PRINCIPLES OF

STRUCTURL
STABILITY THEORY
By Alexander Chajes(UOM),
Jiaxiang Tang(HUST)
Background
Mechanics of Material and Elastics: Differential
Equation
Advanced Mathematics: Solving the equation
Ultimate Limit State Design Structural Failure LS Strength
(allowable stress design) Buckling
Serviceability LS
Based on the deformation state:
Superimposed Principle is no suitable
Kirchhoff sigle sluion is not suitable
Chapter 1: Buckling of Column
1.1 Introduction
(1) What is Buckling?
Buckling, means losing the state of stable equilibrium, or
unstable equilibrium.










(2) Two types of buckling and
their mechanic meaning
axially loaded
column
eccentrically loaded
For the later one, once being loaded, the column is bended.
And bending curvature is a little bigger. The amount of internal
force and the deformation has been increased, but the
equilibrium form doesn•t change in quality. (‚ ƒ „ …)
Fi g. 1• 1
For the former one, when bulking, it
transit from the straight to the bent
configuration; that is to say the internal
force and the equilibrium form has
changed in quality.


N
cr
e


N
Two types of stability:
1† First theory• quality difference
The equilibrium form
corresponding to the state
before the structure bulking
become unstable.
And there exists a new
equilibrium form different
with the former one in quality.
A sudden change in quality of
the internal force and
deformation has been
occurred.
Besides the axially loaded
column in Fig.1-1a, the
structure in Fig.1-2 is also of
the case.
Fig. 1• 2


Fig. 1-1a
2† second theory• • quantity difference
When the structure bulking, the deformation will be greatly
increased, (in quantity) and there will not be a new
deformation form. That is to say the equilibrium form of the
structure will not be changed in quality. See 1-1b
3† some important concepts
The simplest case is axially loaded
member buckling. (ƒ ‡ ˆ ‰)
Š Modes of buckling
The deformation form after buckling is called
modes of buckling.
The behavior of axially loaded column relates to
many factors, and there are three modes of
buckling:
e


Fig. 1-1b
a) Bending buckling (the cross-section bending in the plane of
one of the principle axis)
b) Twisting buckling (the cross-section twisting around the
axis of the bar‹
c) Combination of bending and twisting (the bending
deformation is coupled with the twisting deformation)
What kind of mode buckling may occur mainly depend on the
form of cross-section, size ,length and restraint at the end of
the column.
ŒMethod of neutral equilibrium
For the slender column, when the axial force is small, there
only generate an axial shortening of the member, and keep a
straight configuration. And if there is a slight transverse
disturbance, the column will bend. And return to the original
straight configuration after the disturbance removed. That is
to say the straight configuration of the column is stable.
When the axial force N is big, a slight transversal disturbance
will lead to a rapid increase of the bending deformation, and the
member will be also damaged. The straight configuration is
unstable at this large load. This phenomena that the member lost
its equilibrium with straight configuration is called Buckle.
There is another possible state between stable equilibrium
and unstable state: after small disturbance displaced, it neither
returns to straight configuration nor continues to bend more. It
remains at the position to which the small disturbance has moved
it. That is to say there exists another equilibrium form in slight
bending state besides the straight configuration state. The
balance between external force and internal force is • Ž …. This
behavior is referred to as neutral equilibrium.
Neutral equilibriumis a state between stable equilibrium
and unstable equilibrium, namely critical state. The feature of
the state is that there exists two types of equilibrium state.
That is to say it can be equilibrium in straight configuration
and slightly bending configuration.
• Critical load
The load of neutral equilibrium state is referred to as the
critical load, N
cr.
It is not difficult to find out that the critical load of the
axially loaded column can keep both of the straight
configuration and the slightly bending state in equilibrium.
This is so called the duality of equilibrium. This theory is not
only suitable for axially loaded column but also for all the cases
of structures belonging to the first theory.(• ‘ ’ ‰“ ” • )
– Explanation of buckling phenomenon
Why does a straight compression member suddenly buckle?
A slender column shortens when compressed by a weight
applied to its top, and, in so doing, lowers the weight•s position.
The tendency of all weights to lower their position is a basic law of
nature. It is another basic law of nature that, whether there is a
choice between difference paths, a physical phenomenon will
follow the easiest path.
Confronted with the choice of bending out or shortening, the
column finds it easier to shorten for relatively small loads and to
bend out for relatively large loads. In other words, when the load
reaches it buckling value the column finds it easier to lower the
load by bending than by shortening.‚ By Salvadori and Heller
(3) Buckling in engineering
1† Member in compression
1974, an 90-meter arc bridge in construction collapsed.
2† Steel in compression
The vicinity of the column node in the structure is
destroyed in earthquake. The steel in compression is
destroyed in shape of lantern.
3† Beam
1969,the girder of the fourth bridge of Danube in Vienna
in construction was collapsed.—˜ ™210š › œ• ž ‹
1970, Melbourne West Gate Bridge in construction
collapsed. (35 people dead, 18 people injured)
—144+327+144š Ÿ • ž ‹
1972, the vicinity of the middle span support of Milford
Bridge in British broke off.—˜ ™213š › œ• ž ‹
4† Slab
Ningbo Bridge collapsed in construction.
(4) Method of neutral equilibrium
1† Theoretical basis
The main content of buckling problem: determine the critical load
The theoretical basis: neutral equilibrium
Basic approach: static approach and energy approach
2† Static approach
According to the concept of neutral
equilibrium, the system is in equilibrium both
in the dashed state and in real line state.
Especially the latter one.
Discuss the system in Fig1-3 which
only have one degree of deformation
freedom -- single degree of freedom
system.
Fig. 1• 3
Consideration¡
Assume that a state of equilibrium exists at the newly deformed
state first. (Fig1-3) Then find out the condition that satisfies the
equilibrium. And the critical load can be found.
EI=•
δ

