GENESIS

CRITICALLY

AND EXEGETICALLY EXPOUNDED

PRINTED BY

MORRISON AND GIBB LIMITED

FOR
T.

&

T.

CLARK, EDINBURGH
co. LIMITED

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND

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TORONTO

:

THE WILLARD TRACT DEPOSITORY

GENESIS
CRITICALLY AND EXEGETICALLY

EXPOUNDED

DR.
LATE PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY IX BERLIN

3Eranslateti

from

tjje

last IStiitfon

BY

WM.

B.

STEVENSON,

B.D.

ASSISTANT TO THE PROFESSOR OF HEBREW, ETC.

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY

IN

TWO VOLUMES
VOL.
II.

T.

&

T.

EDINBUEGH CLARK, 38 GEOEGE STEEET
1897

CONTENTS.

III.

THE HISTORY OF ABRAHAM,
A.

XII.-XXV.

18.

THE INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVES.
PAGE

1.

The

Abram and his according to C (and A)
Call of
to

Migration into Canaan,
. . .

xii.
.

1-9

;

.8
22

2.

The Migration
10-20

Egypt and

Sarai's
.

Preservation there,
. . .

xii.

3.

Ab ram's

; according to C Separation from Lot, ch.

.16

xiii.

;

from R, following C

4.

and A Abram's unselfish Expedition
Benediction of him, ch. xiv.

to save Lot,
;

and Melchisedek's

from R, following

B

(?)

.

29

B.

THE TRIALS OF FAITH, THE COVENANT, AND THE PROOF.
of a

1.

The Promise
and
.

clusion of a

Son as Heir, and its Confirmation by the ConSolemn Covenant, ch. xv. by R, following B
;
. . . . .

.

2.

3.

following C and A God's Covenant with Abram, the Institution of Circumcision, and the Promise of Isaac, ch. xvii. following A

The Birth

of Ishmael, ch. xvi.

;

.

.53 .67

;

.75

4.

Abraham and Sodom visited by Celestial Beings, the Destruction .89 of Sodom and Gomorrah, xviii. 1-xix. 28 from C
;

5.

Double Appendix,

xix. 29,

from

A
.

;

xix.
,

30-38 (the Origin of
. .

Moab-Ammon), from C
6.

.112 .116
126

Sarah's Danger at the Court of Gerar, and her Preservation, ch.
xx.;

fromB

.

.

.

.

.

.

7.

8.

and the Expulsion of Ishmael, xxi. 1-21 following A, C, and B Abraham's Covenant with Abimelucli, and his Claim to Beersheba', xxi. 22-34 according to B the conclusion from R
Isaac's Birth
;

;

;

following
9.

C

.

.

.

.

.

.133
.

The

Sacrifice of Isaac, xxii. 1-19

;

following

B

and

11

.

138

vi

CONTENTS

C.

OLOSOra I'A-A

,i;s

OF ABRAHAM'S HISTORY, xxn. 20-xxv.

18.

1.

xxii. 20-24; according to K.-^unlim; the Family of Nahor,

and
2.

B

.

The Death

Sarah and the Acquisition of the Field of Makh.151 ch. xxiii.; from A jirlah by Abraham, .157 from C -jiac's Marriage with Rebecca, ch. xxiv. from raham's Descendants by Keturah, his Death, xxv. 1-11 173 and B (?) 7,', following A, C,
of
. .

....
;

PAGE

C

.147

.

;

f.

The Descendants

of Ishmael, xxv. 12-18

;

following

A

.

.180

IV.

THE HISTORY OF

ISAAC, XXV. 19-XXXVII.
JACOB'S YOUTH,

1.

A.

THE HISTORY OF ISAAC AND OF
xxv. 19-xxvm.
9.

1.

liirth

their future Contests, xxv.

and early Youth of the Twin Brothers, and Preludes 19-34 according to A and
;

of

C
191

(and
2.

7/)
;

Isaac

moves from Place to Place his Troubles God's Blessings and Promises to him, xxvi. 1-33 chiefly according to C
; ;

(andJS)
3.

200
of Jacob's

The Cause
by

Isaac,

Departure to Mesopotamia xxvi. 34-xxviii. 9 from A and .B, C
;

;

he

is
.

blessed

.210

B. JACOB

AWAY FROM HOME, AND THE FOUNDING OF
xxvin. 10-xxxn.
3.

HIS HOUSE,

1.
i.

Jacob's

Dream

Jacob

in

at Bethel, xxviii. 10-22 from IIarran with Laban, ch. xxix.f. from iv turn from Harran, xxxi. 1-xxxii. 3
; ;

B and C B and C
; .

.

.

.

.

223 230

mostly from
.

Z>

'from

C and A)

.

.

.

.252

C.

JACOB FROM HIS RETURN TO CANAAN TILL THE DEATH OF ISAAC, xxxir. 4-xxxvn. 1.
,

I-

-la',,1,

,

..,,!
.

\vivsth-s
.

with
.

(loo!,
.

\\xii. t-xxxiii.
. .

17;

H"i"
2. Jacol* at

''.-mil

Ji

.271
.

Slin-liiMM,
:'.!
;

and the Dishonouring
/,',

<>!'

Dinah, \x\iii. 18.
.

.i\.

from
to

I'ollowintr
i>\

/;,

,|,

;

,

n ,|

I'

287

Journej
in

[nao
.;

\\a\
.!,

of r.rthd,
ainl

and

tin.

rnl of Isaac's
.

from

/,',

r

(/,')

.301
312

an-l
l

tin.

Kdoniitt-s, ch. \\.\vi. (\\.\vii. 1);

mainly follow-

CONTENTS

vii

V. A.

THE HISTORY OF JACOB,
PR KF KU.MM NT THKKK,
('us.

XXXVII.-L.
K<;vrr rvrn. HIS

FROM

Tin: TI.MK WIIKN JOSKI-H

WAS SOLD INTO

xxxvn. xu.
PAGE

1.

Joseph

2.

Judah

sold into Kgypl, xxxvii. 2-36; and Tamar, ch. xxxviii. ; from G
is
;

by #, from
. .

/;

and
.

('

.

:>,:>,]

.342
.

3. 4.

5.

Joseph in Prison, ch. xxxix. mostly from G Joseph interprets the Dreams of the two Royal Servants, ch. xl. from J! Pharaoh's Dreams and Joseph's Elevation, ch. xli.; mostly according to B
.
.

:}'><>

;

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

350

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

3G5

B.

THE WANDERINGS AND HUMILIATIONS OF

JOSEPH'S BRETHREN, UNTIL THEIR RECONCILIATION, CHS. XLII.-XLV.
of Joseph's ten Brethren, ch.
. . .

1.

The Humiliation and Punishment
xlii.
;

2.

mostly according to B The Brothers' Second Visit to Joseph, and xliii.f.; from C.
. .

.

.

379

how he
. .

tests

them, ch.
.

.389
;

3.

Joseph reveals himself, and invites Migration to Egypt, ch. xlv.
following

B and C

.

.

.

.

.401
JACOB'S

C.

FROM THE MIGRATION INTO EGYPT TO THE END OF
HISTORY, CHS. XLVI.-L.

1.

The Migration

of Israel, xlvi. 1-27

;

according to

2.

Arrival, Meeting with Joseph, Assignment of xlvii. 1 1 ; according to G and

A

3.

4.

and the Political Changes he makes in Egypt, xlvii. 12-27 from G (in ver. 12 B, in ver. 27 (7, A) Jacob's last Instructions and Arrangements, and his Death, xlvii.
Joseph's Support of Israel,
;
.

....
Gosh en,
xlvi.
.

B

(G) and

A

.

410
418 424

28-

28-xlix. 33
5.

.

.

.

.

.431
.

Jacob's Burial and Joseph's Death, ch.

GENERAL INDEX
LEXICAL INDEXES

.......
1.;

from A, B, and C

483 493 502

CORRIGENDA.

Page

91, line

5,

/or D^CTI read

t

273,

xxxiii 23, for xxxi. read

viii

III.

THE HISTOKY OF ABKAHAM,

XII.-XXV.

18.

it

the Israelites did not dispute the fact that was only at a much later period that they became a
1.

ALTHOUGH
they

nation,

derived

the

beginnings

of

their

distinctive

nationality and of their spiritual religion from ancestors who were immigrants from Mesopotamia long resident in Canaan.

They regarded themselves
of petty peoples
fact, as

as the last to

emerge

of a

number

what remained
off.

who sprang from these immigrants, and, in of the common stock after the others
They were
also the purest of these peoples,

had branched

that which contained least admixture of foreign blood, and

preserved most faithfully the moral and religious characThe gradual separation teristics of the common ancestry. of these genuine descendants of the original stock was

completed in three stages, which connect themselves with
the three

names Abraham,

Isaac,

and Jacob.

Everything
circles

contained in the Israelite legends of the patriarchs round these three names.
It is

self-evident to us

moderns that

all

these

stories

regarding the patriarchs belong to the realm of legend, not To begin with, there is no nation to that of strict history. on earth whose descent from an individual ancestor is capable
of
historical
it

proof.

A
a

people

does

does,

arises

from

combination

not grow as a family of the most diverse
is

elements, and in the case of Israel there
proof that
to
it,

even yet historical
Again, according

also, originated

in

this way.

the

Book

of

Genesis, both Israel and the other

Hebrew
fact

peoples are divided into twelve tribes.
that the division
is

But the very
is
I

not confined to Israel,

a plain indica-

DILLMANN.

II.

2
that

GENESIS XII.-XXV.

18

[218

tion

it

is

not to be explained by actual descent from

nvdve

brethren.

The

division

is

artificial,

and

is

an

and religious relationexpression of geographical, political, assumed that the personification of be to is Equally, it
ships.

peoples, tribes,

districts,

and

historical

periods,

universally

acknowledged
ch.
xi.,

to exist in

the narratives of Genesis as far as
xii.
ff.,

will not all at

once cease to be found in chs.

but will recur in the further course of the narrative.
it
is

Again,
the
the

undeniable that
legends

we frequently
the

find mirrored in these

patriarchal
later

events and

circumstances

of

national

history,

and the

likes

and

dislikes

of

Lastly, now that we are able to period of their authors. survey the poetic legends of the most widely differing be proved that the vividpeoples, it no longer requires to

ness of these narratives
historicity, but
is,

is

not in

itself

any proof

of their

on the contrary, a characteristic peculiarity
be asked whether this criticism requires foundation to the patriarchal
It
of

of all legend.

But
us
to

it

may

still

deny

all

historical

legends of the Israelites. denied that the ancestors

has been even doubted
Israel

or

were ever in Canaan, 1
fictitious

and the

stories

about them have been explained as
the period of
the

tendency-writings belonging to

Israelite
of

monarchy.
>ul

2

But when we acknowledge the presence
of historical

a

(stratum

fact in the epics of other peoples,
less favourable

why
of

should

we pronounce a
period
?

judgment on the

tribal legends of
its

the very people which passed earliest out
It
is

mythological
of

true

that the reflected

is thrown image back on the legendary figures of early times, so that the latter became types of the former but there must surely be

later persons,

times, and circumstances

;

a background to begin with, on to which the reflection may IH- cast. The least concession we can make is, it may be
I'U-kr,

1m

neuen Reich, 1871,

i.

497-511; Stade,
Is.

Geschichte,

i.

127f.
2

A. Bernstein, Ursprung der Sagen von Air.

und

Jac., Berlin, 1871.

IMS, 219]

CKNKSI.S XII.-XXV. 18

3

maintained, that the background of fact in the family histories of the patriarchal legend consists of dim memories regarding
certain

movements

of

peoples

which started

from

Meso-

made their way through Canaan and the desert to and led to the formation in these regions of new, Egypt, national and tribal units. The temporary residence Hebrew, of the patriarchs in Canaan cannot be explained as a baseless
potamia,
fabrication,

meant

to justify the later occupation of the land

or the incorporation of Canaanite sanctuaries in the religion

Such objects were capable of attainment in other and more effective ways, and, besides, in the legend as a whole and in its separate parts, we still find much of a historical
of Israel.

character which stands in no relation to the supposed objects
of the narrative.

The acknowledgment that there
legends a background

exists in the patriarchal

of historical fact, at once

determines
in

how we
legend.

are to conceive of

the

leading characters
the

the

The bounds

of possibility in

way

of

confoundl

ing things totally dissimilar, were reached by those few

who

had the boldness to transform the patriarchs into powers of nature and their history into nature myths. But neither is
there
sufficient

reason

for

conjecturing

that

they

were

2 originally tribal gods, or the

spirits of ancestors

worshipped

as divine. 3

may perhaps be true that tribal communities were accustomed to name themselves from the god whose
It

worship was their bond of unity.

But the names

of

the

gods, but of in and and whole the earthly personages peoples, legend there is not even the slightest trace that these personages

patriarchal legends are in general not those of

were once venerated as gods.

Isaac

and Jacob are quite

usual designations for the people of Israel in later times.
1

As

E.y. Goldziher, Mythos bei den Hebraern, 1876, pp. 109 f., 154 [Mythology among the Hebrews, London, 1877]; J. Popper, Urspru/nj f/t.< JMonotJieismus, 1879, p. 147 ff. 2 Dozy, Israeliten zu MeKka, 1864, p. 21 ff. ; Noldeke, Im tieuen Jt> /VA,
p.

508
3

ff.

;

ZDMG.

xlii.
1

484.
i.

Stade, Geschichte,

406

ff.

4

GENESIS XII.-XXV.

18

[219

f..r

names such
is
ii

as those of Lot,

Ishmael, Esau, and

their

sufficient to

fmm

the

nf

the

nation,

names applicable or to the whole
Recently, in the

regard them as those of ideal persons to groups within the limits
at

various

stages
of

in

its

development.

list of

118 names

towns

and tribes conquered by Thutmosis III. during his campaign No. 102, Y'kb'ar, and No. 78, against the Upper Eutena, 1 If this Yakobel and Yosefel. rendered been have Ysp'r,

we are supplied with an conjecture be supposed correct, external proof that the name Jacob, centuries before the
time of Moses, was that of a tribe or locality in Canaan.
It
is

otherwise with the case of Abraham.

The name was
it

never that of a tribe or people.
the

But neither was
not the case that

originally
is

name

of a deity,

2

and

it is

Abraham

the latest figure to appear on the patriarchal scene, being a mere duplication of Isaac, a saint of Hebron and of Galebite
3

origin

who only by
The

degrees advanced to

be the principal

character.

silence of the older prophets regarding

him

proves nothing whatsoever against the agreement of all the

In B as much as in A, C, and D, Abraham, whether ccaisidered as a national or as a religious hero, is the most important personage in the whole patriarchal history.
Pentateuch writers.

He

is the head and leader of the Hebrews in their migration from the land by the Euphrates, and in the mental and spiritual sphere also has left a special impress upon them.

When
in

Israel

became a nation
4

it

was upon him that they

rested their divine election.

Abraham
i

there

imp.. taut personage

may who

It is undeniably possible that be preserved the memory of some took part in the Hebrew migration. 5

1

K.

M.-V.T
the

in

ZAT1V.
xvii.

vi.

Iff., viii.

<

irol!' in

l!,;-u,:

I'l'iiiptologique, iv.

95

ff.

42 ff. contemporaneously W. See also JA. viii. 12, p. 104 f.
;

1

See notes on eh.
\\
..

4f

.

VlllKiu.sen, Geschichte, p.
is

338 [Prolegomena, 1885,
2
f.,

p.

320]
-2

;

E. Meyer,

.UK!

\viii.
lid,
v..l.
i.

f.,

xx vi.

5, 24, xii.

xv. 6; Josli. xxiv.
i.

f.

Kiit.-l, <;.-*-h-hte
ff.].

derHcbraer,

ir,f>

I)',

[ll^tonjnf the Hebrews,

p.

172

219,220]

CKNESIS
of course,

XII.

XXV.

18

Hut there
ch. xiv.
IH-

is,

no proof
fiction, for
1

of this, especially

if

(li

regarded as

the statements regarding

Abraham

have no historical value, not 2 But even if any more than the alleged witness of Berosus. he also is only an ideal personage, a personification of the
as king of
all

Damascus

yet undivided body of Hebrew emigrants, it is certain that the narrators trace to him the origin or foundation of the

development
peculiarity.

of

the

people of Israel and
of

of

its

religious

The picture which they draw
particularise,

him corresponds

to this special significance of his.
'2.

To

Abraham

in

the biblical narratives

indeed be recognised as leader of a Hebrew migramay tion which started from Harran, and as the meeting-point of a number of peoples who branched off from him. Here and
still

there also, especially in B,
of

we have glimpses
in

of the attitude

these

Hebrew immigrants

their

relations

with

the

read something of alliances and and of deeds of even war. But, in general, Abraham contracts,
inhabitants of the land.

We

appears as an individual
in cattle

nomad

chief, possessing great

wealth

many by occupation or or consecrates a few isolated spots in the purchase acquires
country,

and

dependants, who

and

in
is

particular, he

matters goes his own way. In to us as the head of a represented family
religious

who, through his children, becomes the ancestor of new peoples, and also as a highly favoured man of God and friend
of God,

who

is

the beginner of a
related
of

new

life

of faith

among
and
the

men.

What

is

him are
his

chiefly

domestic

personal incidents, in

which he establishes his worth more

and more

securely,

and on

part makes

possible

providential growth of Israel in its beginnings, and therewith the salvation of the world. Undoubtedly the legend had

already tended to take this direction in the popular mouth. But the ideal elaboration of the picture and the collection
1

-

Josephus, Antiquities, i. 7. 2 Josephus, Antiquities i- 7
i.

;

Justin, xxxvi.

2. 3.
i.

;

Ewald, Getchichte?

481 [History of

Israel, vol.

p. 335],

GENESIS XII.-XXV.

18

[220

and arrangement of those materials in the legend which had reference to Abraham, can be due only to those who committed
I'.-iok

it

to

writing.

The three principal sources
all

of the

of

Genesis have

taken a share in this work.

belongs the external, in the main chronological, framework, the brief account of the Ishmaelite Arabs de-

To

A

scended from Abraham, and in especial the principal narrative regarding the divine covenant, together with the law of
circumcision which belongs to
of the purchase of
it (ch. xvii.),

and the narrative

In a family burying-place (ch. xxiii.). and narrated the chief incidents has he drily briefly general
in

Abraham's
important

life.

Only where he came
the
of

so

for

Israel

of

later

to speak of things times as w^ere the
to

covenant,

the birth

the

son

who was

inherit

the

promises, and the first acquisition of soil in the country, did he work out more detailed descriptions. Abraham is

represented by him as a

man

of noble character, profoundly
life.

God

fearing,

and

of

exemplary

But
take

God's
till

special

revelation to the patriarch does not

place

he

is

well advanced in middle
refer
to

and the divine promises to him a numerous posterity and the future possession of
life,

the land.

His residence

is

in

Mamre,

or

in

the

district

round about Hebron.

From

B

there are

still

preserved some passages which
life.

relate incidents in

Abraham's

They depict him
as he ruled in his

in his

intercourse with

native

chiefs, or

own

household.

God and

They make prominent his dignity as a man of a prophet (xx. 7), his obedience to God and his virtues, the divine protection and blessing, also, which he
1

everywhere enjoyed, and the esteem with which men regarded him. Frequently the account contains relatively precise
statements
of
place,

time,

and

circumstance,
particulars

also
of

names
a
geo-

wanting elsewhere, and
graphical and

remarkable

historical character, as

well

as very

ancient

linguistic expressions.
1

The passages are valuable contribu(5
11'.,

As

in dis. xx., xxi.

xxii. 1-13.

L'L'i),

L'L'l]

GENESIS XII.-XXV.
a

is

7

tions

to

ancient times.

completed picture of the man, and <!' i: In them Gerar and Beersheba are his usual

p laces of residence.

The passages taken from
clearness
of

C

are not characterised by such

fulness of historical detail, but,
style

we may

say,

by their didactic
with
us,

which

remains

consistent

the

picturesque vividness of the narrative.

They present

on

the one hand, with charmingly artistic pictures of particular

events which are quite ideal,
record
of

1

and, on the other, with a full
divine

agency which calls, educates, and blesses Abraham, and thereby moulds him into
the

never

resting

the perfect
of promise,

man

of faith,

who

trustfully holds fast the

word

of

and becomes thereby worthy also to be a source 2 blessing to those about him and to future generations. It is, then, just those thoughts of C's which R has taken
ideas.

and made his ruling

narratives of the three narrators and united

Guided by them, he has taken the them or worked
(1)

them over with the following result. and his migration to Canaan are taken
and the
first

Abraham's

call

as the starting-point,
consists
of

division

of

the

history

certain

narratives which, while describing

how
of

various of the most

the country were spots consecrated by him, make clear more especially the character of the man and the divine protection and blessing which

ancient

sacred

in

the centre

followed

him

(chs. xii.
life,

xiv.).

(2)

He

is

next described in

the prime of his

when by many

tests

and

trials

he

is

made worthy

to be the first recipient of the covenant,

and

the subject of the most exalted promises (chs. xv. xxii. 19). (3) This is followed by the narratives regarding himself, Ins
house, and Isaac's marriage, which belong to the last period
of his life (chs. xxii.

20-xxv. 18).

A's distinction between
before the

Abram and Sarai as they were Abraham and Sarah as they were
all

covenant, and

after (ch. xvii. 5

and 15),

has been at the same time consistently introduced by 72 into the narratives.
1

Chs. xviii.

f.,

xxiv.

2

Chs.

xii., xiii.,

xv.

GENESIS XII

[221

A.

THE INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVES.

1.

THE CALL OF ABRAM AND HIS MIGRATION INTO CANAAN, ACCORDING TO C (AND A). CH. XII. 1-9
;

The absence
surprising.

of a

heading in the form D"OK rrtan r6x

is

and

of

1 There are headings to the histories of Isaac 2 must have Jacob, and the history of Abram in

A

We cannot say that it was been similarly introduced. omitted by A either because Terah was still alive at the
3

time of Abram's immigration, for Abram also, for example, was still alive at the time fixed in ch. xxv. 20 or because
;

not begin straightway with an account regarding the birth of his sons, for the history of Jacob commences in ch. xxxvii. 2 after the time has passed for
the history

could

recording the birth

of

his

sons

at

all.

Still

less

can we

imagine
of that

4

that the author regarded Abram's history as part
of

Terah.
xi.

The
32, and
in

latter has

received

its

formal conthat
is

clusion in ch.

how can we suppose
the
patriarchal

Abram,
to

the chief

personage
that

history,

be

disposed of in a section
correct view
is

of the history of

Terah
5

?

The only
because

R

omitted the

heading,

he

wished to replace the whole of As introduction to the history 1'V another taken from C. The real cause of the migration
accordingly, as

no longer apparent. 6 In the whole passage we recognise with certainty only vv. 4& and is from A. 7 The proof in their case is the mention of
stated
it,

A

is

A

1

.ram's age, the

repetition in
trri

ions
lrl ''

5a as compared with 4a, and and unai, cfca, ]y:z ps, and also np'i. 8
2 4

T. ID.

C h.

xxxvii. 2.
Keil.

Hu|.!.-M.
i,

D eiit ZS ch,

Kn..l,.],

N
'

Wellhausen, Bruston, and others. given in Ewald, Geschichte, 3 i. 463 [History of Israel
Schroder, Kayser, Welllmusen, and others.
v i. c.

Kn.,1,,.1, lluj.f,.],!, NY.l.k-ke,

Cf. chs.

.\i.

:u,

mnri

<;,

x

i

221, 22L>]

GENESIS
be proved that vv.
l
;

XII.

1

9

It

cannot

G,
it is

8,

as far

as

the

HI-CM

mil

Dnpio,

proving that tinin the the all consecrated country which places patriarclis It is more likely that H is the were afterwards sacred.
that
original of vv. 6 a

A

and and 9 belong to A nowhere shows any interest in

improbable, for the ivjisnn

and 8a, 2 but 06 and 8b cannot be separated from them and show that C had adopted these local names
from B.

The evidence
its

found both in

for 6"s authorship of this section is contents (the divine call, the practice of
its

divine worship) and in

use of the expressions mrv, -^3

noiKn

ninac'b, a ^33, ^>P.

Vv. 1-3.

The
set

Call.

According

to

A

(xi.

Terah when he

out with

Abram had Canaan
is

in

31) even view as

the goal of the migration. as one willed by God and
It

Here the migration
of

represented
to

made known by Him
salvation
to of

Abram.

was part
8

of

the divine plan
face

use more

active

remedies in
in

the

mankind, and

Abram

to choose

growing deterioration of and prepare a man who

should be the foundation-stone of a kingdom of was to be set up among men.
Ver.
1.

God which

God summons Abram
again in
the
see Ewald,

to go forth

from his home.
xxii.

1p
Ex.
xviii.

Pentateuch
315a.
kin,

in

Gen.

2

(cf.

27)

;

From your

country,

and your

and your home

the

expressions are accumulated in order to point out that God made no small demand of him when He required him to sever
his family ties

yet unknown

and wander forth as a stranger into a land as rnbto* H and rrtto ps are used to him. 4

almost synonymously, 5 so it was not unnatural to suppose that Ur Kasdim was here intended 7 it follows, however,
;

from xxiv. 4 and 7 that
i

C meant
i.

Harran, and against this

Knobel.
Sehvader, Kittel, Ch. xi. 1-9.
E.g. xxiv. 4
Geschicltte,

-

:i

123 [History of the Hebrews, 4 Tuch.
13.
6

i.

p. 13G].

5
7

and
2
;

7,

xxxi. 3

and

Ch.
;

xi. 28.

Acts

vii.
7.

Mercerus,

Bonfrere,

Rosenmiiller

Hupfeld,

who

appeals to xv.

10
xv.

GKNESIS
7 possesses no weight.

XII.

2,

3

[222,223

See, further, the notes

on

ch. xi.

It is not Mesopotamia in general, to which both Harran 28. and Ur Kasdim belonged, that is referred to. 1 Which I shall show you definite information regarding

the goal of the journey

is

reserved to a later time. 2
all

This

makes God's demand appear

the harder.

It

was

therefore,

the more necessary to intimate the purpose and object of the demand in the form of a promise, and this follows in ver. 2 f.
Ver.

2

f.

bnj *vb "]vyxi

3

"

the

promise of

numerous
4

descendants
Bless

is

frequent in the history of the patriarchs."
i.e.

you

5

prosper you.
great
glorify
it,

Make your name
praised
;

make

it

honoured and

see ver. 3b.
be

And
of

a

blessing

i.e.

you

shall be a blessing,
6

an object

blessing, ev\oyr)jj,evo<; (Sept.), a bearer of blessing, as it were blessing incarnated, on whom not only God has poured

out His full blessing, but whom men also bless in that they use his name in their formulas of blessing 7 one also who
;

even becomes to others a source of blessing. 8
Ver.
3.

A

continuation of ver.

26, as

\

shows, not an

explanatory clause.

And I

will bless those that also

bless

you

extend Abram's

blessing to those

a friendly attitude to him. On the other hand, he will " lay on his enemies a curse which will evidence itself in their misfortunes. The curse calls
oilier

who adopt

passages to mind."

9

As compared with the Septua-

gint,
(cf.

Samaritan, Peshitta, and Vulgate, which render T^po* xxvil 29), the Massoretic reading is finer; God will not

anticipate that

many

will so far forget themselves as to revile

him.
1

KM..M. MM.

See ver.
1C, xv.
f>,

7.

3

Ex. xxxii. 10
xviii. 18,

;

Num.

xiv. 12.
17, xxvi.

xvii. 2, 6, 16,
e

xxi. 13,

xxii.

Kn,,u-i. 4,24, nonr, n, .\i\-i. :*. Cha. xxx. 17, xxxix. :,.
:'

C f. p s

.

xxi. 7

[6] and

Isa. xix. 24.

.-iiitl

Xi-.-h. viii.

13.
like xix.

la Ukd
11,

MUM
1

17, iv.

1,

29 and xxvi. 5. v 29, ix. 25, xxvii. 29.
.

Knobel.

223]

CKNKSIS

XII.

3

11
/cal evev\oyr)6ijcrovTat,

"p
lv of

1D"i3:i

the Septuagint rendering,
1

(rot, is

representative of others.
ecclesiastical

It is

the interpretation

all

the

expositors,

who
2

have generally

followed the lead of the

New

Testament,

and referred the
the salvation
that

words

to the

communication
seed.

to the peoples of

coming from Abram's
itself

Now

it

is

true

such a

reference to the final goal of the old covenant would not in

be surprising in the case of a prophetic writer like C, 3 intimations of although there are nowhere else in Genesis

such a far-reaching character.
to receive
it

The context

is is

also well fitted

as an intensification of

what

said in ver. 3a.

Even the

possibility of construing the
xviii.

both here and in
ledged.

18 and

xxviii. 14, is

Niphal as a passive to be acknow-

But

in chs. xxii.

18 and

xxvi.

4 the equivalent

"u linn i^an?], which cannot be underreading is stood passively 4 but only reflexively, " all people will bless themselves with your seed," i.e. 5 desire for themselves good
fortune like that of Israel, and in
as a formula of blessing.
less

pn

^

so doing use

its

name

should be said of

There seems no good reason why the seed of Abram than of Abram

himself, especially as the formula in ch. xxviii.

14

is

used,
it

not merely of Abram, but also of his seed.

Even were

true that chs. xxii. 18 and xxvi. 4 are from another hand

namely, from R, it does not on that account follow that there is a difference in
chs. xii. 3, xviii. 18,

than

and

xxviii. 14, 6

the meaning of the formula.

Hence most modern

7

expositors
;

have decided for the reflexive force of the Niphal Tuch " count one's self gives both Hithpael and Niphal the meaning
fortunate, feel one's self blessed in (a) another,"
1

a meaning

(Ecclus. xliv. 21 ; Acts iii. 25 ; Gal. iii. 8) Targums, Vulgate, Kinichi, Ibn Ezra. 2 Cf. besides the passages in the preceding note, Rom. iv. 13 and 16 also. 3 4 Ch. ix. 26 included. Sept., Targums.
;

5 6
7

In accordance with Gen. G. Baur.

xlviii.

20

;

Jer. xxix. 22

;

Isa. Ixv.

15

f.

Ewald,

After Rashi's example, e.g. Clericus, Vogel, 133a ; Knobel, Delitzsch.

De

\Vette,

Gesenius,

1

-j

GENESIS

XII.

4,

5

[223,

224

which appears in itself possible in view of passages like Ps. xlix. 19, but as a matter of fact can be proved from no Those who still hold by the passive sense l other passage.
the meaning "be blessed" were intended, the Pual, which is certainly passive, was not used
iv|uire to answer why,
if

in
iv.

any one 2 and

of the Ps.

five

Ixxii.

In passages also like Jer. 17, which return to and repeat these
passages.
is

promises to
Ps. Ixxii.

the patriarchs, only the Hithpael
13

found; in
It
is

17

o-Grp
2

is

even explained by

* fT

J?^l

in chs. xviii. 18, xxii. 18, and xxi. 4 incomprehensible why " " Jehovist's the Hithpael should be intended to express a passive sense, while in chs. xii. 3 and xxviii. 14 the
"

Jahvist's

sense.

Niphal should be intended to express a reflexive Accordingly we have to abide by the translation, all
so in chs. xxviii.

"

the families of the earth will bless themselves in (or with) you.

nsixn nviDEfe-fa
18, and xxvi. 4,
as

14;

in xviii. 18, xxii.

pn

"U

J
?3.

The

intensification of expression,

compared with the parallel clause, lies in the statement that all families of the earth bless themselves with him, and

indirectly, therefore, also bless

and praise him

in person,

and

acknowledge vv. 25 and 3a that expression is given to the thought that 3 -ing also really flows out from him on them.
Ver.
setting
4.

his greatness

and importance.

It is rather in

Abram
is

follows
in

God's direction, and
itself

his

very
the

out

therefore

an

act of

faith

in

promise, and of believing obedience to God. The statement of Al mini's is due to A. age According to it, he set out while his father was still cf. ch. xi. 26 and 32.
alive;
Ver.
ability

"In all probAl.nun jnunu'ved by way of Damascus; see ch. xv. 2." 4
r,

repeats ver. 4a, but in A's words.

A
';,,,-'.
-

H.n-M.l.ci- Hofmann, G. Baur,
JllhTh. cd. 421, 413.
tinr
.

Keil, Kautzscli-Socin,

Die

\\Mlli.-uiM. n,

win,],,

<!r.;

Retake,

Britatyp BUT
'

passage see Hengstenberg, Ckristoloyie /;//,-/<// m/ chs A.T. iv. Ill if.;
'

1

KM..IH-I.

224]

GENESIS

XII.

13
rnktixit,

movable property, in Assyrian
said to in

like fan, is

mean
2

A

;

1 the word is riding animal jumentum from is denominative a it, only found in B^,
;

"

"

common

A?

And

the

souls
viz.

that they

had made

"

the persons they

had acquired,
a favourite

male and female
5

slaves. 4

For
;

ntry in this
is

sense comp. ch. xxxi. 1 and Deut.

viii.

17.

C BJ, like Bnai,

word

of A's."

Land
Ver.

of
6.

Canaan

see ch.

xi.

31.
to

Abram
is

passes through the country

the place

Shechem.
worship is Shechem

not merely district, but a mp 6 offered, the seat of a cultus.

place

where
Central

one

of

the

best

known towns
destruction
in

of

Canaan, situated on

the hills of Ephraim between

Mounts
wars
of

Ebal and Gerizim.
Vespasian
Its
it

After

its

the

was rebuilt under the name Flavia
is

NTeapolis.

modern name

Nablus.

As far

as the terebinth of the soothsayer (giver of guidance)

"according to Deut. xi. 30 this was a terebinth grove, and it seems to be identical with the enchanters' terebinth of
Judg.
ix.

priests

The giving of guidance "was the business of " and seers, who were also named teachers or instructors
37."
7

(givers of guidance).

8

"

Plainly

we must here think

of a sacred

grove where soothsaying priests sat in ancient times and The religious importimparted information and instruction.

ance of the place is also evidenced by the fact that there Jacob buried the images and amulets 9 he brought with him,
1 P. Haupt, Hebraica, iii. 1887, p. 110. corrected into Keitthier.] 2 Chs. xiii. 6, xxxi. 18, xxxvi. 7, xlvi. 6

[Streitthier of

German
;

text

;

Num.
14.

xvi. 32, xxxv. 3

it is

also used in
3
4

Gen. xiv. 11

f.,

16, 21,

and in xv.

Chs. xxxi. 18, xxxvi. 6, xlvi. 6. Ezek. xxvii. 18; cf. Q-JX in Num. xvi. 32. Lev. xxii. 11 * Chs. xvii. 14, xxxvi. 6, xlvi. 15, 18, 22, 25 ff. etc. ; but also in xiv. 21 and elsewhere. Knobel.
;

6

Chs. xxii. 3f., xxviii. 11

;

1

Sam.

vii.

16 in Sept.; Jer.
;

vii. 12,

and

frequently. 7 2 Kings xvii. 28
8

;

2 Chron. xv. 3

;

Isa. ix.
9

Isa.

xxx. 20.

14 Hab. Ch. xxxv. 4.

ii.

19.

1

4

GENESIS

XII.

(>

[224, 225

ami there Joshua erected a stone after he had enjoined Israel
1 observe the law.

The

latter incident perhaps explains
ix.

monument Icch was made
.

terebinth of Judg.
king.

6 beside

which Abime-

The grove was variously named accord''

;

its

various
nito

aspects."

According to

the

usual

Tpretation,
xiii.

18.

is the name of a man, like ^P^ in ch. The Septuagint and Vulgate even made it nfcpB

(inJrTjXo?, illustris).

oak

The Septuagint and Peshitta translate oak. But 3 4 n rto and and are to |vS certainly i^, parallels ^, 6 which is distinguished from ifetf, and means terebinth.
pi>x
is

Further,
\\t-re less

it

is

certain that terebinths, even in ancient times,

common than
6

oaks,

and better suited
It is therefore

to

designate
7

localities,

besides being readily esteemed

more sacred because
more probable
fact

of the greater age they attain.

that

P?N

means terebinth
in

in

spite

of

the

that

the

Septuagint always renders SpO?, and that also the Massoretes
vacillate

their
1

punctuation.

8

At

the same time,

^N and

pta

(cf.
9

Aram.

JT

^)

may

perhaps designate other large trees
9, Isa. vi.
all, little

also.

When we
xxvii.
6,

take into consideration the Aramaic word,

and such passages as
K/'-k.

Amos
is,

ii.

13, Zech.

xi. 2,

and

there

after

probability that nta

and

pi>x

originally denoted sacred trees,

and that the one
i>N,

is

a nomen unitatis and the other an adjective from

God. 10

rh.

The Targums (and Jerome) have ao^o, plain, for pta, as in xiv. G and elsewhere. By this they show that they
undurstoood the idolatrous signification of p^s, for they often
tliis

translate ^Va in
.

same way. 11
where
3

xxiv. 26.
lie

:;

except that terebinth has been put D'.ubtless also nta, Josh. xxiv. 26.
i'i-1,

had oak.
13;
I sa<vi< 13>

Cf.
T
'

Cm.

xxxv.
tin-

I

with -hid-

ix.

(5.

Hos>

iy>

Raguding
Delii
/>.!.,
/;./. .I'-h.

present day, see 'ADPV.
:{;{

xiii.

220

ff.

Kwal.l.
xix.
;

,lul:.
6, an1

\\.
<

1

1.

See note on ch. xiv.
11

le.-enius,

Thesaurus, 51a.

8e-

M q

!$>.

l.y

Dillinaiin in

M HAW.

1881, p. 619.

225]

GENESIS

XII.

7,

8

15
tin-

The remark that
narrower sense
1

the Canaanite,

not to be taken in
xiv.

of

Num.

xiii.

29 and

25, but in

its

x. 18, was then in the land? apparently unnecessary, has in view the promise of ver. 7 the land whose possession God promises to Abram's posterity

widest signification as in ch.

;

was not at the time ownerless

on the contrary, those very Canaanites were already settled in it who, according to God's 3 plan, were afterwards to give place, and did give place, to
;

Abram's
Ver.

seed.
7.

Comp.

ch. xiii. 7, also xxiv. 3

and 37.
given the this land on
is

At Shechem, in a theophany, Abram assurance that God will bestow the possession of
his descendants.
,

thus given the information, withheld in ver. 1 regarding what land is to be the goal of his wanderings, and the series of promises contained in ver. 2 f. is comThe assurance is several times afterwards repeated pleted.
is

He

in

A

4

and the other

writers. 5
ib

The Septuagint, Samaritan,

Peshitta, and Vulgate add

to 1D&01.

According to the belief of antiquity, the place where has been a theophany is a sacred spot. So Abram erects an altar at Shechem, as Jacob 6 also did (a ras). The
there

building of a sanctuary was a less simple form of the same
"

practice.

Shechem

7
;

In later times there was a sacred spot just beside it was necessarily consecrated as such by the

patriarchs themselves, for they were regarded as patterns for a later time, and the author's opinion regarding the antiquity of the worship of Jahve allowed of it." 8 For other places of
this

kind see
rtH n&ron
Ver.
8.

ver. 8, xiii. 18, xxi. 33, xxii. 1

ff.,

xxvi. 25.

as in ch. xxxv. 1.

From Shechem, Abram moved
9

on, southward, to
in

the hill country east

of

Bethel, and encamped
sea,
i.e.

a place

where
1

Bethel lay from the

west of him, while Ai

Knobel.

