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Overview on Mini/Micro Hydro (Technology, Issues and Subsidy Policy 2013)

Er. Pashupati Pd. Khatri Electrical Engineer, Nepal

Topics
Components of Mini/Micro Hydro Subsidy Policy for Pico/Micro/Mini Hydro Issues Lesson Learned

Ecological Regions
8848 m amsl

Tibetan Plateau

67 m amsl

Indian Plains Terai Siwalik hills

Middle hills

High Mountains

High Himalayas

Classification

Micro-Hydro

COMPONENTS OF MINI-MICRO HYDRO POWER PROJECTS

Components of Micro Hydro Project

Civil Components Mechanical Components Electrical Components Transmission/Distribution Electrical + Mechanical Network
Electro-mechanical Component
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Overview

Civil Components of Micro Hydro


Trash rack
Headrace
WEIR

Intake
Canal

De

si

gB ltin

n asi
Canal

Crossing
Cr os sin

Forebay
g
Forbay

Sp ilw ay

Anchor Block
Anchor Block Support Pier

Weir Spillway Source

Canal
Riv er/ K

ay ilw p S

Kh

ho

la

Support Piers
Spill way
Penstock Pipe Anchor Block

sa ol
e ac ilr Ta

Power House

Power House

Tailra ce
Major Civil Components Of Micro Hydro Scheme

MHP

MHP Components

Weir and Intake

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Desilting Basin

Incorrect: High velocity in centre stream and turbulence in corners

Correct: Low velocity throught width, no turbulence 11

Desilting Basin

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Canal

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Forebay

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Support Structures

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Powerhouse and Tailrace

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Power House & Load Center

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Electro-Mechanical Components of Micro Hydro

Transmission Line
Forbay Trasrack Air Vent Pipe Anchor Block Expansion Joint

Penstock pipe
H.T. Lightning Arrestor L.T. Lightning Arrestor

Support Pire
R Y B

Penstock Pipe

Anchor Block

ELC
Drop- out Fuse

Transformer Generator
ELC Board
H. T. Line L. T. Line MCCB Transformer ( T1) 400/11000 V, 15kVA T. Plate form Danger Plate Ground Level

Earthing
Generator Turbine

Turbine
Power House

Electro Mechanical Components Of Micro Hydro Scheme

MHP

MHP Components

Electro-Mechanical Eqpts.

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Turbine

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Net Head: 17.5m Flow: 918l/s Turb.speed : 418rpm Wt: 1280 kg Power: 120kW mech. Size: 400d, 800w

T15, 400 D, x-flow turbine

Designed by: United technical Support Service (P.) Ltd Manufactured by: Balaju Yantra Shala (P.) Ltd

Solu Khola MHP, Tuintar (100 kW)

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IGC/ELC/Governor

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Transmission/Distribution Network

Service Line House wiring

Distribution Line

Transmission Line Powerhouse

MHP

MHP Components

Transmission/Distribution

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Thalari Gad, Bajhang (65 kW)

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Lower Taman Khola, Baglung (100 kW)

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Components of Micro Hydro Project


CIVIL COMPONENTS
Village

Head (m)

Discharge (l/s)

MHP

MHP Components

Power Calculation

P = g*Q*H*
Where, P = Power (kilo Watt) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/sec2) Q = Discharge (l/sec) H = Head (meter) = Overall efficiency

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Pico Hydro (<10 kW)

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Micro Hydro (10-100 kW)

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Mini Hydro (100-1000 kW)

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Mini Hydro Connected to Grid

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Rehab for damaged projects

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Additional Subsidy

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Potential for Financing


GoN Subsidy ~ 40% Community Contribution ~ 20% Potential for Financing ~40% of TPC.

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Risks Associated with financing


Collateral Operation & Maintenance Loan Repayment (less IGAs) Low return

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Issues
Transportation: Terrain Habitat Load Consumption Political and Social Issues Economical Issues Technical Issues Sustainability Issues
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Transportation:
Road access Crossing of Rivers Delivery of Equipments Increases Project Costs

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Terrain
Complicated Terrain Structure Difficulties of Civil Construction

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Habitat
Scattered Habitat Large Distances between 2 Habitats.

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Political and Social Issues


Water Right Issues. Conflicts in Terai Region. Lack of Youths in the Villages. Hooking and Political Sheltered. Lack of Security for the Monitoring Staffs. Absence of Local Development Bodies representatives.
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Economical Issues
Lack of Financial Resources. Bank rarely financed RE. Syndicate System and Inflation.

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Technical Issues
Lack of Trained Operators and Skilled Manpower for the Installation. High Turnover Rate of Youth and Skill Manpower from villages. Overloading of Transformers and Generators.
Hydrology (Discharge measurement) Low Efficiency of the System. Comparatively weak construction of Civil components. 44 Not capable to manufacture turbine (>100

Sustainability Issues
Financial transparency in community Lack of we-feeling (ownership) Weak Management Less Tariff Less IG activities/ End Use promotion (low
HDI, lack of local market, inaccessible, low reliability of MHP, high seasonal migration)

Lack of Maintenance Fund Social Inclusion Aspects

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Ardali Gad MHP, Achham

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Ardali Gad MHP, Achham

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Transmission line: laundry instead of electricity

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Lesson Learned

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Lesson Learned (contd..)

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Lesson Learned (contd..)

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