹

Equation (1.3) indicates that total potential energy ∆Π

increment is a quadratic function of displacement y

1

, and

relates to the coefficient .

,

_

¸

¸

−

l

N l

2

γ

ŒFind out the critical load from ∆Π=0

If , it indicates that energy increment is needed

from the original equilibrium state to the newly deformed

equilibrium state. So the original equilibrium in straight

configuration is stable. This is the smallest potential

energy principle: In a stable equilibrium state, the actual

displacement minimize the total potential energy Π.

0 > ∆Π

Fig. 1-4

∏ ∏ ∏

N‚ N

cr

N=N

cr

Nƒ N

cr

y

1

y

1

y

1

If , it indicates that energy decrement is needed

from the original equilibrium state to the newly deformed

equilibrium state. So the original equilibrium state in straight

configuration is unstable.

If , it indicates that energy doesn't change from the

original equilibrium state to the newly deformed equilibrium

state. So the original equilibrium in straight configuration is

neutral equilibrium. And the load is called critical load.

Namely:

The result obtained from the energy approach equates with

the result given by Eq. (1.2).

0 · ∆Π

0 < ∆Π

rl N

cr

·

Fig. 1-5

1.2 The Euler Column

It is desirable to begin the study of columns with a very

idealized case, the Euler column.

It was pointed out that, the energy characteristic of the

three types equilibrium state (stable, neutral equilibrium,

unstable) are corresponding to the three types of equilibrium

state of a rigid ball in Fig 1-5.

(1) What is Euler column(1744)

Axially loaded member having a constant cross-sectional

area and being made of a homogeneous material.

In addition, four assumptions are made:

a) The ends of the member are simply supported£

b) The member is perfectly straight, and the load is

applied along its centroidal axis£

c) The material obeys Hooke•s law£

d) The deformations of the member are small

enough¡

y

y

y

′ ′

≈

′

+

′ ′

·

2 / 3 2

) 1 (

1

ρ

(2) Critical load

1† Establish neutral equilibrium

According to the duality of equilibrium, critical load

makes the slightly bent configuration possible (shown in Fig. 1-

6a). The slightly bent configuration in Fig 1-6a is in neutral

equilibrium state.

2† Write the equilibrium

equation

The coordinate axes are taken

as shown in the figure: take account

of the section a distance x from the

origin (Fig 1-6a).

Fig. 1• 6

y

N

N

y

x

M

(b)

•

x

•

•

N

cr

l/2

l/2

y

(a)

Equating the moment at any section, a distance x from the

origin¡ M-Ny=0

Ny

d

y d

EI · −

2

2

χ

—1.4‹

Introducing the notation¡ —1.5‹

EI

N

k ·

2

Eq.—1.4‹ becomes¡

—1.6‹ 0

2

· +

′ ′

y k y

3† Solve the equation

The general solution of homogeneous linear equations

with constant coefficients is always of the form ¡

—1.7‹

kx B kx A y cos sin + ·

To evaluate the arbitrary constants A and B, we make use of

the boundary conditions¡

y=0 at ¤ =0

y=0 at ¤ =l

Substituted into Eq.—1.7‹ leads to¡

¹

)

¹

· +

· +

0 cos sin

0 0

kl B kl A

B

—1.8‹

One result is A=B=0. This result is known as the trivial

solution because the member remains perfectly straight. But

the answer is not what we want.

In order to determine the critical load which brings the

new equilibrium state, we have .

0

1

≠ y

The unknown constant A and B should not be equal to zero

simultaneous. In order to satisfy this condition, the determinant

with unknown constant A and B should be equal to zero:

0

cos sin

1 0

·

kl kl

—1.9‹

The Eq. (1.9) is called characteristic equation or stabilization

equation. It leads to :

0 sin · kl

Then

π n kl ·

Where: n=1¢ 2¢ ƒ ƒ

Substitution of this expression into Eqs.—1.5‹ and—1.7‹

leads to

—1.10‹

2

2 2

l

EI n

N

π

·

l

n

A y

πχ

sin · —1.11‹

At the loads given by Eq. —1.10‹ the column can be in

equilibrium in a slightly bent form.

The smallest value of N, obtained by setting n equal to 1, is

2

2

min

l

EI

N N

e

π

· ·

—1.12‹

This load is known as the Euler load, expressed as , and

the Eq.—1.12‹ is known as the Euler Equation.