N
cr


γ
N
Approach¡
Š Write the static equilibrium
equation of the deformed structure.
N
cr
y
1
-R
1
l= 0 —a‹
where R
1
• • reaction force of spring
and —b‹
γ• • stiffness coefficient of spring
Substitute Eq.—b‹ into Eq.—a‹ ¢ we have
(1.1)
1 1
y R γ ·
0 ) (
1
· − y l N
cr
γ
EI=•
δ
N
cr

l
R
1
y
1

γ

ΠDetermine the critical load from the equilibrium equation
Eq.—1.1‹ is a homogeneous equation with indeterminate
displacement. If and can both satisfy
the equation, the mechanical notation of :
the original straight configuration is in equilibrium.
0 ) ( · − rl N
cr
(proper equation), predicate that there
exists a newly deformed equilibrium form besides the original
equilibrium form. That is to say there are more than one
equilibrium forms, and the system has duality. The system is in
a critical state.
0 · − rl N
cr
0
1
·
y
0
1
·
y
The critical load can be obtained from the proper equation:
—1.2‹
l N
cr
γ ·
3† Energy approach
Consideration¡
There is no energy increment
from the original state to the
deformed state.
Approach¡
Š Find out the energy increment
between original state and the
deformed state
γ
EI=•
δ
N
cr

l
R
1
y
1


Potential energy increment of load ∆V¡
∆V= -Nδ —b‹
Since
l
y
l
y
l l
l y l l y l l
2 2
1
/ 1
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2
·

,
_

¸
¸
− − ≈
− − · − − · δ
—c‹
—a‹
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
y y R U γ · · ∆
Strain energy increment of
spring ∆U¡
γ
EI=•
δ
N
cr

l
R
1
y
1


Equation—b‹ leads to
l
y
N V
2
2
1
⋅ − · ∆
(d)
The total potential energy increment ∆Πcan be evaluated
from equation (appendix 1-1)¡
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
1
y
l
N l
l
Y
N y
V U

,
_

¸
¸

· − ·
∆ + ∆ · ∆Π
γ
γ
—1.3‹
Equation (1.3) indicates that total potential energy ∆Π
increment is a quadratic function of displacement y
1
, and
relates to the coefficient .

,
_

¸
¸

l
N l
2
γ
ŒFind out the critical load from ∆Π=0
If , it indicates that energy increment is needed
from the original equilibrium state to the newly deformed
equilibrium state. So the original equilibrium in straight
configuration is stable. This is the smallest potential
energy principle: In a stable equilibrium state, the actual
displacement minimize the total potential energy Π.
0 > ∆Π
Fig. 1-4
∏ ∏ ∏
N‚ N
cr
N=N
cr
Nƒ N
cr
y
1
y
1
y
1
If , it indicates that energy decrement is needed
from the original equilibrium state to the newly deformed
equilibrium state. So the original equilibrium state in straight
configuration is unstable.
If , it indicates that energy doesn't change from the
original equilibrium state to the newly deformed equilibrium
state. So the original equilibrium in straight configuration is
neutral equilibrium. And the load is called critical load.
Namely:
The result obtained from the energy approach equates with
the result given by Eq. (1.2).
0 · ∆Π
0 < ∆Π
rl N
cr
·
Fig. 1-5
1.2 The Euler Column
It is desirable to begin the study of columns with a very
idealized case, the Euler column.
It was pointed out that, the energy characteristic of the
three types equilibrium state (stable, neutral equilibrium,
unstable) are corresponding to the three types of equilibrium
state of a rigid ball in Fig 1-5.
(1) What is Euler column(1744)
Axially loaded member having a constant cross-sectional
area and being made of a homogeneous material.
In addition, four assumptions are made:
a) The ends of the member are simply supported£
b) The member is perfectly straight, and the load is
applied along its centroidal axis£
c) The material obeys Hooke•s law£
d) The deformations of the member are small
enough¡
y
y
y
′ ′


