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December 2009 Volume 242 No12


Inside this issue:

Panel hardware selection an optimal balance Light it right KNX when will the UK catch up? UPS Saving money with efficient standby solutions
Page 16 Building services Page 24

News Page 4 UPS systems Page 10 Lighting


Farmers, foresters and local authorities can now apply for 1.5m grants to help develop the supply of biomass, such as wood chips or energy crops like miscanthus, in England through round three of the Bio-energy Infrastructure Scheme. Energy and Climate Change Minister, Lord Hunt said: As we approach Copenhagen we need to encourage business to invest in renewable energy. We have a target to get 15% of all energy from renewable sources by 2020, and biomass can make a significant contribution. We funded 75 projects in round two of this scheme, and we will continue to work to ensure that the supply chain is in place to create a thriving bio-energy market in England, which is good for the environment and good for business. As with previous rounds, the objectives of the scheme are to increase renewable energy generation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while contributing to sustainable land management. The scheme provides grants to help the development of the supply chain required to harvest, process, store and supply biomass to heat, combined heat and power, and electricity end-users. The scheme is restricted to projects based in England and is open to businesses, local authorities and charities. Grants will only be available for projects which complete by 31 March 2011. The deadline for receipt of applications is 26 February 2010, although applicant projects will be assessed on a rolling basis as they are received. The department may also consider extending this deadline, depending on the rate of response. The scheme is administered on DECCs behalf by TUV NEL. For application forms, guidance and all information regarding the Scheme, please contact the Bioenergy Infrastructure Scheme Helpline at TUV-NEL at Lighting Technology Projects (LTP), working to a lighting design by Speirs & Major Associates (SaMA), has installed and assisted in implementing the final specification for the new Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) memorial sculpture in Poole. LTP has worked in a similar role on other SaMA lighting projects, and was asked onboard when the lighting design elements were still in the mock-up stages. The 4.5 metre high Memorial is lit with a combination of fixtures, some integrated into the structure itself and others set back on special mounting poles. An essential design requirement was for all physical evidence of the lightsources to be concealed, with just their effect adding presence and form to the work.


The Government has welcomed the completion of the UK Atomic Energy Authoritys 50m sale of 100% of its commercial arm, UKAEA Limited, to Babcock International Group. The sale is the first transaction under the governments Operational Efficiency Programme, launched last year. The programme aims to ensure more efficient and commercial operation of assets held by the public sector, including certain businesses. This aspect is being managed by the Shareholder Executive. The sale completed on 31 October and followed the announcement of 30 March 2009 that UK Atomic Energy Authority was seeking a buyer for UKAEA. The sale of the business will help to reinforce the UKs strong heritage in the nuclear industry and provide a platform for the further development of skills in this important marketplace. Business secretary Lord Mandelson said: This is a win, win, win result. It gives UKAEA a strong partner, generates good value for the taxpayer and allows the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority to enjoy a broader array of nuclear decommissioning expertise.

For the latest news, products and event information visit



ABB is reorganising its automation divisions in a move to align its activities more closely with those of its customers. It is said these changes will enable ABB to better tap growth opportunities in service, expand its presence in the discrete manufacturing sector and better respond to the increasing demand for energy efficient solutions. Effective 1 January 2010, the business units currently in the Automation Products and Robotics divisions will be regrouped into two new divisions Discrete Automation and Motion, and Low Voltage Products. The Process Automation division will remain unchanged except for the addition of the instrumentation business from the Automation Products division. ABBs automation businesses with their focus on productivity and energy efficiency have tremendous scope for growth, said Joe Hogan, ABBs chief executive officer. We have strengthened the market approach by grouping together businesses with similar customers, technologies and service models, which will help us accelerate the development of solutions for our customers. ABB intends to provide pro-forma orders, revenues and earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) for the period 2007 to 2009 under the new structure when it reports its fourth-quarter results in February next year. The company will also update at that time the divisional guidance on its 2007-2011 targets, to align them with the new organization. The reorganisation of the automation businesses will be accompanied by several related leadership changes as of 1 January 2010.


This month we look at UPS reliability and resilience and underline the issues electrical design engineers must take in to consideration when designing UPS systems, to ensure the result is the most reliable and resilient possible

EAL (EMTA Awards) has been approved by the new independent qualifications and exams regulator, Ofqual, to become a Qualification Credit Framework (QCF) submitting body. This week also sees the launch of EALs first competence qualification approved for the QCF, a Level 2 NVQ Diploma in Business-Improvement Techniques, primarily developed for the engineering sector. EAL managing director, Ann Watson, said: The approval process has, quite rightly, been very challenging but EAL is proud to be among the first few awarding organisations within the UK to be given QCF Submitting Body status. We fully endorse the need to simplify the qualification process while upholding the high standards being set by Ofqual. Making QCF a success is a key priority for EAL and we believe by continually striving to improve vocational training, we will better support the growth of the industry.



The British Approvals Service for Cables (Basec) has issued a public warning about Kaydour branded armoured cables. The product is multicore PVC sheathed XLPE insulated steel wire armoured cable, in various sizes, which is claimed to comply with BS 5467. Basecs independent testing has indicated a number of serious faults including excessive conductor resistance and excessive armour resistance. Conductors are up to two standard sizes smaller than that marked on the cables, which could result in overloading and overheating in use. It is said the armour resistance may also result in ineffective earthing. The cables can be identified by the brand name Kaydour printed on the cable sheath - these cables are not Basec approved or marked Basec. This type of cable is commonly used for low voltage power distribution around sites or within buildings. Jeremy Hodge, chief executive for Basec explained: It is understood the cables originate from India and have been distributed in the UK through at least one supplier. It is not known if all cable with the Kaydour marking is suspect however any contractors or installers who are aware these cables have been installed in premises should test installations immediately for capacity, performance and safety. If safety concerns are raised, it is recommended the affected cables are removed and replaced by approved cables. End users are encouraged to check purchase documentation, design specifications and test

The faulty Kaydour branded armoured cables their installation to ensure that the applied loading and earthing are acceptable. Findings should then be recorded in documentation. Further information and assistance is available at

Available free to download is the newly re-written A practical guide to machinery safety, sponsored by Laidler Associates. The guide can be downloaded from: The easy to read guide covers legislation including the EMC and Low Voltage Directives, the ATEX Directive and the very latest information on the new Machinery Directive. It also covers risk assessment and hazard analysis; includes step-by-step advice on CE marking and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER). Commenting on the new guide Paul Laidler, of Laidler Associates said, The guide is written to benefit both machine builders and end users. Both sides need a good understanding of the legislation and processes surrounding machinery safety and this guide will help bridge the gap in understanding between the two. As well as featuring information about what to look for in a pre-purchase audit and a section on different types of electrical safety products the guide also features forms, charts and checklists that can be used to conduct a machinery safety inspection. An EN (ISO) 9541 chart appears alongside an EN (ISO) 138491 equivalent as well as an EN (ISO) 14121-1 check list and CE and PUWER check lists. Alstom has signed a contract worth over 100m (90) with South African utility Eskom, to provide the instrumentation and control system for the worlds largest coalfired power plant, Medupi in South Africa. Alstom has also provided Eskom with the option, worth an additional 100m, to install an identical system on Medupis sister plant, Kusile. Free to download and available to request as a hard copy via, A practical guide to machinery safety provides suggestions and guidance for the best route to compliance.


Electrical Review December 2009

In a recent edition of the Electrical Review e-newsletter, I referred to an article from the Independent newspaper claiming the world is now firmly on course for the worse-case scenario in terms of climate change, with average global temperatures rising by up to 6C by the end of the century: "Such a rise - which would be much higher nearer the poles - would have cataclysmic and irreversible consequences for the Earth, making large parts of the planet uninhabitable and threatening the basis of human civilisation." Carbon dioxide emissions from transport, industry and deforestation across the world have increased enormously since 2002, at a much faster rate than anticipated; to the point of hitting treble the annual rate reached in the 90s. We have all read what were previously thought to be scaremongering stories of this 6 rise and the potential devastation it would wreak on the planet. I asked Electrical Reviews readers for their thoughts on these latest claims. Are we doomed or is this simply another scaremongering story? I was pleased, as always, to receive a number for responses from readers, two of which are reproduced below. If you would like to receive the weekly Electrical Review e-newsletter, please email me at with your contact details. Elinore Mackay Editor
Dear editor, lt. doomed, and it's all our fau mostly CO2 prediction. We are all hic rop ast cat r is simply out of control, and h the wit ano es w, selv Wo are all busy killing our we t exists ons issi tha it em of ty bon jori car d ma e for generating the Hype about the dreade and we are not responsibl , gas e ous enh gre jor ma rubbish. Carbon is not a and the earth's decomposition, livestock, in the atmosphere. ed by volcanoes, bio mass duc pro is ke ma r eve ld .) More CO2 than man cou nor even a significant one picked up a major greenhouse gas, not is it er mb ond world war as industry me sec (Re . the ans er oce reased dramatically aft inc extra ons issi this em all pite bon car des de 0s, ver, come the 197 For example, man ma re than ever before. Howe mo e duc pro re to we ts rted ntis sta n scie t the point tha around the world and ma were actually dropping to here to stop two decades, temperatures for us by de pumped into the atmosp ma be ng bei uld 2 sho CO suggested more CO2 n eve y the e tim the At . predicting another ice age s? Definitely. cleaner cars and aeroplane this from happening! make more efficient and we uld Sho . tely es us money olu sav it Abs ? se; makes economic sen Should we save energy ducers? Of course. All this pro al loc t por sup and , Should we recycle waste ironment. and it will improve our env so. w 2 emissions? I don't think CO r providing you can someho Agonize endlessly ove ding packages available fun and nts gra ch , ear ory res the ive ed rat fundamentally flaw The fact is there are luc rted as an interesting but t groups, as CO2 emissions. What sta all sorts of different interes but up associate your work with Al Gore, has been picked Mr like ' by your bes ised nna rac 'wa ost ly and k is to be instant propagated by failures t to even suggest it is all bun tha bad so repeated is ten lie got a if has tes It sta of the adage that well as the lunatic fringe. . It is a very good example nity mu com ' ific ent 'sci the peers, and shunned by air dismissal. He the truth. d his ex-employers for unf enough times it becomes employee successfully sue an ere wh ly ent d for a firm of rec e rke wo cas I have even read of a on climate change. He odds with his philosophy at s wa our und the UK. In avi aro beh gs y's etin uired to attend me maintained the compan iness was such he was req bus ir the of vel by air. Also, ure tra nat to the ed e day, staff were expect property developers and sam the in k bac and le, in Scotland, for examp order to get to a meeting l more. tably his long, and cost a great dea too green 'philosophy'. Predic trains would have taken in this way because of his vel tra to sed s as valid refu wa yee phy plo em loso phi ded en The naive and misgui ge determined his gre Jud A ies. dut his il fulf to issed either. The was clearly unable iefs, he could not be dism employers let him go as he eone for their religious bel som iss dism not can you d. as a religion, and since e yet to be fully appreciate d down. It astonishing precedent hav ayers' is vilified and shoute ms doo dire ramifications of this bon 'car the to w vie g osin g even more one taking an opp re fuel to this fire by makin It concerns me greatly any d Stern should add even mo Lor as h suc s warming. He ual bal ivid glo ind of costs of various levels also concerns me greatly out the consequences and set ort rep 6 200 His s. impractical suggestion potent than CO2 as to stop eating meat. ne, which is 23 times more has now called for humans tha me el exp s, pig and s tain what he means mals, especially cow His reasoning is farm ani bon emissions (I am not cer account for 18% of all car ion uct rod at-p ble to eat meat as it me pta g cce kin a greenhouse gas, ma become as socially una l wil it s say He . ne) tha lly talking about me by this since he was origina vegetarian? This whole is to drink and drive. entire planet will become the k thin sly iou ser n ma e, or does this Am I missing something her d. han of out y business is getting wa Yours faithfully Julian Ding