The shape of the deformation is given by Eq.—1.12‹ .

However, its amplitude is indeterminate, since the A can have

any value when¡

And we call it modes of buckling.

e

N

l

x

A y

π

sin ·

The critical load sometimes is referred

to as the buckling load.

Hoff suggested that the load under

which an actual imperfect column

suddenly bows out laterally be referred

to as the buckling load and that the term

critical load be reserved for the load at

which neutral equilibrium is possible for

a perfect member according to a linear

analysis. The Euler load should be

referred to as the critical load of the

column.

•

•

l

x

A y

π

sin ·

It can be summed up as follows¡ when , the column

must remain straight. When ,

there exists a bifurcation of equilibrium.

This behavior signifies that a state

of neutral equilibrium exists at the Euler

load and that the Euler load marks

the transition from stable to unstable

equilibrium.

Its amplitude is indeterminate, because

is introduced when establishing the static equilibrium

equation, and we have a linearizing result of the differential

equation.

cr

N N <

cr

N N ·

y ′ ′ ≈

ρ

1

Fig. 1• 7

N

A

0

N

e

=π

2

EI/l

2

(3) Behavior of Euler column

The behavior is represented graphically in Fig. 1-7.

Eq.—1.10‹ indicates that for values of n greater than 1,

there exist other loads larger than the Euler load. These larger

loads will be assumed to be valid mathematical solutions, but

devoid of significance.

The small-deflection column theory is known as the linear

column theory.

2

2 2

l

EI n

N

π

·

—1.10‹

l

n

A y

πχ

sin · —1.11‹

0

2

· +

′ ′

y k y

—1.6‹

Although, the solutions have meaning in special

conditions.

•

•

2

2 2

l

EI n

N

π

·

l

x

A y

π 2

sin ·

2

2

4

l

EI

N

cr

π

·

l

n

A y

πχ

sin ·

For instance, in Figure, if there is a restrain in the mid

of the column, n=2. Then the critical load will be 4 times, and

the column will consists of a sine wave.

1.3 Elastically restrained end

(1) Background in engineering

In most actual structures the ends of columns are neither

hinged nor fixed. Instead, the columns are usually rigidly

connected to other members, which permits a limited amount

of rotation to occur at the ends of the columns. Supports of

this type are referred to as elastic restrains. They are so

named because the restraint that exists at the end of the

column depends on the elastic properties of the members into

which the column frames.

(2) Base hinged and upper end elastically restrained

1† Diagram

As shown in Fig 1-8a, the upper end B of the column can

be regarded as a spring (Fig 1-8b) in the system, since the

beam BC is shortened (or stretched) when the column AB is

buckling.

x

• •

δ

B

A

EI

γ

γδ

x

y

N

cr

• •

N

A

B

C

EA

EI

l

l

b

N

BC

σ

BC

=Eδ/l

b

N

BC

=

δ

b

l

EA

b

l

EA

· γ

•

•

δ

B

A

EI

γ

γδ

x

y

N

cr

x

l

y

M

Equilibrium equation:

—a‹

Consequently

The differential equation of the bent column:

( ) ( ) 0 · − + − − x l y N M γδ δ

y EI M

′ ′

·

( ) ( ) 0 · − + − −

′ ′

x l y N y EI γδ δ

Introduce

EI

N

k ·

2

Then

( ) x l

EI

k y k y − − · +

′ ′

γδ

δ

2 2

—b‹

For the segment¡

2† Critical load

The general solution of Eq. (b)

—c‹

The third term of Eq. (c) is a particular solution of the

nonhomogeneous equation (b).

Substitute the boundary condition:

y= =0 at x =0

at ,

into Eq.—c‹ ¡

( )

1

]

1

¸

− − + + · x l

N

kx B kx A y

γ

δ 1 cos sin

y

′

l x · δ · y

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

· +

· +

· − +

0 cos sin

0

0 ) 1 (

kl B kl A

N

kA

N

l

B

δ

γ

δ

γ

—d‹

Since the unknown constant A B and should not equate to

zero simultaneous, the coefficient determinant of the

homogeneous equations set (d) must be zero:

δ

0

0 cos sin

0

1 1 0

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

kl kl

N

k

N

l

γ

γ

Then we find out that , and we have the

stabilization equation:

EI k N

2

·

( )

3

3

l

EI kl

kl tgkl

γ

− · (1.13)

The Eq. (1.13) is a transcendental equation about , and

can be solved with trial method or graphic method. When

using graphic method, draw two set of curve of

and . And we will have infinite crossing

points, because the elastic bar has infinite degree of freedom.

kl

tgkl z ·

1

( )

3

3

2

l

EI kl

kl z

γ

− ·

From , we obtain the formula to

determine the critical load.