+
′ ′
·
2 / 3 2
) 1 (
1
ρ
(2) Critical load
1† Establish neutral equilibrium
According to the duality of equilibrium, critical load
makes the slightly bent configuration possible (shown in Fig. 1-
6a). The slightly bent configuration in Fig 1-6a is in neutral
equilibrium state.
2† Write the equilibrium
equation
The coordinate axes are taken
as shown in the figure: take account
of the section a distance x from the
origin (Fig 1-6a).
Fig. 1• 6
y
N
N
y
x
M
(b)

x


N
cr
l/2
l/2
y
(a)
Equating the moment at any section, a distance x from the
origin¡ M-Ny=0
Ny
d
y d
EI · −
2
2
χ
—1.4‹
Introducing the notation¡ —1.5‹
EI
N
k ·
2
Eq.—1.4‹ becomes¡
—1.6‹ 0
2
· +
′ ′
y k y
3† Solve the equation
The general solution of homogeneous linear equations
with constant coefficients is always of the form ¡
—1.7‹
kx B kx A y cos sin + ·
To evaluate the arbitrary constants A and B, we make use of
the boundary conditions¡
y=0 at ¤ =0
y=0 at ¤ =l
Substituted into Eq.—1.7‹ leads to¡
¹
)
¹
· +
· +
0 cos sin
0 0
kl B kl A
B
—1.8‹
One result is A=B=0. This result is known as the trivial
solution because the member remains perfectly straight. But
the answer is not what we want.
In order to determine the critical load which brings the
new equilibrium state, we have .
0
1
≠ y
The unknown constant A and B should not be equal to zero
simultaneous. In order to satisfy this condition, the determinant
with unknown constant A and B should be equal to zero:
0
cos sin
1 0
·
kl kl
—1.9‹
The Eq. (1.9) is called characteristic equation or stabilization
equation. It leads to :
0 sin · kl
Then
π n kl ·
Where: n=1¢ 2¢ ƒ ƒ
Substitution of this expression into Eqs.—1.5‹ and—1.7‹
leads to
—1.10‹
2
2 2
l
EI n
N
π
·
l
n
A y
πχ
sin · —1.11‹
At the loads given by Eq. —1.10‹ the column can be in
equilibrium in a slightly bent form.
The smallest value of N, obtained by setting n equal to 1, is
2
2
min
l
EI
N N
e
π
· ·
—1.12‹
This load is known as the Euler load, expressed as , and
the Eq.—1.12‹ is known as the Euler Equation.
The shape of the deformation is given by Eq.—1.12‹ .
However, its amplitude is indeterminate, since the A can have
any value when¡
And we call it modes of buckling.
e
N
l
x
A y
π
sin ·
The critical load sometimes is referred
to as the buckling load.
Hoff suggested that the load under
which an actual imperfect column
suddenly bows out laterally be referred
to as the buckling load and that the term
critical load be reserved for the load at
which neutral equilibrium is possible for
a perfect member according to a linear
analysis. The Euler load should be
referred to as the critical load of the
column.


l
x
A y
π
sin ·
It can be summed up as follows¡ when , the column
must remain straight. When ,
there exists a bifurcation of equilibrium.
This behavior signifies that a state
of neutral equilibrium exists at the Euler
load and that the Euler load marks
the transition from stable to unstable
equilibrium.
Its amplitude is indeterminate, because
is introduced when establishing the static equilibrium
equation, and we have a linearizing result of the differential
equation.
cr
N N <
cr
N N ·
y ′ ′ ≈
ρ
1
Fig. 1• 7
N
A
0
N
e

2
EI/l
2
(3) Behavior of Euler column
The behavior is represented graphically in Fig. 1-7.
Eq.—1.10‹ indicates that for values of n greater than 1,
there exist other loads larger than the Euler load. These larger
loads will be assumed to be valid mathematical solutions, but
devoid of significance.
The small-deflection column theory is known as the linear
column theory.
2
2 2
l
EI n
N
π
·
—1.10‹
l
n
A y
πχ
sin · —1.11‹
0
2
· +
′ ′
y k y
—1.6‹
Although, the solutions have meaning in special
conditions.


2
2 2
l
EI n
N
π
·
l
x
A y
π 2
sin ·
2
2
4
l
EI
N
cr
π
·
l
n
A y
πχ
sin ·
For instance, in Figure, if there is a restrain in the mid
of the column, n=2. Then the critical load will be 4 times, and
the column will consists of a sine wave.
1.3 Elastically restrained end
(1) Background in engineering
In most actual structures the ends of columns are neither
hinged nor fixed. Instead, the columns are usually rigidly
connected to other members, which permits a limited amount
of rotation to occur at the ends of the columns. Supports of
this type are referred to as elastic restrains. They are so
named because the restraint that exists at the end of the
column depends on the elastic properties of the members into
which the column frames.
(2) Base hinged and upper end elastically restrained
1† Diagram
As shown in Fig 1-8a, the upper end B of the column can
be regarded as a spring (Fig 1-8b) in the system, since the
beam BC is shortened (or stretched) when the column AB is
buckling.
x
• •
δ
B
A
EI
γ
γδ
x
y
N
cr
• •
N
A
B
C
EA
EI
l
l
b
N
BC
σ
BC
=Eδ/l
b
N
BC
=
δ
b
l
EA
b
l
EA
· γ


δ
B
A
EI
γ
γδ
x
y
N
cr
x
l
y
M
Equilibrium equation:
—a‹
Consequently
The differential equation of the bent column:
( ) ( ) 0 · − + − − x l y N M γδ δ
y EI M
′ ′
·
( ) ( ) 0 · − + − −
′ ′
x l y N y EI γδ δ
Introduce
EI
N
k ·
2
Then
( ) x l
EI
k y k y − − · +
′ ′
γδ
δ
2 2
—b‹
For the segment¡
2† Critical load
The general solution of Eq. (b)
—c‹
The third term of Eq. (c) is a particular solution of the
nonhomogeneous equation (b).
Substitute the boundary condition:
y= =0 at x =0
at ,
into Eq.—c‹ ¡
( )
1
]
1

