Practical 2: Objective
Food Test. 1. To test the presence of starch, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, proteins and lipids in food samples.
Materials and apparatus: Iodine solution, Benedict solution, sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, 20 % sodium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid, 1 % copper(II) sulphate solution and food samples (unknown to students). (A – raisin/dates solution , B – pounded groundnut, C – milk D –honey syrup and E-mayonaise ) The food samples can varies. Test-tubes, test-tube holders, beakers, Bunsen burner, dropper, wire gauze, tripod stand, white tile and filter paper. THEORY Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store. It is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms some aldehyde or ketone. This allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example in the Maillard reaction and Benedict's reaction. Reducing sugars include glucose, glyceraldehyde, lactose, arabinose and maltose. All monosaccharides which contain ketone groups are known as ketoses, and those which contain aldehyde groups are known as aldoses. Benedict's reagent is used to determine if a reducing sugar is present. If it is a reducing sugar, the mixture will turn green/orange/red. Those sugars which are unable to reduce oxidizing agents such as those listed above are called non-reducing sugars. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar. Non reducing sugars are polysaccharides.They do not have the hydroxyl group and therefore have to be refluxed in acid to obtain a similar reactive group. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Amino acids can be divided into either essential amino acids or non-essential amino acids. Proteins and carbohydrates contain 4 kcal per gram as opposed to lipids which contain 9 kcal per gram. The liver, and to a much lesser extent the kidneys, can convert amino acids used by cells in protein biosynthesis into glucose by a process known as gluconeogenesis. Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. We get what we need, instead, from food. You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth.Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E,
STARCH Procedure : 1. and arthritis. and E. 2ml of each food samples are poured into a test tube respectively.D.
FOOD SAMPLES: A) Milk B) Honey C) Peanut Butter D) Ribena E) Mayonaise PROCEDURE 1. 4. nonreducing sugars. D and E. heart disease.beta-carotene. 2.C. 4.B. D and E. 1cm3 of each food samples are being placed in respective test tube. 5. Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals. C. B. 3.
REDUCING SUGARS : Procedure : 1. to test the presence of starch. Food tests are carried out to determine presence of starch. which occur naturally when our bodies transform food into energy. 2. 3. labelled A. Next. The changes from the food test were observed. proteins and lipids in these food samples. The mixture is shaken and then heated by placing all the test tube in a boiling water bath. another two drops of iodine were added. 2. All the test tube is labeled A. and many other plant-based nutrients. Any change in colour in each mixture is observed.
. using a dropper. C. B. On each samples. 6. The build-up of free radicals over time may be largely responsible for the aging process and can contribute to the development of health conditions such as cancer. Using a syringe. reducing sugars. The diluted solution of the food samples were then being stirred by using a glass rod. 2 drops of each mixture were placed on a white tile. Prepared five samples of food labeled A. 1cm3 of distilled water were added into each test tube. 1ml of Benedict’s solution is added to each food sample in the test tube.
The mixture was heated in boiling water bath for 5 minutes. 6. 7. 2ml of food sample A was poured into a boiling tube. Then the filter paper is dried. All observations are recorded. 4. Steps 1 to 6 were repeated using food samples B.C. Benedicts’s test was conducted on the mixture. 2) 1ml of 20% sodium hydroxide solution is then added to each of the food sample and shaken well.D and E PROTEIN: Procedure : 1) 2 ml of each food sample is poured into a test tube. 3) a few drops of 1 % copper (II) sulphate solution are then added slowly to each of the mixtures 4) each mixture is shaken well and allowed to stand 5) any colour change in the food sample is observed LIPID : Procedures : 1. 4. Then.
. Three drops of hydrochloric acid were added. The boiling tube was removed from water bath and the mixture was cooled under running tap. The filter paper is held against the light. Any colour change was observed in the mixture. 3. 2.NON-REDUCING SUGARS : Procedure : 1. The acid in the mixture was naturalized by sodium hydrogen carbonate powder until effervescence stopped. A small amount of each of the food samples is rubbed on a piece of filter paper. 2. 5. 3.
INFERENCE 1. Food sample B. The filter paper that was rubbed against food sample B. Non reducing sugar is present in food sample B(peanut jam). Food sample A & C contains protein. D(honey) and E(mayonnaise) 2. Ribena and Mayonnaise did not cause colour changes to the iodine solution.
1. 1. 2. Milk. The other food samples remain blue in colour. 2. Mayones. Peanut butter changes the colour of iodine solution from brownish to dark blue. The filter paper of the food sample A and D remain opaque.C and E shows a translucent mark. The colour changes of iodine solution from brownish to dark blue indicates the presence of starch 2. honey. 2.