—1. 14a‹

( )

min

kl

( )

2

2

min

l

EI

kl N

c

·

γ

3† Discuss

Š Base fixed and upper end free

If , it is equivalent to upper end free,

and the Eq. (1.13) leads to

0 · γ

( )

2

min

π

· −∞ · kl tgkl

From , obtain the critical load:

EI

N

k ·

2

( )

2

2

2

2

2

4

l

EI

l

EI

N

c

π π

γ

· ·

—1. 14b‹

ŒBase fixed and upper end hinged

If , it is equivalent to a rigid hinge at the upper end.

From Eq. (1.13) one obtains

∞ → γ

kl tgkl ·

Use graphic method(¥ ¦ § ). Let , and from

Fig 1-9 we obtain:

kl z ·

3

( ) 493 . 4

min

· kl

Hence

( )

2

2

493 . 4

l

EI

N

c

·

γ

or —1. 14c‹

( )

2

2

7 . 0 l

EI

N

c

π

γ

·

• The effective length of column

Merge the Eq. (1.14b) and Eq. (1.14c), we obtain an

uniform formula:

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

·

·

l l

l

EI

N

c

µ

π

γ

0

2

0

2

—1. 15‹

Where¡ • • actual length of column;

• • effective length of column;

• • effective length coefficient.

Eq. (1.15) indicates that the Euler formula can be used to

obtain the critical load of the member, provided the correct

effective length, regardless of the boundary conditions.

l

0

l

µ

To determine the effective length is essentially to determine

the effective length coefficient . The value of in some

common kinds of support condition.

µ µ

One end fixed and one end hinged =0. 7

One end fixed and one end free =2. 0

Both end fixed =0. 5

Both end hinged =1. 0

µ

µ

µ

µ

(3) Using effective-length concept in upper end

elastically restrained column

The effective-length concept is equally valid for any other set

of boundary conditions. For instance the system, as shown in

Fig 1-10a, for simplicity, is taken as equal to a column AB

whose upper end is restrained with spring. (Fig. 1-10b) Solve

the question with effective-length concept.

Fig. 1-10

1† Determine the stiffness

coefficient of spring γ

1

3

1

3EI

Hl

· ∆ ∆ · ∆ · γ

3

1

1

3

l

EI

H

3

1

1

3

l

EI

· γ

3

3

) (

l

EI kl

kl tgkl

γ

− ·

(1. 16a)

Since

one obtains ¢

and

¢

( )

0 1

3

3

· +

1

]

1

¸

−

kl

kl tgkl

EI

l γ

EI

N

k

cr

·

2

EI

N

k

cr

·

l

EI

N

kl

cr

·

2

2

) ( l

EI

N

cr

µ

π

·

2

,

_

¸

¸

·

l EI

N

cr

µ

π

one obtains

2† Find the relationship between γ and µ

From the stabilization equation of a base fixed and upper

end elastically restrained column

—1.13‹

Hence (1. 16b)

let —1. 17‹

µ

π

µ

π

· · l

l

kl

EI

l

3

γ

η ·

Substitution of Eq. (1.16b) and Eq. (1.17) into Eq. (1.16a),

leads to

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

·

µ

π

µ

π

µ

π

η

tg

3

—1. 18‹

Plot numerical tabular (1-1) in accordance with Eq. (1.18)

0.70 0.78 0.80 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99 1.07 1.18 1.24 1.32 1.43 1.56 1.74 2

µ

¨

23 20 17 14 12 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 η

Table 1-1

3† Substitution of into Eq. (1.15) and evaluate N

cr

µ

4† Example1-1

Determine the critical load of the compression

member as shown in Fig. 1-11

Solution¡

µ

Š Use the effective-length concept

Take the effect of column AB as equal to a elastic

support at the end C.