¸

− − + + · x l
N
kx B kx A y
γ
δ 1 cos sin
y

l x · δ · y
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
· +
· +
· − +
0 cos sin
0
0 ) 1 (
kl B kl A
N
kA
N
l
B
δ
γ
δ
γ
—d‹
Since the unknown constant A B and should not equate to
zero simultaneous, the coefficient determinant of the
homogeneous equations set (d) must be zero:
δ
0
0 cos sin
0
1 1 0
·

,
_

¸
¸

kl kl
N
k
N
l
γ
γ
Then we find out that , and we have the
stabilization equation:
EI k N
2
·
( )
3
3
l
EI kl
kl tgkl
γ
− · (1.13)
The Eq. (1.13) is a transcendental equation about , and
can be solved with trial method or graphic method. When
using graphic method, draw two set of curve of
and . And we will have infinite crossing
points, because the elastic bar has infinite degree of freedom.
kl
tgkl z ·
1
( )
3
3
2
l
EI kl
kl z
γ
− ·
From , we obtain the formula to
determine the critical load.
—1. 14a‹
( )
min
kl
( )
2
2
min
l
EI
kl N
c
·
γ
3† Discuss
Š Base fixed and upper end free
If , it is equivalent to upper end free,
and the Eq. (1.13) leads to
0 · γ
( )
2
min
π
· −∞ · kl tgkl
From , obtain the critical load:
EI
N
k ·
2
( )
2
2
2
2
2
4
l
EI
l
EI
N
c
π π
γ
· ·
—1. 14b‹
ŒBase fixed and upper end hinged
If , it is equivalent to a rigid hinge at the upper end.
From Eq. (1.13) one obtains
∞ → γ
kl tgkl ·
Use graphic method(¥ ¦ § ). Let , and from
Fig 1-9 we obtain:
kl z ·
3
( ) 493 . 4
min
· kl
Hence
( )
2
2
493 . 4
l
EI
N
c
·
γ
or —1. 14c‹
( )
2
2
7 . 0 l
EI
N
c
π
γ
·
• The effective length of column
Merge the Eq. (1.14b) and Eq. (1.14c), we obtain an
uniform formula:
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
·
·
l l
l
EI
N
c
µ
π
γ
0
2
0
2
—1. 15‹
Where¡ • • actual length of column;
• • effective length of column;
• • effective length coefficient.
Eq. (1.15) indicates that the Euler formula can be used to
obtain the critical load of the member, provided the correct
effective length, regardless of the boundary conditions.
l
0
l
µ
To determine the effective length is essentially to determine
the effective length coefficient . The value of in some
common kinds of support condition.
µ µ
One end fixed and one end hinged =0. 7
One end fixed and one end free =2. 0
Both end fixed =0. 5
Both end hinged =1. 0
µ
µ
µ
µ
(3) Using effective-length concept in upper end
elastically restrained column
The effective-length concept is equally valid for any other set
of boundary conditions. For instance the system, as shown in
Fig 1-10a, for simplicity, is taken as equal to a column AB
whose upper end is restrained with spring. (Fig. 1-10b) Solve
the question with effective-length concept.
Fig. 1-10
1† Determine the stiffness
coefficient of spring γ
1
3
1
3EI
Hl
· ∆ ∆ · ∆ · γ
3
1
1
3
l
EI
H
3
1
1
3
l
EI
· γ
3
3
) (
l
EI kl
kl tgkl
γ
− ·
(1. 16a)
Since
one obtains ¢
and
¢
( )
0 1
3
3
· +
1
]
1

¸


kl
kl tgkl
EI
l γ
EI
N
k
cr
·
2
EI
N
k
cr
·
l
EI
N
kl
cr
·
2
2
) ( l
EI
N
cr
µ
π
·
2

,
_

¸
¸
·
l EI
N
cr
µ
π
one obtains
2† Find the relationship between γ and µ
From the stabilization equation of a base fixed and upper
end elastically restrained column
—1.13‹
Hence (1. 16b)
let —1. 17‹
µ
π
µ
π
· · l
l
kl
EI
l
3
γ
η ·
Substitution of Eq. (1.16b) and Eq. (1.17) into Eq. (1.16a),
leads to