2

3 5
6 8

Of Canaan, not Shechem, Halevy, Eecherches Bibliques, x. 261. 4 Ch. xv. 16 f. Chs. xvii. 8, xxxv. 12. Chs. xiii. 15 ff., xv. 18 ff., xxvi. 3, xxviii. 13. 7 Josh. Ch. xxxiii. 20. xxiv. 1, 26. 9 Ch. iv. 6. Knobel. Chs. ii. 8, iii. 24, xi. 2.

1

(j

GENESIS

XII.

9

[225, 226

to

the east.
l

see

commentary
P'nyn

Eegarding the situations of Bethel and Ai, on Josh. vii. 2 and the Bible dictionaries.
;

move on a journey

in

this

sense again only in

xxvi. 22.

n t) n

^

again in chs. xxvi. 25, xxxiii. 19, xxxv. 21.
consecrated this place also by an altar and the

Abram

Bethel was an Israelite place 3 In the of public worship, and a very ancient holy place. 4 tribes it was the seat of a royal sanctuary. ten the of kingdom
celebration of divine service?
Its consecration for

Israel is ascribed to

Jacob

5
;

to

Abram

no more

is

attributed than the consecration of a place be-

tween Bethel and Ai.

Eegarding the relation of Bethel to
in

Luz, see note on ch. xxviii. 19.
Ver.
farther
9.

Abram

gradually,

i.e.

nomadic
is

and farther south. and

The verse

stages, journeyed not from B or R?
ff.

but was originally C's introduction to ver. 1
xi.

For

J?D^,

see

2

;

for yiwi "j&n, ch.

viii.

3, 5, 7.

3M

name

"

of the

properly dryness, barren land, with the article is the most southerly part of the land of the Hebrews,
hill

and borders in the north on the lowlands, the and the desert
of Judah.
is

country,

It is pasture land, only in parts

capable of cultivation, and

the transition from the cultivated
of
it,

land to the desert.
is

To the south
7

as far as Sinai, there
of the

only unmitigated desert."
is

The use

word

in the
D"
1

sense of south
for west.

a purely Palestinian usage, like that of

2.

THE MIGRATION TO EGYPT, AND
THERE, CH. XII.
This section
is

SARAI'S PRESERVATION
C.

10-20; ACCORDING TO

in general ascribed to C.

The expressions
nxrno, exclude
c h.
i

rnrr, h TB\-I, *o
1

and
26 ff. 2G ff.;

w
;

run, nojja

an d Was,
2

rriry

Dill
(

.Iii.l-.
1

Miami's.] xx. 18,
xii.

g ce no t e on

v

.

26.

1

Sam.

x. 3.
5

I

K ingH
-10]-

Amos

1

Kittrl,
'

Gtatato,

i.

vii. 10 ff. Clis. xxviii. 22, xxxv. 7 ff. pp. 123, 135 [History of the Hebrews, vol. i. pp. 7 See Josh. xv. 21 ff. Knobel.

22(i]

GENESIS

XII.

10-20

1

7

A

and betray the hand

of C.

According
is

to

Wellhauscn,
/>,

1

the whole, with the inclusion of ver. 9,

from

and
t

He deduces this from only afterwards inserted into C. artificial bringing back of the narrative in ch. xiii.
the point reached in ch.
xii. 8,

In-

14

to

and from the absence

of

Lot in

vv. 9-20, whereas he appears along with Abrain in ch. xiii. The observations are correct, but not the conclusions. For vv.

10-20,
is

at least,

B

is

excluded by ch.
that

xx.,

and the language

journeys alone may be had the not narrative till after the having explained by separation from Lot, perhaps in the same situation as It's
that of C.
fact
C's
ch. xx.

The

Abram

E
in
its

placed the passage in an earlier context, partly
it

because he wished to separate

as far as possible from its

analogue
lessened

ch. xx.,

and partly because he thereby somewhat
But, on the other hand,
it

incompatibility with the chronological statements
to be

which were

taken from A.

was an established part of the tradition, that the neighbourhood of Bethel was the scene of the separation of Abram and
Lot.

Accordingly,

E

has taken the narrative back to that
xiii.
f.

point by means

of ch.

1,

3

f.

No

conclusion can be

deduced from
Sarai
is

ch. xxvi. 1

2

carried off by the Egyptian king, but has to be

restored to

Abram

as a

result of

God's interposition and

The patriarch issues from the danger only punishment. The aspect of the story kept in view, in the the richer.
present setting of
of faith.
it

by E,

is

not so

much

that

it is

a trial

viewed rather as a proof of how God, who has chosen Abram and given him the promises, now also
It is

watches over him and his wife, to the extent even of rescuing him from dangers which he has brought on himself by shortsighted policy, and thus gives

him an actual proof

of

the

Divine Providence, in which he will yet learn to believe more and more firmly. The actual contents of the narrative, i.e.
the danger which

met
413

or threatened the patriarch's wife at

the hands of a foreign prince, and her preservation by God's
1

JBDTh.

xxi.
If.

f.,

419.

2

See note there.
2

DILLMANN.

1

8

GENESIS

XII.

10-12

[220, 227

iiiU-rpnsitinii,

happened and Sai-iii
irt

What was a favourite subject in the legend. " here in Egypt is related to have befallen Abram
(eh. xx.),

and Isaac and Rebecca
1

(ch. xxviii.) at the

of

Abimelekh in Gerar."
and

It

has been rightly long

assumed that these three narratives are variants of the
original story,

same

a special confirmation of this is that in all
is

three the husband gives out that his wife
Ver. 10.
xxvi. 1

his sister.

Famine
xli.

is

a cause of nomadic migration in ch.

and

54

f.

also.

Egypt, the granary of Canaan in

times of famine, 2 was the point to which the

nomad

naturally

The stereotyped expression for a gravitated in such a case. journey from the hilly land of Canaan to the Nile valley is
3 TP, and for the journey from Egypt to Canaan rfe. ^ n&OE r\& Ver. 11. Kiai Zfnpn, he approached. of beautiful
1

}

5

appearance.
passages,
"
i.e.

wnjn,
in C."
6

"

elsewhere

only

in

purely Jehovistic

7 According to another writer, Abram had made the It agreement with Sarai here mentioned before this time."

is

to be

observed that the statement about Sarai's beauty

proves that this narrative was not originally written out in

connection with the passages from A, inasmuch as, according to these,8 Sarai was at the time sixty-five years old.
Ver. 1 2
"
f.

Abram
he

requests Sarai to pass as his sister

in Egypt, so that

may

not be murdered.

If she

were

supposed

to be his wife,

an Egyptian could only have her by
;

accomplishing her husband's death if she passed as his sister, there was a prospect of obtaining her from her brother in an honourable way.

nx

Tins*

i.e.

you are
ch.

my
xli.

sister.

*3

may

be omitted in
least

oratio obliqua, as in
1

15. 9

The statement, at

Kuobel.
Cli. llil
.

-

1

II'.;

!..

xliv.

Josq.hus, Antiquities, xv. 23 f., xlvi. 4. Knobel.
ininuttik,** 120. 1.

9. 2.

5

Gesenius,

25

128. 3.

Chn. AM.
:

L',

xviii. 27, 31, xix. 2, 8, 196, xxvii. 2.
8

Chs.

*

xii. 4, xvii. 17.

GeseniuB,

8*

157.

JL'7]

GENKS1S

XII.

14-10

19

according to

's

1 account, was not untrue, but also not the

whole truth.

In order that

order that people
for the sake of
??J3

may yo well with me on your account in may show a friendly interest in the brother his beautiful sister, and I may prosper. 2
it

in chs. xxx. 27, xxxix. 5,
f.

and

in

Deuteronomy."

3

Ver. 14
royal
after

Sarai's

beauty
is

is

praised to the king by the

officials,

and she
the

brought to the palace to be thereof

one

of

women

the

royal household.

Similar

stories are

told

by modern

travellers of Oriental kings

who
same

c^uite at their

own

pleasure introduce the beauties of their

land into their harem. 4

An

old Egyptian story of the

kind

given by Ebers. njns'px they praised her praise of her to him; cf. Judg.
is

5

towards
xi.

Pharaoh, spoke

in

36.

6

Pharaoh, according

The hieroglyphic prototype king} has been shown by Stern to be p-ur-d, i.e. great prince, 8 most From the time of Shishak it became a mighty of princes.
to Josephus,

means

the

usual designation of the Pharaohs, and passed into Koptic
10 the form JT-OYpO, n-eppo, the king. 9 Others, basing on a statement of Horapollo, prefer the derivation from pcro

in

(per-aa per-ao), great house, which was in use as a circumlocation
for

the

sovereign,

somewhat
23.

as

we

use

"

Sublime

Porte."

liim, see note on ch.
in the

ii.

JV3,

accusative of place

n
;

Samaritan
16.

nrro.

Yer.
receives
I

"For the sake

of his

supposed

sister

Abrain

from the king presents
2

in

men and
s

cattle.

The

Ch. xx. 12.

Ch.

xl. 14.
;

Knobel.

4

Olearius, Reisebeschreiluny, p. 664
;

Kiimpfer, Amoenitatuui Exotictr. p.

<irinn, p.
5
7

203 Jaubert, [Voyaye, 301], Germ. Aegypten, 262 f.
Antiquities,
viii. 6. 2.

220 f.

8

Clrostfiirst.
10

c Tuch. See Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 1129. 9 Peyron, Lexicon Kopticum, 150, 181.

Lauth, de Rouge, Brugsch, Ebers, Aegypten,
1,

p.

263

ff.

;

Ermau,
5

Afjupten, p. 92. II As in rlis. xviii.
118.
i>.

xxiv. 23, xxxviii. 11

;

Gesenius, GraiumatiL;-

20
aiiinuils lu-iv

GENESIS

XII.

1G

[227, 228

named appear elsewhere

also,

along with slaves,
1

as the chief wealth of the nomadic patriarchs, 2 horses are never included. the case of Job;

as also in

According

to

Burckhardt

3

and Robinson, 4

which possesses horses. ivmark regarding the Nabateans."
of
,

not every Beduin band 5 his in time, makes the same Strabo,
it is
6

von Bohlen, that sheep and
the horse was

asses

Against the objections were not among the
xlvi.

see the ptian domestic animals,

note on ch.

34. 7

unknown to the ancient Egyptians, and does not appear on the monuments till the time of the New 8 Nor is there any Empire, from the 18th dynasty onwards.
T.iit

trace of the camel in inscriptions or pictures dating earlier

Ex. ix. 3 also presupposes that it was found in Egypt the rearing of it was never indigenous on the contrary, the ass was always the to Egypt proper animal used by the Egyptians as a means of transport
tlian

the Greek period.
;

9

;

through the desert.
i^~'m

and

there became to

10 him, he received.

The mention

of the

male and female slaves between the
is

mention of the he-asses and the she-asses
chs. xxiv.

inexplicable

;

in

35 and xxx. 43 there
an ancient
11

is less difficulty.

The words

are

either

gloss,

or have been misplaced
runtfl

transcriber;

yet perhaps D^DJl

by a have been tacked on to

the

list.

light,

The author represents Abram in an unfavourable inasmuch as so far from making him protest against

"

rharaoh's action in ver. 15, he allows him to accept presents from the king. In the light of the high opinion he held of
the piety of the patriarch, as elsewhere expressed, 12 he doubt1

Chs. xxiv. 35, xxxii. 15

f.

2

Job

i.

3, xlii. 12.
ii.

3

[Notes on the Bedouins and Wahdbys, 1831, vol.
i.

p.

50

ff.],

Germ,

tr.

343, 347.
4

1'alestine,
n
M
''

343.

5 7

xvi. 4. 26.
if.

Kuobel.
Hi
;

man, Aeyypten, p. 649 Klit-rs in Riehm's Handw&rterbuch,
145. 7.

Ebers, Aeyypten, p. 2G5 E. Meyer, Geschichte, 211.
p.

314; Erman, Acgypten,
Olslmuson.

p.

652.
10

Gesenius, (Jrammatik "Cl.,. xv. 0, xxii. 12.

n

228]

<;KNKSIS xn. 17-20

21

less

for Sarai

assumed that Abram expected direct divine protection l if matters came to an extremity."

Ver. 17. "This was actually what happened. In order to punish the infringement of Abram's right of property, to secure Sarai's honour, and bring about her restoration to her

husband, God caused heavy blows to fall on Pharaoh and his house, i.e. inflicted diseases upon them. 2 Derivatives from yn and
similar expressions are frequently used of disease,
e.g.

of leprosy

and

3

pestilence,

and such diseases are elsewhere recorded as

the punishment for profanation of
irvaviKl
5

what was

sacrosanct."

4

in spite of its position

need not be an addition

to the text;

see note ch.
"
f.

ii.

9.

Ver.

18

The

king

summons
him

Abram

before

him,

reproves his conduct, and bids
led to

The plagues depart. the conclusion that God was angry, and that sin had
;

interrogation of Sarai, the recent arrival in the royal household, might lead to an explanation. 6 This is doubtless ,the course of events implied by the narrator." 7

been committed

Josephus
afflictions

8

represents the king as learning the cause of his

from the

9

priests.
to

And I
wives.
of

took her

me

to

wife

included her

among my

Connection with Sarai was prevented by the illness
;

Pharaoh
After

see ch. xx. 4, 6. 10

-jnt?s

run the Septuagint adds Ivav-rl aou, T.???.

Ver. 20. Pharaoh
or for his protection,

summoned over him, i.e. on his account men to escort his journey home. 11 For

*W

12 comp. chs. xxxi. 27 and xviii. 16, also irpoTrepTrew. At the end of the verse the Samaritan and some MSS. of the

Septuagint add \oy Bih
1

;

see ch.

xiii.

1.

3
4

Knobel. Ex. xi. 1

-'

Cf. ch. xx. 17.
;

;

1

Sain. vi. 9
;

Num.

xii.

10

1

Kings xv. [5], 9 Job xix. 21. Sam. v. 12 2 Chron. xxvi. 19. Knobel following
;

2

;

Tuch.
5
7

As Kautzsch-Socin 2 make it.
Knobel. Tuch. Cf. Ezra

6
8

Cf.

Jonah

i.

7
i.

ff.

Antiquities,

8. 1.

9
11

10

viii. 22.

12

Knobel. Acts xv.

3, xxi. 5.

Knobel.

GENESIS

XIII

[228, 229

3.

ABRAM'S SEPARATION FROM LOT, OH. XIII. FOLLOWING C AND A.

;

FROM R,

returned from Egypt to the neighbourhood of Bethel (along with Lot), disposes of the disputes which had arisen between his herdsmen and those of Lot by pro-

Abram having

Unselfishly enough he posing that Lot should leave him. leaves to Lot the well-watered valley of the Jordan which he
chose,

and himself now remains alone in Canaan
after, the

proper.
is

Immediately

future possession of the land

anew

promised to him.

By
claim to

thus voluntarily quitting Canaan, Lot resigned his
it,

and the

later territorial relations of

Moab Ammon

and Israel are determined in prototype. 1 At the same time, of branch of this the migration, Abram by the separation
becomes the one central figure of the succeeding narrative. This historically important event is, further, narrated in such a way that new proof is given of Abram's spiritual greatness
in his self-denying

and peace-loving
evidence that

disposition,

and at the
an account
6,

same time

of God's providential care for him.
is

Ch. xix. 29

A

also contained

of Lot's separation

from Abram.
to be

On

examination vv.

11&,

and 12 are proved

by the analogy of xxxvi. 7 f., by the expressions Bhan, KBO, 2B*, jy:D, px, isan ny, and by the divergences which they reveal from other statements
the
2

from

A

in

passage.
VVDD!>,

because of
xn. 9
f.,

Knobel felt himself obliged to assume, that ver. 3a, and in that case also ver. 1 and
If so,

was from A.
just in
of

we should have
inserted

so

much

the
xii.

better

an explanation of
this

why R

the

episode

11-20
these

WDG9 "one
;uloj,t.Ml
l,y

At the same time, except for place. the special marks of A's presence are found in
and
this solitary exception may have been from j' s vocabulary. It is therefore safer to

verses,
/,'

(p.
1

17) that

R

in ver. 1
2

(but without

TO D&)

has
11'.

Cf. oh, xxxvi. G.

Hupfeld, Die Quellen der

Genesis, p. 21

22!)]

CKNKSIS

XIII.

1-3

23
11-20, but
in

retained C's original conclusion of
to

xii.

order
xii.

lead

the

narrative
f.

back

to

the point reached in
ray

8

has inserted ver. 3

and the words

B&

in ver. 1.

Vv. 2

and 5
xii.

may

8.

then have been the original continuation of ch. They and ver. 7 ff. (with the omission of lib and

12) form a well-connected sequence, and contain sufficient evidence of their derivation from 0, viz. the reference (ver.

10) to ch.

ii. f.,

the anticipation (ver.
of
9,

13)

of ch.

xix.,

the

commands and promises
the expressions
of
ver.

God

in vv.

14-17

(cf. xxviii. 14),

no valid reasons for
the chapter.
later addition.
2

and the frequent M. 1 There are assigning to B some isolated verses in
little

Just as

need we regard vv.
3

1417
to
is

as a

Ver.

1.

Abram went up
statement
ch.
xii.

The Negeb. contained in
Ver.

that

from Egypt back 4 Lot was with him

the

not
be a

1020, and may

be taken to

redactional addition.
2.

Now
and

cattle? silver,

was very heavy ly reason of, rich in, Silver and gold are mentioned again gold.
he

as patriarchal possessions only in chs. xxiv.
Q

35 and

xxii.

53

but comp. ch. xx. 16. (from C)', Eegarding the generic article see Gesenius, 7 but the Massoretes may here have
intended a reference to the possessions acquired in Egypt. Ver. 3 f. rpooi does not mean keeping to the stages by which he had previously journeyed,8 but, in accordance with
his

departures

or

marches,

by

stages,

and

so

by degrees,

marching

in stages such as suited a

nomad and

his cattle. 9

Abram now journeyed
to the place

vyooi from the Negeb on to Bethel,

he had formerly 10 occupied, and again celebrated divine service there. This rendering follows the present text,
1

Vv.

8, 9, 14.

2

Wellhausen,
Cf. xii. 9.

JBDTh.

xxi. 414.

3
5
7

Cf. xii. 10.

4

See note ch.

iv. 20.

6

Knobel.
Sept., Vulg.
x. 2, 6, 12, 28, xxxiii. 1
f.,

Grammatik** 126.

36.
!,

8

A

;

Cf. Ex. Knobel. 10 Ch. xii.

9

xvii. 1, xl. 31

38

;

Num.

all in

8.

'2

\

GENESIS

XIII.

5-10

[229, 230

a later interpolation, and ver. 4& was meant originally as a continuation of the relative sentence. Ver. 5. Lot also, who went with him, accompanied him on

Imt perhaps D-QK

is

his journeyings, like

Abram

(ver. 2),

was rich in herds and in

tents,

1

i.e.

slaves
6.

Ver.

From

and household goods as well. A and the land did not bear them
;

so

that

they dwelt together,

was incapable

of sustaining

had not

sufficient pasture for so

many

cattle,

them, seeing it and so did not

Comp. chs. xxxvi. 7 and permit of their remaining together. 2 xii. 5, both from A. iw, too, is a favourite word of his,
though
Ycr.
it
is

found in

B
3

(xx. 1)

and in

C

(xviii. 18).

Kfc'J,

masculine, see Gesenius.
7.

"

For

this

reason there was strife between their

herdsmen,

4 regarding the pasture grounds and the wells, which were all the less sufficient for their requirements, seei.e.

ing that
part
It

Abram and Lot were
5

of the country."
"oyja

not the only occupants of this Regarding pa see note on x. 1 7.

and

together describe the ancient population of the
xii.

country in ch. xxxiv. 30 also; in ch.
alone.

6

^ywn

is

named

Ver. 8

f.

Abram

feels it to

be unseemly that there should
are
brothers,
i.e.

be disputes between

men who
is

relatives,

6

and so proposes a separation.
locality,

He

leaves Lot the choice of

though he himself
the

the older of the two and the

leader

;

land

is

before you,

lies

open
to

to you. 7

p'n iT? and bwfa
^HDtrn,
ri.ulit

be supplied with them. are denominatives from them. To take the
locatives,
is

"nan

side or the

left

means

to

go right or

left;

for

the

phrase comj). ch. xxiv. 49 (in C). Ver. 10. Lot turns his eyes to the well- watered plain of the Jordan.
riK,
2

Oesenius,

25

23.

3A,

2.

Hupfeld, Quellen, p. 22. 8 Gram, until;,-* 145. 7.
4
<

Comp.

ver. 12, xxxvi. 7

f.,

and xxxvii.
5

1.

ihs, \\i.

i':.,

xx vi.

i>0ff.; cf.

xxix.

3, 8.

Knobel.

f 7

-

(< lis.

xiv. 10, xxix. 15, xxiv. 27. Sin.ilarlx ehl, xx. 15, xxxiv. 10, xlvii. G.

2.?0]

GENESIS
l

XIII.

10

i"rrn

~i33
is

more

frequently

simply "^s?,

2

the

Jordan

the land on both sides of the Jordan from Lnk<-

Tiberias to the

Dead

Sea, the

called TO /j,eya TreSiov. commonly named n ?"W?,

4 Ghor, in Josephus Elsewhere in the Old Testament it is

modern

el

but

that

name

also

includes
5

tin-

'Araba between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akaba.
6 valley of Siddim,
i.e.

The
Sea,

the region at the south of the

Dead

was also included
lias

in the 133,

and
It

it

is

it
all,

which the author
he
tells

here specially in mind.

was

us, npC'D

rf'/tium, regio

rigua}
of time, before

The

restrictive note
is

God

destroyed

Sodom

and Gomorrah*

referred

by the accents to the comparison

with the garden of God, but is perhaps 9 an explanatory interpolation, although we do find once in (7, in ch. xix. 13,
nnc> instead of rpnirn.

The inverted climax,
of Egypt,

may

garden of Gfod, like the land be tolerated because the first comparison was
like the

lQ

pitched too high.

It is not permissible to get rid of

it

by a

linguistically impossible translation, like

a garden of
12

6fod,

n

which besides leaves the
that a

difficulty largely

garden planted by God Himself
It is

untouched, seeing would still be

superior to Egypt. to a later hand. 13

improbable that Dn^D

p&O

is

due

In

the direction of u So'ar,

on the south-east shore

of the

This determines the southern extremity of the region so resplendent in the beauty and wealth of its plant life, and therefore belongs to the whole sentence and not to
1

Dead

Sea. 15

2

Also in 1 Kings vii. 4G (of. Matt. iii. 5). Ch. xix. 17, 25, 28 Deut. xxxiv. 3 2 Sam.
;

;

xviii. 23.

3

Lit. circle or circuit, Kreis.

4

ll'ars of the Jeics, iv. 8. 2.

5
~

Deut.

i.

1, ii. 8.

c

Ch. xiv.

3.

Regarding the abundance of water due to the brooks which flow down from the hills, see Burckhardt, [Travels in Syria, p. 390], Germ.
tr. p. 8

10
1-J

658 f.; Seetzen, Reiten, Ch. xix. 24 ff. Ch. ii. 8ff.

i.

p. 417.
9

Olshausen.
Delitzsch 4
.

" Schumann,
1S
15

Num.
Ch.

xxiv. 6.

14

x. 19, 30.

Olshausen, Ksuitzsch-Socin See ch. xix. 22.

2
.

26
anv
the

GENESIS

XIII.

11-13

[230, 231

pxn

alone.

The Peshitta renders the
ijra

latter view,
Itff,

and
at

correction of helps itself out with the
entering in of Soar.

into

Egypt

Ebers

!

actually adopts the reading
2

of

the Peshitta, and Trumbull wishes to make So'ar the name

of the borderland of the north-east of

Egypt.
nj,T-p

The assumption that from vsh addition, and that the remainder
untenable, for

to

is

a redactional

of the verse is

from A, 3

is

A

does not write pTTi 133 (see ver. 12).

Ver. 11

f.

Lot chose this Jordan district and journeyed

4 therefore eastwards.

coming after the first part of the verse these words are unnecessary, but they are the necessary preThey and ver. 12 as far as -13311 are supposition of ver. 12.
^n
therefore to be assigned to

msn

expressions

fjttD

pK,

5

A, who is pointed out by the Similar reasoning "O3n ny, 6 and 3tr. 7
is

proves

that

ono-ny irwi

no

8

longer

his,

but originally
is

followed onpo D*6 yo'l in ver. 11.

It in turn

presupposed
lead the
yD3

by the following verse, which is not from A. ?n? only here and in ver. 18, to dwell in
life

tents,

of a tent-dweller, doubtless not

synonymous with

=

break

up camp, but
xiv.
all

in the sense lead
xix. 1 (0),

In chs.

21 (IS) and

a wandering nomadic life. Lot is resident in Sodom.

"The narrators

point out with interest

how

those only

remain in Canaan from

whom

the Israelites were descended,

while the other relatives of the patriarchs depart." 9 Ver. 13. mrri not against Jahve, 10 but rather, as the
M.-issoretes take
eli.

it, to

Jahve,

i.e.

in

His eyes;

h as

the

*i

of

vii.

1.

The author remarks that the inhabitants

of

Sodom were

wicked and sinful in the eyes of Jahve, not merely in order to prepare us thus early for the judgment which comes upon
See ZDPV. viii. 325. See ch. xii. 5. \i\. -J: contrasted with Ill p-pn 133 in ver. 10 f. Knobel. See ver. 6. Knobel. Cf. xxi. IF., x.xv. 6, 18, xxxvi. 6. Knobel. 2 Ch, xx. Drlit/sch, Kautxsch-Socin
pfeft, p. -27-2 f.
"'
4
1
-

2

K ""

1

Ulis. xi. 2,

ii.

8, xii. 8.

5

'

1

I

'"

;.

.

231]

GENESIS

XIII.

11,

15

'27

but also in order to indicate the guiding hand of providence which by Lot's choice preserved Abrain from association with such people.

them

(ch. xix.),

Vv. 14-17. The form of expression

-ION*

mm
The

for

ic&n

mn

N

is

ver.

occasioned by the preceding circumstantial clause in There is no 13, which does not belong to ver. 14.
assertion
is

sulHcient reason for denying the verse to C. 1

that

in

C God
which
is

speaks
1
ff.
;

to

Abram
is

only
2
;

in

theophanies

refuted by ch.
locality,

xii.

there

no

obscurity in regard to the

the district of Bethel

and

it

is

a mere

[from Mesopotamia] by brings Hebron, over Shechem and Bethel, and leaves him there permanently. 3 There is a good connection

assumption

that

C

Abram

the direct road

to

between
attached
chosen.

ver.

18 and
ver.
12 f

ver.
.

17, whereas

if

it

were directly
be

to

the

word

^ns'i

would

badly

Abram by his magnanimous conduct Now worthy of new favour from God.

has made himself
that he
is

in the

land by himself God's plans regarding him may develop themselves further. So God on His side repeats to Abram in
a

new
to

revelation the assurance that he will one day possess
4

the land

him

move

Ver.

and He encourages in land he will. about the where freely " 1 4. Abram is to look about him. Bethel lay
and grow
to be a great people, 5

pretty much in the centre of the country, and at the same time high up on the hills. 6 From its heights there appears to have been a wide outlook over the various parts of the
7

country."

in ch. xxviii. 14,

The four points of the compass are mentioned as which certainly belongs to C. The slight
enumeration here 8
is

difference in the order of

no

sufficient

evidence against C. Ver. 15. obijny, for
1

ever, as

a lasting possession, expresses
2

Wellhausen.
See, on the contrary, ver. 18, Of. ch. xii. 7.

Ver.

4.

3
4
(!

D"DX
5
i.

^"tsOl.

Of. ch. xii. 2.
;

Chs.

xii. 8,

xxxv.

1,

3

;

Judg.

22, iv. 5

1

Sain.

xiii. 2.

7

Knobel.

Wellhausen,

JBDTh.

xxi. 421.

GENESIS

XIII.

16-18

[231, 232

in something new as compared with what was contained
xii.

ch.

7.

Ver. 16.
hyperbolical
ch. xxviii. 14,

God

will also

make
to

his seed innumerable.

The

expression

dust

of the
0.
1

earth

is

also

found in

which belongs

ii-ure are

"as the stars
2

of the sky,"

Other examples of the and "as the sand of the

It comprehends a This promise is the third. part of the first (ch. xii. 2 f.) and of the second (ch. xii. 7). 3 This translation is preferable so that if anyone. DS "IP'S

seashore."

to quern
nfapb,

si,

which, instead of the mere pronominal suffix after
full object
is

would have the

pn iBjrntf repeated.
it

4

Ver. 17.

Abram

to traverse the length

and breadth
and

of

the land freely, and take his use of
of his future

in hope

as a sign

possession

of

it.

5

The Septuagint

at the end
as in

of

the verse has the additional words DbiJTiy

"Jjn^l,

ver. 15.

Ver. 18.
finally

Abram now moved about

the country

6

till

he

reached the Hebron district, where he fixed his permanent abode. There he erected an altar, 7 and thus Hebron,

"where
acquired

in

later

times

there

was a

place of

sacrifice,"

8

its sanctity.

The verse
of

as it stands is

indeed, have related

from C. A must somewhere, Abram's settlement in the neighbourhood

Hebron, the patriarch's place of residence in his narrative But A names the place ^PP,9 and not the " terebinths
>.

of

Mumre."
inic

According to ch. xiv. 13, 24, the grove had from the Amorite Mamre. 11
10, x. 22, xxviii. 62).

10

1

(

Ihf,

xv. 5, xxii. 17, xxvi. 4 (Dent. xxii. 17, x.xxii. 13.
D His. xi. 7, xxii. 14,
1.

i.

xxiv. 3 (Gesenius, 25 166. 2).

i:-

;

-I'-i.

xxxi. 32 (Tuch,

Ewald,

331c).
c
s

\iii.lO.
'

Knobul.
7.

See ver.
1.

12.
7.

S*6
(

11()tt>

r1

'-

*

2 Sam. xv.
13.

Knobel.

'li~.

\\iii.
"

17, 1!,

xxv.

9,

xxxv. 27, xlix. 30,

ii.inMiivcs xiv. 13

and

xviii. 1.

I'urtlMT, tlir notes

on

xxiii. 2, 20.

232]

CKXKSLS XIV

29

4.

AIUIAM'S

UNSELFISH

EXPEDITION

TO

SAVK
Cii.

LOT,

AND
FKOM

MELCHISEDEK'S BENEDICTION OF HIM,
7?,

XIV.

;

FOLLOWING

B

(?).

In a war conducted by the four allied kings of Eluiu, Shinar, Ellasar, and Goyim, against the peoples of the Jordan
1.

valley

and the southern

desert,

and

carried off along with his property

Lot also was captured in Sodom and other plunder

taken from Sodom and Gomorrah.

Abram

received news of
the victors,
of his

the event, and boldly started after the

now on

their

way home.

army of He had with him 318

own

people and those
defeated the

of his confederates

Eshkol and Aner.

He

enemy near Dan, and rescued from them Lot, He was met on his way the other captives, and the booty.
back by the king of Sodom and by Melchisedek, king of Salem, in the valley of Shaweh. By the latter he was
solemnly blessed for the deed he had performed, and he gave him a tenth of the spoil. Yet he proudly and generously
refused the reward proffered

him by the king of Sodom. In this chapter Abram appears in a new light. hear regarding his relations with the native princelings.
is

We
He

in league with

them

for offensive
is

and when combined with them
occasion to

and defensive purposes, strong enough on an

contend with success on behalf of the weaker

So party against warlike and conquering foreign princes. far, however, as his character is concerned, he shows himself
in

these circumstances the
self-sacrificing,

and

same high-minded man. Bold he does not hesitate a moment in the
lists

hour of need to enter the
behalf
of
his

against a superior force on
refuses to

relative

Lot.

He

make

external

profit from his noble deed, but he obtains a higher reward in the shape of help from his God and esteem from the people

This section, like the one immediately preceding, thus contributes to the complete picture of the man, and of the divine care exercised on his behalf.
of the country.

30
lint

GENESIS XIV

[233

we have

to

observe that otherwise the account

is

Otherwise than in the other narratives, strikingly peculiar. is deed Abram's given a setting in a frame of international
history.

Almost the whole

of

the

first

half

is

a

bit

of

secular history which describes the incidents of a war,

and

gives the date, the scene,

and the names

of the personages

the Hebrew," and portrayed as a He is at chief in alliance with other chiefs in the country.
the head of a not inconsiderable force, and can on occasion

When engaged in it. 1 3 he is introduced as

Abram comes
"

to be

spoken of in

ver.

wage war

also.

Nor
the

is

this

all.

Melchisedek and his higher

religious faith

makes a singular impression.
valley
of

The name and
quite

description

of

Siddim

l

are

without

parallel elsewhere.

From

a linguistic point of view, there

are idioms and expressions either not found at all elsewhere
in the

Old Testament, 2 or at least not in the Pentateuch. 3
us, in the first

These facts taken together force

place, to

the

supposition that the narrative comes from an independent and ancient source. But seeing it mentions Dan, 4 and contains

numerous explanatory

5

glosses,

it

must have passed
is

through the hands of a later redactor.
lead us to the conclusion that
ver.

There
this

nothing to
6

C was

redactor,

for in

an interpolation, and the words Q1D3 2E* Kim (ver. 12) and &o (ver. 13) only prove that the present text presupposes ch. xiii., not that it comes from the same source. There is, on the contrary, definite
is

22 mrp

doubtless

^M

evidence against him in the use of the
instead of

name

D^trn pEy
f.

7

pvn

13D,

8

and

in the fact that ch. xviii.
9 A, in turn,

takes no

account of the narrative.
1

is

indeed suggested

Vv. 3 and

10.

*

AH
AH

pw
p
14.

rot? n:p
i,*

(xix. 22),

ma
(20),

hn

(is),

^n
5

(14),

p-nn with a

personal object (14).
3

(18-20, 22),

f^

vtfpn

(22).

r -

yv

2

7f.

14 17
i.'

Huj.tr], 1,
'<!.'{
|.

K;i\,,-r,

l)c-lit/.sch 5

[New Comment, on
10
f.

Genesis' vol.

p.

\v.

3, K, 10.

Th.

xiii.

Ilgen.

233, 234]

(IKNESIS XIV
2
tr's:,

31
is

by the words
in ch. xv. 14,

c*o~i

l

and

but the former
as a

found also

from

E

t

and

traj

word

for

individuals <f

As for both sexes, free and slave, could hardly be avoided. 1JT3 H^, it appears to be merely an explanatory gloss, and
the use of &ODD *&$
is

not characteristic of

A

evidence against him. 3 Besides, it is into such to enter fulness of detail

unless the subject has a ceremonial or legal interest, and the
literary

On the very different from his writing. 4 Elseother hand, much may be said for It's authorship.
style
is

where, also, his

narratives

are

marked by the
In

distinctive
ch. xxi.

character of their contents and expressions.
tells

he

with native princes, and in ch. xlviii. 22 mentions a warlike exploit of Jacob's against Shechem. It
of

alliances

is

acter which have been omitted
his

not impossible that he had other incidents of this charas not serviceable for by

R

purposes.

In particular, while B^B
him, the rare word
8

5

and Yin

6

are no
is,

evidence for

H$*
10

7

doubtless

and

certainly notfn,

which

B

g

writes for the usual ^JE3.

The

mention also

of

Adma and

where

speaks only of explained on the supposition

compared with ch. xix., Sodom and Gomorrah, is most easily
Seboyim,
of
I>'s
11

authorship.

The

enumeration

peoples, contained in ver. 8 f., reminds us forcibly of Deut. ii. 1012, 20, and these verses,
of primitive

we may suppose, were from one

of Z>'s sources.

It

is

no

objection to It's authorship that he elsewhere pictures Abram " " as a Moslem and a prophet ; 12 did not Mohammed, too, on

occasion

wage war
view
f.,

?

But

it

must be acknowledged that the
additions,

passage in its present
partly
1

form cannot be attributed even to B,

in

of

the

many explanatory
2

partly

Vv. 11

4

See ch> xiii> 18 Ewald, Bohmer, Schrader, Kittel, Geschichte, vol. i. p. 124 [History
16, 21.

Ver. 21.

of the
5
7

Hebrews, vol. Ver. 13.

i.

p. 137J.
c

Knobcl, Schrader.

Ver. 24

;

cf.

ch. xli. 16.

8 9

Vv.

7,

13

(Num.
p.

xxi. 21

;

Josh. xxiv.

And
See

D following
i.

8, 12).

10
12

vol.

him. 313, note

5,

regarding ch.

x. 19.

"

Cf. Hos. xi. 8.

Wellhauseu, JBDTh.

xxi. 414.

;\-2

GENESIS XIV

[234

because of vv. 17-20, which can only have been written by knew of Nor is it anywhere apparent that a .Jiulu'jin.

B

Al mini's residence in
its

Mamre.

So the narrative must have

or perhaps been given present shape by a later hand, by Ji" But, unless the narrative is fiction from beginning to
1
.

E

no occasion for declaring it to be one of the latest parts of the Old Testament, and a product of recent Midrash writing. 1
end, there
is

2.

The

narrative,
of

because

assigned

its

place

in

the

wider

movement
the

international
it is

history,

makes on the
stricter sense

reader the impression that

historical in a

than

other

narratives

regarding

Abram.

We

have

whether and how far this impression remains on a The question has been very more careful examination. 2 decidedly answered in the negative by many, and the narto ask

rative declared to be
glorification.

an invention
told
3

for the sake of

Abram's
the
in-

We

are

that

contests

with

habitants of the land were not thought sufficiently imposing
for a picture of

Abram

in the character of a

so

the most far-fetched
it.

mighty warrior, names were sought out and introalso,

duced into

In every other particular,

the endeavour-

was made
matter

to

preserve the appearance of antiquity.

As

a

of fact, it is

true that the narrative contains far too
to be

many

definite

names and statements
If

popular legend.
artificial

not based on actual

fact, it

an unsophisticated must be the

construction of a writer of romance
4

use of material of an antiquarian character.

who has made E. Meyer, 5 who
the piece

adopts this view, believes that the

Jew who wrote

got detailed information about the ancient history of
in

Canaan

Babylon.
1

But

it

has not yet been proved that

we have

Kucn.-n, Onderzoek,
<"7<,-, 1>.

312
l>y

;

vol. i. p. 314; Wellliausen, Vatke, ZPTIi. xxviii. 157.

2

Composition des

2

Not only

N..ld('kr in .-special, Unterguchiunjen,

by Kucn.-n, 77/7'. MflddM,
'"/,/,(ti'g

von Bohlen, but by Hitxig, f,W/m7ite, 44 f. and 20, by lf>(> Zll'Th. 1870, p. 213 ff. also v. 262 f., and Wellhausen, Composition, p. 310 ff. 4 So also Stade, ZA Til', vi. :j:>:j, and H. Meyer.
II*.,

;

Alterthums,

i.

136.

j:;i,

L'35]

GENESIS XIV
In the
else

33
first

here an account which
place, the four kings

is

actually impossible.
east,

from the

nowhere

mentioned

either separately or together,
wi'st

and their campaign against the have an historical foundation. must Several of the

royal

names have recently been brought

into

the light of

It was already to be history by the cuneiform inscriptions. conjectured from ch. x. 22 that Elam was once a sovereign power, in part before Babel, and this is now confirmed by

the monuments. 1

We
of

Baby Ionian sphere
2
;

need no longer doubt that the Elamiticempire extended to Syria and as far as
is

even already the conjecture Egypt the Hyksos invasion of Egypt had
3

gaining ground that
origin in the

its

same
conse-

quarter.