Determine the stiffness coefficient first:

Determine from Eq. (1.17):

3

3

l

EI

· γ

η

3

3

· ·

EI

l γ

η

From table 1• 1¢ one obtains „ =1.43.

Substitution of Eq. (1.15), and leads to the critical

load:

( )

2 2

2

83 . 4

43 . 1 l

EI

l

EI

N

cr

· ·

π

ŒAccording to Eq. (1.3)

( )

3

3

kl

kl tgkl − ·

from which ( ) 0

3

1

3

· + − · tgkl kl kl D

When =2. 4¢ =-0. 916, D=+1. 92

=2. 0 , =-2. 185, D=-1. 518

=2. 2 , =-1. 3738, D=-0. 025

=2. 21 , =-1. 3453, D 0

kl

kl

kl

kl

tgkl

tgkl

tgkl

tgkl

·

&

Substitution of =2. 21into Eq. (1.5), leads to the critical

load:

kl

2 2

2 2

88 . 4 21 . 2

l

EI

l

EI

EI k N

c

· · ·

γ

Divide the critical load equation (1.15) by the cross-sectional

area A, and leads to the critical stress formula

A l

EI

A

N

c

cr

2

0

2

π

σ

γ

· ·

Introducing the notation ¢

• the radius of gyration£

• ratio of slenderness

leads to —1. 19‹

A

I

r ·

2

r

l

0

· λ

r

λ

2

2

2

0

2

λ

π π

σ

γ

E

r

l

E

c

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

(4) Critical stress

(5) Both end elastically restrained—omitted ‹

1.4 Higher-order differential equation for columns

—omitted‹

1.5 Critical stiffness—omitted‹

1.6 Dynamic analysis—omitted‹

1.7 Large-deformation theory for columns—omitted‹

1.8 Behavior of imperfect columns

In the derivation of the Euler load, four assumptions

were made to simplify the problem. However perfect

members do not exist in actual engineering structures. There

always exists initial deficiency in members, including

imperfections of shape, small eccentricities of loading,

residual stress and so on. That is to say the second

assumption cannot be satisfied.

(1) Initially bent columns

1† Mode of calculation

Consider the hinged column in Fig. 1-21a, whose centroidal

axis is initially bent. The initial deformation is assumed to

be of the form:

l

x

f y

o o

π

sin · —1.36‹

2† Equilibrium differential equation

Equating the internal and external

moment, at a section a distance x

from the base, leads to (Fig. 1-21b)

The additional deformation due to

bending is given by y, and the total

deformation by y0+y. Since bending

strains are caused by the change in

curvature, , and not by the total

curvature .

y

′ ′

y y

o

′ ′

+

′ ′

0 ) (

0

· + − y y N M

( ) 0

0

· + − ′ ′ − y y N y EI

x

y

y

0

y

2

l

2

l

•

•

f

0

N

•

x

y

0

y

N

N

M

Let

Substitution of y

o

of Eq. (1.36), and leads to

(1. 37)

EI

N

k ·

2

l

x

f k y k y

o

π

sin

2 2

− · +

′ ′

3† Solve the equilibrium differential equation

Eq. (1.37) is a second-order unhomogeneous linear

differential equation with constant coefficients. The general

solution is a summation of the general solution of the

homogeneous equation and the particular function of the

Eq. (1.37). As shown before, the general solution of the

homogenous equation:

—1. 38‹

kx B kx A y

c

cos sin + ·

When the right-hand side of Eq. (1.37) consists of a sine

term, the particular function is of the form:

—1. 39‹

l

x

C y

p

π

sin ·

Substituting Eq. (1.39) into Eq. (1.37) and combining terms

gives

0 sin

2

2

2

2

·

1

]

1

¸

+

,

_

¸

¸

−

l

x

f k

l

k C

o

π π

η

η

η

π

−

·

−

·

−

·

−

,

_

¸

¸

·

1

1

1

1

1

2

o o

e

o o

f f

N

N

f

kl

f

C

Hence

where £ is Euler load.

N

N

e

· η

2

2

l

EI

N

e

π

·

We obtain the general solution of the Eq. (1.37):

y =y

c

+y

p

= —1. 40‹

l

x f

kx B kx A

o

π

η

η

sin

1

cos sin

−

+ +

4† Determine A and B with boundary condition.