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
µ
π
µ
π
µ
π
η
tg
3
—1. 18‹
Plot numerical tabular (1-1) in accordance with Eq. (1.18)
0.70 0.78 0.80 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99 1.07 1.18 1.24 1.32 1.43 1.56 1.74 2
µ
¨
23 20 17 14 12 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 η
Table 1-1
3† Substitution of into Eq. (1.15) and evaluate N
cr
µ
4† Example1-1
Determine the critical load of the compression
member as shown in Fig. 1-11
Solution¡
µ
Š Use the effective-length concept
Take the effect of column AB as equal to a elastic
support at the end C.
Determine the stiffness coefficient first:
Determine from Eq. (1.17):
3
3
l
EI
· γ
η
3
3
· ·
EI
l γ
η
From table 1• 1¢ one obtains „ =1.43.
Substitution of Eq. (1.15), and leads to the critical
load:
( )
2 2
2
83 . 4
43 . 1 l
EI
l
EI
N
cr
· ·
π
ŒAccording to Eq. (1.3)
( )
3
3
kl
kl tgkl − ·
from which ( ) 0
3
1
3
· + − · tgkl kl kl D
When =2. 4¢ =-0. 916, D=+1. 92
=2. 0 , =-2. 185, D=-1. 518
=2. 2 , =-1. 3738, D=-0. 025
=2. 21 , =-1. 3453, D 0
kl
kl
kl
kl
tgkl
tgkl
tgkl
tgkl
·
&
Substitution of =2. 21into Eq. (1.5), leads to the critical
load:
kl
2 2
2 2
88 . 4 21 . 2
l
EI
l
EI
EI k N
c
· · ·
γ
Divide the critical load equation (1.15) by the cross-sectional
area A, and leads to the critical stress formula
A l
EI
A
N
c
cr
2
0
2
π
σ
γ
· ·
Introducing the notation ¢
• the radius of gyration£
• ratio of slenderness
leads to —1. 19‹
A
I
r ·
2
r
l
0
· λ
r
λ
2
2
2
0
2
λ
π π
σ
γ
E
r
l
E
c
·

,
_

¸
¸
·
(4) Critical stress
(5) Both end elastically restrained—omitted ‹
1.4 Higher-order differential equation for columns
—omitted‹
1.5 Critical stiffness—omitted‹
1.6 Dynamic analysis—omitted‹
1.7 Large-deformation theory for columns—omitted‹
1.8 Behavior of imperfect columns
In the derivation of the Euler load, four assumptions
were made to simplify the problem. However perfect
members do not exist in actual engineering structures. There
always exists initial deficiency in members, including
imperfections of shape, small eccentricities of loading,
residual stress and so on. That is to say the second
assumption cannot be satisfied.
(1) Initially bent columns
1† Mode of calculation
Consider the hinged column in Fig. 1-21a, whose centroidal
axis is initially bent. The initial deformation is assumed to
be of the form:
l
x
f y
o o
π
sin · —1.36‹
2† Equilibrium differential equation
Equating the internal and external
moment, at a section a distance x
from the base, leads to (Fig. 1-21b)
The additional deformation due to
bending is given by y, and the total
deformation by y0+y. Since bending
strains are caused by the change in
curvature, , and not by the total
curvature .
y
′ ′
y y
o
′ ′
+
′ ′
0 ) (
0
· + − y y N M
( ) 0
0
· + − ′ ′ − y y N y EI
x
y
y
0
y
2
l
2
l


f
0
N

x
y
0
y
N
N
M
Let
Substitution of y
o
of Eq. (1.36), and leads to
(1. 37)
EI
N
k ·
2
l
x
f k y k y
o
π
sin
2 2
− · +
′ ′
3† Solve the equilibrium differential equation
Eq. (1.37) is a second-order unhomogeneous linear
differential equation with constant coefficients. The general
solution is a summation of the general solution of the
homogeneous equation and the particular function of the
Eq. (1.37). As shown before, the general solution of the
homogenous equation:
—1. 38‹
kx B kx A y
c
cos sin + ·
When the right-hand side of Eq. (1.37) consists of a sine
term, the particular function is of the form:
—1. 39‹
l
x
C y
p
π
sin ·
Substituting Eq. (1.39) into Eq. (1.37) and combining terms
gives
0 sin
2
2
2
2
·
1
]
1

¸

+

,
_

¸
¸

l
x
f k
l
k C
o
π π
η
η
η
π

·

·

·

,
_

¸
¸
·
1
1
1
1
1
2
o o
e
o o
f f
N
N
f
kl
f
C
Hence
where £ is Euler load.
N
N
e
· η
2
2
l
EI
N
e
π
·
We obtain the general solution of the Eq. (1.37):
y =y
c
+y
p
= —1. 40‹
l
x f
kx B kx A
o
π
η
η
sin
1
cos sin

+ +
4† Determine A and B with boundary condition.
Boundary conditions: y=0 at x=0 —a‹
y=0 at —b‹
l x ·
From Eq.—a‹ one obtains B=0
From Eq.—b‹ one obtains Asi n =0 kl
If we set sinkl=0, leads to:
This is the Euler load. This is undesirable, and consequently
A=0
leads to —1. 41‹
2
2
l
EI
N
e
π
·
l
x
f y y
o p
π
η
η
sin .
1−
· ·
5† Analyze the critical load with load-deflection curves
Total deflection:
—1. 42‹
l
x
f
l
x
f y y
o o o
π
η
π
η
η
sin .
1
1
sin .
1
1

·

,
_

¸
¸

+ · +
The total deflection at midheight— ‹ :
2
l
x ·
Eq. (1.43) is used to obtain a ©δ curve which is
shown plotted in Fig. 1-22
N
N
e
c
o o
N N
f f