EDITOR Elinore Mackay 020 8319 1807 ADVERTISEMENT MANAGER Neil Coshan 020 7933 8977 PRODUCTION MANAGER Tania King 020 7933 8975 PAID SUBSCRIPTION ENQUIRIES Tel: +44 (0) 1635 879361 ELECTRICAL REVIEW SUBSCRIPTIONS St John Patrick Publishers PO Box 6009, Thatcham Berkshire RG19 4QB, UK SUBSCRIPTION RATES: UK 160.00 per year, Overseas 195.00 (EU 300.00 US$360).
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Electrical Review is published by

Laurence Pountney Hill London EC4R 0BL 020 7933 8999 PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Chris Cooke PUBLISHER John Owen PRINTING BY William Gibbons Any article in this journal represents the opinions of the author. This does not necessarily reflect the views of Electrical Review or its publisher St John Patrick Publishers
ISSN 0013-4384 All editorial contents Saint John Patrick Publishers Ltd 2009. Jan-Dec 2008 8,798


Electrical Review Decembet 2009

Dear editor,


I was interested to read Julians response to you r story on climate chang I am a passionate believ e. er in free speech, includ ing views which we fin for a secure democracy d uncomfor table. My bel , one capable of evolvin ief is this is the only sou g and changing in respo nd basis So my response is not nse to various challenges and to attempt silence peo needs. ple with views as expres on this subject, but com sed by Jui lan, but to challenge the ment only as an engine m. I have no axe to grind er whom has been obser years. ving the various pieces of evidence over the las t 10 to 15 I will avoid detailing pag es of evidence that con tra dic t Jul ians view, as this is ava interested in the subjec ilable via the internet to t, but will stick to makin any one seriously g a few points I feel are 1) I agree totally agree relevant. with Juliana point: Sh ou ld we sav e energy? Absolutely. Sho and aeroplanes? Defin itely. Should we rec ycle uld we make more efficie waste, and support loc nt and cleaner cars us money and it will imp al producers? Of course rove our environment. . All this makes economic sense; it saves However, most countries are unlikely to implem ent the abo ve measures to their full meeting substantially stri potential, with out the cter CO2 emission target incentives of having to s than are in place at pre we have today would be sent. To break that link absurd. , based on the scientific knowledge You might be forgiven for thinking the science con sen sus is up for graps reading sure, its the best story Julians letter. Nothing to date using the eviden in Science is 100% totally ce we have at that given best decisions they can moment. With that evi . dence our societies hav e to make the Decisions could turn ou t to be wrong, but in thi s cas e wit h the over whelming evi confident our decendent dence coming in almost s would forgive us for err by the week, I'm ing on the side of cautio the fact that nearly all n, especially when you the actions required wil consider whats at stake l ben efit us in here, and many ways and hopefully So in a sense I'm not so improve the quality of sure what Julian is worrie life for d abo ma ny. ut, as the majority of soluti good for us anyway, if ons being pursued are not essential for the sus ones that will clearly be tainable continuation of we take have a limited human civilistion as we future, so it makes sen know it. Fossil fuels wh se to sta rt ich ever view mo ving away now rather tha turmoil that could ensue. n leave it to the last min ute and risk the 2) Julian seems to infer some kind of outlook bas ed on the assumption of blame . Collectively we have to Its not a case of individ be mature, take responsi ual blame or naughtiness bility and try to make As the worlds populati ! our impact on this amazi on gets greater and gre ng planet of ours sustain ate r, the ma able. rgin for error is growin our increasing impact g increasingly small. The is growing less forgiving planet s ability to absorb . 3) The evidence of warm ing trend The famous Ho cke y Stic k evidence originates fro Mann et al. 1999 study. This has been the subjec m a chart showing the temperature data from t of much debate and som been scrutinised by som e controversy over the e of the most reputable years. However, the fin scie nti sts dings have in the National Research Coun world, at the American cil (NRC) and American National Academy of Sci Ass enc oci es atio (NA n for S), the Advancement of Sci around the world have been at the forefront of ence. Government scie nti the sts scr fro uti m ny cou and ntries raised on the reliability debate of the evidence of some of the data use on warming. Although d, par ticularly from hu some concerns were used, the general findin nd red s of yea rs ago, and regarding dif gs of the Mann et al.1999 ferent statistical metho study have held up to Different statistical me ds scrutiny. thods have been applied to the dat a, with the findings again findings. Just recently more accurate data has in favour of the direction been used and again, the of the original At the request of the US findings are in line with Congress, a special Comm the original. itte e on Sur assembled by the Natio face Temperature Recon nal Research Council's structions for the Past Board on Atmospheric 2000 Years was from different discipline Sciences and Climate. The s and was tasked with Committee consisted of exp lain ing 12 scientists the cur two millennia, and ide rent scientific informatio ntifying the main areas n on the temperature rec of un cer ord tain for ty, the past the and how central the deb principal methodologies ate is to the state of scie used, any problems wit nti h fic the kno se wle app dg roaches e on global climate cha Some minor problems nge. The panel published were identified with the research methods used its report in 2006. issues were not of any to dat e, and significance to the gen the accuracy of some his eral results. The genera torical data, but these In a paper published on l findings were again up 9 September 2008, Ma held by the Council. nn and col lea gues published an updat temperature for the pas t two millennia.[63] Thi ed reconstruction of Ear s reconstruction used a th sur face original tree-ring study. more diverse dataset tha Like the original study, t was significantly larg thi s wo rk er than the fou nd anomalous relative to recent increases in north at least the past 1300 yea ern hemisphere sur fac rs, e tem and per thi ature are s res ult summary it iss difficult is robust to the inclusion to see where the doub or exclusion of the tree-r ter s bas ing e the dat ir aset. In evi general thrust of the res dence. None of the issu es detailed by Julian we ults by the expert scienti re sts jud . ged to alter the The over whelming scie ntific consensus is in gen era l agr eem ent with the evidence Not many dispute the for increased warming re are natural cylces in . warming and cooling, increases in temperatu linked to sun activity, bu re over the last 30/40 yea t the link has failed to aco rs. The Sci unt for ent ific ice sheets, warming of studies taken with the sea temperatures, rising mass of recent obser vat sea ion lev of els fas , t-retreating sat elli by the year, acidificatio te evidence, increased n of sea water (affecting CO2 concentrations (pa rts cor per al ree mil fs), lion spe ) raising events surely point to cies movement (fish, ins at least the need for des ects etc) and an increa icive action by our politic se in extreme weather for yourself. al leaders. But dont jus t believe me, check all the above out Interestingly John Roberts Newham Dockside


cial A) is the offi gy Agency (IE er En developed l e na th io ments in rn The Internat ve go s ch hi through w use of this, it cisions. Beca organisation de y lic y po av a he at energy tempered by world arrive ill usually be w y rule. I ns er io ev at ci to exceptions policy pronun e ar e er th t litik. Bu dose of realpo roadmap st found one. ju h publicised uc think I have m a ed l uc just prod 0 operationa The IEA has ere being 10 th te . pa de ci ca ti the de it, they an plants within for CCS. In e) ag or st d capture an it electricity CCS (carbon retically perm eo th ld fossil fuels ou sh al and other Such plants co g in rn bu r climate. carry on pact upon ou generators to im le ib ig gl deserves a ty, with ne this aspiration with impuni , be ay m m The that ai new plants? Laudable as ne hundred O k. ration ec st ch on y m it have 12 de bit of a real to g lin gg ru on is st European Uni an by 2015. ng ve no less th ti plants star is then to ha on ti bi am ared the wide within The IEAs decl erating world op at will ts Th an . pl hs the mat 3,400 such ne do ve ha I ur days. Even 30 years. ant every fo subsequent pl w ne an e on ilding also requires necessitate bu litical will, it po d an l ia s and e financ tent engineer assuming th ng of compe ni ai for 360,000 tr e ed or ne m tions the awful lot en m so e al rt The repo ference of th technicians. es the circum m ti ne ni is e: that km of pipelin l the steel? will we get al will it emerge re Earth. Whe ible. But nor ss po im usual t no is is business-asDelivering th tweaking of ss le am se kind of through the presides. e IEA usually th ch over whi

Shortly after the government announced its fantasy of having ten new nuclear power stations constructed by 2020, those esteemed nancial analysts at Citigroup published a sobering assessment of the implications. Curiously, this analysis received negligible publicity, drowned by the atomic hype. As part of my continuing service to my devoted readers, I thought I might offer ve absolutely verbatim quotations: * Government policy remains that the private sector takes full exposure to the three main risks - construction, power price and operational Nowhere in the world have nuclear power stations been built on this basis. *The estimated cost of constructing a nuclear power plant has increased at the rate of 15% per year heading into the current economic downturn. *A new nuclear power station will require 65/MWh in real terms year in, year out to hit its breakeven hurdle rate. The UK has only seen prices at that level for 20 of the last 115 months *A six-month breakdown can cost 100ms in direct cost and lost output This risk is too great for a single project to bear. And nally *Risks faced by developers are so large and variable that individually they could bring even the largest utility company to its knees nancially. So now you see why I describe the governments nuclear policy as emerging from a fantasy world?

A couple of months ago I wrote about a strange coincidence. Uniquely among the Big Six, Scottish Power had contracted out long term delivery of one of its legally required expenditure programmes, the Carbon Emission Reduction Target, to a Newcastlebased publicly quoted company, called EAGA. I wrote about the fact EAGA had a new chief operating officer, Willie MacDiarmid. And that his previous job was as Scottish Powers managing director of Energy Retail. With direct responsibility for ensuring compliance by Scottish Power with the governments Carbon Emission Reduction Target. It is always nice to move to be the chief operating officer of a company where you already know so many of your colleagues. But a special treat for Mr MacDiarmid must surely be working alongside the chairman of EAGA. His name is Charles Berry. And guess what job Mr Berry was doing before he took the role of chairing this company? Why, none other than that of the chief executive of Scottish Power.

I see the shadow Conservative en ergy secretary those predictin Greg Clark has g black outs by joined th e middle of the de likely absence cade, owing to of enough elec the tr ici ty capacity to keep wonder wheth the lights on. I er he would ca re to pi ck up the phon Dr Paul Golby. e to the head of Eon, Why? Because it was Dr Golby w ho announced he construction of was postponing his companys long promised supercritical un two new 800 M its at his power W station at King Dr Golby not go snorth in Kent. ing ahead? One An d why is simple reason. will be sufcient He doesnt thin demand for the k there ex tr a electricity in new units had 2016, when the been due to op two en . Perhaps Dr Golb y can point out to Mr Clark who happens also to se constituency be in Kent so mething even th ought to be ab e simplest of po le to understand liticians . It is, if there isn electricity, it fo t enough dem llows then that an d for th er e w ill be no blacko a result of a sh ortage of power uts. At least, no t as capacity.