Boundary conditions: y=0 at x=0 —a‹

y=0 at —b‹

l x ·

From Eq.—a‹ one obtains B=0

From Eq.—b‹ one obtains Asi n =0 kl

If we set sinkl=0, leads to:

This is the Euler load. This is undesirable, and consequently

A=0

leads to —1. 41‹

2

2

l

EI

N

e

π

·

l

x

f y y

o p

π

η

η

sin .

1−

· ·

5† Analyze the critical load with load-deflection curves

Total deflection:

—1. 42‹

l

x

f

l

x

f y y

o o o

π

η

π

η

η

sin .

1

1

sin .

1

1

−

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

+ · +

The total deflection at midheight— ‹ :

2

l

x ·

Eq. (1.43) is used to obtain a ©δ curve which is

shown plotted in Fig. 1-22

N

N

e

c

o o

N N

f f

−

·

−

·

1 1 η

δ

—1. 43‹

ŒThe larger the initial bend , the larger the midpoint

deflection δ, and the more significant of the decrease of

carrying capacity; contrarily, the curvature will

approach the Euler load more. But the carrying capacity is

always smaller than the Euler load, regardless of how small

the initial bend.

o

f

δ −

e

N

N

Based on these curves and Eq. (1.43), the behavior of the

initially bent column can be summed up as follows:

Š Unlike the perfect column, which remains straight when

N<N

e

, the initially deformed member begins to bend as

soon as the load is applied and the initial point of the

curvature doesn't coincide with the original point of

coordinate.

[Anal ysi s]

6† yield criterion

The curve shown in the Eq.„ 1.43…and Fig.1• 22 is satisfied

when the material is assumed infinitely elastic. However, for most

actual columns, as bending increases, the combined axial and

bending stress will increase the plastic area in column sections that

in turn lead to collapse. The columns will buckle when the maximal

compressive stress of the frige fibre at midhight of the columns equal

to the yield point† so we can get‡

,

_

¸

¸

−

⋅ + · + ·

e

o

N N

f

W

A

A

N

W

N

A

N

1

1

max

δ

σ

where†

and • • is average stress, Euler stress

and yield stress.

• • constant,

Aˆ W• • area of section and bending modulus

o

σ

e

σ

T

σ

ε

W

Af

o

· ε

max

1

1

1 1

o

e

e e

o o T

e e o

f N N N A

A W A W N N

N

N N

δ

σ

σ

σ ε σ ε σ

σ σ

¸ _

· + · + ⋅

−

¸ ,

¸ _ ¸ _

· + · + ·

− −

¸ , ¸ ,

Reduce it,

get

( ) [ ] 0 1

2

· + + + −

T e e T o o

σ σ ε σ σ σ σ

( ) ( )

T e

e T e T

o

σ σ

ε σ σ σ ε σ

σ −

1

]

1

¸

+ +

−

+ +

·

2

2

1

2

1

—1. 44

‹

Eq.„ 1.44…called Perry formule† the criterion of the formule is

the frimge fibre buckled. There called relative initially bent‰ ε

ρ

ε

o o

f

W

Af

· ·

where • • section center radius‰

ρ

(2) Eccentrically loaded columns

1† Calculated diagram

Now we study the eccentrically

loaded columns with both ends of the

member are hinged. in order to avoid

solving the non homogeneous

differential equations ,we adopt the

coordinate system as shown in

Fig.1• 23a .

2ˆ balance differential equation and solution

Equating the internal moment, at any section, to the

corresponding applied moment gives„ Fig.1• 23b…‡

Fig.1--23

0 · − Ny M

0 · −

′ ′

− Ny y EI

obtains

(1.45)

The general solution of this equation is

From the boundary conditions,when

2

0 y k y

′′

+ ·

sin cos y A kx B kx · +

Obtains:

We have:

—1.47‹

2

l

x m · o

e y ·

2

cos

, 0

l

k

e

B A

o

· ·

kx

kl

e kx

kl

e

y

o

o

cos

2

sec cos

2

cos

· ·

Letting x=o, one obtains

where

The most deflection at midheight is

—1.48‹

,

_

¸

¸

· ·

e

o o

N

N

e

kl

e y

2

sec

2

sec

max

π

2

2

l

EI

N

e

π

·

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

· − · 1

2

sec

max

e

o o

N

N

e e y

π

δ

Fi g. 1- - 24

3† Discussion

Fig.1• 24 gives a graphical representation of Eq.„ 1.48…that

is extremely resemble with Fig.1• 22† indicates that the behavior

of an eccentrically loaded column is essentially the same as that of

an initially bent column.the difference is the latter curve through the

origh of coordinates.namely:

„ 1…when have e

0

† the carrying capacity is thus always smaller

than the Euler load.