·

·
1 1 η
δ
—1. 43‹
ŒThe larger the initial bend , the larger the midpoint
deflection δ, and the more significant of the decrease of
carrying capacity; contrarily, the curvature will
approach the Euler load more. But the carrying capacity is
always smaller than the Euler load, regardless of how small
the initial bend.
o
f
δ −
e
N
N
Based on these curves and Eq. (1.43), the behavior of the
initially bent column can be summed up as follows:
Š Unlike the perfect column, which remains straight when
N<N
e
, the initially deformed member begins to bend as
soon as the load is applied and the initial point of the
curvature doesn't coincide with the original point of
coordinate.
[Anal ysi s]
6† yield criterion
The curve shown in the Eq.„ 1.43…and Fig.1• 22 is satisfied
when the material is assumed infinitely elastic. However, for most
actual columns, as bending increases, the combined axial and
bending stress will increase the plastic area in column sections that
in turn lead to collapse. The columns will buckle when the maximal
compressive stress of the frige fibre at midhight of the columns equal
to the yield point† so we can get‡

,
_

¸
¸

⋅ + · + ·
e
o
N N
f
W
A
A
N
W
N
A
N
1
1
max
δ
σ
where†
and • • is average stress, Euler stress
and yield stress.
• • constant,
Aˆ W• • area of section and bending modulus
o
σ
e
σ
T
σ
ε
W
Af
o
· ε
max
1
1
1 1
o
e
e e
o o T
e e o
f N N N A
A W A W N N
N
N N
δ
σ
σ
σ ε σ ε σ
σ σ
¸ _
· + · + ⋅


¸ ,
¸ _ ¸ _
· + · + ·

− −
¸ , ¸ ,
Reduce it,
get
( ) [ ] 0 1
2
· + + + −
T e e T o o
σ σ ε σ σ σ σ
( ) ( )
T e
e T e T
o
σ σ
ε σ σ σ ε σ
σ −
1
]
1

¸

+ +

+ +
·
2
2
1
2
1
—1. 44

Eq.„ 1.44…called Perry formule† the criterion of the formule is
the frimge fibre buckled. There called relative initially bent‰ ε
ρ
ε
o o
f
W
Af
· ·
where • • section center radius‰
ρ
(2) Eccentrically loaded columns
1† Calculated diagram
Now we study the eccentrically
loaded columns with both ends of the
member are hinged. in order to avoid
solving the non homogeneous
differential equations ,we adopt the
coordinate system as shown in
Fig.1• 23a .
2ˆ balance differential equation and solution
Equating the internal moment, at any section, to the
corresponding applied moment gives„ Fig.1• 23b…‡
Fig.1--23
0 · − Ny M
0 · −
′ ′
− Ny y EI
obtains
(1.45)
The general solution of this equation is
From the boundary conditions,when
2
0 y k y
′′
+ ·
sin cos y A kx B kx · +
Obtains:
We have:
—1.47‹
2
l
x m · o
e y ·
2
cos
, 0
l
k
e
B A
o
· ·
kx
kl
e kx
kl
e
y
o
o
cos
2
sec cos
2
cos
· ·
Letting x=o, one obtains
where
The most deflection at midheight is
—1.48‹

,
_

¸
¸
· ·
e
o o
N
N
e
kl
e y
2
sec
2
sec
max
π
2
2
l
EI
N
e
π
·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
· − · 1
2
sec
max
e
o o
N
N
e e y
π
δ
Fi g. 1- - 24
3† Discussion
Fig.1• 24 gives a graphical representation of Eq.„ 1.48…that
is extremely resemble with Fig.1• 22† indicates that the behavior
of an eccentrically loaded column is essentially the same as that of
an initially bent column.the difference is the latter curve through the
origh of coordinates.namely:
„ 1…when have e
0
† the carrying capacity is thus always smaller
than the Euler load.
„ 2…the bigger the e
0
† the lower the carrying capacity.
„ 3…can use initially bent express initially eccentricity.
„ 4…yield criterion
According to fringe fibre yield criterion¡
W
kl
Ne
A
N
o
2
sec
max
+ · σ
T
kl
A
N
σ ε ·

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
2
sec 1
namely „ 1.49…
where† is called relative eccentricity ratio‰
T
e
o
σ
σ
σ π
ε σ ·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+
0
2
sec 1
A W
e e
o o
· ·
ρ
ε
Eq.„ 1.49…called secant formula† can use sequential
method solve critical stress.
(3) Residual stress
1ˆ The creation of residual stress
Residual stress is created by rolling or welding processes different
position cooled non-uniform.
2ˆ The feature of residual stress
Residual stress is a initial stress„ before the component stand
under load, the stress already existing in the section…† on the same
section, they self-balance.„ Fig.1--25…‰
Fig.1--25
Tests have shown that the critical force has been degraded by
residual stress. A long time people considered that the test solution
lower for existing inevitable initially bent and initially eccentricity .
In the 1950•s the Lehigh university (USA) did a series of research
found that residual stress is an important reason for the lower test
solution.„ Fig.1--30…‰Research indicated that the distribution
and magnitude of residual stress is very closely related to the
section•s formˆ size and construction member•s job operation,
however not much concern the yield point of material.
3ˆ Distribution of the residual stress
The distribution and numerical value of residual stress can be
appraised by using method of section‰Firstly, measure the length of the
component, then sliced it to many longitudinal strip, release the stress,
and measure the length of the strip, the variance of the length indicate the
property and magnitude of the residual stress in the original component.
According to many finding, on the end of the flange girth of the hot-
rolled wide-flange steel columns, the regularities of distribution of
the mean maximal residual stress along the flange girder is between
the parabola and straight line.„ Fig.1-25…‰Simplify, we take
straight line. „ Fig.1• 26…‰Residual stress on the web can ignore.
Fig.1• 26 Fig.1--27
4† Stub-column test
The exciting of residual stress also can verify with stub-column test:
put a short column the ratio of slendernessŠ 10,avoiding integral
buckling) on the testing machine, press it, then ,draw up the mean
stress( )---strain( ) carve, as in Fig(1-27) the actual line
shown.
A
N
· σ ε
In the Fig.(1-27), the imaginal line 043 is perfect
specimen•s„ no … relation‰Compare the two lines,
we can see the exciting of the residual stress make the
proportional limit drop from to „ called effective
proportional limit…† between and there has a step-
by step yielding transition curve 13‰Must indicate that
the stub-column test only reflect the residual stress•s
influence to but can•t get the distribution and
magnitude of residual stress .
r
σ
σ−ε
r
σ
p
σ
p
σ