Electrical Review December 2009

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Saving money with efficient STANDBY SOLUTIONS

A UPS units efficiency dictates its total cost of ownership. Using older, less efficient UPS topologies, or units that are too big for the load, can result in systems that are unnecessarily expensive to run and maintain. Businesses can look at several areas to enhance efficiency and therefore reduce the overall cost of ownership. The most important of these are UPS topology, new technologies and the choice of cooling system. actual load. A UPS that is 10 years old is typically 8-10% less efficient than a modern one. For a UPS supporting an 80kVA load, improving the efficiency by 10% can amount to electricity savings of almost 10k per year.

Parallel topology
By configuring UPS systems in parallel, the overall systems efficiency increases as each unit is running nearer to its optimum capacity. Often this method is more popular where there is a need to increase capacity and reduce redundancy because the solution is scalable; the business can add more units to support the load as it increases. Overall, the cost of ownership is similar to that of a traditional topology. The main benefit of a parallel configuration is that the units are physically separate and can be located in different rooms. This minimises the risk of an accident taking out the whole installation, however, the disadvantage is that more space is required to house the additional units, which may increase the cost of ownership.

There are many different ways for engineers to configure a UPS, and each topology will highlight different engineering tradeoffs. To help explain how different topologies can make a UPS more efficient, consider an example to protect an 80kVA load a typical load for many small-to-medium sized businesses. We could use any of the following topologies to support this load: Traditional approach: single 100kVA unit Parallel approach: two 50kVA units Modular approach: nine 10kVA units

Front view of a 10kVA APC UPS and 10kW fuel cell system

Modular topology
UPS manufacturer APC refers to the modular topology as pay-as-you-grow, because businesses only incur capital and running costs associated with supporting their current load requirements. This method can substantially reduce the cost of ownership for a business where the load frequently fluctuates. Comprising several smaller UPS modules, the modular approach can be more compact than other topologies as the business can house the units in a rack. Although this method is the most efficient due to its scalability, it is also the most expensive option in terms of capital costs. Modular units are typically 50% more expensive than an equivalent traditional or parallel topology.

Traditional topology
Although the initial capital costs are lower, the traditional approach is typically the least efficient way to support the load because it is the least flexible configuration. Often, an organisations standby power requirements change over time, but if the UPS solution is not scalable, it means the UPS wont always properly support the load and if it increases, the whole system will need replacing. Typically, with a traditional topology the UPS is not able to run at its most efficient operating point, which is approximately 7580% of the load. The age of the UPS is also a concern. In general, modern UPS units have better operating efficiencies at low loads, but older units do not perform so well if there is a mismatch between the operating rating and the

New technologies
Product developments have led to advances in UPS


Electrical Review December 2009

technology and several new standby power solutions are now available. Three important new technologies that support high efficiency standby power solutions are ecomode, high capacity UPS systems and fuel cells.

Cooling solutions
Within a data centre or large computer room, for every watt of power that a computer uses, it takes at least another watt of power to remove any waste heat. This has a significant impact on the overall cost of ownership so it is important to consider the data centre power requirement in its entirety, rather than addressing the efficiency of the individual parts. To optimise the cooling infrastructure, engineers need to consider several things. As well as the benefits of cold- or hot-aisle cooling configurations, there are other more environmentally friendly technologies that can be used, such as free cooling.

Several manufacturers have introduced new features to their UPS products to improve efficiency. Smarter ecomode systems constantly monitor the incoming power quality and switch from efficient eco-mode to the more resilient but less efficient doubleconversion mode when they detect a power disturbance. They offer the same level of protection against voltage sags, surges, spikes , electrical noise, brownouts and blackouts as a permanently online UPS system, but because the inverter stays in standby mode for most of the time, the overall power consumption is dramatically reduced.

Free cooling
Free cooling is a simple concept: using cooler air from outside rather than using air conditioning units. It works through an automated control system that monitors the ambient temperature. When this temperature is below a set limit, the cooling system uses filtered outside air to cool the equipment, but when the temperature rises, the system automatically switches over to use the air conditioning. The savings offered through free cooling depend on local temperature patterns. In the UK, some vendors estimate it may be possible the use free cooling for up to 75% of the year.

High capacity UPS

A new high capacity offline UPS has been developed that can protect loads of between 313kVA and 20MVA. When compared to an equivalent online double A Riello Master Plus conversion UPS system, this higher capacity unit offers power consumption savings of at least 7.5%. To put this in perspective, for a 1MVA load, the annual power saving would be 80k, or approximately 400k over five years. Furthermore, the green savings would equate to 300 metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent to approximately 70 acres of preserved forest.

Summary Fuel cells

To offer full protection against power disturbances, UPS units require a separate power source to ensure business continuity. Typically, businesses will use a bank of batteries and diesel generators, however, fuel cells are now offering a cleaner, greener source of sustainable energy. Fuel cells have the ability to provide both prime and backup power for portable and stationary applications. They are small, compact, only emit heat and water, produce minimal vibrations and are virtually silent when operational. For these reasons, fuel cells offer the perfect IT solution for businesses based in city centre locations where ensuring reliable power is of paramount importance but space is limited, and air quality restrictions prevent the use of traditional generators. Fuel cells do incur higher capital costs, however with few moving parts and extended runtimes, they require less maintenance and therefore reduce the overall cost of ownership. Where businesses have demanded more efficient IT solutions to help reduce costs, UPS manufacturers have responded by launching new innovations using powerefficient technology. Businesses can make efficiency savings throughout the complete UPS system, so it is important to consider the installation as a whole. While energy-efficient solutions are inherently greener and therefore better for the environment, they also offer businesses real cost savings by reducing power consumption. In several cases, the initial capital costs are higher, but over the lifetime of the equipment businesses can recover these costs through cheaper maintenance and reduced energy bills. Ultimately, businesses design and install standby power solutions to protect against power disturbances and enable them to continue their business operations. By carefully considering efficiency, businesses can protect their operations, reduce operating costs and their overall impact on the environment.


Electrical Review December 2009


CRITICAL aspects to IPS

THROUGHOUT my career, the grapevine has provided me with far too many stories about installation projects that have failed before the UPS is even in situ, purely and simply because a basic site survey wasnt carried out before hand. A survey would have alerted engineers to the fact that the final location for the UPS was down two flights of stairs and required a stair climber, or that offloading needed Police traffic control, or that the floor required reinforcement before the UPS could be sited. These are just a few examples of what could go wrong. Suffice to say positioning, unpacking and choosing the right location for the UPS is just as important as every other aspect of power protection implementation.
A Starlet M 10-40kVA UPS

UPS Environment
The final location of the UPS has a bearing on the type that should be chosen and vice versa. Small transformerless UPS systems (up to 10kVA) can be installed within an office environment. Systems from 15kVA tend to be installed within a computer or machine room. Larger systems, especially those that are transformer-based, will be housed within a plant or switchgear room. The UPS environment, overall, takes into account physical space, floor loading, remote and split locations, temperature control, dust and humidity and noise attenuation. UPS systems must be free from dust, humidity and corrosives and provision made for sufficient venting, air flow (by the UPS systems internal fans) and air-cooling. The larger


Electrical Review December 2009

Front view of a Starlet M 10-40kVA UPS

the UPS, the greater its heat output. A gap, in line with the manufacturers recommendations, for air flow and heat dissipation should be left around openings in the unit. The temperature around UPS batteries in particular must be kept at a constant 20-25C to preserve life. Floor loading is critical, particularly in data centres as computer rooms tend to have false floors. The UPS and battery cabinets may require extendable false legs, raised floor pedestals (RFPs) or a spreader plate to even out weight distribution. Larger UPS systems have more powerful fans and so may require noise attenuation, if they are sited within or close to a working environment. Typical noise levels can be around 4050dBA. Transformer-based, industrial-type UPS systems can exceed 65dBA or more.

Health & Safety, Environmental and other Standards

ISO 9001 Quality Management System has become a defacto standard that customers look for from suppliers, but more importantly, with UPS, engineers should be working to audited health & safety OHSAS 18001 and environmental ISO 14001 management systems and carry JIB/CSCS (ECS approved Electrotechnical scheme) cards. These require them to provide risk assessments and method statements for the services to be provided onsite and to use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and properly and professionally deal with issues such as Lone Worker arrangements, particularly important where there is live working. UPS electrical installation is covered by BS 7671 IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition and Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. In the European Union (EU), the electricity supply industry is also required to meet EN 50160 Voltage Characteristics of Electricity Supplied by Public Distribution Systems. Harmonic levels are also specified in G5/4-1, with which electricity consumers (domestic, commercial and industrial) must comply.

cable covers: Input to UPS system and output from UPS to load. Switchgear and bypass arrangements. UPS to battery pack, flywheel or fuel cell. UPS to generator or alternative energy source. Parallel interface cable runs. Alarm monitoring: remote alarm panel and network access point location.

Electro-magnetic Compatibility (EMC)

UPS have to comply with EN/IEC 62040-2 in order to carry the recognised CE mark. Some end customers, particularly in the transportation sector, where radio telecommunications are prolific, may require additional testing of the UPS before issuing their own approval documentation. In addition, cable runs have to be constructed in such a way as to avoid induction. Unprotected, some cables can act as aerial receivers for EMC. Power and data cable runs should be separated and the cables screened and shielded.

Containerisation Acclimatisation of new UPS

It is good practice to allow a new UPS to acclimatise to its site prior to switch-on. It usually takes a short time and can prevent infant mortality (terminal failure of a new system). This allows batteries to settle and any condensation, which may have built up inside the packaging whilst in storage, to dissipate. A relatively new phenomenon but growing in popularity particularly in remote locations such as oil fields, railway infrastructure, rooftop locations in cities where outside ground space is unavailable or perhaps as a temporary solution, where installation inside a building is not possible a UPS system together with its distribution and switchgear can be installed in a containerised system. Given the complexity of UPS electrical installation, it is easy to overlook the basics of actually getting it to site and once there maximising its ability to do the job it is designed to do ensuring continuous electrical supply. A small amount of time spent on logistical planning in the early stages will reap dividends at a later date. Electrical design engineers can and should play a key role in this.