Equally, in later times, every

power

of

any

quence in the district of the Euphrates-Tigris basin sought to extend itself to the west. It is clear from the narrative itself
that the campaign of Gen. xiv., also, was not a
expedition, but

mere plundering
it

was undertaken

to

maintain an overlordship
This makes
all

previously established in the west.

the

more

credible that the

memory

of

what occurred should be

the west for a length of time. As late as about the year 1400 B.C. there were still, we know, 4 people

preserved in

in

Canaan

masters

of

the

Babylonian
xiii.

language

and

its

written character.

In Num.

22, also, another fragment

of ancient political history

Judg.

iii.

8).

has been preserved (comp. also The exclusively religious purpose of the biblical

writings explains

why more
the

of a similar

character has not

been preserved.

But although
it is

setting of

the narrative cannot be
these facts are considered,

seriously called in question,

when

of

Because not itself thereby guarded from all objection. Abram's being introduced in ver. 13 as ^-oyn, Ewald
Kegarding the Elamite invasion and dynasty in Babylon,
tf.
;

1

see

135
2

Miirdter-Delitzsch, Babyl.-Assyr. Geschichte* p. 82 f. Regarding Kudur-Mabug, ruler of the west, see note on T
Naville, Buba&tis, London, 1891, pp. 16-29 From the Tell-Amarna letters.

ver. 1.
3
4
;

Meyer,

109, 137.

DILLMANN.

II.

3

34
i

GENESIS XIV

[235

riled

the

whole

narrative

as

taken

from
1

an

ancient
it

and believed himself entitled to find in foreign source,
j.r.Kif
i

a

Abram's actual historical existence. use of this very mention of Abram and
of

But now

it is

of the kings of

the Pentapolis that the impugners of the
the whole as a romance.

narrative regard

be possible that the
successful part played

In truth, it must be admitted to original account spoke only of the
of the

by the Hebrews

country in the

contest with the eastern kings, and that everything else is due to an interweaving of new materials and amplification of

the old on the part of the Israelite narrator or narrators. At the same time, Proof one way or another is impossible.

the objections which have been advanced are little to the The course of the campaign as described in vv. 5-9 point. is not out of harmony with its intention, nor in itself absurd.

no attempt to represent the battle in the valley of It is in no way Siddim as a great international contest. 2

There

is

surprising

that

the author

is

silent
it

regarding

operations
of his

against the

Canaanites proper, for

was not part

purpose to enter on their relations with the eastern kings. Xor is it even in itself incredible that Abram, having combined his forces and those of his
captives and
of It
allies,

rescued a part of the

the booty from the victorious
is

army on
in

its

way home.

nowhere said that he overcame

open

battle the united

army

of the four kings, still less does the

narrative display the intention of glorifying him as a great hero in war; in ver. 15f. the successful exploit is recorded

On the single word of ostentatious parade. the narrative has its in whole Abram's selfcontrary, point
without
a
sacrificing friendship for

Lot and in the restoration
of warlike fame.

of the

captives,

and not in an empty boast
is

The

whole campaign
1

narrated, not for its
pp. 80, 431

own

sake, but only

Ewald, Geschichte*
ff.]
;

i.

f .,

pp. 52, 301, 307
flttflMM, vol.
2
i.

similarly Kittel, Geschichte,

440 if. [History of Israel, vol. i. i. 153 ff. [History of the

"

p. 175].

Viilkenchlacht" Noldeke.

L>:;:>,

L':M]

<;KN*ESIS xiv.

i

35

in

so -far as

it

contributes to an understanding of Abram's

deed

of rescue,

and

tliere

is

no pivtfnsiun of complK'-.

about the story.
cities in

Even if the four names of the kings of the the plain of Sicldim are an addition supplied by the

fancy of later writers, the tradition of war between the eastern kings and those of the Pentapolis may yet be well
based
cities
if

assuming that we do not regard the existence of the
themselves as also a
fiction.

Nor

is

it

of

importance

1 Mamre, Eshkol, and 'Aner were originally place names, for it makes no difference whether Mamre or the lord of

Mamre

assisted

Abram.
to

The account regarding Melchisedek

have been introduced only by the latest redactor, but, even then, only with the justification of tradi" " tion for this new figure nothing compels us to assume
;

we may suppose

that he

an independent invention of the redactor's own. Literature on ch. xiv. Krahmer in Illgen's Zeitschrifl
is
:

fiir historische TJieoloyie, vii. 4, pp.
i.

87-106
viii.

;

Tuch

in

ZDMG.
in
x.

161-194; Noldeke, Untersuchungen
in

zur Kritilc dcs Alien

Testaments (Grotefend
St.

ZDMG.

800

ff.)

;

Bosch

Kr.

1885,

p.

247-263 (REJ.
Vv.
Ver.
1
f.

xv.

32 Iff.; Halevy, Eecherchcs 161 ff.).
resulted

fiibliques,

112. The war which

in Lot's

captivity.

belong together, inasmuch as the principal sentence to which the temporal clause of ver. 1 is subordinate,

comes only
D~ax,
to
2

in ver. 2.
first

*p'3 is

not to be emended into ^o*3
for instance,
four.

nor are the

and second names alone, 3
the

be subordinated
the subject of
;

to

construct, but the whole

Still

iiry is

these four kings
iy3tr

com p.

in ch.

only to be found in the names of ix. 6 the subject of nb'y. 4
xi. 2.

see notes on x.

10 and

For

all

the names

of ver. 1 conip. also Schrader. 5
1

Noldeke.
;

Clericus, Ewald, Composition der Genesis, p. 220, Olsliausen this Hitzig, Ikgriff der Kritik, p. 149.
3

2

against

Sept.
5

;

see,

SB AW.

4 on the other hand, vv. 5 and 9. Ewald, Syntax, 3036. in he which corrects KAT* 135 ff. 1887, pp. 600-605,
i.

[Cuneiform Inscriptions, vol.

p.

120

ff.].

36
K
Sept.

GENESIS XIV.

1

[236

*AfjLctp<f>d\,

now

identified

by Schrader

l

with

the great Babylonian king Hammurabi, circa 2100 B.C., it being assumed that the text is corrupted from an original

Hammurabi reigned fifty-five years, put an end to dominant the power of Elam and of the various princedoms in Babylonia itself, and created the united kingdom with
"B-os.

Babel as

its

2

capital,

tolerate the rival existence of

though at first for a time obliged to Eriaku of Larsaw and others.
ife^n

nc&

is
4
;

not
is it

the

of

Isa.

xxxvii.

12,

3

still

less

Pontus

nor

Artemita, which was also called Xa\daap?
of Assyria
is
6

and was situated in the south
7

to the north of
8
;

Babylonia,
little
f

for

in

Syriac that

written no^n

just

as

can

it

be the old imperial capital of Assyria,
9

Asshur =

Kal ah

Shirgat.

With more

probability

it is

now

identified 10

with the old Babylonian city of Larsam or Larsaw, southeast of Uruk, the ruins of which are found in the modern
Senkereh. 11

The easing
-ID$>

of

pronunciation
D*6,
12

in

the
;

Hebrew
Halevy
1S

combination of sounds,
believes, besides,

from

is

explicable

that

he has discovered that the original
Ella-arsa.

form

of La-arsa

was

known from Dan. ii. 14 as a personal name. It is ^"]N now believed that the name Ariokh, and indeed the actual
individual, has been found in the inscriptions
1

14

in the person

Op. p. 603 ff. (Halevy, x. 254 f.). 2 Tiele, Geschichte, p. 124 ff. Miirdter-Delitzsch, Gesch. Babylon, u* Assyr. p. 85 ff. 3 4 Jerusalem Targum. Symmachus, Vulgate. 5 to Isidorus Characenus (in Geographi minores, ed. Miiller,. According
cit.
;

p. 251).
'

8

Ptolemy, Noldeke,

vi. 1.

6

;

Strabo, xvi.

1.

17.

Knobel.

op. cit. p. 160.

Sayce,

SB AT.

ii.

1873, p. 244.

H. Rawlinson, Norris, Lenormant, Schrader in Riehm's Hand2 worterbuch, p. 1495, and in KAT. p. 135 f. [Cuneiform Inscriptions, L
p.

10

121]
11
12

; Delitzsch, Paradies, p. 224. Loftus, Travels, p. 244 ff.

Lenormant, La langue primitive de
Op.
cit.

la Chalde'e, p.

377

ff.

13
'<

p. 253.

Lenormant,

op.

cit.

p.

377

ff.

;

Oppert, JA.
i.

vii. 5, p.
;

277

f.

;

Schrader,

KAT.* 135 [Cuneiform
p. 224.

Inscriptions, vol.

p. 120f.]

Delitzsch, Paradies^

23(5,

237]

GENESIS XIV.

1

37

of Eri-aku or
1

I'iw-aku,

i.e.

servant of the

moon

god, va

kinu

r

"t

Larsam

under his father
last

Elain,

and himself the
1

Kudur-Mabug, king of The objections king of Larsa.

of Tiele

and others
2

have been met

D^y

accuracy of the reading Eiw-aku, the help of fresh discoveries. by see note on ch. x. 22.
to the

"ipy?~n2

Sept. Xo$o\\oyofjLop.

From

the cuneiform in-

now acquainted with several compound Elamite kings in which Kudur is one element, 3 It is also related and also with an Elamite deity Lagamar.
scriptions

we

are

names

of early

in

the inscriptions
to

of

Asshurbanipal that he brought back

from Susa
carried off

Babylon the statue of a god which had been

before his time
to a

by the Elamite king Kudur-Nahundi 1635 years and in Mugheir, bricks have been found due
;

king Kudur-Mabug who calls himself adda-martu, ruler of the west country, Canaan. 4

@apyd\, as yet unknown. D^ia Idvwv, meaningless as a nomen appelativum without further qualification, and not to be identified with
yy
Sept.

Galilee

5

nor Pamphylia, 6 nor

D?ian ""K of

Gen.

x. 5

7
;

it

must

be a proper name though the reading may be corrupt. It has been conjectured 8 that we here find the Gutt or Kuti,

a powerful people often mentioned in the inscriptions. 9 They inhabited the country between the Zab and the Diyfila
(Gyndes),

were the northern neighbours
W\> of

of

the Kossaeans,

and are perhaps the
is

Ezek.

xxiii.

23.

10

The principle followed
not obvious, in ver. 9
1

in the

arrangement
;

of

the names
it

it is

different

Delitzsch supposes

Geschichte, p. 124.

2

By

Schrader, op.
5

cit.

p.

601

f.

;

Fried.

Delitzsch in excursus to
vi. p. 64.

Delitzsch,
3
4

p.

539

ff.

[not translated in

New

A goddess according to Jensen, WZKM.
Schrader
in

Commentary],

Handworterbuch, p. 819; KAT.- p. 136 f. [Cuneiform Inscriptions, vol. i. p. 121 f.]. 5 Josh. xii. 23 Matt. iv. 15 (Clericus, Rosenmiiller). 6 8 7 H. Rawlinson. Gesenius, Noldeke. Symmaclms.

Riehm's

;

9 10

Schrader,

KGF. pp. 258, 271, 294, 451, 473. Delitzsch, Paradies, p. 223 ff.

38
to

GENESIS XIV.

2

[237

From what follows it is clear that be alphabetical. Kedorlaomer was the leader in the group of kings. Comp.
1 also passages like Josh. x. 3, 5, 23.

Ver.
five

2.

These kings waged war

2

with the kings of the
learn

cities.

The expedition,

as

we

from

ver.

5

ff.,

was not directed against them alone, but the war with them was to be the chief theme of the narrative, in
accordance with the author's aims.
to
"

The
first

five

cities
4

3

seem

have formed a confederation.
5
f
,

The

four

afterwards

Those in the first rank perished, but not so Bela i.e. So'ar. were Sodom and Gomorrah, which are elsewhere always
mentioned by themselves, as they are here in ver. 10 f. To 6 7 from of So'ar and the situation of the cities Sodom, judge occupied the position of what is now the southern part of
the
It

Dead

Sea.

For further particulars see
that their territory
is

ch.

xix.

22."

8

may

be noted that the inhabitants are nowhere called

Canaanites, and

the land of Canaan. 9
of those

The

position of affairs, in

not reckoned part of which each
it is

towns had
10

its

own

king,

is

precisely as

found

later, in ^he

time of Joshua.

imagined that he had discovered ruins of the by the Dead Sea others wish to recognise in the names DID and musy a description of their fate, 11 and thus
Saulcy
five cities still
;

De

prove the names

fictitious.

Jewish humour
tf?n
is
i

12

caught
in

the

sound of the words Jn and
kings
;

n the names

of the first

two
the

and seeing that
jrrta,
2

a

not

elsewhere

used

formation of personal names, Tuch has conjectured a contraction
1
4

from
Knobel.
(

yen-}?

(similarly

Halevy
3
5 1

13

from sn '?, 'ax
6. xi. 8.

Josh. xi. 18.

Pentapolis, Wisd. x.

'li.

x. 19.

1

10
11

See ch. xix. 22. Knobel. Revue Archtfologique, nouv.

Deut. xxix. 22, See ch> xiii> 12

cf.
.

Hos.

9

According to
ff.

ch. xiii. 12.

serie,

xxx. 295

an

(Jest-urns, Thesaurus', Hitzig, Geschichte, p. 25, in all four, submerged, overwhelmed, destroyed, swallowed by the earth, with Arabic as the alleged
I

liority.
'-

.Irni.s-ilem T.-irgum, IJi-rushitli

Kabba.

HEJ.

x. 1885, p. 3.

237,238]

GENESIS XIV. 3-5

IT.

39

Hitzig gave his help to the cause by the discovery of
the meanings
other two.
"

serpent- tootli

"

and "scorpion-venom" in the

and

But the Septuagint has BaXXa (BaXa/c) fur jrc 2evaap (Samaritan "IWB>) for axrj', and pronounces

"insor, 2v/jLoj3op (Peshitta j-]ki-).

When

the tradition

is

so

is,

uncertain an interpretation of the names from Hebrew roots to say the least, a doubtful proceeding. Conversely, the

Samaritan reading -DHCP for UKOG?
for

is

evidence that the thirst

interpretation

made

early attempts on the names.

See

further regarding the first two names, e.g. Gesenius, Thesaurus. jfe The name of its king is entirely only here.

wanting,
text.

it

can

hardly

have

merely

fallen

out

of

the

Yer.

3.

All

these, four,
l

allied

themselves,
i.e.

i.e.

marched in

confederacy against
level
2

the valley of
is

Siddim,
i.e.

the valley of the

fields,

which

the

Salt Sea,
lay,
(its

against the district
it

where the enemies' towns
supposed,
3

and where afterwards,
part)
is

is

the

Dead Sea

southern

came

to

be.

generally, the valley of Siddim describe the same tract of country as that

Speaking

here used

to

named

133 or 133

PTPI in ch.
Ver. 4.

xiii.

"

The cause

of hostilities

was that the kings

of

Siddim,

who had

thirteenth year to do so any longer.

paid tribute for twelve years, refused in the This is the meaning

4 given by the Hebrew." " "no only found elsewhere in the Hexateuch in xiv. 9; Josh. xxii. 16, 18 f., 29." 5
'Jl

Num.
more

vhvh
7

see note on ch. xv. 1 6

6
;

the Samaritan,

correctly, has c^Bbl.

Ver. 5

ff.

At

appeared with
1

year following, Kedorlaomer the other kings. They subdued, one after
once, in

the

Ewald, Syntax,
x^vxyv,

282c.
;

2

Aquila, Onkelos, Samaritan, Saadia

but the Septuagint

lias

r>jy

and Hitzig

parallels

DHt? with Arabic Sadhdm,
6
7

salt.

3 4
6

See note under ch. xix. 28.

As

in 2 Kings xviii. 7, xxiv. 1, Ewald, Syntax, 287k, 300.

20, etc.

Knobel.
Olshauseii, Xuklcke.

40

GENESIS XIV. 5FF.

[238

another, the people dwelling in the country east of Jordan, in Se'ir, and in the desert, which fact makes it clear that the

campaign was
"

not

directed

against

the

Pentapolis

alone.

They came, without doubt, by the usual road, up through 1 the countries bordering on the Euphrates, till they reached
Syria.

From

this

point,

which was that

to

which

they

afterwards directed their backward march (ver. 14f.), they moved southwards, and attacked the rebels as they came to

them,

first

the

Kephaim

in Bashan, the north of the Trans-

jordan country, and then the Zuzim and the Emim, who lived farther south." 2 These peoples, all three, belong to
the primitive inhabitants of the country.
of

Kephaim, or sons

Eapha,

i.e.

giants,

men
3

of

the heroic age, was both the

general

name

of

the

primitive

giant
4

occupied the land west
special

and

east

of

population which the Jordan, and the

name

for the giants of

Bashan. 5

D^-jj?

rhnpy

only here.
/cal

ever,

has
6

'AcrTapcoO

The Vatican Septuagint, howKapvatv, which is perhaps the
7

original.
cities of

In that case, 'Ashtaroth was one of the principal

Bashan, Og's royal residence, and only six Koman 8 over two hours, distant from Edrei. 9 The spot has miles,

been found, once more, in Tell 'Ashtere, two and a half hours from Nawa, and almost between Naw& and M'zarib it lies on a hill in the midst of a plain rich in pasture ground, is
;

well supplied with water,

and has extensive
Wetzstein
12

ruins. 10

Con-

tmry
li'isra,

11 to this usual assumption,

looked for it in

the capital of the Haurari, 13 but the view has been
2 Knobel. Gen. xv. 20 5

I

:

Strain, xvi. 1. 27. .1 >>].. xvii. 15 2 Sam. xxi. 16 ;
l)( llt
-

;

;

Isa. xvii. 5.

'

11, 20.

Deut.
31.

iii.

11, 13

;

Josli. xiii. 12.

Ku.-in-n, JUilil in
Ih-ut.
8
i.

ZDPV.

xiii.

42

f.,

and Kasteren,
See Com>

ibid. 213.

4; Josh.

ix. 10, xii. 4, xiii. 12,
9

Orwrnasticon.
Kin,-,, hlnlkunde, xv.

Num<

xxi 33 [Dillin.].

819

ff.

II
'-

Baed.-kcr,

rHMina*
.

(Knobel).

p. 303.

.

Mulil.iu in

A rii. ,1.1 in Hcr/og, Kirhm, Hamlivorterbuch,

Jl&il-Encijclopttdie, p. 115.

xiv.

728

f.,

and

L'3]

GENESIS XIV.

5 FF.

41
no
tin-

1 Rabbath 'Amiiion 2 has already refuted by Noldeke. claim it all. Karnaim by itself is not mentioned in

Old Testament, but, no doubt,

in 1

Mace.

v.

43

f.

3

We may

think of it as being in the neighbourhood of 'Ashteroth, in such a way that 'Ashteroth Karnaim might be conceived of as a double city, or as 'Ashteroth beside Karnaim.
D\MT

presumably the same as the giants in the land
of

of

'Arnmon
"
6

later
is

The name

4 date, named by the Ammonites D'isjpT. recalled by Z/a, 5 a place which held a Eoman

Middle Ages Ziza, between Bosra and Lejiin, 7 one stage distant from 'Amman, 8 and still 9 in existence." 10 B?2 by the versions for the most part vocalised Dpa,
garrison,
in the
"

better in Ham, a place otherwise among or with them unknown. It was perhaps the ancient name of the
;

"

Ammonite
^P'*?

capital,

Rabbath 'Ammon. 11
"

properly the terrible ones," though it is to be remembered that the Septuagint here and in Deuteronomy has 'Op/jLa2oi,, 'Ofiplv. They were farther south, and their name
is

that of the original inhabitants of the land of Moab, 12 who before Moses' time extended also north of the Arnon. 13 It is

there

we have
16

to look for the plain (nip

;

u
,

only again in ver. 17)

of Kiryathaim.

The town,

at one time Eeubenite, 15 at another

according to the Onomasticon (KapiaOaefa, The KapidOa), 10 Roman miles (south) west of Medaba. modern name of the ruins is Kareyat n they lie somewhat
Moabite,
lay,
;

south-west of
1

Makaur (Machoerus) and south
2

of Jebel Attarus.

'

ZDMG.
Cf.

xxix. 431.

Carnea in Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, 1 108. Sylvia peregrinatio, ed. Gamurrini, p. 57.
4

3

Schenkel, Bibellexicon, i. 279. 18, and Carneas in

Dent.

ii.

20.
i.

Ptolemy,
81
f.

v. 17. 6.

6
7

Notitia dignitatum,

8

Batfita, i. 255 ; Mardxid, Lex. geog. (ed. Juynboll), i. 526. Abulfida, Tabula Syria, ed. Kohler, p. 91. 10 Knobel. Robinson, Palastina, iii. 923. [In Eng. map.]
12

Ibn

13
4

^uch. Num.
Num.

Deut.

ii.

10

f.

xxi. 26.

Not pyramid,

15 17

Hitzig, Geschichte, p. 36. 1C Jer. xlviii. 23 xxxii. 37 ; Josh. xiii. 19.

;

Ezek. xxv.

9.

Seetzen, Burckhardt, Baedeker.

4

'2

GENESIS XIV.

6,

7

[239

Against Kuobel's identification of the city with et-Teim or 1 et-Tuaime, half an hour west of Medaba, see Dietrich.
Ver.

An ion

Advancing farther through the country south they came on the Horim, the primitive inhabitants
6.
2

of

of

Edomitis,

the hill country between the

Dead Sea and the
this

Eliinitic gulf,

land

3

and defeated them upon Seir as far as El Paran, which is
i.e.

their

mountain

at (the

entrance to)

the desert,

as far as Elath or Aila on the east side of the

desert of Paran, 4 at which point anyone approaching from the
east reached that desert.

not plain, 5 but, like n?K, a large tree or large trees The word became the name of the (? palms, see ch. xii. 6). well-known harbour situated on the Elanitic gulf. It is
?'tf

known
a

in the

Old Testament as

n^e n^K/
it is

an(j nfrtf

8
;

the
to

Septuagint in

Deut. has further Al\a>v, which
in

points

form

Jv'N

;

the classical authors

called

Ai\ava,

"E\ava, Aelana, names which follow the Aramaic
tree.

IT'S,

HJ^i
later

These

shortened

designations

are,
9

doubtless,

forms of the fuller name rjKJ"^.
in

neighbourhood surrounded by extensive woods of date palm. 10 At every period of history the place was counted of great importance, and the possession of it was much contested from the earliest
Aila,
times. 11

the

of

Istachri mentions palms and the modern 'Akaba is

Ver.
first to

7. Here the kings ceased their the west and then to the north.

march

south, turning

'A in Mishpfit, or Kadesh,
1

which

is

They thus reached the Kadesh mentioned in

s

3

In Merx' Archiv, i. 337 f. <'li. xxxvi. 20 ff.; Deut. ii. 12, 22. Kwahl, 2256 but Samar. and Sept. have
;

mrQ.
eh. xii. 6.

Num.
1

x.

12.

Talcums, .Jrn.mc, Samaritan, Luther, also in
<'h. \.\\vi.

I
7

41.
;

n.-ut.
1

ii.

H

Kin-s

ix.

26

2 Kings xiv. 22, xvi. 2 Kings xvi. 6.
;

6.

Edit.
p.
tr.

Mordtmann,

p. 19.

Burckhirdt |%r/",
p. 2-ls
II
;

\>.

">).)],
i.

M [/',,^tne,a Turl,, Knnl,,.].
K.,l,ii,-,,

Germ. tr. 171 f.l, Germ.

828; Riippell, Nubien, i. 268 f.

L'M, 2 to]

GENESIS XIV.

7

43

chs.

xvi.

14 and
it
is

xx.

1,

Moses, where
given the

also

mid frequently in the history of It is here called Kadesh Balnea'.
it

name Well

of decision, so that

was a place with a

spring of water, where decisions were given to those

who
the

sought advice or were at variance.
the seat of an ancient
oracle or

It was,

without doubt,

sanctuary, of which

name Kadesh
point
of

is

also
of

a confirmation, as well as being the

Its important commercial highways. it that situation was long undetermined. Kobinson's opinion, was to be looked for in 'Ain el Weibeh, near the 'Araba,

meeting

about

30
of.

42' north

latitude,

disposed
the
hill

Kadus
Madara,

also,

regarded as now about eleven kilometres north of

may

be

of

in the neighbourhood of the
1

Wadi

el

Yemen, a
Moses.
plateau
f

day's journey from Hebron,

is

too

far north,

and

suits neither

Gen. xvi. 14 nor the passages in the history of It is best looked for 2 on the western slope of the

of

'Azazimeh

(Machra),
of

and
the

identified

with

the

modern Ain Kudes, the source
after

a

course of four hours, joins

Wadi Kudos, which, the Wadi esh-Shertiif.

3 Trumbull, after personal inspection, has given a full description of the spot. 4 Regarding DjTi, the name given in the 5 Targums, see Tuch.

All the open country of'Amalek
land of

the meaning

is

not the

Amalek

later so called, as

6

if

the ancient people of the

Arnalekites was not then in existence, 7 but the Amalekites in
the whole extent of
in the
8 the settlements then occupied by them,
9

Negeb and as far as Egypt. Hasason-Tamar according to
4

2

Chron. xx.

2,

'Aingedi

Wetzstein in Delitzscli, after el Mukaddasi (ed. Goeje, p. 192), Keil. Rawlinson, E. H. Palmer, The Desert of the Exodus, 1871, p. f>17 (Germ. tr. p. 269); Palestine Explor. Fund, 1871, Jan., p. 20 ff Knobel
2
.

1

;

on Josh. xv. 3. 3 Kadesh Barnea,
4 5
r>

New York, 1884. ZDPV. viii. 184 ff., 210 f., 326. ZDMG. 179 also Comm. on Num.
See
i.
;

xxxiv. 4 [Dillmann].
xiii. 29, xiv. 43, 45.
ff.).

7

Hengstenberg, Beitriiye, See Gen. xxxvi. 12.
1

ii.

305

;

Keil.
s

Num.

9

Sam. xxvii. 8

(cf.

Ex.

xvii. 8ff.;

Deut. xxv. 17

44
on
f

GENESIS XIV. 8-10

[240

the
1

palms.

west side of the Dead Sea, a place abounding in Knobel, on the other hand, on the ground that

2 or Aingedi lies too far north, would understand Dnnn TV 3 ion on the south-eastern border of the Holy Land, identical

4 with Oapapw, some distance south-west of the Dead Sea, on the road from Hebron to Alia, and occupied by troops

in

Eoman

times,

5

the modern Kurnub. 6

He

is

correct in say-

7 ing that the Amorites were found as far south as this place. Ver. 8 f. The kings of the Pentapolis now advanced to

Four kings with the five, an meet and engage the enemy. The in which the sentence subject is changed. incomplete met here the were that author intends to suggest conquerors
by a force which at least fairly matched their own. may originally have been merely a marginal note.
Ver. 10. The
place,

But

it

valley of
wells

Siddim, where the battle took
bitumen,
i.e.

was

wells t

of

full

of

them,
fell

and
into

these proved the ruin of

the

fugitives,

for they

them.

For the construct repeated to denote distribution, see Ewald 8 and Gesenius. 9 According to the statement
mineral pitch still welled up from the ground many parts of the valley, and that from cavities of " considerable depth. The account is confirmed by the
in

here, the

quantity of bitumen found in the Dead Sea. According to the reports of the Arabs, it issues in especial from a steep wall of rock on the east side of the sea almost opposite to
'Aingedi, falls into the sea in a solidified state,

and

is

thrown
also be

up by

it

on

its

western shore.

10

But there must

considerable deposits at the bottom of the lake, which detach
1

Pliny, v.

73.
xlviii. 29.

2

j udg>

if

16>

3
4

Ezek. xlvii. 19,

v. 16. 8 ; Tabula Peutinger, ix. civ Gctpdp. Onomasticon, sub 6 Robinson, Palestine* vol. ii. p. 202 ; see also Wetzstein in Delitzscli p. 581 f.

Ptolemy,

5

'

Aw
i.

*

7
I

>.-ut.

i.

44

;

Judg.

36.

8

"'

Syntax,
p.
tr.

313a, 289c.

9

130. 5.
ii.

I'.urrkl.urdt [Syria, p. 394],

227
iii.

;

Robinson

[Palestine,

i.

Germ. tr. 517], Germ.

664
ii.

;

Seetzen, Reisen,
;

218,

463

Russegger, Reisen,

253.

240,241]

GENESIS XIV.

11 F.

45
1

themselves

when an earthquake

occurs,
2

and then

lioat

in

Ancient writers also lumps on the surface of the waves. 3 It is report that the lake casts out quantities of bitumen.
found at different points on the shores, especially on its Masses of large size are found only after southern bank. 4 violent earthquakes, and then only in the southern portion of
the lake, 5 and so in the situation which was occupied by the Headers may also be reminded of the valley of Siddim.

expanse of black slime or salty morass at the south end of the lake, into which one may sink deeply, 6 and where at times many beasts of burden and cattle are lost. 7 See
further on ch. xix. 28."
8

Both the leading kings took to flight, but must have saved themselves by so doing, at least the king of Sodom did
so,

as

we

see

from

ver.

17.
riES?

Consequently,

we have
as

to

understand as subject to
themselves.
mttjtt
is

^a

s

l,

rather their people than

to

be

read

moy

ital,

by the
10

Septuagint and Samaritan.
n~)n
to

the

mountains? doubtless those
their attack

of

Moab,

seeing

the

enemy made
Ver. 1 1
"
f.

from the west.

carried off with
tained, and, as

The enemy plundered the conquered towns, them the provisions and property they conalso,

we see from vv. 16 and 21, prisoners from Sodom." 11 them Lot amongst 12 wishes to emend into &1&. It is C&?N Halevy
we miss any mention
vv.
of

true,

the captives such as
(cf.

is

found in

16 and 21, but in vv. 10, 12, and 14
is

ver. 24), also,

the narrative
1

not very precise in

its

statements.
;

2

3
4

Kobinson, vol. iii. p. 191 (Germ. iii. 168) Russegger, p. 254. Josephus, Jewish Wars, iv. 8. 4. Diodorus Siculus, ii. 48, xix. 98 Pliny, vii. Strabo, xvi. 2. 42
; ;

65.

Lynch, Expedition to the Dead Sea and the Jordan, 1850, pp. 303, 306, 309, 319 (Germ. 183, 187, 191, 201). 5 Robinson, Palestine,vol. i. p. 518, vol. ii. p. 189 (Germ, ii.464 f.,iii. 164). 6 Robinson, op. cit. ii. pp. 112, 115 (Germ. iii. 30) Lynch, op. cit. p. 309 f. 7 Roth in Petermann, Geoyraphische Mittheilungen, 1858, p. 258. 8 9 10 Knobel. Ch. xix. 20. Ewald, 216c. 11 Vv. 12, 13, ch. xix. 1. Knobel. Uecherches Bibliques, x. 248.
Seetzen, Reisen,
i.

417

;

;

1

40
D~QS TiK'p
in

GENESIS XIV.

13,

14

[241

we expect

these words rather after

&f?,

as

the Septuagint, but a consideration of ver. 13 shows that
"
:1
j.i lT)

1 they are merely a gloss.

is

also

Vv.

1324.

Abram's deed
to him.

an awkward and halting addition. of rescue, and the acknowin the grove of

ledgment made
Ver. 13.
of the disaster.

Abram,
one,

Mamre, 2 received news

who always appears in such a case,3 B^fi also in Josh. viii. 22 and Num. xxi. 29. s-Qyn epithet applied to Abram, who is here mentioned
The escaped
for the first time in the chapter (see note

on

ver. 12).

Else-

where the

Israelites are

named Hebrews only by
^Regarding

foreigners,
of its
ch.

4 or in antithesis to them.

For the conjectured reason
the word nay,

use here, see
xi.

p.

33f.

see

16.

tnpp

in

A

the old

name

of

Hebron, or

of a part of

5
it,

^^?, too, occurs as the appears here as a chief or prince. Hebron in Num. xiii. 23. a near of name tna place proper
^ars,
xxiii.
"

the brook of the vine clusters."

See further on ch.
6

20.

"The Amorites
i.e.

of this district

were

7

possessors

of

Abram's covenant,

allied

with him, and so bound to stand
(ver. 24).

by him in case of need, as they actually did 8 patriarchs had similar treaties with others."
"I??

The

ver.

24.

Septuagint Avvav, Samaritan D*oy, both here and in See Kosenmiiller 9 regarding a mountain summit,

Xe'ir, beside

Hebron.

Ver. 14.

Abram

involved himself in the contest for the
i.e.

sake of his brother,
his
1

men, as

and he emptied out arrows from the quiver or a sword from its
relative, cousin,
2

10

8

Olshausen. 2 Sain. xv. 13
4.
A'-/.
1

Ch.

xiii. 18.

;

Ezek. xxiv. 26

f.;

Ewald, Syntax,
5
*

277a

;

Gesenius,

25

126.
4

S.ini. xiii. 3, 7, xiv. 21.

See ch.

xxiii. 2.

Cf. ver. 7.
\
i.

chs. xxxvii. 19, xlix. 23.

22

ff.,

xxvi. 28

ff.,

xxxviii. 12.
10

Knobel.
Cf. ver. 16

9

ZI'Mi;.

xii. 47!'.

and

ch. xiii. 8.

1M1, LM2]

-KSIS XIV.

15 F.-17

47
Tin-

scabbard,

1

i.c.

marched them out

in

haste and in fmvr.

Samaritan, liowever, has P", and the Septuagint
mustered.'2

va^n

his proved

or
"

tried

men, comp. Arabic

others render less well,

his trained warriors."
3
i.e.

The word
slaves

is

explained

by

those

lorn in his house,

the

born

and brought up in his household, contrasted with those who had been purchased; as such they were regarded as specially
attached and trustworthy.

The
ver.

fact that
is

318

were immediately at his disposal,
chieftain of consequence
;

proof that

fighting men Abram was a

24, however, shows that he
of the patriarchs
xlviii.

was assisted by
To

his allies.

Warlike exploits
f.,

are also recorded in chs. xxxiv. 25, xlix. 5

22.

Dan
;

"

to

Laish

on

the

north-eastern

border

of

Canaan
and
is

it

received the

name Dan

in the time of the Judges, 4
5

here so
f.

named
"

proleptically."

Ver. 1 5
i.e.

bands, which fell on the enemy by The same manoeuvre occurs from different directions. night The captured men and proin Job i. 17; 1 Sam. xi. 11.
divided his

Abram men into

divided himself against them by night,

perty he recovered from the enemy and brought back. to the left, i.e. north of Damascus. Eusebius and nnin

Jerome

6

mention a Hoba as a place where
7

in

their

day

Ebionites lived, and von Troilo

names a
But
9

village of

Hoba about
more

a mile north of Damascus."
too near
place, a

8

this is unsuitable, because

Damascus
10

;

and Wetzstein

points to a
of

likely
of

Hoba twenty hours north
"The king
of

Damascus, west

Karyetain.
Yer. 17.

Sodom advanced
meet Abram on

to the valley of
his return

Shaweh, or the king's
1

valley, to

from

2

3
4 6
9

Ex. xv. 9 ; Lev. xxvi. 33 ; Ps. xxxv. 3. See Gesenius, Thesaurus, 330. So chs. xvii. 12 f., xxiii. 27 ; Lev. xxii. 11, from A. Josh. xix. 47 Judg. xviii. 29. 7 In the Onomasticon. Reisebeschreibung, p. 584.
;

5 8

Knobel. Knobel.

10

In Delitzsch, Genesis* p. 561 ff. For this place see Sachau, Reiseu,

p.

28

ff.

48

GENESIS XIV.

18

[242

the encounter, to congratulate the rescued captives.

him and

to receive
is

from him
mentioned

This valley of the king

18 as the place where the childless again in 2 Sam. xviii. 1 It follows that nip PEJ> is Absalom erected a monument." 2 not identical with the DVTnp mw of ver. 5, partly from the
appended explanation, which implies that it known from what precedes, and partly from
shows that Salem must have
king's
else, is
is

not already
18, which

ver.

lain in its neighbourhood.

The

valley

(poy),

accordingly,

being mentioned
3

nowhere

usually assigned to

the neighbourhood of Jerusalem,
that Absalom's

because of a statement of Josephus

monucannot,

ment stood about two

stadia from Jerusalem.

We

4 however, straightway take it to be the valley of the Kidron, it remains a matter of surprise that, which was a ^m
;

if

so near Jerusalem, it should be

nowhere

else

mentioned,

and we do not know on what authority Josephus made his At the same time, there is little probability in statement.
the assertion

that because
5

situated in Ba'al Hasor,

Absalom's personal estate was we should look for it there on his

own

6

property.

Ver. 18.
at the

To

this place Melchiseclek,

king of Salem, and

same time

priest of the
his

Most High God, brought out

provisions for

Abram and

men.

most ancient and modern expositors, beginning with " 7 others, however, Josephus, understand this of Jerusalem

D^

;

of
iii.

Sa\eifi, in
t

the neighbourhood of which, according to John

8 23, John baptized,

and which, according
of

to

Eusebius
10
;

and Jerome,9 lay eight Roman miles south
1

Skythopolis
;

Knobel.
Antiquities, vii. 10. 3.

2

Rodiger in Gesenius, Thesaurus
xviii.), Delitzsch,

Hitzig.

3
4

Knobel, Thenius (on 2 Sam.
p.

Rielim, Handworter-

///"//, 5
7

844.
xiii.

2 Sam.

23.
10. 2.

Tuch, Winer, Ewald.

Annuities, i. Turguras (Jerome,
8
1

They include Knobel,
p.

Delitzsch, Keil
etc.

;

also the

Qucestiones),

Ibn Ezra, Kimchi,
32
f.

But

see

Riehm, Handworterbuch,
7,

[Dillmann].
presbyt.

In the Onomasticon, sub hivav.

10

Jerome, Epistolce Ixxxiii.

ad Evangel

;

Reland, Robinson,

242, 243]

'IKXESIS XIV.

49
1

see

now

also

the pilgrimage of Silvia.
;

No

decisi--.ii

can be
in

cuiiio to

by

the help of nvj

psy,

which

is itself

unknown, nor

view of the words inv." "nnx, which can only mean after lie h>i<i turned lack, and not after he had returned to Mamre, which
translation

would leave the words

;

(nvj PD2T7N)

WRIpP nsv quite
et

out of place.

Jerome
est

says,

Salem non, ut Josephus
ostenditur
ibi

nostri

omnes arbitrantur,
(//'it;

Jerusalem, sed

oppidum juxta Scythopolim,
et

usque hodie appclatnr Salem

palatium

Melehizedech.

This Salem, with the situation of which the
iv.

av\a)v HaXijfji of Judith

4 would agree very

well,

need not

be thought too far north, seeing that the king of Sodom could, after all, cover the much greater extent of ground involved, while
booty.

Abrarn was leisurely returning laden with the
it

Nor would

be out of the natural line of march,

seeing that the 'Araba had to be traversed,
in

we must

suppose,

the neighbourhood of Beth Shean (Skythopolis).
it
is

On

the

no special recommendation in favour of side, Jerusalem that it is called Salem only in a (late) poem, Ps. Ixxvi. 3, while elsewhere in the Old Testament, the passages
other

being in prose, Yebusi (Yebus) always appears as the older

name of Jerusalem. Still, as early as about 1400 B.C., the name Urusalim is attested by the Tell Amarna letters as the name of the city, 2 and other considerations tell in its
favour.

In Josh.

x.