p
σ

T
σ
ε σ −
5† Effect of the residual stress for the buckling of the
column
According to the distribution and magnitude of the
residual stress shown in Fig.1-26, we explains the effect.
when axial stress 0† 0.7—A is the sum area
of two 2 flange girder.)
N
A
σ· ·
The stress in the compression member flange girder is shown in
Fig(1• 28 aˆ b)† as shown in Fig1-27 0,1 points. Here† the
compression member is in the elastic state. then continue to increase
the load, when the stress of the flange girth reach0.7 † the flange
girder step into elastic-plasticity stage, of which the width of elastic
region is b/2„ Fig.1• 28c…† then we can get the load:
T
σ
1
]
1

¸

×

,
_

¸
¸
+
+ × ·
4 2
7 . 0
4
2
A A
N
T T
T
σ σ
σ
Fig.1--28
Then mean stress
T
A
N
σ 925 . 0 ·
This stage is shown at the point 2 in Fig.(1• 27), it is particularly
obvious that point 3 is the state when all the flange girth sections
step into plastic stage.
It is obvious that:
„ 1…only when ,the compression member in
elastic state, the critical stress can account according to the
following formula:
„ 2…when † the section step into elastic-plastic
stage.„ Fig.1• 28c…‰Because of the bending moment coming
from the elastic region of the section, then, the critical stress can
account according to the following formula:
p
cr
cr
A
N
σ σ