Cable runs, distribution and switchgear, transient protection

Consideration needs to be given to cable runs, specifically type and length, which must be correct for the specific application. Trip hazards must be avoided, for health and safety reasons and to prevent accidental disconnection. In a UPS installation,

Given the complexity of UPS electrical installation, it is easy to overlook the basics of actually getting it to site



The speed of LIGHT

IN THE CURRENT economic climate, many organisations are looking to refurbish their existing buildings instead of going to the expense of moving to new premises. At the same time, virtually every organisation in both pubic and private sectors is under pressure to reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint. And higher energy users have the added incentive of the Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme to contend with as well. Unsurprisingly, this situation is leading many building operators to look at how they can not only refurbish their premises to improve the workplace but also how they can ensure the refurbishment delivers improved energy performance. In most cases, of course, this desire will be reinforced by the consequential improvements required by the Building Regulations. To that end, lighting offers a very good opportunity to make a major difference to energy performance at relatively low cost and with an acceptable payback by taking full advantage of recent advances in lamp and control gear technology. For example, its clear that the lowest cost option for upgrading lighting, and therefore the one that offers the fastest return on investment, will be to replace existing light sources with more efficient lamps, taking advantage of recent advances in lamp technology. Here, I would urge any specifier to be thorough in assessing the available options and to take account of both lamp and ballast operation to provide the full picture and arrive at the best solution. For instance, if a particular project requires a 35,000 lumen package to meet design requirements; this can be achieved by using an older technology 400W metal halide lamp using cheap control gear. Taking ballast losses into account, thats an electrical load of potentially 445W per lamp. Or, the same lumen package could be achieved with a higher quality 350W lamp with better control gear that provides just 25W ballast losses giving a saving of 70W per lamp without compromising on lighting quality. In fact, newer lamps have a longer life and will also give improved lumen maintenance so lighting quality will be improved over the life of the lamps. Similarly, there are now 200W metal halide lamps that can directly replace older style 250W metal halide lamps to save 60 circuit watts, or 22% energy consumption per fitting (including control gear losses). Taking this principle a step further, even greater savings can be achieved when high pressure sodium or mercury vapour lamps are replaced with metal halide. For example, a modern 200W metal halide lamp will give the same light output as a 400W mercury vapour lamp, resulting in a 49.6% energy saving. As well as highlighting the benefits of opting for the newer designs of HID light source, these examples also illustrate the importance of ballast losses and how much these can vary. Again, price often plays a key role in this decision making process and in the case of control gear there is generally a direct correlation between price and quality of manufacture and the materials used. This is particularly true in the current market conditions where the prices of copper and steel have been rising considerably and some manufacturers have resorted to skimping on materials to keep their prices down. Unfortunately, these materials have a direct impact on the efficiency of the control gear so a ballast that costs 25p less than a higher quality model could add as much as 55W electrical load to each light fitting.

Building operators need to ensure a refurbishment delivers improved energy performance

Back control
Another important factor to take account of is controllability as maximum efficiency of a lighting installation will only be achieving by eliminating waste. However, until relatively recently, buildings using metal halide lighting have been unable to take full advantage of the control options available for minimising energy consumption. This is because older HID systems couldnt be dimmed and they are unable to re-strike immediately after being turned off. This situation has now changed with the introduction of advanced electronic ballasts that allow these lamps to be dimmed. As a result they can be dimmed in relation to occupancy and daylight levels. For example, in a warehouse the lighting in unused aisles can be dimmed to a minimum light output and then be immediately ramped up when someone enters the aisle. Similarly, where daylight is entering the space the lighting can be dimmed while still ensuring the design illuminance is maintained.

I would urge any specifier to be thorough in assessing the available options, and to take account of both lamp and ballast operation

The right light

Many readers of Electrical Review will be aware of the drive in some areas to replace HID lighting with T5 fluorescent lighting, which can certainly deliver a high


Electrical Review December 2009


enough light output for low bay and some high bay applications. Unfortunately, in many such cases the decision to use T5 has been based on inaccurate information and meaningless comparisons, resulting in lighting installations that disappoint in terms of both lighting and energy performance. To a very great extent, the reasons for this are historical. T5 systems have made a name for themselves on the back of the combination of a good lamp, high efficiency electronic control gear and high quality reflectors. However, there is a tendency to apply the top of the range reputation to systems that very definitely fall within the mid to bottom range. At the same time, when specifiers are considering the most appropriate choice of light source, they may well compare a top of the range T5 system to the metal halide lighting of four to five years ago - rather than the top of the range metal halide systems that are currently available. To understand this, its important to bear in mind that a T5 system is more than just a lamp. Those fittings that provide the high performance described above also make use of high performance reflectors to achieve a good light output ratio (LOR). They also incorporate high efficiency control gear, which is essential in nurturing the lamp and providing the extended lumen maintenance associated with such T5 systems. These high end systems are certainly capable of providing an LOR of 90% with an efficacy of 85 lm/W. However, much has changed since the T5 system was first introduced to the market. As is the case with so many innovative and successful products, it has become a price-driven commodity item with many poor imitations of the original. Typically, such imitations achieve their competitive pricing by compromising on the quality of reflectors and control gear. So while the lamp itself may maintain an efficacy of 85 lm/W, the LOR in many systems has plummeted to 40-50%, with a shorter useful lamp life. In contrast, metal halide lamps and their control gear have come a long way during this same time period and are streets ahead of the old systems that T5 systems are frequently compared to. Consequently, an efficacy of 110 lm/W with an LOR of 90% is now readily achievable. Not only is this LOR comparable to that of the best T5 systems; the efficacy is considerably higher. In fact, a metal halide system with electronic control

gear, using the latest reflector technologies, is more than capable of out-performing the very best T5 systems in high and low bay applications. And, if a lower priced T5 system is being considered to stay in budget, the performance differences will be even more marked. Also, there are many applications for low and high bay lighting that require operation at relatively low ambient temperatures. So its worth bearing in mind the quoted performance figures for T5 are for ambient temperatures of 25C, and performance falls sharply either side of this ideal temperature. In contrast, metal halide lamps are unaffected by ambient temperatures, so the quoted figures apply in all applications. For example, in a loading bay where the lighting is exposed to winter temperatures, the light output from T5 systems can fall dramatically at the time of year when the days are shorter and the lighting is used most. Given the health and safety issues surrounding loading bays, it has often been found necessary to install more lighting points to achieve the required lighting levels in the winter. Metal halide, on the other hand, will provide constant light output all year round, irrespective of ambient temperatures.

Cost of ownership
All of these issues impact on cost of ownership another key consideration for any organisation. So, for example, higher quality lamps dont just offer improved energy efficiency, they also offer longer lamp life. This is particularly significant in areas where luminaires are difficult to access for re-lamping and where such maintenance is expensive and disruptive. Longer lamp life also means that fewer lamps are disposed of under the WEEE Directive during the lifetime of the installation. For all of these reasons, I believe anyone involved in specifying HID lighting needs to make a conscious effort to consider all of the options available, rather than simply doing what theyve always done. In fact, this is the only way end clients will get the best solution with the best value.

Higher quality lamps dont just offer improved energy efficiency, they also offer longer lamp life



Light it RIGHT
OVER THE LAST couple of years there has been an interesting change in the perception of how to reduce carbon emissions from buildings. Whereas the emphasis used to be on making new buildings more efficient and this is still important there is now a growing emphasis on the performance of existing building stock. This is because many of the new build projects of recent years have been adding to the countrys building stock, rather than replacing existing buildings; effectively increasing the problem. And even if it were eventually possible to make all new buildings carbonneutral, that would only stop the problem getting worse. Consequently, its now very clear that refurbishing existing buildings to improve energy performance is the only way that the UK is going to meet its carbon reduction commitments. However, in the current economic climate, many building operators have not got the capital available for major projects, such as improving the building fabric, which may have a payback of 10 years or more. So there is a growing need for quick win energy improvements and upgrading the lighting is proving to be a popular choice in many applications. This is partly because lighting makes a significant contribution to a buildings energy consumption and also because a lighting upgrade can often deliver a payback of less than two years. To that end, some of the newer lighting technologies that are now available have made such projects increasingly viable, particularly when an existing lighting scheme is quite old. For example, many commercial buildings are effectively overlit because of the technologies available when the scheme was designed. In particular, before easily dimmable fluorescent lamps with high maintained illuminance were readily available, it was common practice to design for higher illuminance levels than were needed. Then, as the light output of the lamps reduced over time, the design conditions would be met for a longer period before re-lamping was required. For example, if the space only required 3 x 18W to achieve the required illuminance levels it may have had 4 x 18W T8 fluorescent fittings instead. Clearly this was an eminently sensible solution at that time and one that helped to reduce end-client maintenance costs but the legacy is many buildings are still overlit when the lamps are replaced and for some time afterwards. And during that time, the lamps continue to consume the same amount of electrical energy even when the light output reduces. In such cases there is a clear case for doing more than simply replacing like for like when relamping even if the newer T8 lamps are a better, more efficient design. In fact, there are major benefits to upgrading the lighting to take advantage of the newer, more efficient T5 lamps, using luminaires with photometrics that have been optimised for use with these lamps. This is also one of the arguments against using T5 retrofit kits, as the optics of the luminaire were designed for a different type of lamp. In our experience, a very cost-effective solution to this problem in many situations is to replace existing 4 x 18W T8 fittings with 2 x 14W T5 luminaires on a point for point basis. This will provide comparable light output while reducing the installed electrical load by well over 60% when ballast losses are taken into account as well as delivering energy savings of as much as 70%. And, of course, the improved controllability of T5 light sources means that additional savings can be achieved by ensuring the lighting is only used when it is needed. For instance, the ability to dim T5 lighting has opened the door to considerably more sophisticated control strategies. One obvious option is to make use of photocells set to the required illuminance levels, so that the electric lighting is dimmed in relation to the levels of natural daylight entering the space. Similarly, there are often situations in a space that has variable occupancy where it is desirable to maintain lower illuminance levels rather than turning the lighting off completely when the space is unoccupied. A typical example would be offices and other spaces at the end of the working day, where most people have left but cleaning and security staff still need to be able move safely through the spaces. Clearly T5 lighting is now the first choice in the majority of new office lighting projects and, as already discussed, there are sound economic and environmental reasons for applying the same philosophy to existing lighting installations. But these principles dont need to be confined to office lighting. The ability to achieve a very high light output from T5

Over the years there has been an interesting change in the perception of how to reduce carbon emissions from buildings


Electrical Review December 2009

lamps, combined with well designed luminaires that give a high light output ratio, means that the same principles can also be applied in many low and high bay lighting applications. Traditionally, such areas have used HID light sources such as high pressure sodium and metal halide because of the distance between the luminaire and the area being lit and the high light output required to address this. The powerful lumen package of T5 lighting means there is now more choice for lighting specifiers and their clients. Indeed, many warehouses, factories and large retail sheds are already making the switch from the traditional high intensity discharge (HID) light sources to T5 because of the benefits that can be attained. And very often replacement can be on a point-for-point basis so no extra cabling is required. Straight away, such a replacement strategy will reduce the installed electrical load considerably. Typically, 400W high pressure sodium (SON) lamps running on wire-wound control gear will consume as much as 440W because of ballast losses. These can be replaced with 4 x 40W or 4 x 55W T5 fittings to achieve acceptable illuminance levels with the added advantage of better colour appearance and better colour rendering. Just as importantly in relation to the over-lighting referred to above, installing T5 fittings introduces a high level of controllability that is not possible with HID lamps. The latter need to cool down before they can restrike and can take up to 15 minutes to reach full light output, imposing severe limitations on the practicality of turning HID lamps on and off in relation to occupancy or daylight levels entering the space. In contrast, it is very straightforward to link T5 lighting to occupancy detectors and photocells, switching them on and off or dimming as and when appropriate. This enhanced controllability is particularly beneficial in many high bay lighting applications where parts of the space are only used occasionally. Warehouses are a typical example, where the lighting can be zoned to cover individual aisles of racking, so that the lighting only comes on when a person or fork lift truck enters the space. Similarly, in retail sheds there will be times when the store is closed but some lighting is still required for re-stocking, cleaning, maintenance etc. And, of course, in shed-type buildings with roof lights, the lighting can also be adjusted in relation to daylight. These benefits were realised by supermarket chain Netto, when it decided to re-light its warehouses, starting with the main warehouse in Yorkshire. Here, the existing HID fittings were replaced with 4 x 55W fluorescent fittings, using 4000K colour temperature tubes, on a point-for-point basis. They are controlled via integral occupancy and daylight sensors to minimise running hours, resulted in projected savings around 50,000 per annum on energy alone. The ability to include integral emergency lighting in the fluorescent fittings also means there is no need for a separate

