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Comparison of Thermal Performance of Building Wall for Various Materials Pallavi.K 3 Yr. B.E. (Civil) Pallavi9456@gmail.com Raja Subramanya.

K 3 Yr. B.E. (Civil) rskvayu91@gmail.com

Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College of Engineering Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagar District-562112
Abstract

The thermal performance of a building depends on a large number of factors. They can be summarised as (i) design variables (geometrical dimensions of building elements such as walls, roof and windows, orientation, shading devices, etc.); (ii) material properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, transmissivity, etc.); (iii) weather data (solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc.); and (iv) a buildings usage data (internal gains due to occupants, lighting and equipment, air exchanges, etc.). The Energy Conservation Building code 2007 (ECBC - Given by Bureau of Energy conservation, Government of India) suggest that the wall of a Building should minimize Conduction losses by using modern/conventional wall material preferably with insulation like air gaps etc. 1.0 Introduction: Energy transfer in a Building constitutes mainly due to construction material and techniques of construction. The thermal performance of a wall material contribute 30%40% of the total heat transfer from a building. The paper discusses the thermal performance of various wall materials for a given thickness of wall, area and location of the building (Bangalore region). Calculations are made for expected heat transmission (U) through wall, based on total thermal resistance (RT) of the building material for a given area (A=1m2) and thickness (Lj=21 cm) of wall. 2.0 Factors Affecting Thermal Performance of Building:

3. Methodology: The research paper discusses about the thermal performances of wall using seven types construction materials with/without air gap. Calculations are made for expected heat transmission (U) through wall (Fig.2) based on total thermal resistance (R T) of the building material for a given area and thickness (Lj=21 cm) of wall (Table-1).
U= 1 RT

1 1 m RT = + Lj /kj + h hi j=1 0

Eq. 1

Where, kj is the thermal conductivity of the wall material in W/m-k hi and h0 are surface heat transfer inside and outside the wall The computations are carried out for Bangalore region which is considered under the moderate climate zone amongst the five climate zones of India. The methodology adopted was based on assumptions that the building is not Conditioned (Non-AC). The heat transfer process through a typical wall material is considered for Conduction only. The Monthly Adaptive Comfort Temperature (ACT) at winter season of Bangalore region is calculated from:
ACT = 16.2 + 0.41 Tm ACT = 23.1C Eq. 2

For Tm = 16.8 C The above analysis and result (Fig.1) clearly indicate the importance of wall material and insulation type for better thermal performance of a building. Higher Thermal Performance of building wall is desirable for modern residential and industrial buildings to achieve comfort, Long service life, and sustainable development. Energy efficient and resource efficient construction should provide comfortable indoor conditions.
Table-1 Expected Heat Transfer for Different Building Wall Material For a Given Area of wall A= 1m2, Thickness of Wall 21 cm
Sl. No. Wall Material Wall Plaster Insulation Total Thermal resistan ce RT (m2-K/W) Excepted Heat Transmissi on U (W/m2-k)

1 2 3 4 5

Brick (Type-1) Brick (Type-1) Mud brick Mud brick Brick (Type-2)

Cement mortar Cement plaster Cement mortar Cement plaster Cement plaster

No No No No No

0.4322 0.4266 0.4512 0.4456 0.5577

2.3138 2.3441 2.2163 2.2442 1.7931

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Brick (Type-2) Brick (Type-1) Brick (Type-2) Brick (Type-1) Brick (Type-2) Stone Sand Stone

Cement mortar Cement plaster Cement mortar Cement mortar Cement plaster -

No Yes Yes Yes Yes -

0.5633 0.5749 0.7048 0.5806 0.6991 0.2881 0.2112

1.7753 1.7391 1.4188 1.7223 1.4302 3.4710 4.7348

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Fig.1 Daily variation of room Temperature with reference to Different Wall material with Expected Heat Transmission

BrickWall+CementPlaster U=2.35W/m2K BrickWall+Airgap-U=1.42W/m2-K Sand-Stone-Wall-U=4.64W/m2-K Desired Ambient Room Temp.

30

25 Temperature (Degree C)

20

15

10 0 5 10

Time in Hrs

15

20

25

Fig 2. Heat Transfer Process in Wall

4.0 Conclusions: 1. The above analysis and result (Fig.1) clearly indicate the importance of wall material and insulation for better thermal performance of a building (Table-1). 2. Higher Thermal Performance of building wall is desirable for modern residential and industrial buildings to achieve comfort, Long service life, and sustainable development.

3. Paper gives a methodology to calculate the heat transfer through different wall material and select the best available local material to achieve the desired thermal comfort. 4. These quantifications enables one to determine the effectiveness of the design and help in evolving improving designs for realizing energy efficient buildings with comfortable indoor conditions. 5.0 Reference: 1. Ganesh K.R. Embodied Energy in Building, NIT Surathkal Research Bulletin, No. 2, Vol.19 page 1-9, 2010 2. Ministry of New and renewable energy, Government of India,Chapter-3, Chapter-4, Chapter-5,Booklet on solar energy, 2008 . 3. SP:41(S&T)-1987- handbook on functional requirements of buildings, Bureau of Indian standards,New Delhi,1987 4. VanSchijnde, Heat and Moisture In Building Envelopes using MultiPhysics package COMSOL,200