≤ ·
p cr
σ σ

>
2
2
λ
π
σ
E
cr
·
—1. 50‹
I
I
l
EI
l
EI
N
e
o o
e
cr
× · ·
2
2
2
2
π π
—1. 51‹
Corresponding critical stress is
2
2
2
2
λ
π
λ
π
σ
eff
e
cr
E
I
I E
· × ·
—1. 52‹
Where
• • inertia moment of the section•s elastic region. It related
to the regularities of distribution of the residual stress, the shape of
section and the direction of buckling‰
• • total cross-section inertia moment‹
• • effective modulus of elasticity.
of the section shown in Fig.1• 29 account as follows:
e
I
I
I
EI
E
e
eff
·
eff
E
To axis x„ strong axis…‡
„ 1.53…
to axis y„ weak axis…:
(1.54)
Ek
h
bt
h
kbt
E
I
I
E E
x
ex
eff
·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
· ·
2
2
2
2
2
2
( )
3
3
3
12
2
12
2
Ek
b
t
kb
t
E
I
I
E E
y
ey
eff
·
×
×
· ·
where <1
A
A
k
e
·
—3…residual stress effect on weak axis is severer than on strong
axis
comparing the Eq.„ 1.53) with„ 1.54…we know: to the flange
girder end of the hot-rolled wide-flange steel columns, residual
stress effect on weak axis is severer than on strong axis. The reason
is that in the section the part, which away from the weak axis, is the
residual compressive area, when this part yield, it will abate the
section flexural rigidity most serious† however, the part, which
apart from the strong axis, having residual compressive stress and
residual tension stress, the latter delays the yielding, so it serves a
favorable function.„ Fig.1---30…‰
Fig.1----29 Fig.1----30
„ 1…the Euler theory, which is based on the fictious concept of a
perfect member, provides a satisfactory design criterion for real
imperfect columns, provided the imperfections are relatively minor.
the Euler load is thus a good approximation of the maximum load that
a real imperfect column can support without bending excessively.
„ 2…up to now, the critical load has been determined exclusively by
finding the load at which a perfect system can be in equilibrium in a
slightly bent configuration, that is, the load at which neutral
equilibrium is possible. Now, a second criterion for finding the
critical load can be stated as follows: one gives the structural member
or system to be investigated a small initial deformation and then
determines the load at which this deformation becomes unbounded.
6† conclusion
—3…the essential difference between a perfect and a imperfect
compression member is that the former must be disturbed to
produce bending, whereas bending stresses are present in the latter
as a direct consequence of the applied load. It is therefore not
surprising that either eccentricity of loading or initial crookedness,
both of which cause bending, can be used with equal success to
simulate the behavior of an imperfect system.
For Q235 steel, Young•s modulus E=206Œ10
3
Mpa †
σ
p
=196MPa‰
The condition
obtains
The Eq.(1.55) indicate that is a boundary value.
p
cr
cr
E
A
N
σ
λ
π
σ > · ·
2
2
102 · λ
102
196
10 206
3
·
×
· < π
σ
π λ
p
E
—1. 55)
1.9 Inelastic buckling of columns
In this article we discuss the inelastic buckling of columns when
the stresses in the member exceeds the proportional limit of the material.
belong to slender columns, can use the Euler•s formula
count the critical load.
belong to short columns, can't use the Euler•s formula
count the critical load.„ Fig.31b…‰
102 > λ
102 < λ
1† Tangent Modulus Theory
when † in material•s curve all points• rate of
slope are variable.
• • tangent modulus„ Fig.1-31a…‰
p cr
σ σ >
ε σ −
t
E
d
d
·
ε
σ
t
E
Engesser consider that when inelastic bending the instantaneous
relationship of stress and strain is determined by .so in the
Euler•s formula E is replaced by . The critical load we can obtain
as :
σ
ε
t
E
2
2
l
I E
N
t
cr
π
·
t
E
2ˆ Double Modulus Theory
The double modulus theory was first propound by Considere and
• Ž • • Ž ‘ • ’ † the assumptions are‡
„ 1…the axial load remains constant as the column passes from a
straight to a slightly bent configuration at the critical load, ∆N=0.
„ 2…as a column begins to bend at the critical load there is a
possibility that stresses on the concave side increase in accordance with
the tangent modulus and that stresses on the convex side decrease in
accordance with Young•s modulus.
Fig.1--31
„ b…Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending‹
„ c…The deformations are small enough.
(2) E
r
(the reduced modulus)
t
t
r
E E
EE
E
+
·
2
—1.62)
2
2
l
I E
N
r
cr
π
·
(1) basic assumptions
„ a…The same relation exists between bending stresses and bending
strains as exists between stress and strain in simple tension and
compression.„ Fig.1• 31a…‹
3† The double modulus theory doesn•t agree with test results
Most of test results are greater than the tangent modulus theory, but
lower than the double modulus theory, and approximate to the tangent
modulus theory.
4ˆ Shanley•s theory of inelastic column behavior
(1) Shanley model
In order to explore the relationship between the reduced
modulus load and the tangent modulus load† Shanley used a
simple column model as shown in „ Fig.1• 35a…‰The model
consists of two infinitely rigid legs connected to each other at the
center of the column by a deformable cell. the cell is made up of
two axial elements a distance h apart. Each element has an area
A/2 and a length h and behaves according to the bilinear stress-
strain curve in (Fig.1-35a).concentration of all the deformable
material, in two elements, at the center of the model obviates the
need for considering the complex variation of material properties
both along the length and throughout the cross section exhibited by
a real column.
2ˆ the conclusions of the Shanley•s theory
(1)an initially straight column will begin to bend as soon as the
tangent modulus load is exceeded.
(2)Subsequent to the onset of bending, the axial load increases and
reach a maximum value that lies somewhere between the tangent
modulus load and the reduced modulus load.
(3)Although there is no strain reversal at the instant that bending
begins, strain reversal does occur as soon as the bending deformations
are finite.
5ˆ The new tangent modulus theory
It is assumed that the axial load N increases as the column bends, the
increased load is .it is also assumed that bending starts at the tangent
modulus load and the increase in the average axial stress is greater than
the decrease in stress due to bending at the extreme fiber on the convex
side of the member (Fig.1-34c).Hence no strain reversal takes place on
the convex side. The compressive stress increase at all points, and the
tangent modulus governs the relation of stress to strain for the entire
cross section.
N ∆
Because the bending is very slightly, stress-strain relationship
accords to Tangent Modulus Theory‰
so, we can get the critical load and the critical stress:
—1. 63‹
—1. 64‹
( )
2
2
λ
π
σ
t
cr
t
E
·
2
2
t
t
E I
N
l
π
·
In 1744 the Euler formula was first derived by Leonhard Euler. It was,
at the time, mistakenly assumed that the formula applied to short as well
as slender columns;
when test results during the nineteenth century indicated that the
formula was unconservative for short columns, Euler's work was
believed to be completely erroneous and was discarded for a lengthy
period of time;
In 1889,Considere and Engesser reached the conclusion that Euler load
as presented by Euler was valid;
In 1889,the tangent modulus theory was derived by Engesser ;
In 1891,the double modulus theory was derived by Considere, as soon
as Engesser became aware of Considere•s theory, he acknowledged its
validity and went on to derive the first correct value of the effective
modulus based on the double modulus theroy. However, it was not
until V. Karman in 1910 independently rederived the double modulus
theory that it gained widespread acceptance, for roughly the next 30
years, the double modulus theory was accepted as the correct theory for
inelastic buckling;
In 1947, Shanley reexplained the mechanism of inelastic column
behavior and concluded that the tangent modulus and not the double
modulus theory is after all the correct effective modulus.
1.10 Design of steel columns in Chinese code
Base on residual stresses analysis (see Fig ), considering only initial
out of straightness of l/1000 (probability) and a variety of different
shapes, steel grade and fabrication procedure, use three column strength-
slenderness ratio curve by parabola intersect to design steel column.
y y
f σ ϕ ≤

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