At Netto existing HID fittings

were replaced with 4 x 55W fluorescent fittings emergency lighting system, as would be the case with HID lighting. Further savings will be achieved through lower maintenance costs as the fluorescent tubes offer a life of 16,000 hours before re-lamping is required, compared to around 9,000 hours for HID lamps. This has a knock-on financial saving on lamp disposal costs to comply with the WEEE Directive. The use of multi-lamp fittings also means a single lamp failure will only have a minimal effect on light levels in the area and re-lamping can be scheduled for a convenient time. When single lamp HID fittings fail, light levels in a wide area fall dramatically so the lamp has to be replaced immediately to maintain a safe working environment. Additional benefits from the new lighting scheme will include fewer picking errors due to poor colour rendering. The new scheme offers excellent colour rendering so staff can clearly differentiate between different coloured labels. Just as importantly, staff at Netto will enjoy a more comfortable working environment. In fact, given the fast paybacks that can be achieved on such projects, plus the interest free loans that may be available from the Carbon Trust, eliminating overlighting and energy wastage should really be a nobrainer for any organisation that wants to reduce its overheads and its carbon footprint.

The use of multilamp fitting means a single lamp failure will only have a minimal effect on light levels in the area



Panel hardware selection AN OPTIMAL BALANCE

stainless steel fittings is the answer. As with most things, the optimum solution is based on more than one factor and can make very important differences in cost and reliability this is where FDB is able to provide independent advice and can often act in a project management role finding an optimal application solution. Balancing weather-ability, corrosion resistance, strength/ruggedness and supply constraints, for example, by matching a stainless handle with a polyamide housing, as a compromise of performance/cost between polyamide at the low cost end and stainless at the high cost end. A good example is the latest buzz technology in enclosure hardware compression locking, which was confined to a somewhat limited range of applications until it recently came out of patent protection, so now a much wider market is finding it beneficial. A number of manufacturers seem to have had their own parallel version of this technology under development for some years and have been able to quickly bring their expertise in design/manufacture to provision of a very greatly expanded range of compression latch variants. However the question is a compression facility beneficial and where? stands. The anti-vibration role of these locks is excellent in preventing opening of panels such as on trucks, railway rolling stock gen-sets, air-con and heating and ventilating systems. Similarly the ability to provide soft gasket compression is valuable on cabinets with EMC gasket to ensure a firm contact, or indeed on large door panels where the closure

T45s now with FDB zoned locking. Image appears permission of BVT Surface Fleet

AT FDB Panel Fittings we have many years of combined experience in supplying panel hardware, from which we have found the selection process for correct panel hardware is largely to do with the application. For example, there is little point in fitting low cost, light duty locks and hinges to enclosures destined for use in shipbuilding or mining. Of course they will work for a short time but not for very long. Conversely, it should not be assumed fitting expensive


A range of stainless steel panel fittings

force needs to be distributed over substantial distances or adjusted to allow for manufacturing tolerances, also compression technology provides several millimeters of soft gasket compression and cam depth adjustment. The result then is that FDB customers are finding they are also now in a position to consider soft-close compression technology for turn locks, swing handles, T handles etc, where it may be that the different closure feel is important, or that the additional degree of anti-tamper performance conferred by the design is a valuable security factor This is just one of many trends in cabinet hardware which tends to work over fairly long time frames. During recent years there have been many new developments in enclosure hardware and today there are products available for almost all industrial applications. Not just locks and hinges but a whole raft of complementary products including grab rails and handles, stays, door seals and numerous accessories. IPxx degree of sealing is, by now, a well recognised front line consideration and most engineers will be aware, for example, IP54 or IP55 while potentially suitable for external use is not weatherproof or waterproof. FDB has become adept at looking beyond this to the complete picture including: frequency of use, ease of operation, degree of corrosive environment, the cost/material balance, key possibilities, zonal security requirements, walk-by clothing entanglement, gloved hand usage, vibrational considerations, for example where vehicle mounted, wash down and pressure hose use, type of gasket used, door type

and opening required, special industry standards, for example in railway, offshore, mining, machine tool guarding. A major long term trend is toward greater use of stainless steel hardware; consequently FDB Panel Fittings has a range of stainless steel locks, hinges and handles suited to petrochemical plants, hospitals, food processing establishments, medical environments, outdoor installations, marine and offshore industries. The range includes piano hinges, integral recessed lock/handles, weld-on hinges, boltFDB Panel Fittings

Quarter-turn fasteners

on hinges, grab handles, spanner locks, rod locks, concealed hinges, lever and T handles. Importantly for marine/offshore installation many are available in stainless grade 316 as well as the more common 303 and 304 with satin and electro polished finishes. Stainless steel fittings are suited to control cabinets, electrical equipment and instrument housings, especially where exposed to the elements or frequent wash down processes. These stainless products are of course designed to complement the standard range of die-cast and mid steel fittings and in many cases are interchangeable with them. In one large project recently FDB Panel Fittings was called in to supply locks for the new T45 warships. Like any very large single community the T45s face security issues for their personnel, in this case the requirement was for a zone based wing lock system to cover personal lockers, wardrobes and other storage areas. With typically over 2000 locks on each ship a project based master key system was specified for crew cabins and furniture or lockers in communal areas. FDB was able to carry out planning, supply, specialist project packaging, administration of coding/delivery and

long-term backup support. Not only was it important to have a zoned security with key operated wing locks offering a very high number of differs up to 5000 different combinations with master keys it was also important the locks and keys were separately labelled for specific locations and delivered at a very early stage so they could be brought together later during final fit out. Another good example was the requirement for quarterturn latches to suit 18000 galvanised steel water meter boxes for domestic installation in the Middle East. For security, a plastic clip-in, quarter-turn latch was specified by the customer simple to fit and, bearing in mind the quantity, relatively low in cost. However, FDB felt the latch would be unsuitable for the service conditions that were likely to be encountered by the boxes. A small but extremely robust die-cast lock with steel cam was suggested for evaluation by the client. In order to stay within the budget constraints it was proposed the lock be supplied zinc-plated rather than with its usual chrome-plated finish. A further problem was the very short delivery period for the boxes themselves a period of just 3 months for the fully equipped boxes with a fixed completion date and no possibility of slippage with container shipment prebooked. FDB was able to deliver at the required rate of 1500 locks a week, but after four weeks increased this to 2000 thus allowing the contract to be met in 10 weeks. FDB has successfully tendered for the supply of panel hardware to many diverse and prestigious projects including: Londons Millennium Wheel, the Channel Tunnel, a Russian oil pipeline, Hungarian buses, the Thames Barrier, a T45 Destroyer fleet and the London Underground flood defences.


Electrical Review December 2009


The cost and efficiency of energy usage is an important question for everyone, especially businesses. The rise in energy costs of the past few years has helped focus our minds on the issue and the potential cost savings through better energy management. As with any process the first step is to measure what is currently being done, in the case of electricity, clearly businesses need to measure and understand where the energy is being used, thereafter improvements can be investigated and implemented. Typical improvements can range from the reduction of peak demand through better scheduling of equipment start-up and usage, to the reduction of the overall bill by identifying equipment which is being left on unnecessarily or is inefficient or even faulty. Electrocorder offers a range of products which give users the ability to understand their electricity usage and implement changes deemed necessary. The EC3CT current logger is suitable for accurately monitoring single or three phase loads from 2A to 300A, it can be used to first establish the overall usage for a premises, then each of the individual circuits and equipment can then monitored to identify where saving lie. Generally on small installations it is not necessary to monitor voltage, simply monitoring current is sufficient to understand the energy usage. On larger premises, with perhaps their own transformer or where it is felt that the current consumption may be affecting the voltage levels voltage and current would be monitored, the EC-6VA range of three phase voltage and current loggers have this capability. With input current ranges up to 3kA per phase, and sealed to IP65 as an option they can be used on most industrial locations. Electrocorder has a range of voltage only, current only and voltage and current loggers to suit most situations from light commercial right through to heavy industrial, giving industry the tools to understand and help reduce electricity consumption. TEL: +44 (0)870 225 1790



When will the UK catch up?

THE KNX PROTOCOL is said to be the worlds first truly open protocol and allows specifiers to select the electrical and mechanical products they are familiar with, safe in the knowledge they will be fully interoperable when integrated by any KNX-certified system integrator. The protocol is now almost 20 years old and there are more than a hundred manufacturers with a combined catalogue of over 7,000 KNX components, this means the contractor or building services engineer has a large pool of interoperable technology from which to choose, knowing that the integrator can build a total control solution for the project by bringing together a variety of off-the-shelf components which are truly interoperable. These products have all been thoroughly tested and certified to be KNX compliant and all operate seamlessly together, programmed by the integrator using one common software tool. And because they all speak the same language, they can operate together across the same network, resulting in much less cabling and higher functionality. Its a tried and tested system that has revolutionised the way commercial buildings are specified in our great economic rival countries like Germany and Spain, yet the UK is about 13 years behind the rest of Europe when it comes to use of the system. The result means many of the UKs state-of-the-art office spaces are simply being left behind. So why is that? Is it perhaps because there is no appetite for KNX in the UK? Take up of KNX certification for engineers at training centres such as BRE and East Tyrone College in Northern Ireland along with the increase of KNX systems being installed in the residential market would suggest not. Here, architects and self-builders have been quick to see the advantages of a fully integrated system of building and lighting controls that allows total personalisation of the home environment the flexibility of the system settings can be quickly changed or additional elements such as communicating with sophisticated audio visual systems that are often a feature of the high end residential sector. The difference in the commercial market is that it is not usually the architects or end users that drive the choice of electrical installation, it is more often than not the M&E consultants. Current market feedback appears to indicate that consultants are less than keen to embrace the new technology. Of course, its not unusual for the UK market to be cautious when it comes to changing the way we do things we are a traditionally conservative nation. The fact remains, however, on this issue we are now even lagging behind other traditionally conservative countries, like The Netherlands and Austria. The headquarters of the KNX association are in Brussels, and the global web site provides the statistics which can be viewed by anyone. In the UK there are 220 certified KNX engineers listed, the Netherlands a conservative country with a population around a third of that of the UK has 294 KNX integrators. Furthermore if we compare the UK to the rest of Europe, the picture is even more damning: there are 7,344 integrators in Germany, 2,086 in Spain, 2,052 in Austria, and 447 in Poland! Like most countries the UK has its own national group in place to promote and support the integrators, and anyone else who is interested in learning more


Electrical Review December 2009


about the protocol. KNX UK Association aided by the manufacturers has been instrumental in raising the profile of the protocol at trade fairs and in key trade publications which has seen a growth in its acceptance for use in commercial projects, a recent example being Media City in Manchester. Unfortunately, there still seems to be a culture of doing things the way they have always been done, whatever the advantages to the developer, the contractor, the end user and the environment of switching to KNX. There is an old guard of building services engineer that continues to specify the same old products in the same old way, seemingly afraid to try something new and apparently seeing the integrators skills as some kind of black art. Thats not to say that there is no-one amongst the M&E consultancy fraternity who would like to pioneer the use of KNX. Those of a younger, more IT-friendly, early adopter disposition can see the advantages both practical and financial of using the protocol. The problem appears to be they are unable to convert their enthusiasm for the protocol into actual specifications due to decision making at a senior level. So while it gives me confidence that the sea of change we need will happen eventually, it does little to reassure me that it will happen any time soon. Of course, in an ideal world one would like to see Cibse (Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers) showing an interest in KNX as part of their remit to drive innovation in the industry. However, they appear to be unaware of what their counterparts in Europe are doing to encourage take up of the protocol, which in turn means that their members are not being

An engraved switch

kept up to date, something that those of us involved know only too well as when we mention KNX to the majority of Cibse members we are met with a blank expression or at best oh yes, Ive heard of it but dont know anything about it. Unaware a KNX-based building control system can be used to conserve energy, and help towards achieving Part L compliance. So perhaps it will simply be a waiting game however, whilst we wait, building services engineers may wish to take advantage of a KNX building controls event that is due to be held at BRE, Watford later this year. If the wait continues it may well be the developers and architects will simply get so frustrated by the fact that our commercial buildings dont measure up to many of those being specified on mainland Europe that they start to seek out consultants with a more forwardthinking approach....even if they have to travel a little further afield to find them!