„ 2…the bigger the e

0

† the lower the carrying capacity.

„ 3…can use initially bent express initially eccentricity.

„ 4…yield criterion

According to fringe fibre yield criterion¡

W

kl

Ne

A

N

o

2

sec

max

+ · σ

T

kl

A

N

σ ε ·

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

2

sec 1

namely „ 1.49…

where† is called relative eccentricity ratio‰

T

e

o

σ

σ

σ π

ε σ ·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+

0

2

sec 1

A W

e e

o o

· ·

ρ

ε

Eq.„ 1.49…called secant formula† can use sequential

method solve critical stress.

(3) Residual stress

1ˆ The creation of residual stress

Residual stress is created by rolling or welding processes different

position cooled non-uniform.

2ˆ The feature of residual stress

Residual stress is a initial stress„ before the component stand

under load, the stress already existing in the section…† on the same

section, they self-balance.„ Fig.1--25…‰

Fig.1--25

Tests have shown that the critical force has been degraded by

residual stress. A long time people considered that the test solution

lower for existing inevitable initially bent and initially eccentricity .

In the 1950•s the Lehigh university (USA) did a series of research

found that residual stress is an important reason for the lower test

solution.„ Fig.1--30…‰Research indicated that the distribution

and magnitude of residual stress is very closely related to the

section•s formˆ size and construction member•s job operation,

however not much concern the yield point of material.

3ˆ Distribution of the residual stress

The distribution and numerical value of residual stress can be

appraised by using method of section‰Firstly, measure the length of the

component, then sliced it to many longitudinal strip, release the stress,

and measure the length of the strip, the variance of the length indicate the

property and magnitude of the residual stress in the original component.

According to many finding, on the end of the flange girth of the hot-

rolled wide-flange steel columns, the regularities of distribution of

the mean maximal residual stress along the flange girder is between

the parabola and straight line.„ Fig.1-25…‰Simplify, we take

straight line. „ Fig.1• 26…‰Residual stress on the web can ignore.

Fig.1• 26 Fig.1--27

4† Stub-column test

The exciting of residual stress also can verify with stub-column test:

put a short column the ratio of slendernessŠ 10,avoiding integral

buckling) on the testing machine, press it, then ,draw up the mean

stress( )---strain( ) carve, as in Fig(1-27) the actual line

shown.

A

N

· σ ε

In the Fig.(1-27), the imaginal line 043 is perfect

specimen•s„ no … relation‰Compare the two lines,

we can see the exciting of the residual stress make the

proportional limit drop from to „ called effective

proportional limit…† between and there has a step-

by step yielding transition curve 13‰Must indicate that

the stub-column test only reflect the residual stress•s

influence to but can•t get the distribution and

magnitude of residual stress .

r

σ

σ−ε

r

σ

p

σ

p

σ

′

p

σ

′

T

σ

ε σ −

5† Effect of the residual stress for the buckling of the

column

According to the distribution and magnitude of the

residual stress shown in Fig.1-26, we explains the effect.

when axial stress 0† 0.7—A is the sum area

of two 2 flange girder.)

N

A

σ· ·

The stress in the compression member flange girder is shown in

Fig(1• 28 aˆ b)† as shown in Fig1-27 0,1 points. Here† the

compression member is in the elastic state. then continue to increase

the load, when the stress of the flange girth reach0.7 † the flange

girder step into elastic-plasticity stage, of which the width of elastic

region is b/2„ Fig.1• 28c…† then we can get the load:

T

σ

1

]

1

¸

×

,

_

¸

¸

+

+ × ·

4 2

7 . 0

4

2

A A

N

T T

T

σ σ

σ

Fig.1--28

Then mean stress

T

A

N

σ 925 . 0 ·

This stage is shown at the point 2 in Fig.(1• 27), it is particularly

obvious that point 3 is the state when all the flange girth sections

step into plastic stage.