1

a

king of Jerusalem has the
3 ?^-

name

which is a compound similar to Pl-P We are however, to lay any special stress on this fact, seeing it is now maintained that pis ':tx is due to a late alteration of the

F$P^,
not,

Septuagint reading pn Tix

(cf.

Judg.

i.

3

5).

But the com-

parison between David and Melchisedek in Ps. ex. 4 appears to have more force if the latter were king in the same city
as the former,

and

vv.

18-20 have
i.

surely quite clearly their
i.

Bleek, Tuch, Ewald, Geschichte,

441, 470 [History of Israel, vol.

pp.

307,332].
1

Knobel.

1 2 ZDPV. xiii. 138 f. Gamurrini, p. 58 ff. Wellhausen, Budde, Bncher Richter u. Samuel, 1890, p. 63 ff.; on the other side, see Kittel, Geschichte, i. 277 f. [History of the Hebrews, vol. i.

3

p. 307].

DILLMANN.

IT.

4

50
whole
point
in
of

GENESIS XIV.
the
effort

19 F.

[243

to

represent

Jerusalem

as

a

pure religion, and as a place to which primitive seat : Abram also paid tithes (as Jacob did to Bethel ). So we
have, after
all,

to

decide in favour of Jerusalem, with the

assumption that the rare name

has been purposely chosen to secure a covert allusion, just as the name Moriah in ch.

D^

xxii. 2.

p-tt-^D

He
god.

is

king is Sidik (name of a deity)." of El 'Elyon, whom Abram, as we see designated priest
perhaps

"

my

2

from

ver.

22, could in a general

way acknowledge

as his

This agrees very well with the findings of the history There is abundant evidence for the name El of religions.

or II as the oldest proper

name

of deity

among the BabySeeing,

lonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Sabeans.

how-

ever, that

among

foreign peoples he

was early pushed into

the

background

by

younger
being,
of

gods
it

who

only

expressed
to declare

particular aspects of his

was necessary
epithets
his

more

explicitly

by means
one

descriptive

the con-

ception

which

patriarchs had their
so

W

associated
3
btf,

with
4
i?N,

name.
\ii>K

As
5

the

Dtfy

kx~ib

^,

tarvs ^x, 6

the

Canaanite

here has his

ftvP

bx. 7

The subordinate

deities, inferior in

differentiated

might indeed be already from him, but Melchisedek in his worship still
position or rank,
as the old sovereign god, the ruler of the
It
is

held fast to
universe

him

(ver.

19).

to

be observed that

fl^tf

stands

without the

article,

in accordance with the oldest idiom of

the language, and that as an epithet of Jahve in the Old

Testament

it is still
f.

Ver. 19

always so used. This Melchisedek desires for
of his deed,

8

Abram

salvation

and
1

blessing from God because

and praises God

:J

Chs. xxviii. 22, xxxv. 1. Baudissin, Studien zur Semit. Religionsgeschichte, i. 4 Ch. xvii. 1. Ch xxi< 33

15.

3

Ch. xxxiii. 20.
Of. the

7
1
1

e Ch> xxxv 7. Phoenician Eliun in Eusebius, Prceparatio Evangelica,
.

i.

10.

11.

8

E.g. Pe. vii. 18 [17], Ivii. 3 [2],

243, 244]

GENESIS XIV.

21,

22

F.

51

for its success.

According to usage, the words

of blessing are

uttered in a more elevated rhythmical style.
bxb

Deo
(Sept.

=a

Deo. 1

naj?,

see

ch.

iv.

1

;

it

means both
Jap,

creator

Vulg.) and possessor or lord (Targuin).
xi.

found besides only in Hos.

8

;

Prov.

iv.

9.

accepting the gift and the blessing acknowas God's priest, and now on his part ledged gave to the priest, and in his person to God, as a thanksgiving,

Abram by

Melchisedek

the
h;id

tenth of

all,

i.e.

not of

all

he possessed," but of
place,
i.e.

all

he

with him when the meeting took He thus became a pattern to the
of tithe to

of the booty. 3
4

Israelites,

both in his

receiving the blessing from the priest and in his

payment
is little

him

(so

Jacob in

ch. xxviii. 22).

There

difficulty in seeing that

this tithing of the spoil presents

no

insoluble contradiction to ver.

23

f.

5

Eegarding the conception of Melchisedek as a type of Christ, which is found in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and
has been elicited by a combination with Ps. ex., see the For the extraordinary ideas commentaries on the Epistle. entertained regarding his person by the later Jews and Christians, see

Winer and the other
21.

biblical encyclopedias.

Ver.

"The king
is,

generosity, proposes to
i.e.

Sodom, encouraged by Abram's him that he should restore the souls,
of

persons, that

the rescued captives, while retaining the

other rescued property." " Ver. 2 2 f But Abram raises his
.

hand

to

God,

6

and

thus swears that he will keep nothing of the king's property,

although he has no obligations to the people of Sodom, and The king of might keep the spoil he had taken in battle.

Sodom Abram
1

is

not to have the opportunity of saying that he made rich. Abram shows himself sensitive to the want
;

Of. chs. xxv. 21, xxxi. 15

Ex.

xii.

16

;

Gesenius,
3

25

121. 3.
vii. 4.

Wellhausen, Composition, p. 311. 4 Of. Lev. xxvii. 30 ff. Num. xxxi. 31 xxvi. 27 Num. vi. 23 ff. Lev. ix. 22 ff.
;

2

Heb.
viii.

ff.

;

2 Sain.

11

f.

;

1

Chron.

;

;

5
fi

Bohmer.
Deut. xxxii. 40
;

Dan.

xii.

7

;

also Ex. xvii. 16 [Dillmann].

52
of

GENESIS XIV.

24,

25

[244

confidence that he will voluntarily restore the property
]

which belonged to others." " DN used in oaths in which a negation is expressed." " i.e. From a thread to a shoe-latchet nothing of his most
worthless possessions,

much

less

any

of value,

njn

with a pre*

ceding jo used to express the total sum of things of a kind." Abram swears by the God whom Melchisedek worships
in this

;

way

ver.

21

ff.

is

linked to

ver.

18

ff.

The word

wanting in the Septuagint, Codex Alexandrinus, and in The Samaritan has the Lucian text, also in the Peshitta.
mrp
is

DTitan.

It
case,

accordingly

appears
4

to

be

a

later
it

insertion. 3
is

In any

whether original
god
of

or an insertion,
is

intended

to suggest that the

Abram

not quite identical with

the god of Melchisedek.

Ver. 24.
in the fight.
*Tj6a
"

Abram

asks something only for his companions
"
i.e.

not so
for

far as me,
5

that be far from me," or
in

nothing

me."

"

The words which follow are

the

absolute case (nominativus pendens),
their necessary
;

and the concluding words

my

servants

complement they may take their share, i.e. may have what they consumed of the recaptured
and

provisions (vv. 11, 16),

my
6

confederates

may

receive the

customary share of the spoil."
with him
ch. xx.

Ver. 14 neglected to state that Abram's allies marched
;

for

a similar instance of clumsy stylism, conip.
ver. 3.

17 with

B.

7

THE TRIALS OF FAITH, THE COVENANT, AND THE PEOOF.
Abram
has shown himself to be

In what has gone before,
H

man conspicuous
1

for piety

and virtue in various forms, and
Gesenius,
25

As
(

chs. xxi. 23, xxvi. 29, xlii. 15

;

149.

3

'f.

Deut. xxix. 10
xxxi. 26

;

Judg. xv. 5
1

;

Isa. xxii. 24.

Knobel.
5

3

lltfen.
<:

Delitzsch, Halevy.
ff.
;

Of. ch. xli. 16..

Num.

Sam. xxx.

26.

Knobel.

7

[See p.

8.]

L'M, 245]

GENESIS XV
experienced at God's hands so

53

fir

lias

much

favour in

the

shape of special providences, promises, and blessings, that every preparation required for the moment in which he could
be installed as the head of a

new

divine covenant and receive

the promised seed, the foundation of the covenant race, But at this very point, before seems to have been made.

such

eminence
set

is

attained,
like a

delays,

hindrances,

and

dis-

appointments allow Abram's faith to manifest
them, and also to give visible

in

storm.
its

Their purpose was to

strength in overcoming evidence of the controlling
the

power

of

divine grace.

Even

after

summit has been

attained,

Abram, in the midst of new dangers, must give yet higher proof of himself, until at last the perfected man of God and hero of faith, who is to serve as a pattern to all
Doming generations, stands fully developed before
thus, the
us.

Viewed

separate narratives in this

section,

in

themselves

of

very dissimilar character, unite to present the continuous

development of the central figure. however, round which most of these
is

The external
trials

subject,

and

tests

centre,

Abram's attainment and possession of a son of his own, who should be the first of the covenant race. The very first
section introduces the theme.

1.

THE PROMISE OF A SON AS HEIR, AND ITS CONFIRMATION BY THE CONCLUSION OF A SOLEMN COVENANT, ClI. XV.; BY R, FOLLOWING B AND C.

A
that,

gloom comes over Abram at the thought being childless, he must bequeath to strangers all
feeling of

the divine blessings.

Upon
this

this,

God

in

a vision promises

him a

son,

and that

seed of his will greatly multiply
accepts the promise in faith

(vv. 1-5).
(ver. 6),
is

Then, seeing

Abram

assured to

(vv.

of the land by his posterity him by the solemn conclusion of a covenant 7-21), and at the same time a glimpse is given him of

the future possession

the fortunes of his descendants up to that time (vv. 12-16).

54

GENESIS XV

[245, 246

In this way the hero is shown in outline the progress and provisional end of the whole development in order that he

may

hold fast to

it

in faith,

and thus successfully pass through

the trials that are to follow.

This section, which
in the main,

is

ascribed by Ilgen and
1

Bohmer

to

B

In
the

ver. 5

Abram
is

but generally to C, is not a self-consistent unity. is told to look at the stars, while in ver. 12
ver.
effect

and only in There is nowhere any remark to the of ver. 10 ff. belong to another day.
sun
just setting,

17 actually
is

set.

that the events
also

It

surprising

that in ver. 6

Abram simply
too,

believes the promise,

and then

immediately after in ver. 8 asks confirmation
promise.

of a further

The formula,
ver.

with

which

God

introduces

Himself in

7

is

such as we expect at the beginning
its

of a the.ophany,
itself, in

not in
these

middle. 2
to

It naturally

view

of

facts,

analyse

the

two
first

parts, vv.

1-6 and

vv. to

7-2 1. 3

Where

suggests chapter into this is done the

explained belong to E, but to have under4 gone a Jehovistic redaction, or it is said to be a compilation from J and E? Vv. 7-21 are represented as an unadulterated J section, but transferred by R from another
is

section

context,
vv. 7
f.,

6

or

as

a

J

section

13-16, and 19-2 1. 7
it

expanded by later hands in But if so, it is incomprehensible
ff.

how
v>

E

could simply attach the alien section ver. 7

to that
'

preceding

by the words \hx -iaoi, not even writing
little

epn
it
is

typ.

As

can we understand what occasioned the
in
4,

numerous
incredible

interpolations

vv.

7-21.

Moreover,

that vv.
8
;

2 a,
if

3Z>,

and 6
with
;

originally stood

in

J

after ver. 1 8
post
1

for

so,

the promise of a son would stand
the
is

festum.

In

disagreement

writers

quoted,
used.

A'.*/,

by Hupfeld, Kayser, Schrader
1,

nirp

the divine

name

Cf. che. xlvi. 3, xvii.

xxviii. 13.

Wellhausen Ml HttfWM, vol.
4

3

;

i.

,,

Wellhaus,.,,.

Kautzsch-Socin, Kittel, Geschichte, i. 136 [History of B. Bacon, Hebraica, vii. 1, p. 75 f. i5o] 5 Kautzsch-Socin, Kittel, Bacon.
;

7

*

Bacon

Wellhausen, Kautzsch-Socin, Bacon.

24G]

GENESIS XV
1

55

Budde,

after

subtracting

vv.

12-16 and 19-21, would
and only
2 and
vv. 2b, 3 a, 5 to
is

assign the whole chapter to 5 Similarly Delitzsch (B).

J (C),
,

E

who
in

of opinion that elements

from

E

are

still

discernible

vv.

16.

But

this

assumption does not take any account or give any explanation of the above distinguished discrepancies between

Everything considered, a different judgment must be passed on the chapter. We may conclude as follows. As introducing ch. xvi.,
vv. vv.

16

and

721.

can hardly be dispensed with in C'a narrative, whereas the solemn pledge regarding
i.e.

the promise of an heir,

ver. 4,

the possession of the land, vv. 8-18, following ch. xiL 7 and
xiii.

14

ff.,

is less

necessary, although in view of ch. xxiv. 7

2

not impossibly
B's, seeing that

his.

C

in ch.

In the next place, ver. 2 is certainly xxiv. 2 ff. is not acquainted with
If.

any
to

Eliezer. 3

Again, the writer of ver. 9
i.e.

cannot also be

the author of ver. 5,
B.
Finally,
it is

ver. 9

ff.

will belong to C,

and

ver. 5
(ver.

clear

from DHbo
15), that a

nix (ver. 7), Eton

(ver. acquainted with A, has made independent alterations in the chapter.

14), and mitD m^BO

redactor,

It accordingly appears that vv.

16

are a compilation from

B

and

C, in such a

way

that vv. 2 and 5 are from the text
of C, while ver. 1
,

of B, ver. 3

from that
4 in

originally It's* has

undergone linguistic alteration (ni^, "T^j?)
it

which assimilates
to

to

C

;

ver.

its

essentials

is

common

the two

narrators.

But while

B

reached his conclusion in the con-

firmation of the promise of an heir given in ver. 5, in

C

the

promise

(ver.

4) seems to have been ratified by the formal

conclusion of a covenant.

R, however, instead of simply

attaching the covenant narrative to B's account, transformed
it,

with A's parallel
of

(ch.

xvii.)

assured promise
1

the future

mind, into a solemnly possession of the land (vv.
in

Biblische
If the

U'rgeschichte, pp. 416
*b J,3E 3
J

f.,

439.

2 4

words

Visions by

3 Wellhausen. are there original. his are in introduced narrative, chs. xxi. night frequently

1EW

12, xxii. 1

xlvi. 2, etc.

56
7-18).

GENESIS XV.

1

[246, 247

The same redactor
and) 17 and
?

is
f.,

doubtless also responsible, not

only for (ver. 6

ver. 7
"1^2

but for the difference between
10,
as

cnn

in

ver.

in ver.

well

as

for

the

actual

definition of boundaries in ver. 185.

At

anyrate, he

availed himself of the opportunity to insert, from himself, a
forecast of coining events (vv.

13-15

(16)).

It is uncertain

whether
a
still

16 and vv. 19-21 were inserted by him or by These two additions do not even properly later hand.
ver.
I.

harmonise with one another. 1
Ver.

After

these

things
;

the
2

words make

a

loose

connection with what goes before

they contain no hint of of such as that Abram was events, any special sequence granted Canaan because of his bold encounter with the

enemies of the land. 3

The word of Jahve came to him a divine utterance, 4 such as has been recorded several times before. The expression
is

the usual one for prophetic revelation, but occurs

in Genesis only here

and

in ver. 4.
,

Its use is surprising,

but perhaps least in the case of

who

goes so far as to call

Abram

5033 in ch. xx. 7.

In a vision comp. C nW>n ro&ODn in Gen. xlvi.

in
2.

Num.
Ver.
5

xxiv.

4,

16,

and

B

requires a vision by 5 the view at least night, but ver. 8 ff. a revelation by day that all the occurrences related in ver. 10 and the following
;

verses happened merely in a vision, can hardly be that of the author.

The promise connects

itself

with an anxious mood in which
7

Abram was;
sinful

do not fear, "in the midst of this strange and
Shield, protection or protector."

people.

pat?
8

;ird,

not a second predicate to thy very great for God is not Himself his reward, and we should

^,

DMT,

A

in ohi. xxii. i, 20,

xxxix.

7, xl. 1, xlviii. 1.

Kii..l.,-l,
r-

Bulnm'r, Halcvy, Recherches Bibliques, x. 251. 5 4 Vv. 12 and 17.
-

7

As

Ps.

iii.

"

4, xviii. 3, etc.

Knobel.

Lutli.-r,

Knobel, Keil.

Delitzsch.

247]

GENESIS XV.

2

57

We must translate, your reward (will expect a connecting \ be) very great, the implication of the present text being
" because you remain obedient to rny call something like, in his answer in ver. 2 Abram presupposes, even, that God
"
;

will give

him something.
2.

For

N?"]n as predicate, see
2

Ewald. 1

The Samaritan has the
Ver.

lighter form ao*iN.

Now

that
is

Abram

thought that he
force.

childless

has received this promise, the presses on him with special

mrr 'JIB

a combination found

also in ver. 8,
iii.

and

elseIt,

where in the Pentateuch in Deut.

24,

ix.

26.

In

when God is addressed, ^itf is used by itself (ch. What wilt Thou give to me, what gain to me

xx. 4).

are rewards

and possessions, seeing I depart, i.e. will die, 3 naked, i.e. deserted, childless* and the son of possession 5 of my house, he who will
one day take
of Eliezer}
1

my

house

c

in

possession, inherit

it, is

Damask

"Ur.

$?

P?'!?" !

there can be no hesitation in rejecting the

rendering Eliezer of

Damask

8
;

but

it

is

also unallowable to

regard the words as in apposition,
for

in

Damask which is Eliezer, 9 no one would put a personal name after that of a city explanation of it, and a double personal name (Damask
is

Eliezer)

against usage.

It is not impossible to call a city

or

population pE'~|?, with the meaning son of inheritance, heir. The rejection of the words pb'DT Kin as being a gloss 10 seems to have the merit of simplicity but although ver. 3
its
;

betrays no knowledge of their presence,
lo

it

does not profess

be a complete explanation of ver. 2, and the selection of the rare word Pt? n is only comprehensible if a play on the
1

3
4 5
fi

296<i Syntax, Ch. xxv. 32 Ps. xxxix. 14 [13]. Lev. xx. 20 f Jer. xxii. 30.
;
.

2

Ilgen.

;

25 128. 2A. 2c. Gesenius, Ch. xxxix. 4f. Ex. xx. 17.
;

7 9

8

Gesenius, Knobel.
Cf.

Ewald, Syntax, 286c. Delitzsch, Keil.

10 11

Hitzig, Tuch, Olshausen, Kautzsch-Socin.

ppoo, Zeph.

ii.

9.

58

GENESIS XV.

3

[247, 248

word
both

P^l

were intended.

Apart from
position in

linguistic consideraif

tions, the

sentence receives a satisfactory meaning

Eliezer
also

prominent had some connection with Damascus, so that
expected
that
in

held a

Abram's house and
it

was

to be
heir,

time,

in

the

absence

of

another

Abram's property would fall to him, and in the case of his return to Damascus would be removed to that city, which

would thus become Abram's ultimate

heir.

It is

true that

we read nothing elsewhere
Damascus on
Eliezer's part

of
;

such a family connection with but the contents of these old
is

1 legends are only imperfectly preserved to us, and this

the

As late only passage regarding Eliezer which has survived. as the Greek period the Damascenes boasted a connection
with

Abram
3
it it

himself,

2

and even

later,

under Moslem

rule. 3

Ver.

repeats the contents of ver. 2, but in a simpler

manner

;

may
is

be an explanation
C,

of

ver.

2

by R, more

probably

from

and corresponded in

his account to

ver. 2 in B.

The obscure expressions of ver. 2 are quite torn to fragments by Budde sufficiently ill-treated and he (Kautzsch-Socin) assigns 2a and 3b to J, and makes 26 and 3a an insertion from E by E. The less difficult
;

language of this verse also makes it clear that TP1 pE>'~p is " not intended to mean " son of Masek my household slave
4 nor yet " son of my steward the principal thought contained in the words must be that of 'nfc &n\

"

(Sept.),

;

For n:m
Isa.
1.

;n

see

chs. xxix.

2,

xxxvii.

7

;

2 Sam.

i.

6

;

9.
;

'rvn-p, unlike JV3
6

Tp^ means

O ne of
7

my
;

house-

hold"

comp. jvn \?JN and similar expressions. Lot is viewed as no longer of Abram's kin

and the

natural legal heir, in the absence of other relatives, without
1

/:./.
2

rh. xi. 29.
i.

Nicolaus Damascenus in Josephus, Antiquities, J, regarding a kingdom of Abram's in Damascus.
;

7.

2

;

Justin,

!

xxii.
4

6

D'Herbelot, Bibliotheqne Orientate, sub Abraham, ZDMG. xvi. 701 f., 105 Ewald, Geschichte* i. 446 [History of Israel, vol. i. p. 312]. Theodotion, Jerome. Ch. xiv. 14. * Che. xvii. 27, xxxix. 14. Knobel. Job xix. xxxi. 31. Knobel.
15,

248]

GENESIS XV. 4-6
of a

59

any supposition
the foremost

definite choice
of

member
In

on Abram's part, his household, whom we have to

find

1 in the person of Eliezer.

Ver.

4.

response

to

this

complaint

God promises
In the similar In C,
vii.

Abram an
2

heir of his

own

seed, a lineal heir.

A, phrases in ch. xxv. 23

in

DW
it is

is

not used as here of the man.

used of the woman, but in 2 Sam.

12

and

xvi. 1 1 of

the man.
to

The Septuagint has l^p
remind Abram

for 710?.

Ver.

5.

"In order

of the divine power,

and visibly represent to him the multitude of his descendants, and to awaken in him faith in the promise, God leads

him out and points him
The simile
in of

to the

sky and

its

countless stars."
f.,

3

rwnn, chs. xix. 17, xxiv. 29, xxxix. 12

15, 18, from C.
4

the stars occurs elsewhere in C's contexts

and

Deuteronomy.
Ver.
6.

The author now breaks the
and
he trusted in Jahve,
as righteousness,

course

of

his

narrative to remark,
5 it,
i.e.

and He reckoned

the trust,

to

Mm

prominent expression to the point of mainly to occupy in our judgment of the history of Abram. In the case of Abram, to whom the law had not as yet been
given,
it
6

and thereby gives view he desires us

was not his fulfilment of the law, as evidenced by his which made him appear righteous in God's sight, but his firm adherence to God, his reliance on Him, his believing " and trustful surrender of himself to Him. 7 This right
works,
attitude of

mind

"

8

towards God,

God reckoned

to

him

as

9

righteousness.

acceptance of
of

the

He evidenced this faith by his trustful what was presented to him in promise, in spite doubts which appearances and circumstances so
suggested,
2.
3
;

naturally
1

and

he

steadfastly

maintained

this

See ch. xxiv.

2

Chs. xxxv. 11, xlvi. 26 Ex. i. 5. Chs. xxii. 17, xxvi. 4 Ex. xxxii. 13.
;

Knobel.
Isa.

For the

fern, see xxiv. 14, xlvii.

26

;

Ex.

x. 11

;

xxx.

8, etc.

Deut. vi. 25, xxiv. 13. Ex. xiv. 31 Num. xiv. 11, xx. 12 Knobel.
;

;

Deut.

i.

32.
9

Ps. cvi. 31.

60
attitude, both

GENESIS XV.

710
his

[248, 249

then and
is

throughout

future

life.

The

clearest expression
of salvation as it

hereby

given to the nature

of

the

way

Ver.

7.

was open to the patriarchs. Abram's request for an assurance

of

the further-

promise and his receiving of it, do not agree well with the It would be different simple faith which has just preceded.
if

God were now

to

conclude a covenant with him as the
This was perhaps once the sequence of
p.

reward

of his faith.

events in C, but for the reason given on

55 the formal
redactor to a

conclusion of a covenant was altered by the

promise

of the possession of
;

the land, confirmed by a solemn

pledge on God's part ver. 7 f. is to be attributed to the author of this alteration, and not to C himself. 1

We

find confirmation of this in the facts that

C2
is

speaks

only of God's leading

Abram
f.,

out

from Harran, not from
the ^T,

Ur Kasdim

3
;

that ver. 7

where Abram himself

does not quite agree with ver. 18, where D12S jnr is the heir; nNTn pNrrriN i? nr6, is and that the whole phrase,

nn^^

Deuteronomistic.
Ver.
xlii.

8.

mrv 'n
vii.

see ver. 2.

nea* n as in
"

ch. xxiv. 14,

33

;

Ex.

17,

and frequently.
5

Gideon and Hezekiah

similarly ask for a sign."

9. In order that God may give that the promise will be fulfilled, pledge

Ver.

him the asked

for

Abram must

take,

i.e.

bring for God

(cf.

in ver. 10), a heifer, a she-goat,

and

a rarn, each of them three years old, also a turtle dove and a

young dove.
Septuagint of
fold,
i.e.

B&Bte
1

in
i.

this

Sam.
of

24.
^Jia

sense only here and in the Onkelos renders wrongly three-

three

each.

only found

besides

in

Deut.

xxxii. 11, of the

young

of the eagle.

Ver. 10.
all

mean on
1

He brought them accordingly. does not at 6 7 the day after the vision by night, but either in
2
4

liu.ldf, Kittel, Delitzscli.
1

ch. x ii. If.
Ewalcl,
2436.

(<i
I

vol.

i.

407.

':!,'.

vi.

17

ff.

;

2

Kings xx. 8

ff.

Knobel.
7

!'l,

IMit/sch*.

Hupfeld, Keil.

Ill)]

GENESIS XV.

10

Gl

or, better, to

the theophany, which accordingly in

C was
in

not
the
one's

by

night.
1

He

divided

the

three

larger

animals

middle,

i.e.

each in

two equal halves, and
here
"ina
;

laid each

half

2

opposite the other half, but did not divide the birds.

inn

and

Piel

only

in

Jer.
;

xxxiv.

18

f.

IB>',

collective, as in Ps. viii. 9

and elsewhere

the Samaritan ha

mem
"

God

wishes, then, to conclude a covenant with

Abram. 3

The covenant ceremony consisted in the passage of the contracting parties between the slain animals, and the curse
involved was to
fare as they
T/jLvew,

the

effect

that he

who broke

faith

would
*

had done.

Hence the expressions
xxi.

rp"Q rro, opicia

and fcedus
of

icere, percutere, ferire, cf. Jer.

xxxiv. 1 8 8

f ."

The covenants
"

ch.

31 and Ex.

xxiv.

are of

a

different character.

In analogy with the sacrifice of Lev.

i.

17, the dove and

the turtle dove were not divided.

animals here
"

named

Only the five species of were lawful under the levitical sacrificial
so,

system

5
;

and not only

the choice of animals

is

intended
It is

to be a type for the people of Israel in their sacrifices.

true that the

ceremony here

is

not strictly a
;

sacrifice, for

the

animals were not placed on the altar but a sacred rite, inasmuch as the name of

it

was nevertheless

God was solemnly

invoked in an
alone
parties

n^N.

to

where human beings were Perhaps, the compact, a sacrifice was offered in
also,

addition to the ceremony described.
of

Though nothing
birds
;

is

said

this

in

the passage, the mention of the
as

may
is

be
at

intended
least

a

substitute
of

suggestive

of

it

there

no mention

their

being

placed

opposite

to

one

another. 7
1

Samaritan has
Ver. 17
f.

uro

for "prD-

2

See ch.

ix. 5.

3 4

Dougtsei, Analecta sacra, ad

lot:

;

Winer, Rtalworterbuch (Knobel)

;

Schenkel, Bibellexicon, sub Bund.
5
(i

Knobel.

Ewald, Alterthiimer, p. 92
Delitzsch.

[^bi'i'/M/'.'t* of

/.-r.f

l

',

p. GO,

note

1].

7

62

GENESIS XV.

11,

12 FF.

[249,250

We

have

still

to ask
is

why

the animals were to be three
all

years old.

The answer

not that the legend increases

1 the ages given for those remote times, and scarcely that the reference is to the three generations of the Egyptian bond-

2 age, for that lasted longer (vv. 13, 16).

The
3

fact is that the

number
number. 4

three, like

the

number

asseverations, oaths, curses,

seven, was customary in and blessings, and was a sacred
also, after all,

The divided animals are
two
birds

and

the

a

separate

addition

made

only three, for other

reasons.

was now prepared, but before the actual passage between the divided bodies and the actual giving of the guarantee commenced, birds of prey 5 flew down to devour the bodies of the dead animals 6 but Abram, watchful
Ver.
11. All
;

and
lates

resolute, frightens

them away.

The Septuagint trans-

DDK 3^1, less appropriately, teal crvveicdOiaev avrols. It was an omen of evil, as when the harpies sought to carry off the sacrifices, 7 and it foreshadowed the obstacles in the way
of the taking possession of the

land which was about to be

assured io Abram.

Unclean and violence-loving peoples, in

especial the Egyptians, will seek to defeat God's purpose, but

they will not succeed. Yer. 12 ff. For the reasons given on p. 55 f., and because ver. 18&, more particularly the expression "jjntX is already in
8 in vv. 1316, vv. 13(125) 16 9 presupposed are not from C, but have been introduced by E as an

strictness

iftress

interpretation of the evil omens,
of future events

and

to introduce the

panorama
as ho
1

which

follows.

Towards evening,
falls into

watches by the divided bodies,
i.

Abram
vol.

a trance

Ewald, Geschichte*
4

466 [History of Israel,
Gott.

i.

p. 325,

litzsch,

Keil.

3
;

note 1]. Ch> X xi. 28ff.
21

on
|

cli. ix.

25

Hermann,

Alterthumer der Griechen*

A

9

ISA.
'

18.
Hi.'

KM(;

article,

seech, xiv. 13.

"OB, l^v. xxvi. 30;

Num.
iii.

xiv. 29, xxxii. 33.
ff.,

V
'

irjrji,

<

/;,/,

/,/,
;

225
10

Ewald.
be
still later.

Wellhauseii.

At

least \-2h-\r,

ver.

may

250]

GENESIS XV. 12-15
1

63
is

01-

vision-slumber,

the direct purpose of which

to

reveal

to

him what he ought to know of the future. 2 Ver. 1 2. The sun was about to set, and a deep
fallen

s

sleep

had

on Abram

;

in this state

he received a revelation.
is

n:m introduces the revelation, and
to in
';!

rumrn.

It

is

no way a doublet 4 not a kindly light which Abram sees
in
terror,

his

sleep, but a

a great darkness,

i.e.

terrifying,

which consisted
of this
is

of a great darkness, falls

something on him.
n

The reason
which
is

that the opening scene of the future
is

to

be revealed

joyless

and

terrifying.

?^n

is

only found here in the Pentateuch. Ver. 13. Thus filled with horror
sleep the disclosures
self-evident.

Abram

receives in his
to
-ICK'I
is

which

follow.

The subject

knoiv, of a truth, it is of some importance know. 5 The first fact is that his descendshould you ants have to dwell as strangers in a land which does not 6 belong to them, i.e. Egypt, and will serve them (the Egyptians)

You should

that

;

and

they (the
to

Egyptians) will oppress
Ex.
xii.

According
exactly
is

40,

from

them 1 for 400 A, the time is

years.

more

430

more

years, but in the prophecy the round number 8 a This is appropriate. sufficiently joyless

prospect.

Ver. 14.

But
have

affairs

turn for the better.

On
as

this people

whom

they

to

serve, misfortune

such

has been

hitherto their lot will also come.

bring 9 plagues upon it as its punishment, and they will leave its land with great possessions 10 (KW, see note on ch. xii. 5).
Ver. 15.
"

God

will judge

it, i.e.

Such
will

will

be

the fortunes of

his descendants.

be untouched by any misfortune. You xhall enter into your fathers, i.e. reach the lower world to
1

But Abram

2
;i

Josh.

Ewald, Alterthiimer* 344 [Antiquities of 25 ii. 5 114. 2A. 2. Gesenius,
;

Israel, p.

259

f.].

Ch.

ii.

21.

4
6

r >

Josh, xxiii. 13.

7
11

Ex.
Ex.

i.

and
ff.

v.
>

8

Kautzsch-Socin. Hab. i. 6 Gesenius, 25 155. 2a. Knobel.
;

vii.

Ex.

xii. 32, 38.

Knobel.

64

GENESIS XV.

16

[250, 251

which they have gone before, 1 in peace, undisturbed, amid peaceful surroundings."
naiB nyb'3
in xxv. 8,

i.e.

unmolested and

2

from A.

Ver. 16 adds the reason
just as they are to be.

why

all

these things

must be

As the fourth generation? or in the not sooner, they will return here, for until fourth generation* 5 now the guilt of the Amorite is not complete, the measure of
his sins
is

not

full,

so as

to allow of his

being earlier driven

out and extirpated.

nosn
designate

as

in

ch.

xiv.

7,

13, whereas

C
6

uses "ov^n to
"

the

inhabitants

of

the

country.

The

same
7

unfavourable view of the moral character of these inhabitants
is

expressed in chs.
to

xiii.

13,

xviii.

20

ff.,

xix. 1

ff.,

xx. II."
of

As

their

moral corruption

being the

ground

their

extirpation, comp. Lev. xviii.

according to tion which returned from Egypt. Accordingly, if this verse is from the same author as ver. 13, nh, generation, must here
" extend to a century or somewhat over. The Arabic dahr is also used for a hundred years and over, but at the same time

in

241, xx. 22 ff. Ex. vi. 20 it was the fourth genera-

for a generation

of forty-four
vitce

8

years.

Similarly, sceculum

is

sometimes

humance longissimum partu et morte definitum? sometimes a spatium centum annorum or
a

spatium
or

a period

of

30,

110,

or

1000

11

years.

Aetas, too, is

generally generation, but also century, e.g. in Ovid, Metamorphoses xii. 188, where Nestor says, vixi annos Us centum,

nunc

tertia vivitur
13

cetas;

Homer 12 made

Nestor's age three

yeveai."
1

See ch. xxv.
Cf. 2 Sain.
25

8.

2

iii.

21

ff.,

xv. 9, 27.

Knobel.

Gesenius,
4

118. 5c.

Sept.
8
''
<

;

cf.

x] iv. 28.

the Massoretic reading in xiv. 4. c ch. xii. 6, xiii.
p. 88],

7.

7

Knobel.

Burckhardt [Arabic Proverbs,
'

Germ.

tr.

101.

ii.sorinua,
10
11

De
./;/-

die natali, xvii. 2.

Vurru,

It,-

//,,,/, Latina, vi. 11.
.(/(//j, viii. ,508. is

S.TMM
Iliad,
i.

,

ad

250.

Knol)el<

LT.l]

GENESIS XV.
Ver. 17.

17,

18

G5

The

sign proper in which the covenant promise

is

actually given
is

is

now

at length reached.

The form
had become
in

of the

sentence

as in ver. 12.
set,

The sun had meantime
darkness,

and

it

*

thick

ntp^
there

is

only

found

besides

Ezek.

xii.

6

ff.

Suddenly appears an earthen stove of smoke, i.e. a 2 What is smoking earthen stove, and a flaming torch. described is, doubtless, an apparition like a fireplace from

which gleaming flames darted
pieces of the divided animals,

out.

It passed

between the

and

in the apparition,
of
if

which

was appropriate
3

to

the

darkness

the night,
vv.

God was
were not

present.

"\ta

is

a rare word.

Even
still

1216
his

an insertion
that

of

Jft's,

we should
the

not be entitled to assume
sleep.

Abram saw
it

transit

simply in

He

required to see

when awake,
to
is

would be exposed
because
the
sign
it

for a mere internal perception the danger of deception, and it is just
of
fire
first

perception

that

had

to

and apprehensible by sensebecome dark. God alone

passed between the pieces, because
to
;

He

alone had something

promise by the sign He condescended to give Abram such an assurance of the promise as he had desired in ver. 8. But nowhere else in the Old Testament is there a similar
instance of

God's accommodating Himself to the practices
in

current

among men

protesting their truthfulness.

The

covenant in

ch. xvii., -4's, is of quite a different character.

Ver. 18 remarks expressly that God, by what had taken
place, as

narrated in ver. 9 onwards, had concluded a cove-

nant with

Abram
more

and

it

defines

regarding the future possession of the land, closely the extent of the land thus promised.
it.

Ch. xxvi. o refers back to
"

Tin:, as in chs.

i.

29,
of
7,

ix. 2, 3.

The boundary kept

in

view as the limit
xxiii.

Israelite
xi.

conquests, according to Ex.
1

31

;

Deut.

i.

24

;

Gesenius, 145. 7 A.

3.

2

]wy need not be taken to be a form of f^y.
21, xix. 9.

[Stove,

i.e.

Backtopf,

see

3

Riehm.] See on Ex.

iii. 2, xiii.

DILLMANN.

II.

5

66
Josh.
is
i.

GENESIS XV.

19 FF.

[252

4,

was the

river Euphrates."
$>n:,

The southern boundary

elsewhere the nnvo

the modern

Wadi

f

el

Arish

l
;

hence

Knobel, Delitzsch, and others are of opinion that this river

But although it is true that by nnx in:. smaller rivers and channels, 2 D'nro in: of used be -in: might can scarcely be anything other than the Nile or its most
is

intended

easterly branch.
3

hyperbole.

If

That being so, the expression 4 ^n: were the original reading,

is

a manifest

it

could only

The power of Israel in its be intentionally corrupted to in:. to the extended Egyptian frontier and to the palmiest days
5

Euphrates.
Ver.
19
ff.

Enumeration

of

the

peoples

whom God
and

destined to subjugation by the Hebrews.
6

Such enumerations

of the Canaanite peoples are in great favour with C, D,
It.

Ex.

xxiii.
is

2 8 contains the simplest of

them

;

generally

given at five or six, sometimes at seven. Here and only here a collection of ten has been made, for the boundaries of the promised land in the south and east are
the
stretched far beyond those of Canaan.

number

The Keni 7 and the
the Negeb
ch. xiv. 1,

Kenizzi

8

seem intended

to represent the tribes of

and
the

of the southern desert, as

'Amalek does in
the

and

Kadmoni 9

the inhabitants of
10

Syro-Arabian

desert.

By the Eephaim
others, see

and the Emori

will be intended, for the

most

part, the tribes in the land

east of Jordan.
for

Eegarding the
xiii.

on

ch. x.

15

ff.

;

the T!?, see also ch.

7.

The ^n are wanting in the and Samaritan after
1

list,

but are inserted by the Sept.

Num.
2

xxxiv. 5
v.

;

Josh. xv. 4

;

Isa. xxvii. 12.
;

2

Kings

12

;

Job

xxviii. 11

Ex.

viii.

1

;

Ezek.

i.

3,

and

else-

where.
3

See further, Josh.

xiii.

3

;

1

Chron.

xiii.

5

;

Delitzsch, Paradies,
v. 1, viii. G5.
;

p.

311.
4
r>

Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina, p. 140. Kx. iii. 8, 17, xiii. 5, xxiii. 23, xxxiii.
;

5

1

Kings

2,

xxxiv. 11

Deut.

vii. 1,

xx. 17
7
<J

Josh.

iii.

10, ix. 1, xxiv. 11,

See

Num.

xxiv. 21.

and frequently. s g ee
10

^ xxxv
5.

i.

n.

Only

here, but see ch. xxv. 15.

Ch. xiv.

_T,L>,

L>53]

GENESIS XVI

67

2.

THE BIRTH OF ISHMAEL, CH. XVI. C AND A
herself

;

FOLLOWING

Sarai, seeing

barren, induces

Abram

to

cohabit

with her maid Hagar in order that she may have children by her. Hagar becomes pregnant, behaves insolently towards

her mistress,

An is humiliated by her, and flees to Egypt. bids makes in the her and her meets desert, return, angel
disclosures to her regarding the

future of her descendants.

After her return she bears Ishmael. 1

In
that he

ch. xvii. 1 8

if.