Originally constructed in the 15th century, St. Mary's Church was the parish church of Gateshead until 1979 and used after that date as auction rooms. The Grade-I listed building remained a local landmark and Gateshead Councils decision to transform it into Tynesides newest visitor attraction has ensured this historic building will once again be used by local communities for generations to come. However, the 1.2m refurbishment project was not without its challenges: not least completing a full electrical installation without altering the internal appearance of the building with any visible switches or sensors. Explains Peter Udall head of design at Gateshead Council said: Though the building had been in use as an auction house, the refurbishment meant it was stripped right back and returned as far as possible to its original state. Obviously the visitor centre needed to have modern electrical systems and we were keen for it to be as energy efficient as possible, but this had to be achieved in an unobtrusive way that didnt conflict with the buildings age and historic importance. The solution was to use a DALI system which ensured minimum cabling was used and this was laid discreetly in the exposed ceiling. The Dali system was combined with an integrated KNX intelligent building system from German manufacturer Jung, which reduced the need for hard wiring and enables control of all interior and exterior lighting, scene setting, heating and air extraction units to be managed by a single Jung colour touch screen located at the reception desk. As a result, there is no need for any light switches, dimmers, heating controls or ventilation controls to be wall mounted anywhere within the listed building, helping to preserve the original fabric of the structure. Alex Carter of Durable Technologies supplied and commissioned the system and worked closely with Veale & Nixon electrical contractors, to install the KNX system on the project. He explained: The lighting, scene setting, heating and ventilation controls operate with a mix of sensors and manual switching which is all controlled by the Jung touch screen unit. These controls have also been interfaced with the security system and fire alarm system, creating a truly intelligent building that is both functional and energy efficient. The interface with the security system means any lights still switched on when staff lock up the building in the evening switch off automatically when the alarm system is switched on. If the alarm is activated, all the lights will be switched on automatically to help identify any intruder and if the fire alarm is activated the lights will also switch on, making it easier for anyone trapped in the building or fire crews to identify the exits. No detail has been overlooked and Carters team even came up with an ingenious solution to help staff activate the lights in the main body of the building using the Jung Touch screen without having to install a light switch in the reception. Carter explained: We designed a tiny sensor which is embedded in the mortar in the entrance. When a member of staff opens up the building this sensor switches on the light in the reception area allowing them to switch on the lighting, heating and ventilation controls using the touch screen. The exterior lighting, which includes the church clock tower, has been designed to be as energy efficient as possible. All the lights are low energy LEDs and they are operated using a combination of manual switching using the Jung touch screen and daylight sensors. Peter Udall continued It may be more lighting will be added in the future, including feature lighting outside the building. One of the advantages of the KNX system is there is plenty of capacity to do this, or put in additional controls, and everything can be integrated quickly and simply making this a truly functional and future proofed installation.


Electrical Review December 2009


A technical guide to functional safety has been published by ABB. Available as a PDF document; the guide outlines what the new EU Machinery Directive means for machine builders, explains the practical steps required for compliance and describes the applicable standards, background and theory. A major development introduced with the Machinery Directive is that variable speed drives can now be used in safety systems. The document details how drives can help make machinery more costeffective and user-friendly while maintaining a high level of safety. The ABB Technical Guide to functional safety can be requested by sending an email to

The latest addition to DANLERS energy saving, lighting controls range is the PIR Occupancy Switch Module. This module measures 50mm by 25mm and performs similar functions to Danlers popular CEFL PIR but can be suited into a Eurodata plate or built into luminaires. Like the CEFL PIR, this discrete passive infra-red occupancy module brings the load on only when a person is present, thus saving on energy bills. It also includes a person detector, adjustable photocell, relay, adjustable time lag function and is available with either a 5m or 10m detection zone. Each module can switch up to 6 amps of load, including fluorescent lighting.

ABB 01925 741 111


Designed and manufactured in the UK, the Caresafe NCDTAK disabled toilet alarm kit is one of the UKs biggest selling disabled toilet alarm systems allowing a distressed person to raise an alarm in the event of an emergency. To operate, a user simply pulls the cord of a ceiling pull unit to activate the remote sounder beacon typically placed in the corridor immediately outside the WC, a further secondary alarm will also be raised at the control panel which would be installed at a manned reception area. Easy to install and simple to use, the NCDTAK comprises of one of each of the following: zone control unit, ceiling pull cord, overdoor light and sounder, remote rest point and WC self adhesive sticker.

Danlers 01249 443377

Caresafe 01253 699 500


Glen Dimplex Home Appliances (GDHA) is using Clare testers to conduct the electrical safety testing of its new range of induction hobs and ovens during the production cycle. In November the company launched its collection of induction products, including the BI60i Eco Induction Oven which uses 50% less energy than an A rated oven.


Access automation expert FAAC is helping set the standard in 24V technology with its latest range of operators, making it easier for installers to comply with the relevant safety regulations. Notable additions to the 24V range include the second generation, hybrid powered S450, the S418 electromechanical swing gate operator and the FAAC patented C720 sliding gate gearmotor. Following in the footsteps of the S700 hybrid model, the S450 swing gate operator combines the advantages of hydraulic technology with the efficiency of a 24V DC motor. Suitable for high frequency applications due to its continuous duty cycle, the S450 also boasts a high opening/closing speed. Integrated mechanical stops eliminate the need for externally mounted stops and its longer stroke aids ease of installation. The rear bracket can be adjusted for greater flexibility and its housing is transparent for LED visibility, enabling easy set up and maintenance.

FAAC (UK) 01256 318100

To ensure complete product safety, GDHA teamed up with Clare to install four HAL testers on its production lines. HALs undertake accurate and high speed ramp DC testing during the final production stage, ensuring the unit is completely safe for use by the consumer when it leaves the factory gates. Specifically configured to undertake earth bond, flash (HIPOT), load, continuity and live to neutral electrical testing, HALs also help ensure consistent quality control throughout the production process.


CBS Group provides a distinctive end-to-end offering for critical power infrastructure encompassing the specification and supply of UPS products together with aftercare packages and battery maintenance and replacement services. In addition, CBS provides a unique containerised UPS and standby power solution which is available for hire with a 4-hour turnaround anywhere in the UK.

Clare Instruments 0191 587 8741

CBS Group

Cooper Lighting has carried out an extensive programme of upgrades to many of its commercial lighting and emergency lighting products and brought them together under the banner of the Core Collection. The initial product offering covers recessed fluorescent luminaires, surface fluorescent luminaires, ambient lighting, industrial lighting, exterior lighting and emergency lighting. As minimising energy consumption is a vital consideration for anyone involved in specifying lighting, many of the products are supplied as standard with high-frequency control gear and either high-wattage compact fluorescent lamps or, for linear products, T5 slimline or T8 fluorescent lamps. Specific design features help to reduce installation time, such as pre-wired mains leads, fast-fit attachments and an extensive choice of cable entry points. The Core Collection catalogue is available via the literature request button at or by calling the Cooper Lighting literature hotline number below.


Intelligent fire detection systems from Advanced Electronics are behind an integrated fire solution for Newcastles Staybridge Suites Hotel. The L1 system was designed and installed by Durham based CDS Security & Fire and consists of a single Mx-4802, 8 loop fire alarm control panel that monitors over 300 fire sensors and devices from Apollo Fire Detectors Discovery range. The cause and effect programming in the Mx-4802 panel allows the sounder and beacon on the Apollo combined unit to be controlled separately, providing increased flexibility. When an alarm is triggered from a detector in one of the suites the local sounder and beacon are activated, as well as the main control panel alerting the staff. If the alarm has not been reset within 5 minutes, the local sounder is silenced in the suite and a full fire alarm is raised, causing the building to be evacuated. As well as triggering a phased building evacuation the Mx4802 also interfaces with a number of other systems in the hotel, helping to stop the spread of fire and aid evacuation.


Eaton is introducing Memshield 3, a new generation of final distribution boards and associated circuit protection devices for commercial, industrial and public buildings. Memshield 3 forms a vital element in Eatons PowerChain Management solutions which offer an integrated approach to the efficient distribution and control of electrical energy in buildings, from the main supply intake to the point of use. Memshield 3 is said to break new ground in the range of functions it can perform. It retains all the features that have made Memshield 2 the preferred choice of electrical contractors for more than 15 years but introduces innovative features that will enable specifiers and installers to offer an even wider range of power distribution solutions in modern buildings. In particular 125A Type B boards are now offered with a 250A option in the larger sizes while 250A boards can be used instead of MCCB panelboards for some applications.

Advanced Electronics 01670 707 111 LAUNCH OF DATA CABLING WEBSITE

Emitex has re-launched their website. It is now easier to search product information, keep updated on latest news and locate the nearest distributor. is an easy-to-navigate and user friendly website designed to offer Emitex customers extensive information about the Emitex brand and its portfolio of products. Aside from its product pages, the website enables users to view the latest news, information on Emitex training, the option to view the new e-catalogue just like you would when browsing through the printed one and the facility to request or download a catalogue. The website boasts a useful directory of stockists which allows the user to search region by region or in a specific town or city.


UK manufacturer and stockist of electric and fibre optic cables, Tratos is pleased to announce the re launch of its web site The new Tratos web site, with its new modern, clean look, has been designed following the acquisition of North West Cables one year ago and now covers the entire product range offered by this ever expanding company. The products themselves can be found in a dedicated section on the web site, clearly laid out in categories, such as Highway Cables, making it extremely easy for visitors to find what they are looking for. Each product category gives an overview of the products available. The site also boasts an up to date news section featuring new Tratos cable installations, company news and new product launches. Downloadable quality statements including Basec and ISO9001 and accreditations are available to all, along with an easy to use on line credit application form.