1. A brick-red precipitate is formed in food samples labelled B. Brick red precipitate were found in food samples B.
Non Reducing Sugar
1. Non reducing sugar is absent in food sample A(milk). C and E. C(Ribena/Raisin juice). 2. Food sample A and D do not contain lipid
. D and E 2. and Honey has reducing sugars in it. 2. Milk.RESULT
TEST FOR Starch
OBSERVATION 1. C.
1. Food samples A remained blue in colour. The colour changes indicates the presence of reducing sugars. Only peanut butter contained starch.
Food sample A & C turns purple.C and E contain lipid. the other food sample turns blue in colour.
0/5.0/5.0 3. The ascorbic acid solution is continuously added until the DCPIP solution is decolourised.
Results: Solution/fruit juice Volume of solution /fruit juice needed to decolourise 1 ml of DCPIP solution 1 2 3 Average 1.2 X 0. orange juice. The percentage and the concentration of Vitamin C in each of the fruit juices are calculated using the formulae given.1 = 0.
To determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices.0% DCPIP solution is placed in a specimen tube using a 1 ml syringe.1 X 0.032
1. The volume of ascorbic acid solution used is recorded.9 5. Steps 1 to 4 are repeated using freshly pineapple juice. The 5 ml syringe is filled with 0. specimen tubes.2 3. gauze cloth and knife. 1 ml of 1. beakers. orange juice and lime juice.1 = 0.
Calculations: Volume of 0.1 = 0.0 = 0.2 1.0/3.0 % dichlorophenolindophenol solution (DCPIP). 2.0 1.
6.2 X 1.1 % ascorbic acid ( concentration of 1 mg/cm3) can decolorise 1 cm³ of DCPIP and y cm³ of fruit juice concentration of k mg/cm³ can decolourise 1 cm³ of DCPIP so. The ascorbic acid solution is added drop by drop to the DCPIP solution.0/4.0 1. 4.8 4.1 % = quantity of ascorbic acid in y cm³ of fruit juice
.9 4.2 5.1 Percentage of Vitamin C in fruit juice ( %) Vitamin C concentration in fruit juice (mgcm-3)
0.1 % ascorbic acid used to decolourise DCPIP = x cm³ Volume of fruit juice used to decolourise DCPIP = y cm³ x cm³ 0.0 1.1 = 0. Procedure: 1. mango juice . papaya juice. 3.2 3.0 = 0.019 1.1 3.9 4. The results are tabulated. syringes with needles (1 ml and 5 ml).1 % ascorbic acid solution.0/3. The mixture is gently stirred with the needle of the syringe. freshly prepared guava juice.9 X 1.0/4.19 1. The needle of the syringe is placed into the DCPIP solution.1 X 0. the quantity of ascorbic acid in x cm³ of ascorbic acid 0.Objective: Problem:
2. The volume of fruit juice required to decolourise the DCPIP solution in each case is recorded.
Do imported fruits contain more Vitamin C than local fruits?
Material and apparatus: 1.0 5.1 % ascorbic acid solution. kiwi juice and lime juice.3 5.9 X 0.0 4.1% ascorbic acid Pineapple juice Orange juice Lime juice
From the result. Lipids make unglazed paper. The more brick red the changes. blue to pink when combined with short-chain polypeptides. The mixture of the food samples and the hydrochloric acid is neutralized first by using sodium hydrogen carbonate before adding the benedict solution. For this experiment.
. Benedict solution is used to test the present of reducing sugar.thus. is called Benedict's reagent. ribena and mayonnaise. For the test of lipid it also known as Grease Spot test. we need to test the present of vitamin c content in various fruit juice and we had used the pineapple juice. And the most translucent one is mayonnaise and it show that the mayonnaise has high percentage of lipid. translucent. nonreducing sugar. a mixture of (mainly) copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide. orange juice and also lime juice. reducing sugar. x cm³ X 1 mg/cm³ = y cm³ X k mg/cm³ k mg/cm³ = x cm³ X mg/cm³ y cm³ = x mg/cm³ y Therefore the concentration of ascorbic acid in fruit juice = x mg/cm³ y
Discussion First objective of this experiment is we want to test the presence of starch. ribena and also mayonnaise show the color change so that they have mixture of reducing sugar. Iodine is used to test the present of starch in food samples.1 percent of ascorbic acid solution as our indicator of the experiment. For this experiment. milk and also ribena shows the present of protein. The Grease Spot test can also be used identify the presence of lipids in a sample. the more reducing sugar it have. it show that lime juice has a higher content of vitamin c followed by pineapple juice and orange juice. The reagent turns from blue to violet in the presence of proteins. So we can say that only peanut jam has mixture of starch compared to the other food samples. A color change from the blue of the reagent to brick red is an indication of the presence of what are called "reducing" sugars. honey syrup. such as the outside of a paper bag. From the experiment. The basic principle of this iodine test is that when an iodine solution comes in contact in starch. we can see that peanut jam. ribena and mayonnaise smake the filter paper become translucent. peanut jam. In this test. we can see that only peanut jam changes the color from brownish to dark blue. we can see that the peanut jam. For the second experiment. This test is quiet difficult because we must used pure juice and we must also shake it fastly to get the correct result. We used 0. For the test of protein it also known as biuret test. the solution turns blue black in color. and lipid in several food samples that are milk. The reagent. proteins.