A

must before

that

presupposes Ishmael's existence, so have recorded his birth. On
1, 3,

chapter because of the exact notes of time they contain, He only and in part because of their language (ver. 3).
ff.

examination we find that vv.
belong to

and 15

of this

A

Abram her Egyptian maid Hagar to be his wife, and that she bore him a son, whom he named Ishrnael. When these verses are taken
related that Sarai, because barren, gave

away, what remains
original

an independent narrative, in which the conclusion, regarding Ishmael's birth and his receivis

ing a name,
ver. 1 5 f
.

is alone wanting, it having been replaced in The contents of the passage, from A. material by " such as the angelic apparition (ver. 7 ff.), the conception of

ver.

13, the

unfavourable

character given
2

to

Hagar and

Ishmael, the etymologies (vv. 11, 13f.), and the discrepancy

between

vv.

11 and

authorship.
is

At

furnish evidence against -4's the same time, seeing that the same material
15,"

found in part in
is

B

in a
C,

similar narrative (ch. xxi.

821),

it

also testimony for

who

is

further indicated by the

3 linguistic data.

It is true that the thrice repeated introducthe consecutive words of the angel in vv. is 4 surprising, and for this reason it is a natural conjecture

tion

to

911

1

Knobel.

2

Knobel.
a'lp -JBGP

3
4

mrp, &o-run,

^N,

h\\h yotr (2),

nrin ninn, and
;

^

(10).

xxi.

Bohmer, Das erste Buck der Tlwra, p. 203 Wellhausen, JBDTh. 410 Kuenen, Onderzoek, 2 i. 247 Kautzscli-Socin.
;

;

08

GENESIS XVI.

1

[253

that vv. 8-10, or at least ver. 9
tion
(ver.

f.,

are a harmonistic inser(ch.

made with
15
f.).

reference

to

B

xxi.

9

ff.)

and

A

In that case Hagar, according to C, did not 1 But would the return to Abram's house after her flight.
mrp
"

was

Hagar that she and will bear an already knew, pregnant, Ishmael," and then leave her helpless and without further
"jsta

appear in
as

C

only in order to

tell

she

direction
if

?

And

could Ishmael be counted a son of
?

Abram

he were
is

not born in his house

verses

identical with that of C,

The language of the and they show no trace of

the hand of a harmonist.
into three parts

The

division of the angel's words

may also be intentional, and we cannot say unsuited to precede ver. II. 2 It is accordingly not certain that we must refuse the verses to C. No express reference is made in the passage to the
that ver. 10
is

preceding chapter, and yet
in assigning
to
it

E

had quite a
position.

definite intention

its

present

agreement

of

Abram and

his wife, Hagar, in

According to the view of Sarai's

continued barrenness, was to help in obtaining the offspring But scarcely had the hope promised to Abram in ch. xv.

been cherished when
the

it

was disappointed by the quarrel
flight.

of

women, and Hagar's
in his house,

It

is

true that by divine
is

interposition everything turns out well, the son

born to
;

Abram

and he thus obtains a lineal heir yet the words of the angel to Hagar indicate thus early that this is not the son of In the passage, therefore, the promise.
promise of ch. xv. begins to approach fulfilment, though it is not yet fulfilled, and the way is, at the same time, prepared
for ch. xvii.
If we cannot Introductory descriptive sentence. 3 to A, at least the first part is his, 4 seeing that he has yet to mention Sarai's barrenness, whereas C has already done so in ch. xi. 30 notes
1.

Ver.

ascribe the whole verse

(see

there).
far

1

See notes on
I'licts this.

ch.

xxv.

6 for
3

the

question

how
4

that verse

M notes there.

Knobel.

Schrader.

253, 254]

GENESIS XVI.

2,

3

69

Sarai

had an

relationship to

" 1 who stood in closer Egyptian slave her than did the other slaves." I'x-ing the
5

property of the wife, she was not at the free disposal of the husband, as purchased slaves were a regular concubinaitu could only be contracted with consent of the wife. 3 Hagar's
;

Egyptian origin
taken in

an invariable feature in the legend, 4 and, connection with ch. xxi. 21, has an easily underis

stood historical meaning.
light
of

The name

"Un, interpreted

in the

Arabic

hajara,

means

discessus

a
ff.,

suis,

and

the

narrative here, as well as that in ch. xxi. 8
to this

attaches itself

proved to be also an historical name in the light of that of the Arab nomadic

meaning

of the

name.

But

it is

5 people of the D^n.

Ver.

2.

Sarai

Hagar. from 7 bearing,

He

proposes that has closed me up, Q
i.e.

Abram
i.e.

should cohabit with

closed

my womb, away
God opens
the
speaking, as also

so

that

I
8

do not bear.

womb
K2

of her

who

is fruitful.

This
is

way

of

the following expression, njaa,
ch. vi. 4.

foreign to

A?
i.e.

Perhaps from her. 10

I

shall

be

built

up

~by

her,

obtain children

Sarai, that is, intends to take Hagar's child as her own. and Hagar's descendants will be reckoned hers; 11 similarly in the case of Kachel in ch. xxx. 3 ff.

V_in
Ver.
3,

(7

12

and

#

13

which would be superfluous
is
14

in

C,

is

from

A

;

the note of time
expressions
"
jyjD

characteristic

of

the

latter,

and

the

pK,

2",

15

and

also new.
is
2

The practice

of

concubinage

customary among the

1

Of. ch. xii. 16.

5
5
7

9

10

Tuch. See on ch. xxv. 15. Ch. xviii. 25, xxiii. G, xxvii. 1. Knobel. Ch. xxx. 3 cf. Ruth iv. 11 Ex.
;

4

A

Knobel. Cf. xxix. 24, 29. in ch. xxi. 9. in ver. 3,

B

c
s

Ch. xx. 18. Ch. xxix. 31, xxx. 22.
Deut. xxv. 9
2 Sain.
vii.

;

i.

21

;

;

11,

27
11

;

1

Kings

xi. 38.

Knobel.
Chs. xviii. 24, 28, xxiv.

12
13

Ch. xxvii.

12.

"

5,

39 (xxxii. 21),
xii. 5.
15

xliii. 12.

Ch.

Ch.

xiii. 12.

70
1

GENESIS XVI. 4-0

[254

patriarchs,

and

is

also frequently
2

mentioned in the case
of

of

their descendants."

But the mention

the fact that the Jacob, desired the
;

principal wife, in the cases of

Abram and

additional connection,

is

not without meaning

it

is

like

an

excuse for the want of adherence to monogamy.

ppB
Ver.

iv.

3, viii. 6.

ratt6, for p see ch. vii. 11.

4.

Originally
is

the continuation of ver.

2.

"

When

Hagar

sees that she

pregnant she despises her unfruitful
her.

mistress and behaves unbecomingly towards

Hannah

had a similar experience at the hands of her fellow wife. 3 It is still the same in the East. 4 In the Old Testament
barrenness
is

a great evil and a divine punishment
It
is
7

5
;

fruitful-

6 ness, good fortune and a divine blessing.

held to be

so even yet in the East."

te
Ver.

Gesenius,
5.

25

6 7 A. 3.

Sarai complains to

Abram
of

that he endures this
;

unseemly conduct on the part was his hope of offspring.
T$>y ''Don

the slave girl

his

reason

misunderstood by the Septuagint and Vulgate.
the

It is

an exclamation,
its

wrong done me, may

it

come upon

8

thee,

may

consequences fall upon thee. The pronominal suffix is an objective genitive, as in ch. ix. 2, Judg. ix. 24; Joel iv. 19.
"IPTO

thy breast, comp. 1 Kings i. 2. Judge between me and thee, decide our dispute,
to

on

and that in

such a

way that he will punish your ingratitude, and will aid me to obtain my due. 9 The supralinear point directs the omission of the second ' in i^-m because the form is
elsewhere always *|3>a, in pause ^"? (ch. xvii. 2, Ver. 6. Abram, however, does not wish to
1

7, etc.).

punish Hagar
7<

3 1

Ch. xxii. 24, xxx. 3 Sam. i. 6 f.
*,

if.,

xxxvi. 12.

2

See on Ex> xxi>

Knobel.

Manners and Customs, 5 1871, i. 232 pop. ed. p. 167. Ch. xix. 31, xxx. 1, 23 Lev. xx. 20 f. 6 Che. xxi. 6, xxiv. 60 Ex. xxiii. 26 Deut. vii. 14. 7 Volney, [Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte, 3 ii. 326] Germ. tr. ii. 359 f. OliYier, Voyage, i. 183 f. [8; 4, i. 103]; Winer, Realworterbuch* i. 656.
;

5

;

;

;

;

Kliul.cl.
"
<

'h.

xxvii. 13.

o

x

Sam> xxiv-

16>

Knobel.

L'54,

L>55]

GENESIS XVI.
it

7

71
slave,

himself, he leaves

to

Sarai.

As her

Hagar

is

in her

hand,
Sarai

i.e.

presumptuous maid, e.g. by her harsh manner and the imposition of hard work,- with the result
Incidentally this is a contribution to a picture of the evils which arise from polygamy. Ver.
best.
7.

power, humbles the

1

so

that she

may

treat her as she pleases.

that she runs away. 3

Providence
flees

now
4

intervenes, and turns all to the
to

desert,

Hagar a woman, and

southward
alone.

Egypt

in the direction of the

We
if

are not told from where

she set out.
intended.

It is questionable

In the desert the
i.e.

Mamre 5 were originally angel whom God sent to her
known
in
to all as figur-

found her by the spring,

the spring
n

ing in this legend, further described in ver.

14, the spring
xxxvii.

on
1

the

way
6

to
;

Shur.

FiNVO'n,

as

ch.

33,

Chron. xx. 2

2 Chron. xx.
i.e.

7.

Shur
inhabited

before,

east of

Egypt, bounds
7

the

country

by the

Israelites

name

to the

desert of

and Amalekites, and gave its Shur or Etham. 8 It must have been

a locality on the north-eastern border of

Egypt

;

but

it is

not
also

Pelusium,
doubtless

9

which was
does
K'jjin,

Pp.
its

The word
Targumic
for

signifies wall, as

substitute.

It was,

no

doubt,

the Semitic

name

fortresses at the north-eastern entrance to the delta. 10

one of the Egyptian border Saadia

replaces

"W

by

Jifar.

The Arabic geographers apply the
the desert
of

name

desert of Jifar, in contradistinction to

the children of Israel or Paran, to the strip of land five or

journey long, and bounded on the east by the desert Paran, extending from Eafia in Philistia to Lake Tennis 11 In a word, they (Menzaleh), and from there to Kulzum.
six days'
of
1

Ch.
Cf.

ix. 2.

2

Ch. xv.

13, xxxi. 50.

3

Knobel.
Ch. xx.
1.

4

Burckhardt, Syria,

p. 448,

Germ.
8.

tr.

p. 740.
fi

5
7

8
10

Josephus. Brugsch, Geschichte, 119, 195; E. Meyer, Geschichte, 237, 240; comp. ch. xx. 1. 11 Kazwini, Kosmographia, ii. 120 ; Istachri (ed. Mordtmann), p. 31 f.
;

Ch. xiii. 18, xiv. 13. Ch. xxv. 18 1 Sam. xv. 7, xxvii. Ex. xv. 22, comp. Num. xxxiii. 2.
;

9

ii.

90.

72
apply
it

GENESIS XVI. 8-12
the western
of

[255

to

designate

slope

the desert

of

Paran

in the direction of
8.

Egypt
of

1

Ver.

The question

the

angel

serves

simply to

commence the

conversation. 2

nrro, as in ver. 6, doubtless a

are addressed by and in them the angel 912, Hagar 4 The purpose of the first speaks as God's representative. it bids her return and is to help her out of her evil case

play on the meaning of the word "On. Ver. 9. Three several divine messages
in
vv.

3

the angel to

;

The second, humble herself under the hands of her mistress. ver. 10. encourages her to this by the promise of a numerous
5 progeny which will then be hers. iii. runs nmn 16, xxii. 17.

TID ico

11

vh

xxxii.

13.

In

this assurance
5.

there already appears a partial fulfilment

of ch. xv.

Yer. 11 f. The third informs her regarding the name of the expected son, his character, and his future. She is to

name him
distress,
'2

btfi'&P',

God

"

heareth,
it.

because

God

listened

to

her

gave heed to

'3y(a)-r,s

nsy

Elsewhere the expression used is The mother gives the child its name; 7
8

in

A

the father names the children."
fern,

fi"!?

partic.,
9

but with a punctuation approaching

that of the 2

s. f.

perf.

Ver. 12. This son will be a wild ass of a man, or among men, i.e. a man like a wild ass, 10 which, free and wild, roams

about in lonely deserts, untamable. 11
Its

hand against

all,

and

the

hand of
2

all

against

it

;

it

XDMG.i. 173 if.
'

Knobel.

'"in]),
1

xvii. 3, 9, 15,
iii.
ff.

xxxv. 10

f.

See note on Ex.

2 [Dillmann, Com.].
1.

r>

Comp.

ch. xii. 2

in relation to xii.

6
7

Chs. xxxi. 42, xxix. 32.

As

in

iv. 1, 25, xix.

37

f.,

xxix. 32
;

ff.,

xxx. 6

ff.,

xxxviii. 3ff.
18.
i.

E.g. v. 3, xvi. 15, xvii. 19, xxi. 3
ill,
<

comp. xxxv.

Syntax,

1886; Konig, Lehryebaude,
25

Knobel. otherwise 404 f.
;

iesenius,** 80. 26.
111

Kwald,
11

287$r

;

Comp. Job xxxix.

128. 2. Gesenius, 5 if. Winer, Realw&rterbuch*
;

ii.

674.

GENESIS XVI.
attacks everyone and
is

13

F.

73
lives in constant

attacked by

all, it

feud with

all.

1

"n ^D~!?y

in

the very face of his brethren, right bef<>nis

them.
in

The meaning
case
of
all

"

scarcely

simply

east

of."

2

"

As

the

the

patriarchs, the

author

delineates

Islimael also in accordance with the character of his reputed

descendants, in this case the Beduin Arabs.

These sons of

the desert,

who have never
pillage,

lost

their freedom, are constantly

engaged in war,
Ver. 13

ratives the promise is
f.

and freebooting. 3 In the other narmore attractive but much more general." 4

Interpretation of the
occurred.
this

name

of the place

where

the incident

Hagar

recognises that

God Himself

comforting revelation, so she called the name of Jahve who spoke to her, she named Jahve, Thou art a God of seeing. In view of the explanation which
follows,

has

come

to her in

W

?K

is

not to be taken passively,
sees, looks

"

God who

is

seen," but actively,

God.
a

She

said,

who Have I

here also,

everywhere, an all-seeing in the desert, which is not

dwelling-place of Deity, where I could not expect such a
looked after

thing,

Him 5 who

saw me. 6
7

This

translation

makes unnecessary Lagarde's conjecture, is due to a dittography of wn. God saw her and espoused her cause. She did not see Him, but as He departed she observed that
the
all-seeing

that Bpn

God was

present here, in the person of His

angel,

and she looked
me.

after

Him. 8
is
9 named, well of

Because of this the well

the living one
text.

who

sees

So we must translate the
u-ell

Massoretic

The
*&n,
1

interpretation,
i.e.

where a man

of living seeing, with 'sh as pausal of sees God and remains alive, 10 pre-

Knobel. Coinp. xxv. 18. See Niebuhr, Arabien, 381 f Arvieux, [Menwires, 1735, iii. 149 ff.] Merkwurdige Nachrichten, ii. 220 ff. Denon, [Voyaye en Egypte, i. 61 f.] Germ. tr. 55 Burckhardt, [Bedouins, vol. i. pp. 133 ff., 157 ff., 323 ff.] Germ. tr. 107 ff., 127 ff., 261 if. 4 5 Ch. xvii. 20, xxi. 20. Knobel. Ewald, 2826. 7 Job vii. 8. Onomastica sacra, 1 ii. 95. 8 9 Ch. xi. 9. Comp. Ex. xxxiii. 23.

3

.

;

;

;

fi

10

Tuch, Knobel, Hengstenberg, Keil.

74

GENESIS XVI.

13 F.

[256

supposes a combination of words impossible in Hebrew, and it is just to prevent this interpretation that in ver. 13 also
the Massoretes accentuate
possible

that ver.

N\ not N\ 13 can mean, "Thou
S
<I

It

is

equally im-

art a

God who

is

seen, do I still really see
after
I

(i.e.

live) here

after the seeing

(i.e.

have seen God)

"
?

l

especially for the reason that
live,"

run

is

" not used in the sense of

and that

""Ni

without

article

and

suffix

would be too

indefinite.
is is

given name has to be explained, it a matter of importance that Tin

Seeing that a not in the circumstances

never found in the Old
Ti ta itself is

Testament as a name

for
2

God, and that
If

not

found in the Pentateuch.

there
3

is to

be emendation of

the text, the proposal of Wellhausen
it.

has most to recommend
D(n^K)
oan,

He

reads,

Vi nn
"

Onto) TP&a

have

I

seen

(God) (and remain
is

alive) after (my) seeing, therefore the well

called well of

he lives

who

sees

me."

But the meaning
4

"

jawbone
offers

of

the

antelope," given

by Wellhausen

as

the

original signification of 'jo T6, is

a similar conjecture. 5
(!)

Halevy

purely imaginative. 6 wishes to render by

Gesenius

puits de la saillie

de vision.

7 again mentioned in the history of Isaac. It was probably at one time held sacred by the Israelites 8 It lay between Kadesh to the east and (and Beduins ).

Beerlahairoi

is

Bered (Sept. BapdS) to the west. Bered does not occur elsewhere Onkelos gives Niin, as for i^ in ver. 7, while the
;

Jerusalem
refer us

Targum has
if

Elusa.

Gildemeister
;

9

wishes
10

to to

to a place
11

j^, south of Ghazza

Wellhausen
12

BrjpSdv,
1

KwfAr) ev TTJ TepapiriKrj.

In Jerome's time

a Hagar
(chs. xix.

As

in xxxii. 31, in accordance with the

well-known idea

17, xxxii. 27,

31

;

Ex.

iii.

6, xix. 21, xxxiii.

holy has injurious consequences for man.
..-il.
;

20) that the sight of Knobel, Tuch, Keil.

what

is

<;,.<,-hidite, i.
4

329 [Prolegomena, 1885,
p. 344.

p. 326].
5 7

Op.
c 8

cit.

and Prolegomena,

Revue critique, 1883, p. 287. Stade in ZA TW. i. 347 ff.
Samuel,
p. 213.

Thesaurus, 175. xxiv. 62, xxv. 11.

ZDPV.

xiv. 82.
3.

10 13

"

1 Lagarde, Onomastica sacra, 299. 74, 145.

Onomasticon, sub Barad.

250, 257]

GENESIS XVII

well

was

still

shown.

The Beduins
a

even

yet

associate

with

Hagar's

name

a well

considerable

distance

south

of Beersheba', in

Muweilih, one of the principal stations on 1 caravan the road, and also a rock dwelling, Bait Hagar, in
the neighbourhood. 2

Ver. 15

f.

Ishmael

is

born in his father's house,
3

Abram

being

thirteen
1
ff.).

then eighty-six years old. Ishmael was therefore old when circumcision was instituted (xvii. years

These

verses

are from A,

as,

e.g.,

the contrast

of

'n fcO|Ti

with ver. 11 shows.

3.

GOD'S

ABRAM, THE INSTITUTION OF CIRCUMCISION, AND THE PROMISE OF ISAAC, CH. XVII. FOLLOWING A.
years
after

COVENANT

WITH

;

Thirteen

Ishmael's

birth

God appears
changes

to
his
to

Abram, promises him a numerous

posterity,

name
for all

in

accordance with
his descendants,

this

promise,

assures Canaan

him and

and concludes a covenant with him
which

time, according to
his

He

will be his

God and

the

God
cision

of

as

the sign of the
is

descendants (vv. 1-8). covenant (vv.
include within
its

He

institutes

circum-

914).
;

But the
to be the

covenant
of

only to

scope the descendants

the son

whom

Sarai will bear to

him

she

is

ancestress of the covenant people, and she, like her husband,
receives another
tion

name

(vv.

15-22).

Abram
4

at once

proceeds

After the divine apparito circumcise his household

In this manner the development commenced (vv. 23-2T). in ch. xv. progresses towards its proper goal yet at the
;

same time a new

patience, and obedience is laid on Abraham, who believed that in Ishmael he already had the son who was to be his heir.
test
of
faith,

1

Russegger, Reisen in Europa, Asien,
i.

[Palestine,
2

u. Afrika, iii. 66, 246 190] Germ. tr. i. 315. Rowlands in Hitter, Erdkunde, xiv. 1086 ZDMG. i. 175
;

;

Robinson,

f.

3

Conip.

xii.

4 and xvi.

3.

4

Knobel.

76

GENESIS XVII

[257

The

significance of the passage

is

seen to be more com-

prehensive when viewed

in
it

its

original

connection
is

apart

from the position assigned the covenant, introduced in

by R.

It

easy to see that

ver. 2 ff. as something quite new, must be described by a writer other than the author who described the covenant of ch. xv., and it is equally apparent

that

afterwards
as
if

the promise
ch.
xvii.

of
ff.

Isaac

in

ch.

xviii.

9 n.

is

had not preceded it at all. expressed Ch. xvii. is a passage from A which has been preserved unchanged, and is presupposed in the later portions of his
narrative. 1
It

15

bears

on

it

the unmistakable marks of
of
its

its
its

origin

as

seen in the

character

"

contents,

in

breadth of style, and in its language." Among the peculiarities " of its contents are its promise of peoples? and of kings and. 3 4 its notes of and the resemblance of the time," princes,

covenant with
peculiarities are

that described in ch.
its

Linguistic use of Elohim, El Shaddai (ver. 1) mns
f.,

ix.

9

"
ff.

and
(12,

D'-os (8), n:ptt

(12

23, 27),

T^n and
12,

^tra

(20),

narp
(20),

27),
|na

ma; (23, 26),
D'pn (2, 7,

narb
19,

(10,

23),

nan

ma

nna

and

21),

compounds with

ctay (7, 8,

13, 19), thou
12),
':i

and thy

seed after thee of
It

nrro:n

(14), also
5

]m

(7-10, 19), Dnv6 (7, 9, pK (8), IKO nxs (2, 6, 20),
of

and other expressions."
in the mrp of ver. 1.

shows a trace

R's

hand only

Up
in the

to this point
life

A
6

of

Abram,
ch.

has narrated only external incidents he has told us nothing regarding his
is

relation

to

God.

All that he has to say on this point
xvii.,

compressed into
livine

where Abram receives the
to

first

manifestation
at

granted

him, and with
records
is

it all

the

promises

once.
in

What

A

here
It
in

of

unique
that

impnrUiice
10

his

narrative.
definitely
xxxv.

was now that God, with
view,

and

Israel

entered

into

1

Chs. xxi.

2, 4, xxviii. 4,

1:2

8 4

Vv.4f., 16. Vv. 1, 17, 24

a
f.

*

Ex. ii. 24, vi. 3 f.; Lev. xii. 3. Vv. 6, 16,20. See on vv 20 and 23. Knobel.
;

xii. 4f., xiii. 6,

llf.,xvi.

3,

15

f

257, 258]

GENESIS XVII

77

relationship with Abram on which depends everythat follows, not excluding the whole Mosaic covenant. thing
special

From
which

the time of

the Noahic covenant

with mankind,

t<>

this attaches itself as a

ment

of

the divine purpose,

A

further stage in the develophas had nothing of similar
of

importance to recount.

His mode

statement

is

permeated
It is
is

by a consciousness of the importance of the occasion. to be observed that, as elsewhere in A, the covenant

not

simply a solemn pledge on God's part, as it was in ch. xv., but the establishment of a reciprocal relationship in which
both parties undertake obligations. In the details of his account

A, as

usual,

commits

himself to the guidance of well-founded traditions regarding the past. Among the particulars thus derived is not only

the

divine

name El

Shaddai,

but in a certain sense the

1 ascription to the patriarchs of the practice of circumcision.

It

is

true that circumcision was not

among
period.

the

Israelites

even

in

normally established Egypt, and not till they
2

reached Canaan,3 and that to this extent
But,

A

anticipates a later

on
all

the

other

hand,

the

existence

of

the

practice

among

the peoples
of

who come

into connection

Terah and among the Canaanites, migration the not Babylonians and Assyrians, nor among among though the Philistines, points to its pre-Mosaic dissemination, and in
with
the
so far
tion.

A

has an historical point of departure for his representaIt has been asserted that it became possible to regard

circumcision as the sign of a covenant only from the time

the Babylonian exile. 4 some appearance of truth
of

This might be maintained with
if

only

it

were proved that among
as

the

Canaanites

circumcision was

practised

a

religious

observance on children eight days old, and with as much But this cannot be regularity as among the Israelites.
1

Comp.
Ex.
iv.

also xxi. 4

and xxxiv. 13
i.

ft'.

2

25

f.

3

Josh. v. 2

f.,

8

f.

117; Lagarde, Symmicta, Geschichte, i. 365 [cf. Prolegomena, 1885, 2 Ill Kuenen, Onderzoek, i. 206.
;

4

GGN.
p.

1889,

p.
;

821;

Wellhausen,
2
i.

341

f.]

Stade, Geschichte,

78

GENESIS XVII

[258

l proved and, on the contrary, there are passages which show that even comparatively early circumcision was regarded as
;

the external

mark
2
;

of

Jahve.

The practice
3

who belonged to the people of was in use among the Arabs before the
those
is
4

advent of Islam
Ishmaelites,

"it

attributed, in particular, to the

the Saracens,

the Sabeans, 5 and to all of

them

6 The together, along with the Samaritans and Idurneans. it existed among the descendOld Testament suggests that

ants of Lot, and also
later (Nabatean)
"

among

the Edomites,"

7

although the
practice

Idumeans were introduced

to the

8 9 Its only by Hyrcanus, and the Itureans by Aristobulus." to have the home in been Africa appears among original

10 Ethiopians and the Egyptians, from whom it is said to have been adopted by the Kolchians as well as by the Phoenicians

and

Syrians

of

Palestine. 11

It

may

with

certainty

be

maintained that there was an historical connection between
circumcision as practised by Asiatic peoples and
in Egypt.
It has not, however,
its

existence

The Hyksos may have been the connecting link. been shown 12 that in Egypt all males,
priests,

and not merely the
circumcision in

were circumcised.

In any case
all

Egypt,

and, indeed, doubtless in

cases

except that of Israel, was not performed until the child was between his sixth and his fourteenth year. 13 The national

contempt
1

for the

uncircumcised Philistines, 14 and the figurative
;

As
.1

2
;

Jer. iv. 4, ix. 241; Dent, x. Ezek. xliv. 7, 9. 16, xxx. 6 Sharastani (ed. Haarbriicker), ii. 354 see also ZDMG. xli. 718. "sephus, Antiquities, i. 12. 2 Origen, ad Genesin, i. 14 ; Eusebius,
;

;

Prceparatio Evangel, vi. 11. Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. vi. 38.
6
7
^

5
i.

Philostorgius, Hist. Ecdes.

iii. 4.

Epiphanius, Adversus Hasreseos, Jer. ix. 25. Knobel.
Op.
cit. xiii.
-2r>.

33.
a

9
10

11.

3;

Vita, 23.

Josephus, Antiquities, Knobel.
31.

xiii. 9. 1.

Jer. ix.

I
!

Herodotus, ii. 104 In spite of fibers,
(

;

comp. Diodorus Siculus,
ff.,

iii.

lomp,

furtli,

i-,

Lagarde, and others. Winer, Realw&rterbuch, i. 156 ff. Ewald, AltertMmer*
;

Aegyptian, 278

F.

[Antiquities, pp. 89-97]; Kiehm, Handworterbuch, 168 bfl i.iriiili.-aiHv of the rite, see on Lev. xii. 3.

ff.;

regard-

MV.

3, xv. 18;

1

Sam.

xiv. 6, xvii. 26,

36; 2 Sam.

i.

20.

25'J]

GENESIS

XVII.

1

79

1 use of the words ^V, and nri

are p roo fg O f
early

how

general
the

and deep
Israelites.

-

rooted

the

custom

became

among

It is

to

be observed that

A

uses

this
it
it

state the complete

law of circumcision as

was

opportunity to to be valid

among

the Israelites.

He

does not repeat

afterwards, but

assumes a knowledge
Ver.
1.

of it (in Lev. xii. 3).
xxi. 5,

The date was determined partly by ch. partly by a comparison of chs. xvii. 25 and xvi. 16.
rnrv

for

Elohim,

is

due

to

R? who
On

wished to indicate

the identity of

the rn,T of the preceding sections with the

4 D\"6x of the following narrative.

the other hand, the
5>yi

originality of

'in

?.! is

defended by the
repeated

of v. 32, 5
ver.

and the
has
a

statement

of

age,

although
as

in

24,

meaning of its " "HP ?K
are rare,

own

an antithesis

to xvi. 16.
6

A

y

also, records apparitions of

deity,

and always
7

of a simple character.

This

is

but they the first
btf,

in his narrative."

thereby inaugurates It recurs in covenant.

God announces Himself it as the divine name of

as *np

and
no

the patriarchal

A

8

and

elsewhere. 9
of the

There

is

certain tradition regarding the

meaning

name.

The

Targum does not

The Septuagint by anything. renders in Genesis and Exodus by o eo? pov, o-ov, avrwv, in Num. xxiv. 4, 16 and Isa. xiii. 6 by @eo?, in Ps. Ixviii. 15,
replace
it

xci. 1

by 6 eirovpdvios (0eo? rov ovpavov), in Ezek. x. 5 by 2aSai, in Job 9 or 10 times by Kvpios, and 14 or 15 times Similarly the Peshitta, where it does not by TravTOKpdrcop.
retain
or
*

HP

5>S

(in Genesis
]i
.

and Exodus), replaces
Lev. xxvi. 41.

it

by 1oiX|,

10

]
1

V\ u or
Ex.
vi. 12,

m
16.
ii.

...

12

From
;

the time of Aquila,who,however,

30
;

;

Jer. vi. 10
x. 16,

2 3 4 6
8

Lev. xix. 23

Deut.

and other

passages.
6

Comp. ch. xxi. Comp. note on
Chs. xxxv.
Chs. xxviii.
3,

46.

9, xlviii.

3

;

Knobel. Ex. vi.

3.
;

*

Comp. xxxv. Knobel.

9ff.

Gen.
10 11

xxxv. 11, xlviii. 3 Ex. vi. 3. 25 coinp. note on Ex. vi. Numbers, Psalms, Job 12 times. Job vi. 14. Joel i. 15 Isa. xiii. 6
xliii. 14, xlix.
; ; ;

3.

12

In Job 12 times.

80

GENESIS XVII.

1

[259, 260

1 according to Jerome, also had aX/a/io?, IK.CLVQS 2 The Vulgate has omnipotent and ing given.
;

is

the renderdoubtless,

so,

In the circumstances we Theodotion occasionally tV%ty>o9. 3 rests might doubt whether the Massoretic pronunciation

W

on an old tradition, or whether

it

has been concocted
ifcavos,
i.e.

4

only

on the assumption of the interpretation
*\_

w and
Arabic
1

= avrdpicrjs. 5

But the pronunciation
his

**}&

or ^y', proposed
(1$,
xvii.

by

Noldeke, and

interpretation

my

lord

sayyid)? cannot

be accepted in view of Gen.

and
also

11, where HI? is used by God Himself, and because the word is never used in addressing God.

xxxv.

The

interpretation exalted
signification of

one,

m^,

be

from Assyrian ladd? supposes a high, which is not only unknown in
in Assyrian. 8

Hebrew but unproved
Aramaic
other
],

Derivations from the

resulting in

renderings like (Lightning-) hurler*

or (rain-) pourer, 10 carry us completely
of

Hebrew

divine

names.

away from the analogy They are of no more

assistance than the

meaning Deus promissionum, divined by the Syrians with the help of the Aramaic word ^jo^, 11 and

used by Lagarde 12 in supporting his conception of mrr as Deus stator promissorum.

We
root

can hardly avoid connecting the word HB> with the 13 But we are not on that account to interpret "nip.

1

Epist. 136.

2

Scptuagint,
3
4

Syinmachus, Theodotion, in the hexaplar interpolations Job xxi. 15, xxxi. 2, etc. e.g. Kuth i. 20 f See Field's Genesis, xliii. 14, xlviii. 3 Ex. vi. 3. A. Geiger; Noldeke in AW. 1880, p. 775; ZDMG.
.

of

the

;

;

MB

xl.

736,

xlii.

481.
;

5 Also in Saadia, Rashi, and other Rabbinical writers still approved by Valeton in ZATW. xii. 11 f. But comp. also Assyr. sidu in Schrader, KAT. 2 160 [Cun. Inscript.

vol.

i.

p. 148]

;

Delitzsch, Paradies, p. 153.
;

H

Pried Delitwch, Prolegomena, 96 ZKSF. ii. 291 ff. Jensen in ZA.i. 251. Hal.'vy in ZKXF. ii. 405 ff.
;

9
11

S.

Schmid, Deyling. Pay in Smith, Iliesaurus,
n. iii.

3 Cheyne, Isaiah, on
i.

ch. xiii. 6.

151.
t

12

Minin-ilinni,

71

;

Bilduny der Nomina-

p. 138,

and

Register, p. 68.

18

Joel

i.

15.

L>i;o]

GENESIS
1

XVII.

1

81

it

ilesolator,

for this

does not originally

among other reasons, that Tic* (comp. mean destroy or desolate, but overpower.
The

We

are led, on the contrary, to the meaning, the wielder of

povjer, the all-powerful (Sept., Vulg.).

", or

the

'
,

of

T^

was the original pronunciation,

is

either an adjectival ending,-

3 though not to be pronounced an Aramaism, or serves It would also be to form an abstract noun, All-power.*

appropriate to regard
me?,
5

if

we might
18
(xxi.
it

an intensive adjectival form from assume a root rnt?=Tir. The more
it

as

?K precise definition of
chs. xiv.

by means
xxxiii.

of

mir

is

similar to that in

33,

20, xxxv.

7).

Ch. xlix. 25

is

evidence that

is

an ancient divine name.
it is

Compound

per-

sonal names, in which

one of the elements, are found in
God's announcement of Himself
6

Num.

i.

6,

ii.

25,

i.

5,

ii.

10.

as the one

is especially appropriate 7 such here, perform great things. After His announcement of Himself God declares what
all,

who has power over

where

He

promises to

is

required

of

Abram under

the

covenant. 8

It

is

not

obedience to a series of laws as under the Mosaic covenant,
it

one fundamental demand, as is appropriate to a commencement, and to the fact that one individual only is dealt with walk before Me, i.e. in My sight, as contrasted with the
is
:

man who withdraws
ness of
difference of

himself from God, and in the consciousto

My presence, looking up
meaning between
i.e.

Me 9 (there
and
"

is

a perceptible
"
10
),

this

walk with God

and

be

perfect,

here not merely upright and at one with

11 The covenant God, but morally blameless, irreproachable. he of which is to is that a undertake duty pious upright

life

;

another, special, obligation follows in ver. 1

ff.

1

Duhm,
Ewald,

Theol. der Propheten,

303

;

Wellhausen,

Geschichte,

i.

359.

2

164

;

Olshausen, 216d.

3
4

Baethgen, Beitracje, 294. 301. Stade, Lehrbuch,

5
7

Ewald, 155c. Vv. 2, 5-8, 16.
Ch. xxiv. 40, Ch. vi. 9.
xlviii.

6 8

Comp. Comp.
Ch.

xviii. 14.
ix. 8.

15

;

Isa. xxxviii. 3.

10

v. 22, vi. 9.

11

DILLMANN.

II.

6

82
Ycr.
2.

<

H.\KSIS

XVII. 2-4 FF.

[260,201
1

Upon
3

this condition

God

grants

His covenant, 2

and promises on His
will greatly

part, at first quite generally, that

He

Ver.

3.

4 multiply Abram's posterity. Abrarn falls on his face to express 5
;

his reverential

thanks for the divine graciousness

he afterwards, as ver.

17 shows, stood up again. 6 Ver. 4 ff. God now further addresses Abram, and unfolds more particularly the nature and contents of the covenant.
First comes, as
far

as ver.

8,

what God

will perform, the
of the sentence in

is put at the promise. antithesis to nns in ver. 9.

^

commencement

now onwards between him and God, Abram is to become the father " Other peoples than Israel were of a multitude of peoples. also reckoned among the descendants of Abram, 7 and a
In virtue of the relationship which from
will exist

to those

numerous posterity was regarded as a divine blessing granted who enjoyed God's favour. 8 3N for ^s is chosen

because of the

name Abraham

;

it

names, as "unx tfbyiti
xxxv.
rare

and others."

9

occurs elsewhere in proper For the word comp.

w

11, also in A, though in xlviii.

4 he has
?Hj3,

D'BJJ.

The
in

word

(ion,

reference to
ver. 5.

properly tumult, the interpretation of

for

is

chosen with

the

name Abraham

in

the name Abram is 73?^ changed to Abraham, because the latter form we hear the on of the word lion. may This is a mere play on the sounds of the words in order to
Dl
;

connect the thought contained in |in with the name DrrON 10 it is not There is no instance of a word Drh etymology. with the meaning multitude; the author could not have
had
in

mind the word ruhdm

= numerus

copiosus,
it is
2

found in the

Kamus.
1

In this passage, in particular,
Ch.
ix.

quite improbable
cf.
i

12

;

Num.
;

xxv. 12.
ix. 24.

x

.

9ff.

'Oh.viiO.
Until
7

*Cf.'xii.2.'

ii.

10

Lev.

o

Knobel.

rii.
<

xxv. ac.
xxiv. 60, xlviii. 1G, 19; Ps. cxxviii.
;

'lis.

Eccles. vi. 3.
cf. xxix. 32.

"

Kno1 "'l-

10

201

]

GENKSIS

XVJI.

-}

1

T.

83
1

lliat

there has been mutilation of the text (Halt-vy
for
asf),

wishes
It
i

to

restore "i3Kp

"chef dune
is

multitude").
2

question whether
tracted

Drrux

the original

and D~ox the con-

Hebrew
in

of D"ox.

form, or whether crroN is only an expansion = Seeing that no instance of Drn Dvi can be found

either

Hebrew
But

or

elsewhere,
is

the

former
of

is

the

more

probable.
or

orratf

not susceptible

interpretation,

could be explained at best only by the Arabic kunya? Abu Kuhm, 4 whereas D13N has the meaning great father, or,
if

the pronunciation were DT'DK, 5
"
G
;

"

father of Earn," or

"

the

exalted

mu. 7

is father comp. the Assyrian man's name Abu-raDrrax and DISK allow of being simply classed with the many other personal names compounded with 3N as the

first

element

;

D~QN as a divine

name

8

would be without any

Semitic analogy.

From now onwards,
or covenant name,
is

change of name same time circumcision was introduced, and

accordingly, Abraham, as the higher be the one in legitimate use. 9 The was the more appropriate because at this
to
"

the

Hebrews
10

named

their children

when they were
18.

circumcised,

as the

Persians also did."

n
iv.

IB>TIX

see ch.

rrm, see ch.

xlii.

10.
12

Only

in

A

is

the promise always of a
13

number of

peoples

;

the others use the singular.
1

The

special

mention

of kings

-

"Recherches Bibliques," xi. in REJ. xv. 177 f. Ewald, Geschichte* i. 465 [History, i. 324, note]
a

;

Stade in

ZATW.

i.

349.
,

compound surname

of

which alu

is

the

first

component.]