Ethos is infiltrating You Tube with the latest demonstration clips of the new 7920 multifunction tester; the first in a series of demos being launched. Aimed at electrical contractors who are new to the Ethos 7920 multifunction tester, or for those wanting to get the best from their instrument, the demo clips provide either a complete demo on how to use the instrument - or snippets on individual tests being performed. Ian Park of Ethos, comments; Electrical contractors who have not yet purchased this instrument but simply want to know more about it can simply adopt a similar method to the try-before-you-buy, with a watch-beforeyou-buy! The complete video which runs for approximately 10 minutes, has already received hundreds of hits and can be viewed on You Tube or the website;

Ethos 0191 378 3990

Tratos 01246 858000


The Harting CP 600 is a new manual pneumatic crimping tool for the companys Han D(R), Han E(R) and Han(R) C ranges of industrial connector contacts. The tool processes cross-sections ranging from 0.14 mm to 10 mm and ensures uniform, precision crimping. Optional accessories include a foot switch and a table mount adaptor. The CP 600 operates over a permissible pneumatic connection pressure range from 5.5 bar to 8 bar, and measures 280 mm in length x 65 mm in diameter. It weighs 1.3 kg. The pneumatic crimping tool conforms to RoHS/Directive 2002/95/EC.

Wireless telemetry specialist Radio-Tech has developed a low-cost automatic meter reading (AMR) transmitter for walk-by and drive-by monitoring of energy and water usage. The Smartlog Ultralite provides an alternative to costly fixed networks, but can also be used as an add-on to extend the range of an existing system. The IP68-rated device is suitable for above- or below-ground applications, including sub-metering. Its firmware[1] can also be upgraded wirelessly. The transmitter stores the pulse output from the meter pulse head or reed switch and then transmits the total in a secure data packet, along with a status indication and unique ID address, typically at tensecond intervals. Aside from being used to enforce drought restrictions or apply block and seasonal tariffs, Smartlog Ultralite can also monitor for leakage and provide daily consumption amounts which can be used for accurate billing.

Harting 01604 827500


Marco has supplied its products at Gloucester County Councils new state-of-the-art office development. The Marco steel wire cable tray is being installed across three floors of the building, with its many benefits being utilised by the electrical contractors. Supplied by a local Bristol-based distributor, the UK manufactured product has been delivered directly to site throughout the contract period. Steve Davis, business development manager at Marco Cable Management said: This is a highly energy efficient development and great thought and attention has been given to the right specification in all areas of this scheme. The use of Steel Wire Cable Tray, a light weight flexible system that can be fabricated on site, makes installation quick and convenient and offers a time and labour saving solution for the electrical contractor. This simple but effective approach falls in line with the overall ethos of this development in terms of efficient working practices and product specification.

Marco 01248 725777

Radio-Tech 01279 635849

Prysmians Afumex LSX low fire-hazard range has been developed to address the specific needs of modern building services. It is designed for power and lighting circuits where a screened low smoke halogen free cable is required. Basec approved to BS8436, it meets all the requirements of the 17th edition Wiring Regulations for installation in thin walls and partitions, amongst other applications. Afumex LSX is a robust yet lightweight cable, which is compact in design. It can be used in many instances where traditionally a bulky armoured cable would be installed, often with considerable cost-savings. Manufactured with Prysmians Earthshield safety screen technology, Afumex LSX is fully compliant with BS8436 and additionally tested for 600/1000 V rating by BASEC. It combines a longitudinal aluminium tape screen in contact with a full size CPC (circuit protective conductor) to achieve the necessary earthable layer. Rittal has extended its Ri4Power range for low-voltage switchgear, with the development of new isolator sections. The isolator section layout is based on the familiar components of the Ri4Power system. In tests, the highest configuration variant with complete side panel modules and bar covers achieved internal form separation of up to Form 4b. Depending on the number of cables to be connected, the new Rittal isolator sections are available in section widths of 1000 and 1200 mm, offering a connection space width of approximately 300 and 500 mm respectively. With a particular focus on targeted, cost-efficient switchgear design, the Rittal multi-terminal busbar system uses flat bars in cross-sections of 50x10, 60x10, 80x10 and 100x10 mm. Successful type testing with both ABB SlimLine and Jean Mller Sasil strips achieved rated currents of the busbar system of up to 2100 A with full section population and a protection category of IP3X.

Rittal 01709 704000

Following the move to its new HQ, Power Electrics Generators an independent supplier of specialist generators for sale and rental, has just opened a new purpose built equipment testing and customer training facility. Located at its Bristol HQ, the facility offers flexible, tailor made courses enabling customers to familiarise themselves with the equipment, conform to best practice and tackle health and safety and other compliance issues. The test cell, complete with built in loadbanks enables full load witness tests and reporting for generators up to 2000kVA. As the UKs largest FG Wilson dealer, Power Electrics is able to deliver over 100 product and technical courses.

Prysmian 023 8029 5029

Power Electrics 0117 947 9700

ABBs Industrial cpmPlus Smart Client is now available as an included upgrade for System 800xA Automation Sentinel software management program subscribers that have the history option in their Automation Sentinel contract. This upgrade will be provided to these subscribers at no additional cost. Automation Sentinel is an innovative program for ABB control system software management that helps customers actively manage their lifecycle costs, by extending support for, and the value of, existing ABB software investments. With this program, ABB customers keep their installed software products up to date and maintain a flexible and affordable path forward to evolve to the latest system software versions at the their desired pace. The Automation Sentinel upgrade provides the licenses for the basic functionality of cpmPlus Smart Client to customers using System 800xA with no license cost.


LM Technologies Ltd Business Division is a global provider and manufacturer of Bluetooth cable replacement solutions (Bluetooth adapters and modules). The LM Technologies Bluetooth serial adapter now features an out of paper message from the LM048SPA adapter used with printers in the EPOS/ general printer market. Star Micronics and Sharp have extensively trialled and now endorse this solution. A number of other major manufacturers will soon be concluding trials in due course. The LM048SPA is said to be the worlds smallest RS232 Bluetooth serial adapter and is already an industry winner as a non protruding Bluetooth serial adapter solution. The LM048SPA is quickly and easily configured to any EPOS/POS system via the LM Technologies user friendly and intuitive software configuration utility. This LM048SPA adapter provides the security of Bluetooth V2.0 +EDR with the additional options of auto connection authentication via pin code, and activation of the Non Discoverable Mode function. Power saving functions and 7 bit data are also available as options.


When the facilities management team at Kentuckys Newport Aquarium needed a 24/7 monitoring system, capable of quick and easy detection and location of water and fuel leaks, as well as alerting them in time to instigate an effective response, they specified a TraceTek monitoring system from Tyco Thermal Controls. KingsMen LLC, TraceTeks regional Partner, provided Newport Aquarium with the optimum solution using Tyco Thermal Controls TraceTek leak detection systems. The TraceTek TT1000 sensing cable quickly reacts to the presence of water and triggers an alarm. For fuel leak detection, the TraceTek Fast Fuel Sensor (FFS) probe triggers an alarm within a few seconds of initial contact with hydrocarbons. These high integrity sensors can be reused many times as the probes will reset once removed and any fuel residue evaporates or is cleaned off.

LM Technologies 0207 428 2647 MAKING LIGHT WORK

Lamps and control gear from Venture Lighting Europe have been used to resolve a variety of lighting problems at the Aftermarket Distribution Centre of Mann+Hummel (UK) in Wolverhampton. The company, who globally manufactures and markets Mann-Filter, the automotive aftermarket brand of replacement filters, was having considerable issues with the existing lamps, which were cycling at the end of life with up to 20 or 30 lamps out at any one time in the 3,000m warehouse area. Following an assessment by the Mann+Hummel inhouse electrical team, it was agreed a new lighting system, using Ventures Uni-Form Pulse Start 350W lamps and Ventronic Dimmable control gear, would to be the perfect solution to the problems, whilst significantly reducing running costs. By replacing the lamps and modifying the existing fittings, the project was also completed quickly and with minimum disruption.


Venture Lighting Europe 0845 2302222 RENEWABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

The solution to cost-effective hybridisation of renewable and carbon-based energy sources is said to have taken a major step forward thanks to Zigor, the international producer of energy conversion systems, electronic power devices and renewable energy solutions. Highly available, top quality power with the lowest cost per KWh can be obtained using the Zigor product portfolio: Sepec and HIS/HIT inverters for single phase and three phase power respectively. Delivering consistent energy supply at the lowest possible cost, as renewable energy sources are neither manageable nor available on demand, combining them with energy supplied from the grid and/or a diesel generator, plus storage via a battery, provides cost-efficient and reliable energy while reducing CO2 emissions. It differs from existing systems as it can incrementally add energy to the demand or user from the available energy sources, for example: grid, generator, solar, wind and battery. It follows a program to deliver energy at the lowest possible cost.

A connection solution by C & J Supplies Chesterfield Limited, using Wieland Electrics RST pluggable connectors has proved successful in preventing damage to dado trunking in wards at Chesterfield Royal Hospital. As with many hospital wards, the electrics from each bed are connected to dado trunking carrying power and medical gases, using a 13A plug. A frequent problem experienced by the hospital was that porters or nurses who needed to move a bed quickly would forget to unplug electrical items first, and the dado trunking would be damaged. Apart from the disruption and repair costs, this also posed a danger of medical gases escaping so that wards would sometimes have to be closed during repairs. C&J Supplies was asked to find a solution to this problem and suggested inserting a pluggable connector between each bed and its 13A plug. In this way, as pressure is exerted when the bed is moved, the connectors are pulled apart without causing any damage.

Wieland Electric 01483 531213

Zigor UK 01604 751 949


A definitive guide to specifying flexible conduit systems for the rail industry has been launched by Adaptaflex. This detailed and informative guide is full of technical data from hazardous categories through to electromagnetic screening and fire standards. Encompassed in a 24-page document it is available for download direct from the companys website: In its approach to the rail industry the guide specifically covers the protection of critical power and data cabling setting out the implications for high speed and express trains; commuter and regional intercity; light rail and tram as well as metro, including the very individual and complex area of underground applications. Not only does it highlight the use of non-metallic and metallic systems on all types of train and light rail applications, it details infrastructure usage within stations, trackside, control centres, tunnels and even areas such as car parks, as well as specific train applications on bogies and carriages.

At the SPS/IPC/Drives Electric Automation Exhibitions and Conference, Belden will introduce the new Hirschmann Eagle 20 Tofino product line. The new range combines a rugged security appliance with a collection of software modules that together provide practical and effective industrial network security which is simple to implement and does not require plant shutdowns. Suitable for use by the process control and Scada industries, the Hirschmann Eagle 20 Tofino products provide increased safety, network security and performance of industrial control systems. The release of these new products brings together Beldens automation market expertise with BSIs proficiency in providing practical solutions to protect businesses from network and cyber threats. It is a good fit that will benefit many companies in manufacturing, energy, utilities, and other similar industries where local IT staffing is limited commented Bob Mick, vice president of emerging technologies at ARC Advisory Group.


Interplast has added its Edison weatherproof modular switches and sockets to its comprehensive Economic Sense product lines. Manufactured in tough, impact resistant, grey thermoplastic with the advantage of see-through flexible membranes, the new Edison weatherproof range has high quality technical specifications and provides the complete answer to a wide variety of weatherproof switch and socket problems. Interplast has published information and a price list, which is available by contacting the company direct.