5. Furthermore the feeling of fullness which fibre produces can help people who are trying to lose weight to control their appetite. diverticular disease and cancer of the colon or large bowel. Sodium is also necessary in generating electrical impulses in nerve and muscle and in generating gradients across cells to enable uptake of nutrients. Sodium chloride (salt) is important in maintaining fluid balance within the body. with or without dairy products. Milk basically allows our bones to grow on their own and not be harrassed by your body's need for calcium. beans. which is important for reducing the risk of heart disease. the diet designed to promote fast weight loss. Why is it still important in our diet? Fibre will reduces the risk of a number of bowel problems . seal oil and whale meat rather than beef and butter have a low incidence of heart disease. Carbohydrates usually provide about have of your body's energy when your resting or performing a low-level activity. What advice would you give your friend? Grapefruit diet can trigger fat burning and cause weight loss. which is later converted to glucose for energy.
. In addition. In this context. Carbohydrates are important components of building muscle. nuts or seeds. 2. Explain the need for our diet to contain: carbohydrates. Fresh fruit nourishes the body with fructose. Omega 3 will reduces blood clots and inflammation thus lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke. a small amount of fat. vitamins and antioxidants. The body cannot digest fibre. How do you explain this? That kind of foods that are Eskimos takes are rich with source of Omega 3 essential fatty acids nutrients that the body cannot produce on its own and we must attain from the foods we eat. pulses. it is important that the body is able to regulate the level of sodium in the blood. These include constipation. 3. haemorrhoids (piles). A slightly overweight friend decides to go on a crash diet. fresh fruits and milk Carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. fruit and vegetables. sodium chloride. they also provide the body with minerals. weight lost is primarily from fluids and not fat and generally returns as soon as the dieter goes off the diet. It also helps to lower blood cholesterol levels. but. soluble fibre helps to stabilise blood sugar levels because it slows down the rate at which glucose is absorbed into the blood stream. 4. How do vegetarians ensure that they receive a balanced diet? Vegetarians must eat a variety of foods including grains. Eskimos who eat mainly fish.Questions: 1. all of which have very important functions in the body.some of them quite serious. She/he tells you that she/he is only going to eat grapefruit and drink black coffee for two weeks.
Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://www. non reducing sugar and lipid. References (2009). lime juice has the highest ascorbic acid content of 0.com/article_fibre.com/Q/What_is_a_non-reducing_sugar
(2011).yahoo.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-c-000339. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://www.answers.32 mg cm-3 .org/wiki/Protein_%28nutrient%29
. protein and lipid. Vegetarian Diet Nutrition.wikipedia.Conclusion Food sample A (milk) contain reducing sugar and protein.com/vegetarian-diet-nutrition. Food sample E (mayonnaise) contain reducing sugar non reducing sugar and lipid.answers. Of the fruit juice tested. Food sample C (ribena) contain non reducing sugar.wikipedia.htm
(2000). What is a non-reducing sugar? Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://wiki. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://en. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://en. Protein (nutrient). Food sample B (peanut jam) contain starch. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://dietsindetails.umm. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid).org/wiki/Lipid
(2011). Food sample D (honey syrup) contain reducing sugar and non reducing sugar. Lipid. Diet in Detail. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://in. What is meant by reducing sugar & non-reducing sugar?.
IPG KAMPUS DATO’ RAZALI ISMAIL KUALA TERENGGANU
BACHELOR OF TEACHING DEGREE PROGRAMME (PRIMARY SCHOOL) STARTING ON JANUARY 2011 INTAKE SCE 3101 LIVE AND LIVING PROCESSES
REPORT EXPERIMENT 1 FOOD TEST
Prepared By I/C Number Student Number Unit Lecturer’ s Name:
KHAIRUL FAIZAL BIN HALIM 900910-03-5135 123992 PISMP SCIENCE 1 SEM 1 ENCIK HASHIM BIN SALLEH