4 5
(<>

Noldeke in

ZDMG.
ff.
;

xlii.

484.

Num.

xvi. 1

Deut.

xi.

6

;

1

Kings

xvi. 34.

Baethgen,
7

Beitrcige, p.

155

if.
i.

Schrader,

KAT.~

p.

200 [Cuneif. Tnscrip.

190].

8 9

Noldeke.

As

Israel for Jacob in xxxv. 10.
f.
;

10
11

Ch. xxi. 3

Luke

i.

59,

ii.

21.

According to Tavernier [Voyage, 1724, 270 Chardin, Voyage, x. 76. Knobel. 12 Vv. 16, 20, xxxv. 11, xlviii. 4, xxviii. 3.
;

vol.

ii.

p. 349],

Germ.

tr.

i.

13

Chs.

xii. 2, xviii. 18, xlvi. 3.

84

GENESIS XVII. 7-10
is

[261, 262

and princes among Abraham's descendants
to him.
1

also peculiar

Yer.

7.

"

The covenant
are

is

to

include

these

promised
time to

descendants,

who

more

closely defined in vv. 19 and 22,
eternity,

and

it is

to

be a covenant of

valid

for

all

come."
Drrnp

"according
2

to
is

their generations as

they follow
3

one after another.

A
to

fond of formulae of this kind."

To

be

God

to

you

"

the covenant consists in this, that

I,

El Shaddai,

am God

you and

to

your descendants, and so

am

the object of your religious veneration, 4 as well as your

lord, guide, protector,

and benefactor. 5
i.e.

Abraham's descendto

ants

are

to be

God's people,

to belong

Him

as His

6 worshippers, servants, and dependants. between them is to be of the closest." 7

The relationship

Ver.

8.

In

addition

to
8

this,

the

land of

Canaan

is

The promised as a possession, for the first time in A. land of thy nomad life, " in which thou dwellest as "13,
9

stranger!'

Vv. 9-14. Circumcision as the sign of the covenant.
Ver.
9.

"

Abraham

also, besides

general obligation of ver. 1,

the performance of the has to satisfy a particular ritual
"ift&n."
10

covenant obligation
nntf is

introduced by a special the antithesis to the ^N of ver. 4.
;

it is

let
its

male among you male be circumcised. every among you
Ver. 10. Let all that
is

le circumcised? 1

i.e.

The covenant
Circumcision
is

in
to

external aspect

is

to consist in
of

this.

be
1

the

external

sign

the

covenant. 12

Olshausen

con-

2

3
'

Ver. 20, xxv. 16, xxxv. 11, xxxvi. 31. Knobel. See note on Ex. xii. 14 [Dillmann's Com.]. 4 Chs. viii. 19, x. 5, xx. 31 f. Ch. xxviii. 21. Kx. xxix. 45 ; Lev. xi. 45, xxii. 33, xxv. 38, xxvi. 45, and frequently. Ex. vi. 7 Lev. xxvi. 12 ; Deut. xxvi. 17 ff., xxix. 12, and frequently.
;

7
s

Knobel.
Oh, xv. sir., xiii. 15, xii. 7. Cf. xxviii. 4, xxxvi. 7, xxxvii.
I

"
"'

1,

xlvii.
11

9

;

Ex.

vi. 4.

Knobel.

Kii-.U-l.

Ewald,

328r.

13

Ver. 11

(of.

xxxi. 44, Knobel).

262]

GENESIS XVII. 11-14
nix nxr

85
Tin;

jectures that

""JV"}?

was the
;

original reading.

Srptuagint
13*31

lias

"ictrn

for riotrn

this logically should involve
'n
"jjnr p3l

for
1

D3'3'3i.

If

the words

are not sup-r-

fluous,

the

?/0w

in

03^3 must denote Abraham and
shall

the

living

members
11.

of his household. 2

Yer.

And, speaking more
Hi.

precisely,

ye

be

circumcised in respect of the flesh of your foreskin.
accus. ic'3 see ch.

For the

15.
3

^^PP?, Niph.

pf.

of

?p=7io, with

waw
is

consecutive for nri?3.
Yer. 1 2
f.

Two
the

further particulars.

"

to be circumcised

when

eight days old.

Every male child This was the age

prescribed
observed. 5

to

4 by law, and conscientiously The Arab custom was different, see ver. 25." G

Israelites

Secondly, circumcision

is

also to be obligatory
the household
7

on

all slaves,

whether these are born in

or bought for money. 8
;

-or p occurs elsewhere
xii.

in

the Pentateuch in ver. 2 7
Nin

Ex.
is

43, and

Lev.

xxii.

25.
ver.

as

in

ch.

vii.

2.

It

probably

better

to join

125 with

ver.

13 than

witli

what precedes.
Yer. 14. Finally, extermination
neglect of the ordinance.
is

made

the penalty for
is

covenant and also

breach For such neglect 9 Those subject a slighting of God.

of the

to the

penalty are thus the descendants of

Abraham

that are under

the covenant, the Israelites, and not his other descendants,

such as the Ishmaelites.

The formula,
in
is

that soul shall be cut
It is not

of from among
a

his people, often occurs in the law. 10

command
11

that

those

authority shall

exact a death

penalty,
1

for

where that

the intention the usual expression
-

Kautzscli-Socin.

Ver. 23

if.

3
4

Ewald,
Lev.

234a

;

Gesenius,
i.

25

67A. 11
21

;

Konig, Lehrgebaude,
iii.

i.

344.

xii. 3.
;

5
i.

Ch. xxiv. 4

Luke

59,

ii.

;

Phil.

25

;

Josephus,
'

Antiquiti'''*,

12. 2.
t;

8

10

Knobel. Ex. xii. 44. Ex. xii. 15, 19; Lev.

Ch. xiv. 14.
''

Num.

xv. 31.

vii.

20

ff.,

xxiii.

29

;

Num.

ix. 13,

xv. 30,

;md

frequently.
11

Knobel.

86
for the

GENESIS

XVII.

15

[262, 263

extreme penalty, nnv nlo, is added to this formula, 1 and the formula also occurs in many cases where there can
It enjoins the be no idea of punishment by the community. man's expulsion from the society of his kith and kin, 2 and,

as
it

is

clear

from the variants in Lev.
for

xvii. 9

f.

and xx. 3,6,

menaces divine interposition
3

the carrying off of the

evil-doer.
D'tpy

a man's

D'cy

may

be the different parts of

his

Dy
his

;

and another antique phrase (ch. xxv. 8) it denotes fellow tribesmen and kinsmen, his blood relations. 4 The
in this
still

expression belongs to a period in which the division of the

people into tribes, kindreds, and families was
existence.
5

in actual

There
phrases

is

as little to support the contention that

in

these
6

the
is

plural

is

a late

correction
as

for

the

singular,
tion. 7

as there

for regarding ver.
it is

14

an interpola-

On

the other hand,

conceivable that ^Birri DV3,
ininy,

which the Sept. and the Samaritan have after
omitted by the later Soferim.
"i? [?

was only

pausal for

8
"i|?[}.

Vv.

1521. Change
15 f
.

of

Sarai's

name, promise
at

of Isaac,

disclosures regarding

Ishmael and Isaac.

Ver.

jnB'K

nb

placed

the

beginning

for

Sarai is to have emphasis, and resumed by the n of no/. the covenant name rnfe> (Sept. Sdppa), princess? from "iB>. cannot now decide whether *~w is only an obsolete form

We
the

of the

same word with
felt

,

as in Arabic, for n

_
}

10

or

whether

Hebrews
1

the presence in the word of the root mb', 11

Kx. xxxi. 14
<

f.

-

'Irricus, J.

D. Micliaelis, Ilgen, Stade, Geschichte, 1 p. 421

f.

Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Kimchi, Rosenmiiller, Saalschiitz, Das Mosaische Rftftt, p. 476 Diestel, "Die relig. Delikte," in JBTh. v. 297 ff. '! n p. Lev. xix. 16, 18.
;
1

3

<

'

K wal.l, Alterthiimer* 419
284.

[Antiquities, p. 241]; Krenkel,
is

ZATW.
note on

viii.
"

Against this contention, which
xxx. 33.
hirst,-!, p. :!>:,
f.
-s

DiesteFs (op.

cit.\ see

K.\.
"

Kwald,

14U.

''

1(1

NnMrk,-

in

ZDMd.

x l. 183, xlii. 484.

" Ch.

Judg.

v. 29.

xxxii. 29.

GENESIS XVII.
the
in

11

87
of
it

sis

Sept.

2dpa, and

conceived

as

meaning

1 contentious, eager for combat.

In the latter case the absence

of

any indication

of the feminine
if
'-

would be surprising though

possible, but not

The interpretation
word
-

of

were merely an adjective cndin^.*i\y as joyous, and of mj? as delightful*
is

following Arabic sarra,

against the laws of phonology and

formation.

The

remark
4

that

mir

and

h$r\w

are

essentially the
far,

but

it is

same name, is one which does not carry us 5 worthy of more attention than the conceit, that
i.e.

the Nabatean god Dusares,
in Petra, Bostra,

&n&* n,
6

$jtA\

j,

worshipped
joir,
i.e.

and other

places,

is

the husband of

Abraham, and that mi? was originally the name " of the barren and stony hills." 7 locality, more exactly,
rrrrDT)

of

a

vrroai, the reading of Sept., Samaritan,

Book

of
;

Jubilees, Peshitta,

the

Septuagint
Ver. IT.

and Jerusalem Targum, is a correction 8 and Peshitta continue it throughout the
falls

verse.

Abraham

down
follow.

for the

same reason as
2 (0)

in
is

ver. 3.

He

laughed, not from joy, but in astonishment, as

shown by

his

words which

As

in

xviii.

1

and

xxi. 6 (B), it is

see Gesenius, 25

For pin, intended to explain the name Isaac. 100. 4; and for n DK1, Ewald, 3246-.

Seeing

that
9

A
is

makes the length
99th

of

Abraham's

life

175

years,

there

nothing so very surprising in the
year.

mere

fact of his begetting a son in his

may
1

therefore be put whether the words from

The question piw onwards
and
xi.

are an interpolation. 10

But

if

we compare

in chs. v.

Comp.

Hfe>
4

and other words.
Keil.
3

Pfeiffer in St. Kr. 1871, p. 145 ff. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Knrly Arabia, p. 30. GGN. 1886, p. 565 Lagarde, Armenische Studien, p. 162 il-r Nmnina, 92 ff. E. Meyer in ZATW. vi. 16. " Regarding him see J. H. Mordtmaim, ZDMG. xxix. 99 hausi'ii, Ski-en, iii. 46 ff. Xoldeke, ZDMG. xli. 711 f. Baethgen, J! fit rage, 92 ff.
Delitzscli,
4
"'

2

;

;

;

It'.

;

;

;

7

Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina, p. 94.
Geiger, Urschrift, p. 458. Ewald, Geschichte* i. 468 [History,
''

8

(

'li.

xxv.

5.

10

\.

326, note

5].

88

GENESIS XVII. 18-24

[263,

264

the ratios of the ages attained when children were born and when death took place, the expression of surprise may be
justified.

Apart from
of

this,

we cannot
nxo
for

readily do without
l

the statement

Sarah's age, and 9
Besides,

years

made her
2

really

old to have children.

HND

is

found in

A

3

in ch. xxiii. 1 also, at least in the Massoretic text.

Ver. 18. Immediately on this there rises in Abraham's

mind a

feeling of solicitude regarding Ishmael,
lose.

whom
his.

he does

not wish to
7:26-

He

tells

God

this

concern of
care. 3

under thy protection and
19.

Ver.
distinctly,
to

Thereupon God expresses Himself still more and dwells first on what had been said in regard
son.

Sarah's

His

covenant

with

Abraham

will

be

continued in the line which begins with Isaac.
4'

K, certainly,

notwithstanding.

Isaac, see ch. xxi. 3.
fcal.

D^iy,

the Septuagint

adds

elvat,

avraj Oeo?

Ver. 20. But

God

also

declares that he

is

heard with

regard

to

5

Ishmael, and promises that

He
6

will

make him

a

great people with twelve tribal princes.
ch. xlviii.

For

^

;nj

comp.

4 in A.
21.

Ver.

But
xxi. 2.

his

successor

in
to

the

covenant

is

and
this

remains Sarah's son,
time
7
;

whom

he

is

expect next year at

comp.
22.

Ver.
contains

The subject

to

fe'i

is

God:

ch.

xviii.

23
the

the same

expression.

God ascends
ch.

again

to

eky, from which

He

came, as in

xxxv. 13.

Vv. 23-27. Abraham carries out the divine injunctions. Ver. 23. He circumcises, with punctilious obedience, on
the same day
9 8

all

the males of his house.
his house,
it is
i.e.

All that

is

male
10

among the people of YT. 24. ftto^a,
1

the slaves (ch. xv.

3).

not clear

whether

reflexive

or

-ive.
1

'

'"in]), xxiii. 1.

[

Not Baer's text, but see p. 126, and cf. v. 6, vii. 24, xxv. him. xviii. 19 Isa. liii. 2 Hos. vi. 2. Knobel.
;

7, etc.]

;

1

Kwal.l,
(

Jj

8540,
(,'h.

*

Chs. xix. 21,

xlii. 9.

(!

1

Mi.

iii.

8.

vii. 13.

Ch.

vii. 21.

"'

Ch. xxv. 12 Knobel.

ff.

204]

GENESIS XVIII
Ver. 25.
"

89

Ishmael was circumcised at the age of 13.
peoples
1

Mohammedan
later

still

circumcise their children
2

much

than

the Jews.

Lane

remarks the 6th

to the 7th

year as the usual age,
the 14th year.
the 7th, 4

among the country people the 12th to Others give from the 6th to the 10th year, 3 the 8th to the 10th, 5 the 12th to the 14th, 6 the

13th

to the 15th, 7

among

the Persians the 5th or Gth. 8
9

The
10

age observed by the Arabs is given by Josephus 11 as the 13th year, by Burckhardt as the 6th or 7th.
12 ing to Dobel, the

and Origen

Accord-

Arabs

in

their sons

till

the 13th year.
;

regarding circumcision

it

Egypt The Koran prescribes nothing is practised as an ancient and sacred

in general do not circumcise

custom without any particular age being held binding." 13 Ver. 26 7to3 used as the Niphal of ^D, but formed from
Ver. 27.

ri^ ?
1

joined to napo

;

comp. Lev. xxvii. 24.

4.

ABRAHAM AND SODOM
THE DESTRUCTION

VISITED

BY

CELESTIAL

BEINGS

;

SODOM AND XVIII. 1-XIX. 28; FROM C.
OF

GOMORRAH,

CH.

Jahve, accompanied by two angels, presents Himself on a day about noon at Abraham's tent in the grove of Mamre, accepts the patriarch's friendly hospitality, and promises him
a son by Sarah, who laughs at the promise (ch. xviii. 1-15). On the way to Sodom and Gomorrah, where He purposes to
investigate the conduct of the profligate inhabitants,
1
-

Jahve

Arvieux [Me'moires, iii. 172], Germ. tr. iii. 146. Manners and Customs, 5 i. 71; pop. ed. p. 47 [5th to
Russell [Aleppo, 2 1794, i. 202], trans. 282. M. d'Olisson [L'Empire Othoman, ii. 285], trans,
i.

6th].

:;

1

385.

5

Rauwoltf, Reisen, i. 85. Tournefort [Relation d'un voyage, 1717,
Liidecke,

ii.

59], trans,

ii.

431.

7

Das
i.

turkische Reich,
;

i.

241.
ii.

8
9

Cliardin, Voyages, x. 75
Antiquities,
12. 2.

comp. von Schubert,
10
12

48.
i.

Ad

Genesin,

14.
ii.

11

Bedouins

[i.

87], trans, p. 70.

/r<fw/i'n<w/f,

173.

13

Knobel.

14

Ewald,

140(7.

90
is

GENESIS XVIII

[264, 265

accompanied by Abraham, and informs the patriarch of He listens to Abraham's intercession, and his intention.

promises that He will not destroy Sodom if there are even so many as ten righteous men among its wicked inhabitants.
After this agreement Jahve and

Abraham

part

from one

Meanwhile the two angels had gone another (xviii. 1633). on before they reach Sodom in the evening and are hospitably
;

received by Lot, but are threatened with shameful ill-treat-

ment by the inhabitants
by
this

of the

town

(xix.

111).

Convinced
they

of

the terrible depravity of the

inhabitants,

proceed to

however, they and of the city, his his out two wife, Lot, daughters bring
First,

execute the punishment.

and, at his request, assign

him

So'ar as his place of refuge.
fire

Then Jahve
cities

rains

down brimstone and
(xix.

on the sinful

and totally destroys them

morning,

Abraham

looks

1226). When, in the down on Sodom from the heights

above, he sees thick clouds of

smoke rising up (xix. 27 f.). The story thus outlined has an independent unity of its own, and is a product of highly developed epic art. It starts
its

from Abraham, and in

conclusion returns to

him

;

the

catastrophe in the plain has also a relation to him. Abraham, God's friend, radiant in moral beauty, the cities of the plain

sunk in utter moral corruption God in Abraham's tent, visiting him as one friend does another, lavishing on him His promises and revealing His purposes, and at the same
;

time descending to judgment against the cities of the plain with fire from heaven these are the contrasts by which the worth and significance of the man of God are manifested the
:

more

clearly,

compassion
author

of

and the light they cast on the justice and the divine dealings with friends and foes is

jiven for the sake of
is,

Abraham and
24 and

his descendants. 1

The

without question, the one to
chs.
ii.

whom we

owe, for

xi. 1-9. There is the same mple, beauty and transparency of description, the same vividness

4-iii.

I

d.-lin.'Miion,

the

same depth and fulness
1

of

thought, and

Ch.

xviii.

1!).

GENESIS XVIII
ihc

91
HO
to

saints

naive

anthropomorpliisiii
of xviii.

suited
xii.
'2

for
f.,

popular
well as

runviicy.
the

The reference
of expression

18

as

mode

both in general and in particular, al^>
of his vocabulary an;
4

identify the writer.

"

Examples
D'p'j-'n^

Jahve

and Adonai, t^n;
18
;

1

2

npys,

n^n,

5

oyan^ xrnanj
1!)

N*J

of special

grammatical forms, those in
of phraseology,
22

p,
1

and the use
'

of

^

for

20
Pl^
;

%
2i
,

servant,-

used for

I/

a^
to

peoples of
prostrate

the

earth,
self

to

rise

up early in the morning?*
to

ones
26

on the ground
27
?]X,

find grace

25

magnify
xviii.

kindness

mn

without

the disjunctive question of

28 21, D'D S 3 N13.

The

relation of the narrative to A's account
xviii.

in xix. 29,
is

and the difference between
29
3:>

12 and

xvii.

17,

also to be remarked."

Wellhausen

wishes to separate

xviii.

17-19 and 225
is

33a

31

as later insertions,

and

to assign the latter

the time of Jeremiah

and Ezekiel.

But there

paragraph to no linguistic

support for this (on the contrary, note 1313: in ver. 18 and not the Hithpael), and the material reasons are insufficient. It is only natural that in vv. 18, 23 ff. Abraham should
address
1

God

otherwise than in ver. 2
18.
;;

ff.

(see notes

on

vv. 2

2
4
(:

Ch. xviii. 27, 30 ff., xix. Ch. xix. 17, 26. Ch. xviii. 21, xix. 13. Ch. xviii. 32.
Ch.
xviii. 26, 29,

Ch.

xviii. 16, xix. 28.

5 7

Ch. Ch.

xviii. 25.
xviii. 27, 31, xix. 2, 8, 19
f.

8

31

f.

9

10
12 14

10 18
19
21

11

Ch. xix. 4. Ch. xviii. 24, 28 ff. Ch. xviii. 13. Ch. xviii. 13, 23 f. Ch. xviii. 31, 21, 30, 32, xix. Ch. xviii. 28-32. Ch. xviii. 3, 5, xix. 2, 19. Ch. xix. 2, 27. Ch. Ch.
xviii.
:).

11

13
15

Ch. xix. 3, 9. Ch. xix. 21. Ch. xviii. 2, xix. Ch. xviii. 5, xix. Ch. xix.
8.

1.

18.

17

2, 7, 18,

20, etc.

20
22 24

25
2r
-"'

26
28

xviii. 30, 32.

Ch. xix. 8, 25. Ch. xviii. 18. Ch. xviii. 2, xix. Ch. xix. 19. Ch. xviii. 11.
i.

1.

KnJ>e1.

"

.IHDU.
if.).

xxi. 415

ff.

(Kuenen, Omlvzock*
xviii.

141

;

Fripp

in

ZATll'.

xii.

23

31

Kautzsch-Socin at least ch.

17-19.

92
and

GENESIS

XVIII.

1,

2

[265, 206

13); the renewed presence of
is

God

in

the persons of
ch.

the two angels of ch. xix.
xvi.

in perfect

agreement with
1
;

11

ff.

;

people had

reflected regarding God's justice
of

and
the

compassion before the time

Jeremiah

regarding
e.g.,

possibility of intercession for the guilty, see,

oh. xx. 7,

17

and Ex.
to

xxxii.

11

ff.

On
20

the other hand, God's revelation
f.

Abraham

in ch. xviii.

is

quite aimless
ff.

and completely
the only
of a son

disconnected without vv.
R, for his

17-19 and 23

part, has inserted the

passage in

possible place as regards suitability.
to

The promise

Sarah

is

a repetition in the face of the doubt expressed in

ch. xvii. 17,

and

is

of

Abraham's testing and

The history confirmed by the repetition. He is education is continued.

given the opportunity of proving practically his hospitable nature and his love of his fellow-men, and thus of making
himself worthy

anew

of the divine blessing.

The punish-

ment executed before his eyes on the cities of the plain will leave on him, and through him upon his posterity, only the
most wholesome impressions.
of Isaac.

Abraham; the promise Comparisons have been made from the classical mythology with the wanderings of the gods among men that
Celestial

Vv.

115.
"

beings visit

2 they might learn their pride and their piety; and with the hospitable reception once found by Jupiter and Mercury in

the

house of the aged and childless couple Philemon and 3 and on another occasion, when Neptune was with Baucis;
them, in the house of the aged Hyrieus, who received a son
4

as his reward."

Ver.

1.

Mamre,

5

as he

Jahve appeared to Abraham in the grove was sitting at* the entrance of the tent,

of
i.e.

7 outside in front of his tent, at the heat of the day, at midday. Ver. 2. Abraham looked and saw three men

up

standing
f.

1

/:.</.
"

Ccn. xx.

4.

2

Homer,
v.

Odyssey, xvii. 486

Ovid, M'ttimorphoscs,
4

viii.

G26ff.
;

I';il;i-].hatii8,
'

Incretlibilia, v.

Ovid, Fasti,
c

494
;

ff.

Knobd.
204a.

<

'li.

xiii.

is, xiv. 13.

ye

r.

10

E \vald,

7
1

Sain. li.

11; 8 Sam.

iv.fi.

INK;
I

GENESIS

XVIII. 3

93
yet at the
theirs

over him, as he sat, above,

and so

in front of him, 1

same time
was

at

some

distance.

This standing
2

still of

Abraham hastens to to see if they should be invited. them, and by his obeisance pays them the usual mark of In these three, of whom one has a more discourtesy.
3 tinguished appearance than the others, Jahve

is

4

present,

as

again in the

two

of ch. xix.

It is

purely arbitrary to strike
xix.,

out the three here and the two in ch.
in both cases one,

and

to substitute

pn
Ver.

5 namely, Jahve. used with nsip^ as in xxiv. 17, xxix. 13, xxxiii.

4.

3.

He

hospitably

invites

them
in

to

enter.
4, the

He
three

addresses
together.

one

only, but

afterwards,

ver.
if

We

are

given the

explanation

one of them
personage, so

was externally recognisable as the
that the reading of the

principal

the

2nd

pers.

plur.,

is

Samaritan, which uses throughout not to be preferred. But, on the
"Jltf,

other hand, the Massoretic
is

incorrect,

and we

already given by the Targum, should read "^N. 6 Dalman 7 maintains

without effect that " the narrator introduces Jahve as
to

Abraham from

the beginning."

If

known Abraham had from the

beginning recognised the divinity of the strangers, his action

would have displayed no great merit, for what refuse honour to God when He reveals Himself.
offer

man would
His very

and drink would have been meaningless, and there could have been no question of any test or trial of
of food

him.

As

a

matter of

fact,

the revelation begins only
is

in

the course of conversation (ver. 13), and the case
as in
ch. 19,

exactly

such (ver.
test.

where the angels make themselves known as 1 2 f.) only after they have put their host to the

&o~DX does not
1

mean

ok,

would that

8
;

ao

imparts a delicate
423 (Ger.
xii.

1

Sain. xxii. 6.

2

Delitzsch, following

Daumas, Chevaux du Sahara,*
5
7

p.

tr.

195).
8
fi

Ver. 3

8

4 IT. Ver. 1. Against Tuch, Knobel, Delitzsch, Keil. Knobel.

Fripp,

ZA TW.
p. 16.

24

IT.

Adonai,

94
shade of meaning
si

GENESIS

XVIII.

4,

5

[266, 267

to the condition

;

Gesenius
audeo

1

rightly renders,

quod opto magis
elsewhere,
2

quam
omitted.

sumere

gratiam inveni

;

similarly

and even in Gen. xxx.

27, although

there the apodosis Ver.
11

is

4. "

He
let

desires to entertain them.

nip

there

be
those

brought."

Abraham

to

name

who

is unnecessary for the water. bring "Nothing

It

but sandals, so that it was necessary for travellers to have their feet washed on their arrival it
feet
;

was worn on the

was especially usual before meal-time." 3 " Recline yourselves under the tree

sit

down under

it,

Meals were taken in a reclining resting on your arms. 4 5 but is not posture, sitting infrequently mentioned."
17?

the singular

is

quite

to

be

expected, for

three

persons would not dismount for a meal under several trees. It follows, therefore, that we cannot conclude from the use of
'

the singular that
late correction for

TW in ver.
o
6

1,

and

chs. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, is a

P>&?,

all

would then have been, not 'b3, but

the less seeing that the reading 7 '5>K or 'S>&TD3>. 8 The

%

Septuagint singular Spvs (similarly the Peshitta), everywhere given, had reference to the great tree, which still survived on
the spot in the time of the translators. 9
Ver.
5.

A

morsel of bread
to

modest

expression

for

the

ample meal he intends
heart, refresh yourselves

set before them.

Support your
of the different

with food. 10

Each

kinds of food

is

a staff or support of vital energy

n
;

so Pliny, 12

corporis fulturcc quibus
1

animus

sustinetur. 1 *

Thesaurus.

;

4

xx iv. 42, xxxiii. 10, xlvii. 29, 1. 4 ; Ex. xxxiii. 13, xxxiv. 9. xix. a, xx iv. 32, xliii. 24 ; Judg. xix. 21 ; 2 Sain. xi. 8. Allin- vi. 1.
(

Mi.
'ii.

<

<],.

xxvii.

19; Judg. xix. 6; see Winer, Realwurterluch,

ii.

48.

Knobel
1

\\V]ll.
'

;

iu.si.ii

in Bleek, Einlettung,* p.
with Wars, iv. 9. 7.
Ju.lg. xix. 5. 8.
;
-

643

;

Baudissin, Studien,

ii.

224.

1)lMlt

-

xi -30.1,

8

9

Judg.
-

ix. 6.

JoHi-pliu-,
10

Ps. civ. 16
b
i-

;

11 i s a . iii. i

"

;

Lev. xxvi. 26.

Knobel.

2G7]

GENESIS

XVIII.

C-9F.

for for

t/nx reason
is

Vv. 6-8. "The meal

you havr. quickly prepared, for one camm;.
Lluit
1

= now

allow quests of quality to wait long.
bread, meat,
IJeduiii
2

It consists
is

of cakes of

and curdled and sweet milk, and
in

repast, but exceptionally bountiful
3

honour

a genuine of the

guests."

"Hasten
setm,"
4

or,
ii.

of meal, fine meal, brin^ quickly three ripb as in perhaps, hasten three setm of meal!
Cakes,

three scim

Lev.

1.

small

round

ember-cakes,

which were

5 prepared on hot stones.

He, the servant, hastened
heifer),

to

make, to prepare,
6

it

(the

young

and he
set
7

set
it

(gave) in front of them,

served

up the
remained

food

and

before
them,
i.e.

them,
"

while he

himself
It

standing before
in the East.

waited on them. 8

remains so
of

The Arab sheikhs when they have guests
not
sit

quality

do

down

to

eat

with them, but remain
Strabo
10

9 standing, in order to serve their guests.

gives a

similar account of the
"

Nabatean kings."
celestial

And

they

ate,

which

beings on other occasions
12

refuse to do. 11

Ancient commentators
13

suppose that they

only appeared to partake of the food." Ver. 9 f. In the conversation which the strangers begin, they make Sarah the subject, because God wishes to announce

For no&oi the Septuagint has here the It is not till already, incorrectly, singular, eZ-Tre Se. 14 takes up the converver. 10 that the leading personage
that she will have a son.
sation.

1

Gesenius, Thesaurus, 682

;

Ewald,
i.

353

(comp. xix.

8,

xxxiii.

10,

xxxviii.
2

26

;

Num.

x. 31, xiv. 43).

8 5
7

Lane, Manners and Customs, 1871, See ch. xliii. 34.

Winer, Realworterbuchf
Ver.
2.

i.

95.

364, pop. ed. p. 268. 4 Is;i. v. 19 1 Kings xxii. 9. 6 Comp. xxiv. 33 Ex. xxv. 30.
; ;

8
f.

Jer. Hi. 12;

1

Kings

x. 8.

Shaw, Travels, 1738, p. 301 (Germ. tr. 23) Seetzen, i. 400.
;

9

;

Buckingham, Mesopotamia, 1827,
11

p.

18

10

xvi. 4. 26.

Judg.

xiii. 16.
ii,

12
13

Josephus, Antiquities,

i.

11. 2

;

Knobel.

Targ. of Jonathan, 14 Ver. 3.

Kimclii.

96

GENESIS

XVIII. 11-13

[267, 268

l doubtless of this word points above the K and 2 at this time, it being alive indicate a reading ii>. n;n nya
t } ie

^

again,
ver.

i.e.

when

this

time revives, 3

i.e.

a year from now*

In

14 the words njni>are added, and in 2 Kings iv. 16 f. nyi^ " a year from now at this translation becomes, njn, and the Ch. xvii. 21 also makes the meaning clear. time." and it, the door, was behind Him, Jahve, as He inriK Kim
did not see Him, nor He spoke, so that Sarah, on the threshold, the Septuagint This is the Massoretic interpretation her.
;

refers sin (ton) to Sarah.

Ver. 11.
in ver.

A
inn

circumstantial clause explaining the action
is

12

;

therefore pluperfect.
entered into the days, far in,
i.e.

Abraham and Sarah had
were
of

an advanced age
like

5
;

there

had

ceased to be to

Sarah a

have, namely, women, way, habitude, ra yvvcuKela, the monthly course, and therewith the capacity In the natural course for conceiving and bearing children.
i.e.
7 they could expect children no longer. Ver. 12. This was the cause of Sarah's laughter; but This was only inwardly, and not aloud, that she laughed.

such as

women

6

of things

it
is

an explanation
nTO
nrvn
ch. xxi.

of the

name

Isaac

somewhat
8
;

different

from

that in ch. xvii. 17.

nnN

after I

am

withered, decayed

cf.

ver. 13.
9
;

question expressing amazement, without n
7.

comp.

Has

there

become

to

me, shall
?

there

become
has

to

me, shall I again have, sexual pleasure

The Septuagint
nanjj

text, in

which

"nriK is

wanting, and which reads
10

^rfa,

no claim to be considered.
.I///

lord
13
f.

my

husband;

cf.

ch.

iii.

16.
laughter, because
it

Ver.
l.i-trayed

God

reproves

Sarah's

doubt of His power.
.

Now
337c.
;

that by the promise of
2

xvi.f,.

Th&awrui, 47n
5

;

Kwald,

4

1

Hypeden. Sam. i. 20.
i.

8 8
10

Also Ch.
'a.

in \.\iv.

1

;

.loh.

xiii. l, xxiii. l;f.

comp. Luke
:

7.
f.

PB. xxxii. a
I

;

.l..l>

xiii.

28.

chs. xvii. 17, xxi. 6 Ewald 3246

xlv. 12.

268]

GENESIS

XVIII.

1">,

97

ver. 10,

and

laughter,

more by the knowledge shown of Sai God has lifted the veil, and allowed Himself to be
still

recognised in His true nature, the author for the first tinnVer. 1 is only an apparent designates the speaker as Jahve.
exception,
to follow.
it

contains a comprehensive

summary

of all that is

Is there anything eminent before Jahve,

anything

too great, too. wonderful for
of nt? ta in ch. xvii. 1.

Him

?

1

Comp. the use and meaning

is here announced, can be put only after the birth of Isaac, in view of the words p mb6i, when Sarah has a son. But nothing is said of it in the sequel, for ch. xxi. la cannot refer to it.

The

visit

of

God

to

Abraham, which

"Sarah, in fear of punishment, denies her 2 but God sets her laughter, which had been only internal 3 aside with a curt &6, no."
Ver.
15.
;

agreement between God and Abraham regarding the punishment which awaits Sodom God has appeared, not merely to pay and Gomorrah.
Vv. 16-33. Conversation and

Abraham

a

visit,

but also to investigate the terrible moral

4 corruption of these cities.

It is accordingly a conspicuous token of the divine regard, that God should give Abraham a The patriarch has hint of the judgment awaiting so many.

an opportunity of manifesting that admirable disposition of clemency and kindliness which makes no distinction between
friends
is

and strangers.

clearly set forth

than destroy,

the same time, God's own nature who would always pardon rather but who, when He does punish, punishes always
as one

At

only in strict accord with justice.
Ver. 16. The strangers proceed on their

way

escorted by
hill

Abraham.

From one

of the heights of the

Judean

country,

which offered the view, 5 they looked down 6 upon the plain of " For nk? see ch. Sodom, which was the goal of their journey. Num. xxi. 20." 7 xii. 20, and for \jQ-^y, xiv. 3, xix. 28
;

1

Deut. xvii.

8,

xxx. 11.

2 4
6

Ver. 12.
Ver. 21.

3 5

Ch. xix.

2, xlii. 12.

Knobel.

See ch. xix. 27

DILLMANN.

-

f.

Ch. xix.

Knobel.

II.

<)8

GENESIS

XVIII.

17-19

[268, 269

Vv.

1719

break the sequence of the narrative in order

to furnish an explanation of
says, not to

what follows
1

in ver.

20

ff.

God

Abraham, but top'b^ i.e. reflects, ought I indeed My intention from Abraham, seeing that after all Abraham will become a great people, 2 and all peoples will
to conceal
"bless

themselves with him,3 so that he

is

of sufficient import-

ance, and worthy

of being initiated into God's plans.
i.e.

For

/

have recognised him,

entered with him into a more than
4

usually close relationship,

with the intention that he should

command his posterity, and that they should keep the way of Jahve, so that they will practise justice and righteousness, in
order that God, on His part, may fulfil to Abraham all His C here distinctly declares that the purpose promises to him.
of the whole relationship entered into with

Abraham

is

the

founding of a house, later
in which the
life

it

will be a people

and a kingdom,

of true piety

shall have its abode. 5

It is

and morality, true religion, Abraham's task to implant this
house
;

disposition

and way
it is

of life in his

this is the condition

of the fulfilment of the promise. 6

For a man with

this task

before him,

beyond doubt

of

importance that he should

reach a clear understanding of the justice of God's rule in the world. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is in-

tended as

a

memorial
of

to

Abraham's house
shall

of

the

stern

punitive justice
7

God which

wholesomely
8

affect its

piety.
]yd?

wrongly impugned by Lagarde,
explanation,

is,

in

view

of the

foregoing

quite

in

place.

The

Septuagint

(Vulgate, Peshitta), like

the Targum, has

understand the words \yd?
text.
1

jy^ was not wanting in its the addition by the Sept. and Pesh. of ^?y Kegarding
;

WW

simply failed to

Ch.
(

viii.
xii
li-

21.
:

2 4

Ch>

xii>

2

.

3

<h

-

*-

Amos

iii.

2

;

Hos.

xiii. 5.

iv.

20,

6
'

Coinp. xvii. 1 A, MM IT. 11; Hos.
II'.

and in 4, in A.
xi.

xvii. 1.

8;
;

Isa.

i.

9f.,

iii.

9; Dent. xxix. 33; Jer.

*

u"

,

ii.

05

Olshausen

also.

269]

GENESIS

XVIII. 20-22

99

1 Ewald, and compare xxvi. 24. It is incorrect to say that niiT "pn net? and toswi npnv rnl"j are Deuteronomistic phrases. 2

after

DrroKD in

ver. 17, see

Ver. 20.
If

God

TWEE'
3

accordingly makes His disclosure. has not fallen out at the beginning of the
as meaning,
"
it is

sentence,

^
4

must be taken

the case that,"
5

The cry regarding (genit. of obj.) Sodom, which truly." ascends to heaven and demands vengeance, 6 has in truth become mi is perf. of the verb. The interpretation,7 large, great
or
;

"

"

there

is is

a

report regarding
great, that
it is

Sodom and Gomorrah
8

that
]

their sin

very grave," which omits the

before Dnxttn, fails because npyv does not signify report.

Ver. 21.

But He

desires to investigate before judging, so

whether they have done entirely in accordance with the cry against it (them) which has come The Sept. has onpyvan the fi before Him. of the Maswill go

He

down 9 and

see

;

soretic text is

Sodom.
xi.

nP3
i.

omnino, as in Ex.
Jer. iv.

1,

and not

as in

Nah.

i.

8

;

27, etc.; 18; Zeph. Olshausen conjectures D?3 and Wellhausen TO.

hence the paseq after

i^y.

10

nxnn

wrongly punctuated by the Massoretes as

11

perf.,

similarly in xxi. 3, xlvi. 27.

probably rather the second than a conditional particle. question
OKI

member
them,
12

of a disjunctive

Ver.

22.

The men,

i.e.

two

of

now go on

to

Sodom, while

Abraham

detains the third, Jahve, 13 by con-

tinuing to stand in front of

Him

;

he has something on his

mind, and wishes to make intercession.
Geschichte* i. 480 [History of Israel, vol. i. p. 335]. see, on the contrary, Ps. xviii. 22 [21] Fripp, ZATW. xii. p. 23 Prov. xxi. 3 2 Sam. viii. 15 ; and comp. Amos v. 24 ; Isa. xxxiii. 5.
2
; ;

1

;

3
4

Isa. vii.

Lagarde, Olshausen. 9 Ps. cxviii. 10
;

ff.

;

Ewald,
c 8

3306.

5
7

Ch.
Ch.

ix. 2, xvi. 5.

Ch.

iv. 10.

Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 416.
xi. 5, 7.

Comp.

xix. 13.

9
11

10 12

Delitzsch, following Luzzatto.

Ewald,
Ver. 33.

3316.

Ch. xix.

1.

13

100
The versions and

GENESIS
ch. xix.

XVIII. 23-25

[209, 270

27 confirm the Massoretic
an original

text.

The

so-called DnaiD flpn is to the effect that

mm

DrraN *:b loy uiy was altered to the present text because of " to stand at the double sense of "OsA nioy, which also means
not evidence of another reading, but only of the offence which the Kabbinical writers took at the representation of a man detaining God instead of God
the service
of."
it
is

But

detaining the man.

Eegarding Kaphar Berukha, where, according to Jerome,
1 the interview took place, see Kobinson.