Interplast 01467 629555

Belden +31 77 387 8555

Light, thin, non-glare and warm white Orebos is the first OLED light source from Osram Opto Semiconductors for premium quality functional lighting. The new energy-efficient surface-emitting panel is especially suited to applications in the premium segment such as architecture, hotels and catering, offices, private homes and shops. The Orebos OLED panel has a round lamp surface of 80mm diameter, is only 2.1mm thick and weighs 24g. These limited dimensions ensure plenty of different usage options. With an efficiency of 25lm/W, the panel beats that of conventional halogen lamps. Its warm white colour temperature (2,800K, CRI up to 80) matches the warm light of an incandescent lamp and is therefore suited to lighting that is atmospheric as well as functional. In homes, museums, restaurants or hotels, OLED light sources are ideal thanks to their pleasant, non-glare light. Designed to provide installers with a flexible, user-friendly system, Click Scolmores comprehensive New Media collection encompasses a wide range of telephone, data, vision and sound connection modules, as well as power outlets. The range brings practical and aesthetic solutions to the array of media and power cabling requirements that we are faced with in todays technology-driven work and home environments. Instead of numerous individual sockets, a singe New Media plate can be used at a convenient point to bring together any combination of media modules. The individual modules are available in a black or white finish and suitable for mounting on blank plates from across the Click range of wiring accessories. These include the Click Deco, Define and the recently launched Definity screwless range plus the Polar and Mode moulded range of accessories.

Scolmore International 01827 63454


Zucchini has added a new lighting busbar to its 25A to 40A range of power distribution systems for use in major lighting installation projects. Designed specifically for suspending and powering light fittings, the new Zucchini LB is extremely fast to install and provides total flexibility during planning, installation and subsequent maintenance of lighting equipment. The new Zucchini LB, which provides optional 2, 4 and 6 conductors plus the choice of steel, painted steel or aluminium casings making the LB ideal for installations above false ceilings or open environments such as warehouses. The specification is also IP55 rated and has the benefit of all relevant UK and International certifications/accreditations. Full technical information is available in the new Zucchini catalogue of low to medium power busbar systems.

Osram +49 (0) 941 850 1700

Zucchini 0121 458 7070

AEG Power Solutions has announced the first models in a new generation of UPS the Protect 8 line. Designed and built using a modular, building block architecture, Protect 8. UPS systems offer the most reliable performance available on the market. The building block approach marks Protect 8 as the worlds first customer-ised UPS each UPS is tailored to each customers specific requirements. The initial version launched by AEG Power Solutions is the Protect 8. 31, an industrial double-conversion model. All Protect 8 UPS are designed, assembled and tested in the finest tradition of quality and reliability by AEG PS in Germany. Protect 8 employs VFI (Voltage Frequency Independent) technology and is a true online, double conversion UPS which guarantees a filtered, stabilised and reliable output voltage free from frequency variations, over-voltage and voltage dips.


Providing solutions to the cabling requirements of todays technology is what Click Scolmore does well, and their new HDMI module outlet is the latest example. Available in black or white, the module format is the latest way to transfer high definition data in the modern age of digital television. The flexible lead (80mm long) on the back of Clicks HDMI module alleviates the problems often associated with wiring HDMI cables into a standard back box as they are only supplied fitted with connectors at either end. With more and more households opting for HDTV sets, Click Scolmore is anticipating great demand for their High Definition Multimedia Interface module - what they are describing as the modern scart connection for todays technology.

AEG Power Solutions 0208 498 1100 IT CAN PAY TO RECYCLE

Bruce RID Recycling is helping major engineering solutions contractors and manufacturers throughout the UK to endure the downturn in the economic climate, by not just cost effectively disposing of their industrial electrical equipment, but also by offering them a credit as well. More and more engineers are now starting to understand that their industrial electrical equipment can sometimes generate enough scrap value to offset the cost of disposal and collection. The recycling and processing facility based in Sheffield, can offer a recycling and collection solution for all commercial and industrial equipment, whether loose or palletized, including control panels, UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies), electrical motors, drives, inverters, MCCs, oil filled (PCB or non PCB) and dry capacitors including power factor correction capacitors, direct from your, or your clients sites. Therefore you can fulfill your WEEE disposal obligations without breaking the bank.

Bruce RID Recycling 0114 2433637 LOW ENERGY REFUELLING

Scolmore International 01827 63454

A Chalmor-designed lighting upgrade, supported by a Carbon Trust loan, has helped the Cowden Bonnybridge petrol station in Falkirk save nearly 3,000 per annum on energy consumption and lighting maintenance. Chalmors input was invaluable in making the project run smoothly from the design of the new lighting and helping with the energy figures and other paperwork for the Carbon Trust loan application right through to final commissioning, recalled Cowden Bonnybridges Jimmy Beveridge. I would certainly recommend Chalmor to other petrol retailers seeking to improve their energy consumption in the most cost-effective fashion. The lighting upgrade included replacement of 450W high pressure sodium lamps in the forecourt area with long life (60,000 hours) 150W Endurance fittings. In addition, inefficient T12 fluorescent lighting in the shop and storeroom have been upgraded to energy efficient T5 fluorescent lighting using Chalmors EasiFit retrofit solution.

Chalmor 0844 351 1199

Automation Power Systems Software

Rockwell Automation provides an extensive portfolio of products, including Low Voltage Control Equipment, Variable Speed Drives, Medium Voltage Drives, Programmable Controllers, SCADA and MES. With a focus on sustainability and life-time costs, we also provide a range of added-value services such as Asset Management, Condition Monitoring and On-Site Support. Coupled with this, Rockwell Automation has a system engineering capability combined with extensive domain experience of the manufacturing sector. In particular Rockwell Automation has dedicated resources assigned to Rail, Water and Energy industries within the UK market.
Tel: 0870 242 5004 Fax: 01908 261917 Email: Web:

To advertise in this section contact Neil Coshan on: 020 7933 8977 or Charges: 19 pccm, Box No 25

To advertise in this section contact Neil Coshan on: 020 7933 8977 or Charges: 19 pccm, Box No 25

A.C. Voltage Stabilisers

Hazardous Area

Test and measurement Recruitment

innovative test technology and comprehensive customer support


Seaward is a market leader in the supply of specialist instrumentation for electrical safety testing for portable appliance testing, 17th edition installation testing, high voltage and other electrical applications. In all cases, innovative test technology is combined with accessories, training, calibration and other comprehensive customer support as part of total solution electrical test instrumentation services. Tel: 0191 586 3511 Email:

100% dedicated to the electrical industry. Our consultants are industry trained from contracting, wholesaling, manufacturing and sales. WE FULLY UNDERSTAND THE TECHNICALITIES OF THE ROLES THE INDUSTRY HAS TO OFFER. FOR YOUR NEXT PERMANENT VACANCY, GIVE US A CALL AND SPEAK TO PEOPLE WHO UNDERSTAND YOUR INDUSTRY. Visit Alternatively contact David Marshall TMIET MIRP. 0845 0947201 07894 110336

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To advertise in this section contact Neil Coshan on: 020 7933 8977 or Charges: 19 pccm, Box No 25


To advertise in this section contact Neil Coshan on: 020 7933 8977 or Charges: 19 pccm, Box No 25 UPS



Control Systems

Power Factor Correction


Authorised Person level
Also EAW Regs, Generator Operation, Safety awareness, Maintenance, etc

Power Factor Correction PowerLogicTM Metering Systems Energy Meters Load Monitoring Power Quality Monitoring & Solutions Harmonic Surveys To G5/4 Harmonic Filters UPS & Surge Protection Thermal Imaging Surveys
Call for survey and quotation :Tel 01773 - 603110 Fax 01773 - 603112 e-mail web site - VAR Services Ltd. 27 Main Road, Jacksdale, Nottingham, NG16 5JU


Tel or Fax: 01737 352755


Power Factor Correction

Cables / Telecables

PFC Engineering Ltd

Station Road, Great Chesterford, Saffron Walden, Essex CB10 1NY

Total Power Quality Solutions

Power Factor Correction Design and Manufacture - LV / MV Power Factor Correction Maintenance and Installation Harmonic Analysis and Penetration Studies Harmonic Filtration Systems - LV / MV Design and Manufacture Voltage Disturbance and Flicker Control Complete Analytical Services Consultation and Advice

Contact us for expert advice on Tel: +44 (0) 1799 530728, Fax: +44 (0) 1799 530235 email:

Power Quality Management

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THERE IS A widely held proposition within the electrical sector that I have largely left alone, since my blood pressure is already sufficiently elevated without further exacerbation. That topic is the notion of smart grid technology. For anyone who has yet to pick up on this clever nonsense, the idea is devices are plugged into homes and then appliances are plugged into the devices. This then gives the electricity supplier the opportunity to charge more for power used at peak times and also to turn off any appliances to avoid brown outs or black outs on the grid. Dont get me wrong, I have been blathering on about reducing energy consumption for nearing three decades now. Those arguments that once had me labelled a pioneer, now have me tagged as an old moaner. In that time I have seen energy saving lamps installed alongside ever increasingly powerful air conditioning equipment, powerful outdoor lighting and electric doors. I have also witnessed a far greater appreciation of carbon reduction, but little actual reduction! I suppose I am suggesting until governments make their carrots and sticks more effective, nothing much will happen. I just hope the carrots get bigger but that the sticks dont become too unwieldy. For this reason, I see no reason why we shouldnt have some limitations imposed on our electricity usage. In France and Italy consumers subscribe to a limit on their maximum supply once this limit is reached, the main incomer pops and will not reset until an appliance is turned off. The higher the maximum supply demanded, the higher the unit price of the electricity purchased. As plans stand, smart grids like so many ill thought out ideas would probably do little to affect electricity consumption. The better off would simply groan each time their bills arrived and then turn up the air conditioning to cool their furore; the poor would likely get cut off or have their consumption limited to what they can afford. What I really object to however, is not that my electricity usage might be monitored and controlled by the electricity supplier, but rather that they, not me, would be able to determine which of my appliances is switched off, and when. Even across the Channel thats a power Electriciti de France doesnt exercise! It may be no coincidence in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts where the first practical smart grid system was tried, the regulators insisted the system disallowed in order to protect low income customers. Of course, idealists voice that smart grids enable control over peak demand and therefore a reduction in dirty old coal fired power stations. I hate these nebulous arguments because one can dream them up to support any premise you like. I know, lets restrict the use of telephones because that way we could remove lots of poles and masts from our environment. It might make my old mum think twice about calling me, but it wouldnt stop yabbering salesmen interrupting my dinner to ask if I pay too much on my mobile phone bills! I have no issue with limiting total power to the consumer. I have no real problem with charging for electricity at different rates according to total consumption heavy users of electricity after all contribute more costly environmental damage. I firmly support the design of energy efficient appliances. I am firmly in favour of technology that enables us to better understand and control our energy usage provided it is us that decide what to control. I am neither technophobe nor philistine when it comes to energy technology. Its just I have a deep distrust of anything that enables further draconian interference with how I choose to live my law abiding life.

Power usage you decide

John Houston can be contacted on 01797 364366 or by e-mail at