It is obvious that:

„ 1…only when ,the compression member in

elastic state, the critical stress can account according to the

following formula:

„ 2…when † the section step into elastic-plastic

stage.„ Fig.1• 28c…‰Because of the bending moment coming

from the elastic region of the section, then, the critical stress can

account according to the following formula:

p

cr

cr

A

N

σ σ

′

≤ ·

p cr

σ σ

′

>

2

2

λ

π

σ

E

cr

·

—1. 50‹

I

I

l

EI

l

EI

N

e

o o

e

cr

× · ·

2

2

2

2

π π

—1. 51‹

Corresponding critical stress is

2

2

2

2

λ

π

λ

π

σ

eff

e

cr

E

I

I E

· × ·

—1. 52‹

Where

• • inertia moment of the section•s elastic region. It related

to the regularities of distribution of the residual stress, the shape of

section and the direction of buckling‰

• • total cross-section inertia moment‹

• • effective modulus of elasticity.

of the section shown in Fig.1• 29 account as follows:

e

I

I

I

EI

E

e

eff

·

eff

E

To axis x„ strong axis…‡

„ 1.53…

to axis y„ weak axis…:

(1.54)

Ek

h

bt

h

kbt

E

I

I

E E

x

ex

eff

·

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

· ·

2

2

2

2

2

2

( )

3

3

3

12

2

12

2

Ek

b

t

kb

t

E

I

I

E E

y

ey

eff

·

×

×

· ·

where <1

A

A

k

e

·

—3…residual stress effect on weak axis is severer than on strong

axis

comparing the Eq.„ 1.53) with„ 1.54…we know: to the flange

girder end of the hot-rolled wide-flange steel columns, residual

stress effect on weak axis is severer than on strong axis. The reason

is that in the section the part, which away from the weak axis, is the

residual compressive area, when this part yield, it will abate the

section flexural rigidity most serious† however, the part, which

apart from the strong axis, having residual compressive stress and

residual tension stress, the latter delays the yielding, so it serves a

favorable function.„ Fig.1---30…‰

Fig.1----29 Fig.1----30

„ 1…the Euler theory, which is based on the fictious concept of a

perfect member, provides a satisfactory design criterion for real

imperfect columns, provided the imperfections are relatively minor.

the Euler load is thus a good approximation of the maximum load that

a real imperfect column can support without bending excessively.

„ 2…up to now, the critical load has been determined exclusively by

finding the load at which a perfect system can be in equilibrium in a

slightly bent configuration, that is, the load at which neutral

equilibrium is possible. Now, a second criterion for finding the

critical load can be stated as follows: one gives the structural member

or system to be investigated a small initial deformation and then

determines the load at which this deformation becomes unbounded.

6† conclusion

—3…the essential difference between a perfect and a imperfect

compression member is that the former must be disturbed to

produce bending, whereas bending stresses are present in the latter

as a direct consequence of the applied load. It is therefore not

surprising that either eccentricity of loading or initial crookedness,

both of which cause bending, can be used with equal success to

simulate the behavior of an imperfect system.

For Q235 steel, Young•s modulus E=206Œ10

3

Mpa †

σ

p

=196MPa‰

The condition

obtains

The Eq.(1.55) indicate that is a boundary value.

p

cr

cr

E

A

N

σ

λ

π

σ > · ·

2

2

102 · λ

102

196

10 206

3

·

×

· < π

σ

π λ

p

E

—1. 55)

1.9 Inelastic buckling of columns

In this article we discuss the inelastic buckling of columns when

the stresses in the member exceeds the proportional limit of the material.

belong to slender columns, can use the Euler•s formula

count the critical load.

belong to short columns, can't use the Euler•s formula

count the critical load.„ Fig.31b…‰

102 > λ

102 < λ

1† Tangent Modulus Theory

when † in material•s curve all points• rate of

slope are variable.