Yv. 23-32.
cession.

He

reminds

"Abraham approaches Jahve to make interHim that in Sodom also there are,
e.g.

doubtless, righteous persons,
to

Lot,

and that

it is

reasonable

He assumes at first that show mercy for their sake. there may be 50 such righteous persons, then he comes down to 45, to 40, 30, 20, and in the end to 10; he does not
venture to go below this last number."
great
2

He

speaks with

humility and deference, and Jahve listens to indulgently, and with constant readiness to forgive.

him
The

destruction of the cities afterwards shows that there were not

10 righteous persons in the valley
opinion of the cities
chs. xiii.
^
is,

of Siddim.

The author's
as in

therefore,

most unfavourable,

13 and xv. 16.
supply
25.
"

Kbo

|iy

or

yt"a

;

take

away from him
till
sit,

his

= pardon transgression
Yer.
rttn
facias', for }D

or forgive. 3

profanum, nefas

ita

ut

non

with the
the

infin., see ch. xvi. 2.

pNrrio
judge,

DBB>

must

also

judge of the whole earth, as the superior be the most perfect, and therefore more

than any other exercise the highest justice. 4 The words are 6 supposed to express a conception of God alien to the rest
of

the
1

narrative.

But
f.,
;

in

what capacity then does God
415.
;

Palestine,
8
4

i.

490

trans,
Isa.

ii.

2
i.

Knobel.
6.

Comp.

Jer. v. 1.

See

Num.
,lii)>

xiv. 19

ii.

9

Hos.

Coin]..
8

xxxiv. 57.
2
.

Kautz.sch-Socin, Die Genesis

270]

GENESIS

XVIII.

27-XIX. IF.

101
all
tin;

punish Sodom

?

Surely, after

all,

as the judge of
3, 7.

sins of the earth.

See also ch. xxiv.
as in ver.

Ver. 27. tOTijn
IDSJ "lay
ch.
ii.

31

;

see ch.

xii.
;

11.
see

earthly

and transitory being
i.

note

on

7.

1

Alliteration, as in
priorr
;

2, iv.

14,
fi

etc.

Ver. 28.

the fuller forms in

are to be observed

from now onwards

for the accusative ntron see Gesenius. 2

The 3 here

in nuiora plainly
it

means

because

of.

Ver. 30. Let

not become inflamed to the
5.

Lord

let

Him

not become angry see ch. iv. Ver. 32. Dyan, ch. ii. 23.
;

In what

is

here related as

passing

between

God and Abraham, God's compassionate
and
intercession,
faith,

justice as well as the nature of prayer

an

intercession

which

is

humble, yet bold in

unwearied
in a

and inspired by the purest love for men, are depicted way which leaves nothing to be desired.
Ver. 33.

Abraham
Sodom,

returns
for

home and God
are

"goes," not,
there,
3

however,
"

to

there

only

two

He

vanishes."

in ver. 21,

the two

4

God's intention of going to Sodom, expressed not thereby departed from, for He is present in in itself might as in the three. 5 Seeing that
is

^

quite as well signify
before, the

*w

went to where the others had gone of ch. xix. 1 is certainly not an interpolation

He

caused by

xviii.

22& 33a. 6

The author's intention rather
Sodom.

was
to

to distinguish

Abraham by making God manifest Himself
Visit of the
of

him

in fuller glory than in

Ch. xix.

111.
D'3&6o

two angels

in

Lot's house,

and the moral corruption
Ver. 1
f.

Sodom.

perhaps a substitution for definiteness' the Samaritan has it also in sake, for an original D^JK
;

ver.

12, the Septuagint in ver. 16. As the two approached Sodom
sitting
1

in

the

evening

Lot

was

in

the gate of the city, to enjoy the talk of
2

Knobel.
Ch. xix. 1. Ch. xviii. 1,
nirp

3
6

Qrammatik*' 117. 4A. *Ch. xix.!8ff., 24.
Wellhausen.

4.

6

'y\

102
those

GENESIS XIX.

3,

4 F.

[270, 271

No purposes of business. hastened he than sooner did he catch sight of the strangers
assembled there
or
for
1

to

fulfil
it

to

them the
to

duties of hospitality.

2

count

an honour
3

be able to entertain a stranger

"The Arabs who

has arrived
the honour."
N3 nan

among them, and
only here with the
allow

often contend vehemently for
4
;

e

thus shortened

for jo see
xviii. 4,

note on

xviii. 3,

me

to hope, sirs.

For wrni see

and

for &6, xviii. 15.

The angels at first refuse the invitation, because they have come to Sodom for the purpose of a judicial investiga5 doubtless, also, because they wish to put Lot to the tion,
test.

"

The climate being warm,
open
street."
6

it

was possible

to

pass the

night in the
Ver.
3.

On

his pressing them, however, they accept his
nnsrb, beverage, carousal,
its

invitation,

and he prepares them a

and then entertainment in general, so called from one of 7 principal elements, but always a decorous meal.
1VD
in
8

the Pentateuch only besides

in ver. 9

and

in

xxxiii. II.

Ver. 4

f.

citizens, old

9 lain down when 10 the They had not as yet 11 and young, surround the house, and demanded

of

Lot that he should bring out his visitors in order that " 12 them, i.e. commit impurity with them. they might know

They were therefore given
seems
to

have

been
Canaan,

the vice of psederasty, which prevalent among the pre - Hebraic
to

inhabitants of
1
-

13

and was also known among

the

Winer, Realwvrterbuch* ii. 616. iomp, .lob xxxi. 32, and the contrast in Judg. xix. 15. T;iv.-rmcr, Voyage, Germ. tr. i. 125; Burckhardt, Bedouins and Wc&tiw (1831), i. 348; Travels in Syria, 375ft'.; Buckingham, Syria, <;.TJ.I. tr. L'sr, Knobel S.-L'tzen, Reisen, i. 400. 5 Kwnl.l,91rf. Tuclu 6 Comp. Judg. xix. 15. Knobel.
<

:!

i.

;

/:.</.

xxi. H, xxvi. 30, xxix.

22

;

K
"'

"'"-l.

Kwal.l,
'"
'

341cJ.

(

h

-

iv

-

L

Judg. xiv. 12. Ch. ii.5; Josh. ii. 8. n Ver. 11. 13 Lev. xviii. 22 IF., xx.

13, 23.

271]

GENESIS XIX. 6-9

Hebrews. 1

The author, no doubt, assumed that the

angels-

2 appeared in the form of young men in their flower." 3 see ver. cno superfluous, perhaps a gloss

^K

;

9.

All the people from
4

n man, all together; ?i??. They were therefore all thus corrupt, and besides so bold and shameless,

end (of them), (to) a fuller form is ^[pjtt
the

i.e.

to the last
5

that they did not feel it necessary to hide their desire. Vv. 6-8. " Lot goes out, tries to dissuade them from their

scandalous proceeding, and offers them his two daughters. My a friendly manner of address. 7 Who have brothers, friends
;

not

known a man, have not yet had
'N
xviii.

to do with a

man. 8
3
f
.

for n?^, elsewhere only in ver.

25, ch. xxvi.
;

;

Lev.

27

;

Deut.

iv.

42,

vii.

22, xix. 11

1

Chron. xx.

8.

Now

they

haw

entered the shade of
to

my

[roof-tree],

beam>
house.

have entrusted themselves
Lot seeks, at enormous shameful ill-treatment.
violable the guest

the protection of

my

sacrifice, to

protect his guests from
in-

The Arab holds sacred and

who has entered his need guards him with his own life." 9
Ver.
9.

house, and in case of

They do not

listen,

but call to him move

10
off,

make room, away, back. At the same time they complain that this n individual came to live among them as a stranger and (after that) now judges in judgment, plays the judged
The
infin. absol. is
13

intended to emphasise the idea in DSIT,

perhaps also

to express repetition.

Now we
1

will do

you
;

evil

more than
1

to

them, treat

you

-

Juclg. xix. 22. Mark xvi. 5, Knobel

comp. also
4

Sam. xxix. 9
;

;

Job

v. 5ff.

3 5
(;

Olshausen.

Isa. Ivi. 11

Jer.

li.

31.

Gen.
Isa.

xlvii.

21

;

Jer. xii. 12,
7

and elsewhere.

iii. 9.

As

in xxix. 4

;

Juclg. xix. 23

;

Job

vi. 15.

8
9

Num.

xxxi. 17

;

Judg.

xi. 39.

Russell, Natural Hist, of Aleppo (1794), i. 232 ; Volney, Voyage en 5 remarkable instance Syrie et en Eyypte, i. p. 395 ; Seetzen, ii. 67, 346. is related by Sieber, Eeise von Kairo nacli Jerusalem, p. 29 f. Knobel.

A

10

Isa. xlix. 20.

11

n

is

the article, not the interrog. partic. n.
xxxii. 31
25
;

12 13

Comp.

Ewald,

2316.

Gesenius,

113. 36.

104
worse than them.

GENESIS XIX. 10-14
said this they press on

[271, 272

Having

him and
give the

The words proceed to break open the door. 1 4. ver. see a of gloss being impression
;

B&3

Ver. 1

f.

The angels come

to

the rescue by drawing

Lot into the house.

They smite the people with bedazzlement

(Blendung, eblouissement, dazzling by lightning), so that they D 1 T!?? (as 2 Kings vi. 18) is different cannot find the door.

from

|ii;V,

blindness.

The inquiry

is

finished, the

wickedness

of the people is proved.

Vv.

1226.

Destruction of the

cities

and rescue

of Lot.

Ver. 12. The

on the
for the

city,

angels, being about to execute judgment wish to rescue the hospitable Lot and his house,
its

weal and woe of a house depends on
"

head.

Have yon
ing to
will

you

in

do well
jnn

still whom here ? Have you anyone belongSodom other than those in your house ? " 2 He to take them all away from the town.

sing,

and without

suffix

is

3

surprising,
1

it

could be

explained as a question,
ing 7331
14.

a son-in-law perhaps

but as follow;

we

rather expect "prim, as in the Peshitta

see ver.

May

the

letters :ai

have been interpolated between

:nn and 7, for nowhere else

is anything said of sons Lot had before the destruction of the cities ?

whom

the Samaritan and Septuagint add ntn. Ver. 13. We are on the point of destroying participle as
DipEn

14 and xviii. 17. The cry against them* has become in the Olshausen congreat sight of Jahve, in His presence.
in ver.

jectures

nnjjjtt

as in xviii. 21.

Ver. 14. Lot goes out into the city to his sons-in-law,
the takers of his daughters,
i.e.

those

who were

to

take his

'laughters,
r
1

6

their

betrothed.
his
2

who had taken
)1 - ]i;i

The meaning can hardly be 7 daughters, for that would be better
Knobel.
11.
3
5

6

(

" ""

Olshausen.
Ewalcl,
335ft.

4

Ch.
i.

xviii.

20 f.
Antn,n-Hie*,
i.

J. D. von Unl.lrn, Tuch, Keil. Baumgarten, 7 Sept., Targ. of Jonathan, Ibn Ezra, Kimchi, Mercerus, Schumann, Knobel, h.-iit/M-ii, Bdttcher,

phot,

4; Vulgate, Piscator, Clericus,

li>,

272]

GENESIS XIX. 15-17

105

1 expressed by a relative clause with the perfect, and been Lot would certainly not leave his married daughters without

not against the interpretation adopted that in his time of need (ver. 8) he offers these very daughters to the people, for the betrothal would have been
calling
to
flight.

them

It

is

Nor is the absence of by whatever occurred. any objection, nor the nwxoan of ver. 15, nor the daughters' omission to mention the loss of affianced husbands in ver. 31.
nullified

W

;

To these future sons-in-law

of

Sodom, Lot with his sum-

mons
They

that they should leave the city appeared as one
treated
5.

who jests.

him with incredulous
tos

ridicule,
2

and

so perished.

Ver. 1

rare

and poetical word

for ip'ao.

niNVCon
reference
is

found here, who are at hand. 3 The not merely to "pnun, as if, e.g., they were dis-

who

are

tinguished from
single
to

married daughters in the
for

city.

It

is

a

expression

wife

and daughters, those belonging
contradistinction to those

him who were on the
Before
the

spot, in

in the city, the D^nn.
ID

Septuagint has the
iv.

further

words,

KOI

feX0e.

PV as in ch.

13.

Ver. 16. The angels are in haste, but Lot delays, 4 because

he finds
to take

it

hard to leave home and
his household

him and

out before
because

So the angels have and lead them the hand by the city, because of God's clemency towards kirn,
city.

God purposed

to spare

him seeing he was a righteous

The idea that Lot was spared for Abraham's sake is only found in A, ver. 29. Ver. 17. At the same time directions are given him for
his further flight.
in
xviii.

man. 5

One
all
is

of the

angels

is

now spokesman
it is

as

1

;

from

that has occurred

clear

enough

that

God Himself

here present, and so Lot addresses

Him

in ver.

18 also as ''j'iK. Accordingly, God is present also in the two as previously (ch. xviii.) in the three.
1

In spite of
1 Sain. xxi.

ix. 18.

2

Isa. xxvi. 18.

3

4

;

Isa. xxii.

3

;

Ezra

viii. 25.
5

4

Ch.

xliii. 10.

Ch.

-xviii.

24

ff.

106
Save
iran
"
thyself, flee,

GENESIS XIX. 18-22
life is

[272, 275

for thy

life,

thy

at stake.

1 surprising after 2N.

He must

not look behind,
is

that he

may
to

not see the divine agency at work, which
;

forbidden
xvi. 14.

the profane eye of mortal man see note on For similar reasons the ancients, during the perof certain
;

formance

a holy rites, did not look behind them and Orpheus was forbidden to look back when he brought 3 Eurydice out of Orcus."

For "^an see note on those of Moab." 4

"

ch. xiii. 1

;

the hills (mnn) are

Ver

18 f

"
.

Lot wishes the

final

direction given to

him

to be revoked, because

distant hills

he will not be able to escape to the before the work of destruction has commenced." 5

Otherwise the disaster
see ch.
iii.

may
'?

fasten on me, overtake
,

me

;

for

fa

22

;

and

for

Ewald,

249^.

These continual

delays and objections of Lot's are certainly related as they
are with a definite purpose
faithful obedience.
;

Lot

is

inferior to

Abraham

in

wishes the angel to assign him So'ar as his place of refuge, for it lay not far from Sodom and was "^pj a trifle, so that he did not ask more than the preserva-

Vv.

2022.

"

He

tion of

Being small, also, So'ar did not contain so much godlessness, and might, it wa&
little

an insignificant
to

town.

allowable

think, be excepted from the overthrow.

The-

angel grants

the request, but
before
Lot's

do

nothing

arrival

urges haste, because he can in So'ar. This history

explains

why
vv.

the

name

iVV, pettiness, or

we may

say, petty

6 town, was given to the place formerly called jta.

The incident

rc];itc<l in

19-22

rests

The

h

of -aib as

on the significance of the name." 7 in xvii. 20 for for vbJ? see iii. 11
;
;

tnp, xvi. 14.
1

Gesenius,
-

25

107. 4, note.
viii.

Theocritus, Idyll, xxiv. 93; Vergil, Ecloyues,
tf.

102; Ovid,

Fasti,.

v.

437

\Vi-il, Urnrijics, iv. 491 rep. :*o, ch. xiv. 10.

;

Ovid, Metamorphoses, x. 51. Knobel.
7

Ch. xiv.

2.

Knobel.

273]

GENESIS XIX.
In recent times So'ar has

23

F.

107
1

been looked for

in the beauti-

ful

oasis

of

el-Mezra'a, on the

tongue of land (el-lisfm) or

peninsula which projects into the Dead Sea from its eastern shore. 2 But Knobel has rightly kept to the older view,.

which Wetzstein

3

has further

established,

that

So'ar

lay

about an hour south-east of the Dead Sea in the part of the 'Araba now called Ghor es-Safia, at the point where Wadi
el-Ahsa leaves the border
hills of

under the name el-Kurahi.
es-Safia,

Its

Moab and enters the plain modern name is Chirbet

and

it

is

buried under the alluvium of the water
is

which abounds.
tropical.
district,

The region

well watered, but the climate

It

of

was the most southern point of the Jordan the 133. 4 The Dead Sea, then 580 stadia or
this point, 5 but now,,

29 hours long, once extended as far as
in

consequence of the alluvial deposits, has retreated northSo'ar.
6

wards; the sea we are told lay between Jericho and
In the

Roman

7 period there was a castle to protect the city,

and traces
cultivated

of it

still
8

remain.
the
of

Dates and balsam trees were

there.

In

Middle Ages
the
six stages

it

was

still

of

importance.

It

was one

on the caravan

road from Aila to Jerusalem, and an important commercial centre. 9 The name still existed in the time of the Crusades

form Segor, and the Arabic geographers name it It Soghar or Zoghar, and the Dead Sea the Sea of Zoghar. and the palm trees which were there have now alike
in

the

vanished.

Ver.
1

23

f.

The sun had

risen

over the earth, and Lot

2

Especially by Robinson, Ritter, Winer, Tucli, and others. See Baedeker, Paliistina* p. 181 ZDPV. ii. 212 f.
;

3

In
Ch.

Delitxseli,
ff.

Genesis* 564

f

.

;

see also de Saulcy in lievue Arche'oL
5

xxxiii. 193
4

xiii.

10

;

Deut. xxxiv.

3.

Joseplius, Jewish Jl'ars, iv. 8. 4.

c 7 8

aA**. Unomasticon, sub Notitia dignatatiim, i. 78 f.

Onomofttcon, sub Mordtmaim), xxxix. 41

Bx
;

Stephanus Byzant., sub Zictpoc. f Istachri (ed. Talmud, Y bamoth xvi. 7 trans, Edrisi, by Jaubert, i. 338 William of
; ;
; ;

Tyre, xxii. 30, in Gesta Dei per Francos, 9 Mukaddasi in Wetzstein.

i.

1041.

108
had reached
with
ver.
So'ar,

GENESIS XIX.

23 F.

[273,274

when Jahve

sent clown the rain.

Taken

15

this

statement allows

us

to

determine the

distance of So'ar from Sodom.
Jahve,

who

is

17
rnir

ft'.,

caused

it

to

present in the angels, according to ver. rain down from Jahve, from the sky.
the Greek
of
2

nND seems, 1
it

like

eV Jto?, to have
as

been a

peculiar

expression
is it

the

same meaning

D't?rr|D

by

which
fact

explained.

But the author

lays stress on the

that

was

really

from the sky that the rain

came

down.

By this rain of sulphur and fire from the sky God turned upside dovm, completely destroyed, so that what had been beneath lay on the top and the top lay below, these
cities

and the whole
it.

district,

3

with
"jan,

its

inhabitants and all
little

that grew in

The expression
used because
it

one

suited to the
its

sulphur rain,
the
legend.

4

is

had long held
that the

place in

"

It

was
5

supposed
after
fell

district,

which

abounded in

bitumen,

sulphureous material which
out,

being kindled by a burning from the sky, burned itself

and thereafter was overspread by water which rose from beneath. 6 The fire and sulphur were easily suggested by
the phenomena of thunderstorms.
7

of lightning

;

and Tacitus

8

tells

Josephus, too, thought that the district fulminum
ccelesti flagrasse.

jactu

arsisse,

and the

cities

igne

Fire and

brimstone are also the instruments of divine judgment in Ps. xi. 6 and Ezek. xxxviii. 22." 9 The connection of the
<-atastrophe
is

with
11

the

bituminous character
text
offers

of of

the

10

soil,

not

amiss.

The

no

hint

volcanic

action.
.

Micali v. 6.
(tochichte*
ii.

-'

K\v.-il,l,
:;

223 [History,

ii.

157, note 3].
p. 22.

Vt ''-- 17.
(

4

Noldeke, Untersuchungen,

''

'''

xiv

-

10

-

6
i.

Job

xviii. 15, xxii. 16.

'

Antiqwti*,
-

11.

4; Jewish Wars,
973a.

iv. 8. 4.
9

'"'sv. 7.

Knobel.
in the Expositor for 1886, Jan.

utly defended
p.

anew by Dawson

CO

II.

274, 27')]

GENESIS XIX.
2G.
i.e.

20

109
wife,

Ver.

"While

this

went

on, his

behind him,

she was walking to So'ar behind Lot, and took looked lack, a look round, impelled by a woman's curiosity.

And

she became

a pillar of

salt,

was changed into a

pillar

because she disobeyed the command of ver. 17. The punishment harmonises with the locality, where things are easily covered with a saline crust, due to the salty
of rock-salt,

evaporation of the

Dead
in
x.

Sea,

and where rock-salt abounds. 1
existence
CTTT/XT;

The legend originated
rock-salt.

the
7 a

of

some

pillar

of

In

Wisd.

aXo? beside the Dead
i/rir^%,

Sea

is

mentioned as ^vri^lov aTnaTovarj^
the

and

it still

existed in

may
there
high,

still
is

time of Josephus. 2 Something of the kind be found. At the south-west end of the Dead Sea

a long narrow ridge of rock, about

100

to

150
and

ft.

which stretches from north

to south or south-east,

is

about 2 1 hours in length.

It is called Hill

(rock, ridge) of

Usdum

or Salt Hill, and consists entirely of mineral salt, 3 or at

least contains thick layers of

mineral

salt.

It

is

quite bare,

decomposed, and friable, and full of caves, seams, fissures, 4 Its distance from the sea is at peaks, and indentations.
one point only 200
there
is
ft.,

and

in the rainy season the ground

flooded. 5

on the ridge
forms.

The denuding action of the rain forms isolated peaks and knolls and pillars of various
is

"

They doubtless pass away

Thus there
hill a

be replaced by others. standing at present on the east side of the
to

We
1

6 high round pillar of crystalline salt about 40 ft. high. cannot say whether this be the same as that of which

7 Josephus and others speak.

Seetzen, ii. 240 ; Lynch, Exped. to Jordan 274, 281, 287, 297 f., 306.
2

and Dead

Sea,- 269, 272,

Antiquities,
3
4

i.

11. 4.

Palestine,
5
6
7

ii. 107 ff. (Germ. tr. ii. 435, iii. 22 f.). Seetzen, i. 428, ii. 227, 240. Roth in Petermann, Geograph. Mittheilungen, 1858, p. 268 Lynch, op. cit. p. 307.
i.

502,

f.

Knol>el.

Clement
ii.

of

Rome,
31.

1

Cor.
;

xi. [eel.

Adv.

Hcereseos, iv.

3

Carmen

de

Irenauis, Lightfoot, vol. ii. p. 46] Sodoma in Tertullian (Opera, ed.
;

Oehler,

773).

110

GENESIS XIX.

27 F.

[275

Regarding the various interpretations of the passage, see 1 The rather unfavourable estimate of woman Rosenmiiller, etc.
in the legend is to be

noted (comp.

xviii.

12 and

iii.

6).

Ver. 2 7

f

.

Abraham, believing what God had
it is

said,

and

full of interest in the fate of the cities of the plain, betakes

himself, while

yet early, to the place on the

height

where he had made intercession the day before. 2 Looking 3 down, he saw now only the thick smoke of the earth, a thick
;smoke rising from the earth, like that which rises from a 5 furnace. 4 Amongst others, Wisd. x. 7 and Philo speak
of
""

continued to rise from the ground. 6 Modern travellers, on the other hand, report only a dense
a smoke which
still

vapour or a thin
return to
"
fact.

veil of mist/'

7

which

is

explained by the

rapid evaporation of the

water in the terrible heat.
is

With

this
off.

Abraham
is

the narrative concludes, and

rounded

There

no doubt that the account has a basis in actual
8

tells of the destruction of Sodom, 9 Hos. xi. 8 names only the Gomorrah, Admah, and Seboim. last two elsewhere the first two, as the most important,
;

Deut. xxix. 22

are

but occasionally Sodom by itself. 11 The statement in Wisd. x. 6 is inexact, seeing that So'ar
generally named,

10

was spared.

Sodom, which

is

always named

first,

and more

often than the others alone, was plainly the most important. This is confirmed by Strabo, 12 who, however, puts the number
of the cities at thirteen."
cities stood
13

The usual supposition, that the
is,

where the Dead Sea now
loc.

rests

on

ch. xiv. 2

f.

1

Rosenmiiller, ad
(

;

Grimm on Wisd.

x.

7

;

Winer, Eealworterbuch,
4

IL321
-

'h.

xviii. 22.

5 6
'

De Abrahamo,
Coin p.
fT.

p.

21

;

3 ch. xviii. 16. Vita Mosis, ii. p. 143.

Ex. xix.

18.

Isa.

xxxiv. 10.
i.

i:.,l,iiis..n,

Palestiw,
7.
xiii.

512

;

Lynch,

op. cit. p.

311
9

;

Ritter,

Erdkunde,
xiy- %
iv.

xv. 7<12
"
(

;

cf.

Joseplms, Jewish Wars,

iv. 8. 4.

Knobel.

temp, .hide
i. I)

10

Comp> Gen
40;
23

Isa.
ii.

!)f.,
;

19; Jer. xxhi. 14, xlix.
;

18,

1.

Amos
f.

11;

pli.
11

Matt. x. 15

2 Pet.

ii.

6.
ff.
;

Isa.

iii.

9

;

Lam.

iv.

6

;

Ezek. xvi. 48
13

Matt.

xi.

xvi. 2. 44.

Knobel.

275, 270]

GENESIS XIX.

27 F.

Ill

J'.ut

the older view, that the whole of the
'

Dead Sea

originate.
of
is

1

in this catastrophe,

and that before then the course
to the

tin-

Jordan was through the Araba
of

Gulf of 'Akaba,

quite

untenable, for the level of the southern 'Araba at the lowest
point

the water- shed,

somewhat north

of

Petra,

is

240

metres above the surface of the Mediterranean, whereas the
surface of the

Dead Sea

is

394 metres beneath

that level;

and

has been proved geologically that the southern 'Araba lias not been elevated since the formation of the present On the other hand, the view of Eussegger and basin.
it

liobinson

l

is

confirmed, that the

Dead

Sea, in

the greater

part of

its

extent, has existed from the earliest times,

and

southern part can be of later origin. Accordingly, most writers now localise the cities in the region of the This section, as far as the southern gulf of the Dead Sea.
that only
its

Lisari, is
is
is

much

shallower than the northern part.

The

latter

on the average about 329 m. deep, whereas the former never more than 3*6 m., and is still less at its extreme
it

end, where

may

be waded through. 2
26), and

The

position thus

assigned finds support in the situation of Soar (ver. 22),
of the pillar of salt (ver.
also, if

and

we approve

of the
is

bitumen hypothesis, in the circumstance that the bitumen
specially prevalent in

latest hypotheses, e.g. the sea in the Wadi Zerka Ma'in, and were destroyed by volcanic action,4 or that Gomorrah is to be found in the

the southern part of the sea. 3 The that the cities lay on the east side of

modern 'Am Ghamr, near the 'Araba, almost half-way between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of 'Akaba, 5 have against

them
1

vv.

22 and 26.

ii. 187 ff. (trans, iii. 162 ff.). further, regarding the Dead Sea, Lynch, op. cit. 306 f ., 378 f. 3 Winer, ii. 73 f. Furrer in Schenkel's Bibcllexicon, iv. 153 ff. 0. Fraas in Riehm, Handworterbuch, 972 ff. C. Hull in Ausland, 1883, p. 375 f.

Palestine,

2

;

;

;

;

3
4

Comp.

ch. xiv. 10.

F. Notling in the

MontayMatt

of

the

Berliner Tagblatt,

August

1886, Nos. 27, 31, 33.
5

Clermont Ganneau in Quarterly Statement of Pal. Explor. Fund,
ff.

Jan. 1886, p. 19

1 1

i>

GENESIS XIX.
Xi>ldeke

29

[276

lias

discussed the uuhistorical character of the
1

of the legend of the overthrow
2

cities,

and Cheyne

its

probable

origin.

5.

DOUBLE APPENDIX, CH. XIX. 29, FROM A\ XIX. 30-38 (THE ORIGIN OF MOAB-AMMON), FROM C.
Ver. 29
is

taken from A.
it

Without any

close connection

with what precedes,

shortly reports to us the information

3 the cities of already just given, that when EloJiim destroyed 5 the Kikkdr? EloJiim in kindness remembered Abraham, with

whom

he had entered into a covenant relation, 6 and, for his sake, sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, i.e. allowed him to escape or depart 7 when He overthrew the cities in

which

8

Lot had been

settled?

There are here
is

five characteristic

expressions of
as to

w A, and

there

this

agreement with his story
dwell
in

matter of fact that Lot does not

Sodom
it

11 alone, but in the cities of the Kikkar.

The reason assigned
C,

for

Lot's

deliverance also

is

not that of

at least

is

As for the word "jan, unmentioned in the preceding section. it and its derivatives had long become standing expressions
for this peculiar destruction of the

ground, and are found in
Isaiah,

Deuteronomy, Lamentations, even in the Koran. 12

Amos,

Jeremiah,

and

We
his

are no longer able to

determine the further point

whether A, in connection with this narrative, or elsewhere in
narrative, gave his

readers information regarding

Moab-

Ammon

and their

relationships, as he has

done in the case of

Ishmael and Edom.
1

The narrative

of vv.

30-38, regarding

2

Im neuen" Reich, 1871, ii. 41-48. New World, June 1892, p. 236 ff.
xiii. 12.
.

3 s
i

T\r\V as vi. 17, ix. 11, 15.

AS
1

viii

L

'"'

(

'1-

xvii.
is

Sam. xxiv.

8

jm
1

not " in one of which," with a construction like that of ch.
10
12

viii.

or

.hid-,', xii. 7.

9
11

As
Ch.

xiii. 12. xiii. 12.

[The words in italics.] See Gesenius, TJiesaurus.

276, 277]

GENESIS XIX.

29

113
tin-

the incest of Lot's two daughters with their father, and
origin of

Moab-Ammon,
ver.

is in

any case not from A.
itself

It

\>,<

back over

29, and

connects

with

the preceding

there

passage (vv. 23, 17), which it presupposes. l that it is reason for the current view

In so
is

far, also,

from the same

author, C, as

and nTjra

in

The expressions ^33 was the preceding section. vv. 31, 33 f., and 37, 2 and jnj n;n hi V er. 32,*

be used as special proofs of this, though ?V W3, ver. 3 1, is not found elsewhere in C. In ch. xix. 1 ff. (7 portrays as of faith, but yet us a one of the heroes Lot, not, indeed,

may
4

righteous

inhabitants of Sodom, and as one

man, who detested the dissolute character of the whom God Himself honoured

with a

visit

and a miraculous deliverance

;

so, of

course, he did

not himself compose this odious story about him, but only adopted it, thereby giving expression to the abhorrence which
Israel felt for the dissolute character of the people of

Moab-

Ammon.
abilities.

The narrative The

itself,
life,

unlike C's delineations, which

are artistically true to

is

irritation against

more

bitter as time

went

on,

marred by internal improbMoab-Animon, which grew especially from the date of the

Syrian wars waged under the house of Jehu, and which has received legislative expression in Deut. xxiii. 4 ff., makes itself
plainly

and
of

directly

felt in

the story.

It

was the coarse
its

humour

the people which put into words
of this narrative.
ff.,

hatred of

Moab-Ammon by means
the exception of

Num.

xxv. 1

Although, with we have no definite informa-

tion regarding unchaste practices prevalent

must

still

conclude that this story
it

among them, we about them would not
Israelites
if

have taken the shape

did

among the

con-

sanguineous marriages, such as were proscribed in Israel, had not been customary among them. 5 It is not probable that the
1

2
3

As

Knobel, Hupfeld, Schrader, Kayser, Wellhausen. in xxix. 26 comp. xxv. 23, xliii. 33, xlviii. 14. 4 Comp. vii. 3. Comp. Deut. xxv.
; ; ;

5.

5

22.

Comp. Deut. xxiii. 4 with w. 1-3 and regarding Reuben, ch. xxxv. See Smend, Moses apud Prophetas, p. 73 Bertheau in SckenkeVs

Bibellexicon, iv. 230.

DILLMANN.

II.

8

114
legend
of

GENESIS XIX. 30-32

[277

made
1
;

Lot's wife, the
in ch. xii.
f.,

mother

of his daughters, a native

Sodom

before his migration to Sodom, Lot

But appears in possession of a house, just as Abraham does. the daughters are doubtless regarded as having been influenced was the first by the morals of Sodom. The conjectures that

R

to insert the passage,

2

or that

it

is

derived from

3

I>,

have

no

sufficient reason in their favour.

connection with the history of
Ver. 30.

The episode stands in no the trials of Abraham's faith.
that Lot left Soar and

"The

author, continuing the narrative from the

point

reached in ver.

23,

relates

proceeded to the hills, because he feared that this city also At the same time, the angel (ver. 21) might be destroyed. had assured him of its permanent safety." 4

He
generic.

dwelt in the cave,
5

was a cave-dweller
cave,
6

;

the article
"

is

Still

some
those

particular

with which

legend
8

associated the events related,

may

be intended. 7

Even yet

the

people

of

regions inhabit caves and grottoes."

Compare

also the

name Lotan mentioned among
But
'yea

the Horites
it is

9 (cave-dwellers) in Gen. xxxvi. 20, 22, 29.

to

be

remarked that

'y\

n^i

after *im 3B*1

is

surprising,

and the

words may be a later addition.
Ver. 31. The elder daughter

makes a proposal

to

the

younger.

10

Our father is old, and so will not be able to look out another place of residence, and there is no one in the land to come upon us, to cohabit with us. There is no alternative for
us

but to have connection with our father.

For
12.

*]-n,

way,

procedure, or

manner
"

in general, comp. ch.

vi.

Ver. 32.
of
11

But since Lot, the opponent

of the immorality

Sodom, not, so long as sober, agree to such an immoral connection, he must be intoxicated."
und
ii.

would

others.
4

2

Knobel.

6
7

Ewald, Bohmer, Kautzscli-Socin. Chs. xiv. 13, xv. 11. Knobel.
Delitzsch.
f.,

8
s

Comp.

xvi. 7.

liiK-kiugham, Syria,

Germ.

tr. ii.

53
10

61, 81

;

Lynch,

op. cit. p.

355
9.

Gtam.
''

L'ui).

l.'i-liin,

If'tndwvrterbuch,

26.

Ch. xxix. 2G.

n

Ch. xix.

277, 27s]

CKNESIS XIX. 33-37
will call to life seed

1

1

."

And

u'c

from our ft]t>

/,

tlimu^li
.">.

him
rch

propagate our race; the expression as in ch. the Samaritan has *J?.

vii.

F

<r

Vv. 33-36. "The plan

is

executed.

Lot

is

so intoxi-

cated that he does not observe

when

his daughter lies beside
is

him and

rises

again.

At
to

the

same time he
2

capable,
is

though an old
]

man

too, of

begetting children.

It

most

improbable."
bility of

According

Jerome,

it

was

this

very incredibut in view

the statement which accounts for the Jews having
;

placed the supralinear point over nc^p in ver. 33
of the

nppa

of ver.

35

it

seems rather

to

indicate an ortho-

graphical variant.
naatrn

the

Sept.

strangely

renders ev

ru>

KOifMfjdrjvat,

avrov.
TfpBrn
Kin
also in ver. 3 5
25 3 comp. Gesenius as in xxx. 16, xxxii. 23 (1 Sam.
.

;

nWu

xix.

10);

4

otherwise in ver. 35.
Yer. 36. |iT2X
"
.

the D for

i?

is

intentional,

because of

the etymology in ver. 37.

Ver. 3 7

f

The author takes the name Moab
the father,
5

either in

the sense 2NE,

from

which accounts

for

the ex-

pression ^"Qsp in vv. 32, 34,

or as
s

*,
it

water, corresponding to
signifies

Aramaic
'

compounded from to for to, and from 2S, so that

G In any something like seed of the father.' case he connects it with the fact that the ancestress of the

Moabites became pregnant by her father. The name |toy he explains by W|3, son of my people it is thus taken to express
;

the fact that the ancestor of the

Ammonites was

entirely the

son of his people, inasmuch as his mother's father was also
father of her child.

Both interpretations are very forced."

7

We

are compelled to add, in imagination, the very point it is " " desired to find in the names, for or seed of the father
1

Knobel.

-

Quasstiones.

3

47A.

3.

4

See Ewald, 293.

5

So Sept. by

its

insertion "hkywaa,

6
7

Comp.

Isa. xlviii. 1,

pov [Dillmann]. and Gesenius, Thesaurus, 774 [Dillinann].
tx.

Trot-rpo;

Knobel.

116
"

GENESIS XX

[278

son of

my

"

people

might be the name

of

any male child
Its
of

whatsoever.
Ill-warding

the word Dy, see note on ch. xvii. 14.

collective meaning, according to

which

it

denotes the

sum

those connected by blood, suffices here.

The phrase 'oyp

and then
in a

does not require us to assume that Dy was originally patruus 1 pater, for the word Moab also is interpreted only
general way, 2K
to,

Derenbourg wishes to infer the name of an Ammonite god ^V from the Ammonite royal name s^ay which occurs in the cuneiform inscriptions, and may be paralleled by the Moabite 3T3K^D3.8
not
to.

^

2

Until to-day

as in ch. xxxv. 20, elsewhere

mn

Dl'n iy.

4

The phrase

is

here,

perhaps, added to

indicate

that

the

characteristic feature of their origin still manifests itself in

the nature of the people.

6.

SARAH'S DANGER AT THE COURT OF GERAR, AND HER PRESERVATION, CH. XX. FROM B.
;

Abraham moves towards
his residence in Gerar. his sister,

He
is

there gives

the south country, and takes up it out that Sarah is

and
her

for a time loses her to

King Abimelech

;

but
after

receives

compensated by presents on the unlawful possessor and his wives. 5 In this way, even after the reiterated promise of a son by Sarah, and before her 6 pregnancy, Abraham's

back,

and

God has brought

illness

hope, though not without fault on his part,
in

is

once more

appearance dashed, and his faith and patience are once more put to the proof. It is, however, the occasion, moreover, of his receiving

anew proof

of God's graciousness

and

almighty protection.
1

Crake!,

/.

i

iw.

viii.

282

ff.

dtudes juives, 1881, p. 123f. Similarly HaK'vy iu JA. vii. 19, p.
vvi.

M

4801, regarding Amnion and

:*:>,,

xxxii.

:tt,

xlvii.

:>(>,

xlviii. 15,

and frequently.
(5

Ch. xxi.

>.

278, 270]

GENESIS XX
tho
of

117
passage
in
its

Such
position.

is

significance
it

the

]>r-MMit

15 at

at one time

stood in another context before

lu-ing transferred

here by

It.

According

to ch. xvii.
1
.

17 (A),

Sarah

and

ninety years old; according to xviii. 1 naturally incapable of bearing children
is

;

f (0) aged, she cannot,

have been an object of desire to strangers. 1 I5ut there are other reasons which completely exclude the A is excluded, possibility of the passage being from A or 0.
therefore,
still

notwithstanding the use throughout of the word DTita, because "in his history Abraham dwells in Mamre-Hebron, 2

and there

is

no trace elsewhere in his narrative that he was

ever resident in Gerar or Beersheba'.
in

The passage
is

is

also

other respects alien to
;

A

}

e.g.

Abraham

represented as a
;

prophet (ver. 7) God appears in visions by night (vv. 3, 6) the moral character of the people of Gerar is represented
unfavourably
found,
e.g.

(ver.

11),

and expressions
land
is before

A
you

does not use are
(ver. 15), rise
\>~\

TJK

(ver. 4), the

up

early in the morning (ver. 8), do kindness (ver. 13),

(ver. 11),

and n^in
because

3

(ver. 16)."