• • tangent modulus„ Fig.1-31a…‰

p cr

σ σ >

ε σ −

t

E

d

d

·

ε

σ

t

E

Engesser consider that when inelastic bending the instantaneous

relationship of stress and strain is determined by .so in the

Euler•s formula E is replaced by . The critical load we can obtain

as :

σ

ε

t

E

2

2

l

I E

N

t

cr

π

·

t

E

2ˆ Double Modulus Theory

The double modulus theory was first propound by Considere and

• Ž • • Ž ‘ • ’ † the assumptions are‡

„ 1…the axial load remains constant as the column passes from a

straight to a slightly bent configuration at the critical load, ∆N=0.

„ 2…as a column begins to bend at the critical load there is a

possibility that stresses on the concave side increase in accordance with

the tangent modulus and that stresses on the convex side decrease in

accordance with Young•s modulus.

Fig.1--31

„ b…Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending‹

„ c…The deformations are small enough.

(2) E

r

(the reduced modulus)

t

t

r

E E

EE

E

+

·

2

—1.62)

2

2

l

I E

N

r

cr

π

·

(1) basic assumptions

„ a…The same relation exists between bending stresses and bending

strains as exists between stress and strain in simple tension and

compression.„ Fig.1• 31a…‹

3† The double modulus theory doesn•t agree with test results

Most of test results are greater than the tangent modulus theory, but

lower than the double modulus theory, and approximate to the tangent

modulus theory.

4ˆ Shanley•s theory of inelastic column behavior

(1) Shanley model

In order to explore the relationship between the reduced

modulus load and the tangent modulus load† Shanley used a

simple column model as shown in „ Fig.1• 35a…‰The model

consists of two infinitely rigid legs connected to each other at the

center of the column by a deformable cell. the cell is made up of

two axial elements a distance h apart. Each element has an area

A/2 and a length h and behaves according to the bilinear stress-

strain curve in (Fig.1-35a).concentration of all the deformable

material, in two elements, at the center of the model obviates the

need for considering the complex variation of material properties

both along the length and throughout the cross section exhibited by

a real column.

2ˆ the conclusions of the Shanley•s theory

(1)an initially straight column will begin to bend as soon as the

tangent modulus load is exceeded.

(2)Subsequent to the onset of bending, the axial load increases and

reach a maximum value that lies somewhere between the tangent

modulus load and the reduced modulus load.

(3)Although there is no strain reversal at the instant that bending

begins, strain reversal does occur as soon as the bending deformations

are finite.

5ˆ The new tangent modulus theory

It is assumed that the axial load N increases as the column bends, the

increased load is .it is also assumed that bending starts at the tangent

modulus load and the increase in the average axial stress is greater than

the decrease in stress due to bending at the extreme fiber on the convex

side of the member (Fig.1-34c).Hence no strain reversal takes place on

the convex side. The compressive stress increase at all points, and the

tangent modulus governs the relation of stress to strain for the entire

cross section.

N ∆

Because the bending is very slightly, stress-strain relationship

accords to Tangent Modulus Theory‰

so, we can get the critical load and the critical stress:

—1. 63‹

—1. 64‹

( )

2

2

λ

π

σ

t

cr

t

E

·

2

2

t

t

E I

N

l

π

·

In 1744 the Euler formula was first derived by Leonhard Euler. It was,

at the time, mistakenly assumed that the formula applied to short as well

as slender columns;

when test results during the nineteenth century indicated that the

formula was unconservative for short columns, Euler's work was

believed to be completely erroneous and was discarded for a lengthy

period of time;

In 1889,Considere and Engesser reached the conclusion that Euler load

as presented by Euler was valid;

In 1889,the tangent modulus theory was derived by Engesser ;

In 1891,the double modulus theory was derived by Considere, as soon

as Engesser became aware of Considere•s theory, he acknowledged its

validity and went on to derive the first correct value of the effective

modulus based on the double modulus theroy. However, it was not

until V. Karman in 1910 independently rederived the double modulus

theory that it gained widespread acceptance, for roughly the next 30

years, the double modulus theory was accepted as the correct theory for

inelastic buckling;

In 1947, Shanley reexplained the mechanism of inelastic column

behavior and concluded that the tangent modulus and not the double

modulus theory is after all the correct effective modulus.

1.10 Design of steel columns in Chinese code

Base on residual stresses analysis (see Fig ), considering only initial

out of straightness of l/1000 (probability) and a variety of different

shapes, steel grade and fabrication procedure, use three column strength-

slenderness ratio curve by parabola intersect to design steel column.

y y

f σ ϕ ≤