As
is

little

can
xii.

C

be

its

author, above all

the parallel narrative
ver.

1020

belongs
it.

to

him,

and because
proof
is

13

not in harmony with

Another
view
of

the use of the divine

name Elohim

;

for in

ch. xxvi.

28

f.

it

cannot be assumed that

C C

here intentionally
the events related
expresses himself

avoids the use of the

name Jahve because
Further,

took place at a heathen court.

otherwise

4

than in ver. l'3a regarding Abraham's

removal

from his original home, the style is less smooth and flow5 ing than C"s, being even awkward, and the words 337* for
8 Modern critics nnBB^ are unused by him." are therefore rightly of opinion that another source, namely
?

37,

and HEN

f or

9 B, has here been used, one which writes D^nta, not miT, and

for nnntr.
1

Here, as elsewhere, he uses
2 4
7

all
;

sorts of
cf. xiii. 8.

rare

Ch. xx.

2, 4, 11.

Ch. xxiii.

1
if.

ff.,

xxv. 9

3
6 9

Knobel. Ver. 5 f.
Ilgen, Hupfeld,

Ch. xii. 1 Ver. 17.

5

8

See ver. Knobel.

17.

Bbhmer, Knobel, Ewalcl, Schrader, Kayser, Weil-

hausen, Kuenen.

118

GENESIS XX.

1

[270, 280

1 with C, and expressions, in this respect contrasting considerably of speech. forms ancient his of ver. 1 6 offers an example many

In his narrative

much

of revelations

Abraham dwells in the Negeb he speaks from God in dreams (here vv. 3, 6), re;

and construes DTfot presents Abraham as a prophet (ver. 7), with a plural verb. 2 Regarding 3J:n ps and fenn, see vv. 1, 7.
But
ver.

18
1.

3

Ver.

from R\ see also notes on vv. 1 and 14. Abraham goes from there to the land of the south. 4
is

He

settled, took

and led a
riA-ix

6 5 up his residence, between Shur and Kadesh, nomadic life for a time in the region of Gerar.

the construct state with the locative termination
xi.

n

as in
:n:n

3 1. 7
for 3Jjn, as in
;

px
in

ch.

xxiv.

62

;

Num.
to

xiii.

29

;

Josh. xv. 19
DB>b
8

Judg.
the
is

i.

15, and nowhere

else.

present

context

refers

the
of
its

grove
If

of
it

Mamre, quite possibly an insertion stood in E's text, we can no longer discover
and
There
is

jB's.

reference. 9

no reason for attributing
According
to
;

it

to

(7.

10

Gerdr

the Onomasticon, 25
in recent

Roman

miles

south of Eleutheropolis to be the ruins of

times n

generally supposed

Umm

el-Jerar,

12

three hours S.S.E. of Gaza,

situated on a broad, deep torrent
east, the -Turf el-Jerar,

which comes from the south;

the

Wadi Gazzeh Wadi Gazzeh receives in it, some distance above Jerar, the Wadi esh-Sheri'a, which comes from the north-west. 1 * But unless TUQ iri implies a complete change of locality, as
the upper portion of the

compared with
\\e
1

w

take
ji'|D3,

our starting-point
ver. 5;

ac^i, this situation is "

too far north.

If

between

Shur
2, 13.
s

and Kadesh,"

H3OX, ver. 12
7).
5

;

*>

or SK -)px, vv.

2
4

Ver. 30 (ch. xxxv.
(

'!'

ni
:
'

i>.

Ch. xvi.

7.

6 s

ius,-'

90. 2a.
i.

s ee notes. ch. xiv. 7, xvi. 14. ch. xviii. 1.

''

Kittel, Geschichte,
v..l.
1

125, conjectures xiv. 13 [History of the Hebrews,
f.

i.

]..

l.'iC,

n..t.

4].

1

lupiVld, (),<dlen der Genesis, p. 172

n
2

Since Rowlands.

12

Rol.in--.Mi,
,

KimU-l,
a,,.l

K.-il,

Kiepert,

Baedeker,

207

;

Riehm, Hand-

others.
;

I'M',',

i.

I7:>

Kilter,

/;,,//.-,<,/</,:,

xiv.

1084

f.

28u]

(JKNKSIS XX.

2,

3

11

\)

Gerar must be placed farther south,
but in
all

not, indeed, in

el-'Arl

likelihood
3

2

south-west of Kadesh in or be

Wadi

Jerur,
into

a side valley of the

Wadi

esh-Sherait'

whieh
ad-

not compatible with 6"s statement in oh. xxvi. that a Philistine king ruled in Gerar. Elusa
is

opens mitted that this locality

the

Wadi

el-'Arish. 4

It must, however, be

for Gerar, given

by Saadia and Abusaid, seems
6
?,

to

be only a

conjecture.

Ver.
"

2.

/It,

like

following

"IDS',

means

"

in reference to,"

gives out that his wife is his sister, regarding." and Abimelech takes her away from him. Both statements

Abraham

are very curtly made.
tion until ver. 1 1
if.

The
in

first

does not find

its

explana-

the Massoretic text,

and the second

it unexplained why the king took Sarah away, whether because of her beauty, as in ch. xii. 1 1 or for the sake of a marriage connection with the stranger chief, or because it

leaves

,

was

his habit.
"

Elsewhere Abimelech
the
9

is

called king of the Philistines
8
;

r
;

his

land, land of

Philistines

and

his people, Philisso early as for the

tines.

Our author does not use the name
10

patriarchal period."

on Abraham's behalf, appears to Abimelech in a dream, and announces to him that he will die because he has taken a married woman, 11 and has thus inVer.
3.

But God

interferes

fringed a sacred right.

In this author
12

God

frequently comes

and speaks in a dream.
1

Kneucker in Schenkel's

Bibellexicon,

i.

385.

2

8

Thomson, Trumbull, GutLe in ZDPV. viii. 215. Described in Robinson [Palestine, i. 188 f.], Germ.
Palmer, Desert of the Exodus, 1871, p. 34911'. See, further, ch. xxvi. 1, G, 17, 23.
5

tr.

i.

311

if.,

438,
7.

442
4 6

;

Ver. 13, xxi.

The Septuagint
'/dp
si-Tre'tv,

supplies here already an explanation from ver.

lift'.,

6<poftv]0Yi

or; */vv/)

pov

sari, pi)

KOTS OCTOZTSIVUVIV U-JTOV
8

ol oi-^p?; TV,;

irotea;
7

Bi' a.\jTf,v.

9

11
12

Ch. xxvi. 1, 8. Ch. xxvi. 14 f., 18. Deut. xxii. 22.
Yer.
6,

10

Ch. xxi. 32, 34. Knobel.
xxxvii. 5,

xxi.

12,

14, xxii.

1 ff.,

xxviii.

12, xxxi.

11, 24,

xlvi. 2.

120
np
Deut.
h?

GENESIS XX. 4-7
^3n

[280,281

thou art

a dead

man
17)

;

you must die

;

comp.

xviii.

20;

Isa. xxxviii. 1.

in ver.

11 (comp.

xix.

"^T^;

the Samaritan has

nn

py (comp. xxi. 11, 25).

Ver. 4

f.

turns back the course of the narrative

when

it

remarks, but Abimelech had not yet approached her, had not
1 and it is not till vv. 6 and yet had connection with her 17 that we learn that he was restrained from this by illAfter the parenthesis Abimelech ness sent on him by God.
;

pleads his innocence.
^'"is;

U sed in addressing Jahve;
also

2

here put in the mouth
3

of a heathen.

A
regards
"

righteous

people

?

i.e.

righteous

people
Ixii.

also

;

comp. the use of Dy in Ps.

xviii.

28, xxii. 7,

9

;

Geiger

4

^

as a later interpolation.
is

Abimelech

righteous, because he acted in innocency of
i.e.

heart

and

cleanness of hands,
sister,

in the belief that he

was

taking Abraham's

an act which

cannot have been
5

regarded as unjust
23?

by the morality of the time."
37,

used for
6.

elsewhere also in

R

Q

Ver.

God acknowledges that he acted in good faith. Therefore I also, on My part, restrained you from sinning
i.e.

against Me,
Nbn.s

by

illness
i.e.

which

I

sent

upon you.

7

ton for

For

this reason,

in order that

you might not sin

against Myself by violating the rights of

you

not,

put
7.

Ver.

My chosen, I allowed not in your power, 9 to touch her. But Abimelech must now forthwith restore Sarah,
it

because Abraham is a prophet. Abraham here only, comp. Ps. cv.
represented as such in ch.
\\lin is
1
;i
[

This

title

is

applied to

15, though

in effect

he

is

xviii.

17

ff.

It designates

one

God's intimate, whose possessions dare not be touched
-

Isa viii.

2 ch. xv. 2. Knglish word people has the double meaning.] 5 Urschrift, p. 365. Se e xii. 14. Knobel.

3.

Ltut*

;

tin-

/-'</.
7
''

v,-r.
-

<;,

xxxi. 20; Josh. xiv.

7,

xxiv. 23.
8

Vrr 17
<

-

'Ii.

xxxi. 7

;

Num.

xx. 21, xxi. 23 in

R

5 Gesenius,* 75A. 21.

281]

GENESIS XX. 8-11

F.

121
al.-<>

with impunity, and on the other side as one
influence with God, who, in

who

lias

an intercessor between
will

pray for
part of

may he God and man. As such, Abraham Abirnelech, i.e. make intercession for him in
See Knobel 1 regarding intercession

virtue of his prayers,

the matter of his illness.
as

G. Baur 2 and Konig 3 prophetic calling. give a wider meaning to the word prophet. a consecutive imperative; 4 thus thou shalt not die, iT.n]
the
of the illness, but

become well again.
prove one's
5

is

fenn the word
Ver.
8.

strictly

self

for intercede,

and

differs

an arbiter or mediator, from iny, ch. xxv. 21.

God; his what has occurred, are affected by a like wholesome and agree that he should act as he has been directed.
Ver. 9
f.

Abimelech obeys the nocturnal warning as from servants also, the officials, whom he informs of
fear,

Abraham
the

is

summoned, but
for

in the first place

upbraided by

king

his

conduct.
in a

You have done
the
seen,

deeds wliicli are not done,

i.e.

practice (morality) of

men

way contrary to What have you everywhere.
6

acted

had in view, intended, by your
HNI
is

false

statement.

In Arabic

also thus used.

Ver.

11

f.

supplied before
P!

s

Abraham mDN ^7

justifies

himself.

'JVC'S;

must be

the signification
xx. 1 9

certainly*
;

is

not proved even by

Num.

and

Ps. xxxii. 6

only, in the sense of at least,

suits everywhere.

Owing
population,
9

to

the

general

absence

of

piety

among

the

of being murdered if he 10 himself to be Sarah's husband. Besides, Sarah acknowledged

he was apprehensive

was

really his sister,

latter

statement
xii.

is

implied in
1

13.
i.

The though her mother was not his. not made in xi. 29, and is not necessarily " Marriages of the kind thus implied are
2 4

Prophetisnius,
n
i.

213.

On Amos
Ewald,

iii.

5

Ojfcnbarmuj, Ver. 17 ; Num. xi.

69.

23:>.
xxvii. 20, xxxi. 31.
xii. 12.

2,

xxi. 7
9

;

Deut.

ix. 20, 26.
7

6

Comp. xxxiv.

7.

8

Knobel, Delitxsch.

See xv. 16.

10

Comp. Comp.

122

GENESIS XX.

13,

14 F.

[281

forbidden in the law, 1 but occurred

among

Canaanites, Arabs,

2 Egyptians, Assyrians, and Persians, and according to this " a passage also among the Hebrews of pre-Mosaic times
;

they are, of course, however, to be judged
their original

4

in accordance with

ethnological significance

;

it

was intended

to

represent the blood of the race as pure
see ch.
xii.

and unmixed.

17.

N
xviii.

as in Josh.

vii.

20

;

the Samaritan has EJr

5

?,

as in

13.

Ver. 13.

The matter had been arranged between him

and Sarah so long ago as when they migrated from their
ancestral home.

The account
but that

of xii.

11
is

is

different.

It
call,

is

also

to

be
xii.

remarked that nothing
1
ii'.,

here said of a

as in ch.

God

nynn, led
i.e.

paths, to foreign parts,

away from known sent him forth to wander without

him

astray, or

a definite goal.

Comp. nyh

in xxxvii. 15,

and how Jacob
5
;

is.

called *nx in Deut. xxvi. 5.
lynn,

plural, because

heathen are addressed
this

ver. 6 is,

of

course, no proof against

explanation.
in
ch.

The same
7,

construction
different

occurs again

in

B

xxxv.

but for a

reason.
i?K

Dlpcrrb-ta
relative clause.

for

2

is

due to the attraction

of the

'V'HCN Ver.

see note on ver. 2.

14

f.

Abimelech

is

satisfied

with Abraham's

ex-

planation, accompanies
xii.

Sarah's restoration with gifts (as in
in

10),

and allows Abraham to reside undisturbed
see
this
7

the

territory of Genir.
T:B{>
xiii.

9.

The establishment
6

of

a prospective

claim
:

to

territory

can

hardly

be

intended

by

the

-i-ssion.

ii.

1),

11, xx. 17

;

Deut. xxvii. 22.
s

riitSff.
'.

Knol>el.

-J:

.-.lid

xxix.
.

:M5

if.

B 7

"
'

Ewald,

318a.
xiii> 9>

169.

Comp<

xxxiv gOf.

281,

L'NL']

GENESIS XX.

16

123
i

xv the Samaritan and Si'ptu.-igint add

from
it is
7?.

ver.

16; nins^
late

is

surprising in
or

either a

alteration,

(vnncx along with

B

in ver.
1

17);

DHnjn due

to

Ver. 16. Formal acknowledgment

is

made

that

Sarah's

honour

is

untouched,

it

is
*

thousand shekels of silver

confirmed by a special gift. The are not the value of the presents

mentioned in
calculation

ver.

14,

2

for
;

we

see

no reason for such a
besides,

of their value

and these were,

out of

consideration for

Abraham
is

himself, to propitiate

and honour
gift

him, whereas the silver
to

a special and very
is

handsome

Abraham, the object of which

explained by Abimelech

to

Sarah in the following sentence. It is for you a covering of the eyes
it is

to all

who are with you
is

given for

Sarah and on her account, and
all

intended

to

veil

the eyes of
to

those about her, so that they
3

may
see

become blind

what has occurred, and may no longer
;

cannot signify in the dishonour she has met. -jriK ~ic N hih reference to all that has occurred to you* nor can 5o^*-fesh f
indeed the reading of the Samaritan and Septuagint. Consequently, W> must express those whose eyes are to be must be dativus corn-modi "H? cannot be the covered, and

which

is

^

one

who

is

to
"

be

made

6

blind,

for

'ji

W

;

would then have no

For many reasons we cannot suppose that the meaning. thousand shekels were to procure a veil which Sarah was
afterwards to wear." 7
8

Nor can

son be intended for

Abraham

then the purpose of the thousand shekels would himself, not be stated at all. The present may be rightly taken to
for

be a covering of the eyes, inasmuch as Abimelech by it, as 9 if by a witness, confirms his confession of the wrong he had
1

Gesenius,

25

134. 3A. 3.
;

2

Knobel, Keil.
ii.

3
4

So Hofmann, Mu'ifthcv:eis, 2 Schumann, Gesenius, Thi^mrun Tuch, Knobel.
Conip. xxxii. 21
Delitzsch 4
J.

Job

ix. 24.

1,

233.

;

5
7

(:
.

Delitzsch 5

.

D. Micliaelis, Dathe, Rosenmuller, von Bolilen, Baumgarten,
1236.
<J

Knobel. 8 Urn Ezra, Ewald,

Cli. xxi. 30.

124

GENESIS XX.

17

[282,283

done Sarah; and this witness in the hand of her brother, accepted and acknowledged by him, prevents any dishonour to Sarah being afterwards seen.
fevifcn

not co-ordinate with
to

^N,
"

1

so that

we

translate

"

what has happened
this

of "

sense at

all,

for nx does not allow you and to all and nothing had taken place affecting
;

all."

Nor
etc.

is

it

co-ordinate with

DW

niDD

2
"J^,

it is

to be
all,

taken with nroai as the
thou,

Massoretes direct, and before

nro:i

for

the

construction with

i,

thus,
4

see
is

Ewald

3
;

nnaa meaning attainted or convicted of wrong,

linguistic-

ally possible, but unsuitable seeing that Abimelech cannot

here be reproving Sarah.
accusative reif

Taken

as

passive

of irain,

cum
sc.

we may

translate evidenced, demonstrated,

as one to
it

whom wrong
7

has been done, or as passive of

h rroin
is

6

will

mean
in

in the right, justified.
for after

In this case

it

best
is

to point

J?^,

waw

consecutive a perfect, 2

f. s.,

alone

place, not a participle feminine, as if that could stand for ws n naiads or even signify, and as for everything it
is

It is syntactically impossible also to take the word as a feminine substantive, decision. Olshausen

9 arranged, decided.

doubts the correctness of the reading. " Ver. 17. After this reconciliation,
cession for Abimelech, 10
of his wives.

Abraham makes
his illness

inter-

and God removes
xii.

and that

As

in ch.

17, our author does not indicate
;

precisely

the

nature of the illness

according
11

to ver. 6 it

was at

all

events one which prevented

sexual intercourse.

Compare the plague sent on the
account
12

Philistines,

and Herodotus'
13

of certain

diseases

among the Scythian women."
2

1

Tuch, Knobel.
K46.
/:.</.

Gesenius. Gesenius.
E.g. Isa. xi. 4
;

4

'

Job
<
;

xiii. 15,
lit:,/,.

xix. 5.
8

Job

xvi. 21.

7
''

Kwal.l,

Delitzsch 5

.

Il'.fmaiin, I'.imsiMi
" ver. 7.
12
i.

;

Bottcher partially.
11

1

Sam.

v. 6, 9, 12, vi. 4

f.

"

lor,, iv. (57.

Al,o WiiM.r, 3 ii.254f. Knobel.

283]

GENESIS XX.
to

18

125
to
this point
is

It

is

be noted that
his

we were not toM up
wives were unwell
;

that

Abimelech and

the style

awkward. 1

n^l
children?
corap.

and they
so
in

bore

children,
is

2

or

better,

and they had
the subject
;

that

Abimelech
ix.

included
xiii.

in
3.

n^

Hos.

16 and Zech.

The reading

H^l

4

would introduce an alien element.

nes
there
is

common

in this writer for nnsr, 5 although strictly

a distinction between the two words.

Ver. 18 explains what has just been said by the statement that Jahve had on Sarah's account closed every womb The expression is used in the household of Abimelech.

elsewhere of incapacity to conceive, 7 possibly 8 also of incapacity on the part of a pregnant woman to bring forth. The explanation therefore, so far as it refers to the wives of

Abimelech's household,

but

it

is general enough to be appropriate, the fact that according to ver. 17 Abimelech overlooks

himself was prevented by illness from sexual intercourse, 9 and it leaves the impression that the cause of children not

For this reason, and being born lay only in the women. because of the use of the word mrp, the verse is to be
10 In consequence of the regarded as an addition by .ft. Sarah could not have to the R, position given passage by

been long at the royal court, 11 and the incapacity of the women to conceive could not have been so quickly noticeable. Accordingly, R desired to lay stress on their incapacity to
bear
children,

and has therefore

12

taken nny in this latter

sense.
1

See on xiv. 24.

2

Ewald,

1916.

3
4

Knobel.

5

Bredenkarnp, ZKW. 1882, p. 671 f. Ch. xxi. 10-13, xxx. 3, xxxi. 33
1

;

Ex.
"

ii.

5,

and frequently
2.

;

see

ver. 14.
G 8

Sam. xxv.

41.
9

See on xvi.
Ver.
6.

Isa. Ixvi. 9, xxxvii. 3.

10
11

Tuch, Knobel, Hupfeld, Delitzsch, Schrader, Wellhausen, Kuenen. 12 See xxi. 2. Tuch, Knobel.

126
ISAAC'S BIRTH

GENESIS XXI

[283,284

7.

AND THE EXPULSION OF ISHMAEL, FOLLOWING A, C, AND B. CH. XXI. 1-21
;

Sarah's long-promised son comes at last,

is

circumcised

when eight days old in accordance with the covenant, and is named Isaac (vv. 17). After Isaac is weaned, Abraham, on
Sarah's demand,
is

obliged to send from the house Ishmael

and

his

mother, in order that the former

may

not inherit

In the wilderness, Hagar, thus cast out, along with Isaac. Her son grows up under God's care. of has experience
God's protection and settles in the desert of Paran, where he takes an Egyptian to be his wife (vv. 821). Thus Abraham,
after God's great central

promise has been

fulfilled to

him,

must yet soon resign another possession which had become dear to him, and by this obedience testify his faith in the
realisation of the divine

covenant in Isaac.

"

In the passage, vv. 15 and 2& 5 are to be assigned to because of the reference of vv. 2& and 4 to ch. xvii.,

A

because of the statement of age in ver. 4, the expanded l The account style of ver. 3, and the form J"isp in ver. 5."

was
ch.

his continuation of ch. xvii.
xvii.
1,

and

ch. xix. 2 9

;

but R, as in

must have altered the
of course, also

original DTI^N of ver. 1&

into miT.

(7,

wrote an account of the birth

of Isaac, but

At

least,

taken nothing from it except vv. la, 2a, 7. la would be incomprehensible as an unconstrained

R has

addition of R's not found in C, but nevertheless put alongside of ver. 11 in vv. 25 and 7 np6 is evidence for C, and in
;

ver. 7 the duplication of ver. II.
oilier

Vv. 6 and 8-21, are on the

hand, in spite of their use of D'nta, not from A. The of the apparition (ver. 17), the explanation of the name KJ (ver. G), the whole story of the expulsion of Hagar

^D

;ind linn-

Islmmcl,
ni'

and, in particular, the age of Ishmael at the

tin"

expulsion (see ver. 15), conflict with A's authorlike

ship.

Kxpn-ssions also

God was with him
(ver. 14),

(ver. 20),

yotf (ver. 12), np:n
1

o^n

ma jm

(ver.

11

f.),

Knobel.

[For riND see note on xvii. 17.]

284]

GENESIS XXI. 1-3

F.

127
are alien
to

cna

(ver.

10),

and

^

(vv.

8,

14
is,

ff.),

him."

1

Against C's authorship there
used,

besides

the diviim
the

name
Isaac
2

the difference of his explanation of
ver. 6, and,

name

from that in

above

all,

the fact

that vv.

9-21

are a variant of the legend regarding Hagar and Ishmael

which has already been narrated by
ingly, only

C

in ch. xvi.

Accord-

B

can be the author.
of

from the use

the

word

DTita,

is

Evidence for him, apart found in the locality of

the incident, the Negeb, 3 and in the use of the rare words npn (vv. 14 f., 19), nnp ( ve r. 1C), ntfp nan ( ve r. 20), and of
expressions such as HDN (vv. 10,

12

f.),

^

Dib'

(vv. 13, 18),

prnn (ver.

16), and rm&rij;

(ver.

11).

Only
all

in ver.

14 the

hand

of

R

or of a later editor has interfered,

and

after ver.

17 something has been omitted. C Isaac was born in Mamre.
y

Beyond

doubt in

A

and

Vv. 1-7. The birth of Isaac.
Ver. \a
is

certainly not from
xviii.

npD

;

it

refers

back to
is

1

ff.

A, who writes lit, 4 not and is from C, who, like B,
is to xvii.

uses Ips.

Ver. 16

from A, and the reference

16

and 21.

But

R

has put

rnrv for DTita, as in xvii. 1,

because

two divine names in sentences otherwise

of the same meaning would have produced erroneous impressions. The Sept. has 2 6 A and also. similar tautology between Kvpios in vv.

two parts of the same verse is found in Num. xxii. 3. Ver. 26 is certainly from A. Comp. *\yxh in xvii. 21,

The first part of the verse, found, however, in xviii. 14 also. because of PJpA, in his old age, 5 must be from C. Only if
V3pti

has been introduced by
Ver.
3

R

from

ver. 7

could

it

belong
as

to A.
f.

The naming and circumcision
xvii.

of

Isaac

required by
Anfrtin

12,

19.
;

the perf. with an article instead of a relative
xviii.

but see ch.
1

21.
2

Knobel.

3
5

Comp.

xx.

1.

4

Ch. Ch.

xviii. 12.
viii. 1, xix. 29.

Cf. ver. 7, xxxvii. 3, xliv. 20.

128
\Vr. 5.

GENESIS XXI. 5-8
ch. xvii. 1, 24.

[284, 285

Comp.
is

The

accus. with the pass.

as in ver. 8, iv. 18, xvii. 5.

Ver. 6

from

,

who

explains Isaac's name, otherwise

than

A

l

or C, 2 by the joyful utterance of the

mother on the

birth of her son.
her,

everyone who

wonder.
exclude

God, she says, has prepared laughter for hears of her son will laugh at her 3 in So understood, the two parts of the verse do not
another.

one

What God
and

has

done to her

is

a

subject for laughter to herself

to others. to

It is therefore

unnecessary to assign Qb to

and

put

it

after ver. 7. 4

PW,

see ch.
7.

ii.

12, 23.
of Sarah's, introduced

Ver.
ISNJTI, is

Another saying
it

by a second

reported;

gives expression to her joyful surprise,
;

and

is

in poetical

form

hence the use of

29D,

not found else-

where in the Pentateuch.
M>D
''ID

who

ever said, 5

i.e.

who would

ever have said, 6
the Vulgate
;

have

So thought might say. 7 has T/<? dvayyeXei. Septuagint wrongly
that
D^l8

he

the

generic plural.

Wp6
ver. 2

the Sept. has iv ra> yrjpa
of -lEsm

fj,ov,

but comparison with
probable
that the

and the repetition verse is from C. and

make

it

nothing is found regarding an expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael. 9 Ver. 8. Isaac is weaned after he has grown big. 10
-#,
;

Vv. 8-21. Expulsion of Hagar and her son. in parallel to the narrative of xvi. 4 ff.

It is

from

A

"

Children were often late in being weaned, sometimes after the age of three n or four 12 years. The occasion was cele1

Ch. xvii. 17.

2

ch xv jij
e

12

8
4
ll>

Job

v. 22,

xxxix.

7, xviii.

22
;

;

Ps. lix. 9, etc.

Budde,

Urgeschichte, p.
i.

224

Kittel, Geschichte, p. 137 [History of the
xli. 5.
7

'trews, vol. 6
8 8
"

p. 152].
;

Comp. Num. xxiii. 10 Prov. xxx. 3f.; Job Gen. xviii. 12 Gesenius, 25 106. 4. As Ex. xxi. 22 1 Sam. xvii. 43 Song ii. 9.
;

g
!

Tucli.

;

;

s '-'' xxv.

9.
;

10

Sam.

i.

23

f.

11

2 Mace. vii. 27
11,

Park, Travels (1799), p. 265 (Germ. Aleppo (1794), i. p. 303 (Germ. tr. i. 427).

Mungo

tr.

237).

285]

GENESIS XXL 0-1

L'

129
it

brated by
East."
l

Abraham
a.s

a.s

a

family festival, as

still

is

in

tin-

tn^i,
ch. xix. 3.

in

ver.

20;

^J'l,

see

Gesenius;

2

nn^b, see

Ver. 9

"
f.

On

this occasion
4

making fun? i.e. playing and dancing; 5 her maternal jealousy is aroused, and she demands his expulsion and that of Hagar, that he may not
pnv cannot be explained as along with her sou. 7 that Ishmael for the word without a mocked, implying
mlit-rii

Sarah sees Hagar's son pnvo, as lively children do, skipping about

preposition

is

not so used.

Still

less

can we suppose that
10

Isaac was persecuted,8 or that there
9 inheritance, or that idol worship

was a quarrel about the
implied,"

is

the less seeing

that, according to ver.

14ff.,

Ishmael was

still

very young.

pnxp

is

the pausal pronunciation. 11

It is to

be observed that neither here nor in the con-

tinuation of the narrative

Ishmael

;

is Hagar's son named by his the note on ver. 17. see, further,

name

Abraham is displeased with the demand, not so much on account of Hagar, though see ver. 12, as on account of the son whom he now loved as his own. miK ^y on account of the turnings or circumstances =
Ver. 11.
because
of,

a rare expression, elsewhere found in

1Z
.

Ver. 12. But what a woman's jealousy impels Sarah to
1

Morier, Second Journey through Persia,
ii.

etc.,

p.

107

;

von Schubert,

Reisen,
2
4

48.
2.
viii.

Knobel.
3

51A.
Zech.

Ch. xix. 14.
veci^vra.
;

5 (Dillmann) ; Sept. and Graecus Venetus, the Sept. adds psra, 'I<7a rov viov oivTYi? ; Vulgate, ludentem. 5 Ex. xxxii. 6 Judg. xvi. 29 ; 2 Sam. vi. 5.
;

6

So, rightly, Ilgen, Gesenius, Tuch.
J.

7 As Kimchi, Vatablus, Piscator, Grotius, von Bohlen, Baumgarten, Keil.
8 9

D. Michaelis, Schumann,

Gal.

iv. 29,

Rosenmiiller, Delit/.sch.

10
11

Ancient Jewish expositors, Fagius. Jonathan, Rashi, Knobel.

As Ex.

xxxii. 6

;

Deut. xxxii. 11
;

;

see Gesenius, 25 52.
xii. 1, xiii.

2A.
;

2.
;

Ver. 25 (xxvi. 32), Ex. xviii. 8 also in the Samaritan of Gen. xx. 3.

12

Num.

24

Josh. xiv. 6

DILLMANN.

II.

130
wish
is

GENESIS XXI.
for
is

13,

14

[285, 286

other reasons
instructed by

in

accordance with
to

God's

will.

A In a ham
and
to

God

deny

his paternal feelings

obey his wife in

all.

yT"^ impersonal, let it not make you sorry; whatever she says to you, listen to her voice. For in or through Isaac will seed "be named to you, i.e. " in
the line of Isaac those will be descended from you

who

will

bear your name, the Abrahamites proper, who as such the heirs of the divine promise, namely, the Israelites,

are

who
Ch.

were the descendants
xvii.

of

Abraham chosen by God."
of this in

:

19 and 21 are explanatory

A.

Ver. 13. "Ishmael, however, as Abraham's offspring, will also become a great people This comp. xvii. 1 9 f. in A.
;

promise makes

it

easier for the father to send

^

away
from

his son."

D'P
2

"as

in

ver.

18 and

xlvi.

3

the

same

author";
ti5)

comp. Josh. vi. 18. the Samaritan and Septuagint have nstfn
see ver. 18.

nTn nEKn

^nj

^;

Ver. 14. "Directly on the morning after this revelation, 3 which, therefore, took place in the night, Abraham carries

out the divine command.

He

takes bread and a skin

of

both, along with the boy, he hands over 4 to Hagar, who, being thus driven out, wanders about in the desert of
;

water

BeershebaV
in
j5's

5

The

last

statement makes

it

probable that
;

account

Abraham was
of

then

in

Beersheba'

see

ver. 22ff.

non

for

non, because
6
;

construct from ripn D^ in
perfect,
1

following tone syllable, the word only occurs in this passage. 7 L O
8
fn?!.

the

explanatory apposition to
8

2

Knobel. Knobel.
ChB. xv.

Comp.
1,

Isa. xli.

;

Rom.

ix. 7

;

Heb.

xi. 18.

3
4

xx. 3, 6, xxii.

1,

xxvi. 24, xxxi. 11, 24, xlvi.

2.

6
7

*
h

* Ch. xviii. 7. See ver. 31. Knobel. Vv. 15,19; Ewald, 2116. See, further, Wellsted [Travels in Arabia. 1838, vol. tr. i. 66 if.

i.

p

89 fl

Kwald,

346a.

m\]

GENESIS XXL
i^rrnxi

15, 16

131

a second object to the verb ;m, imi to nr2U'-^ r:v

at

least

not in the

present text.

There
to

is

n<>

ivasmi

for

explaining the words may well
,

RO3B^P Db
be a
is

be a gloss by

R~
for

but

harmoiiistic correction

o^l

which

transposition
called for.

of

the reading of the Septuagint. The liwrnw to a place after nrfe'l 3 is un-

Ver. 15.

The water
the boy
(ch.
ii.

in

the skin having been exhausted,
in

Hagar throws
Regarding
xxx. 4.
4

down
5),

the
desert

shade under a
shrub,
see

bush.

DT

the

on

Job

The expositors make vain endeavours to transmute the casting down of the child into a quickly dispose of, in order to
get rid of the representation that

Hagar had

before carried

A, Ishmael would be at least sixteen According 5 But the very fact that he is tired years old at the time. out before his mother, apart from the iw of ver. 20, shows
her son.
to

that

B

regards

him

as younger, 6 as

a yet tender boy

who

must be carried or helped along by Ver. 16. She herself sat down
making a
ch. xii. 1.

his mother.
opposite

him,

e

conspectu?
ly,

distance

8

like

bowmen,

i.e.

a bowshot away.

as in

^riDp
stantive,

const,

plur.
10
;

partic,

Pilel

from nnD, 9 not a sub-

bowshot

it is

found only here.

3 n&o

as in ch. xliv.

34

;

she acts thus that she

may
an

not have to witness the death of her child.

The second part

of the verse, according to Knobel, is

insertion of the Jehovist,

who

alone writes

blp Nbo,

11

and has

been added by him because he missed a mention of the
1

Raslii, Ilgen,

Schumann, von Bohlen, Tuch.
3
5

-

Knobel.
[Dillmann's Commentary.]

Olshausen.
Clis. xvi. 16, xvii. 25, xxi.
f>.

4

6
7

Tuch.

Num.

ii.

2

;

2 Kings
;

8

Ewald,

280a

ii. 7 Obad. 11. comp. Ex. xxxiii. 7 in B, and Josh.
;

iii.

16.

9
11

25 75 A. 18. Gesenius, Chs. xxvii. 3tf, xxix. 11.

10

Bottcher.

132

GENESIS XXI. 17-20

[286, 287

mother's weeping, which would
stances.

be natural in the circum-j:n rfap-ntf N'^I
1
;

The Septuagint gives
the
original

and

this

may have been

reading,

which was corrected
IP"
2
;

because of the (supposed) age of the
In that case the words
text also,

comp.

ver.

14.

IMD

Ettrn,

which
sat,

are in the Septuagint

mean

"

so that she

then
If

and while she so

sat

the boy began to cry loudly."

adopted we

the Sept. reading be not must, in explaining ver. 17 a, help ourselves out
to the fact of U's

by recourse
ch. xx. 17.

awkward

stylism remarked in

Ver. 17. the angel of

God hears the voice of God 3 calls from the sky

the weeping boy, and
4

and speaks words

of

voice of the

encouragement to Hagar, telling her that God has heard the " boy where he is, i.e. the answer to the cry is on
is
5

the spot where he

lying."
ver. 10,

Taken along with what has been remarked on

the conjecture forces itself upon us that an explanation of the name Ishmael was here given by B, but that omitted

R

the sentence or sentences in which he did so in consequence of the insertion of the passage in its present context.
D s r6N* fipD
of this author." 6
"

found in the Pentateuch only in the work

Ver. 18. He instructs her to take up the boy and make her hand fast on him, take him by the hand, for he is not to perish, but to become a great people (comp.
ver. 13).

Ver. 19. God opened her eyes, caused her to perceive she had not seen before The (comp. ch. iii. 5, 7).

what

which she now saw
in ver.

is

spring the answer to the boy's cry, spoken of
the loy,

17.

Ver. 20.

God VMS with

"was

his attendant

and
i&

pr-aector, so that he

grew up prosperously.
2

The phrase

*
:;<1
*

I"-

Kautzsch-Socin.
xxi. 11.

""M>. xvi.

7H

1

.

<Ch.
xxxi. 11, xxxii. 2
;

Ver. 19.

Knoljel.

CliH. xxviii.

U,

Ex. xiv.

19.

KnobeL

287]

GENESIS XXI.

21

133
<;ther

never found in A, but frequently in the For H^i, see ver. 8.

writer

He
he grew

dwelt in the desert south of Cana
is

in,-

and lecame, as
the

But the fact of growth in been the word stated in^i, and it is better to read already 5 ni p rah = archer." 4 nun is then taken as = 3m and not
>:
:

This up? an archer. Massoretes and of Jerome also.

the interpretation of

"

(;

so

the

Septuagint

and

Onkelos.

Kimchi,

Delitzsch,

and

others declare for the same sense, but with the retention of

the Massoretic punctuation
ch.
xiii.

;

a marksman, a boivman (comp.
e.g.

"
8).

Several of the Ishmaelite tribes,
Itureans,
;

the Kedarin

enes

and

the

7

distinguished
is

themselves

the
;

use of this weapon

their ancestor

delineated accordingly

comp.

xvi. 12."

8

Ver. 21.

He

settled

in

the

desert

of

Paran,

west

of

10 Edom, 9 and his mother, who was herself an Egyptian, took for him 11 an Egyptian wife (see note on ch. xvi. 1).

8.

ABRAHAM'S COVENANT WITH ABDIELECH, AND
TO BEERSHEBA, CH.

HIS

CLAIM

CONCLUSION FROM

XXL 22-34 E FOLLOWING

;

ACCORDING TO B, THE
C.

At
fortune,

this

made
the

time Abimelech, influenced by Abraham's good a covenant of friendship with the patriarch,
occasion

and on
of

Abraham

recovered

a

well

which

Abimelech's people had taken from him. the place Beersheba' (vv. 2231).

Hence the name Abraham dwelt a

long

time in the land of the Philistines, and worshipped
(vv.

Jahve at Beersheba'

32-34).

This narrative stands in no very close connection with It bears the history of how Abraham was proved by God.
1

2

f.,

21, 23, xlviii. 21
2 5
T

Ver. 22, ch. xxvi. 3, 24, 28, xxviii. 15, xxxi. 3, xxxv. 3, xxxix. Ex. iii. 12, 18, 19, and frequently. Knobel. ; * 3 job xxx i x 4. Ver. 14. Knobel.
.

See Gen. xlix. 23. See ch. xxv. 13, 15.
Ver.
9, xvi. 1.

c
8

Comp.

Jer. iv. 29; Ps. Ixxviii. 9.
9 See Num. Judg. xiv. 2.

Knobel.
Cf. xxxiv. 4, xxxviii. 6
;

x. 12.

10

n

134

GENESIS XXT.

22,

23

[287,288

witness to the consideration enjoyed
the country by the

among
to

the natives

of

man

of

God, and

1

the prudent wisdom
at the

with which he lived
establishes
It

among them, and

same time

Abraham's right to the possession of Beersheba. has been placed in its present position because it already

followed

It the preceding incident in It's own writing. 2 The proofs of U's authorship cannot come from A's hand.

3 are found in the vocabulary,

and in the coincidences

of its

scene and personages with those of ch. xx., as well as in the

highly peculiar description of the conclusion of the covenant. In view of ch. xxvi. 27 ff. the narrative cannot belong to C. Only ver. 8 2 f may be taken to be an insertion from C, and
.

ver.

34
Ver.

to be

22.

added by R as a preparation for ch. xxii. " Abimelech 4 has a special leader for his
is

fighting
(ch.

men, and
14),

xiv.

who

is

thus more powerful than Abraham never called *]ta. But he thinks a

treaty with the patriarch advisable, seeing that

God

is

with

Abraham
stronger
fash

in all his undertakings,

5

and makes him continually
in
ch.

" 6

(comp.
the

ch. xiv. 13).

name

only

occurs

again

xxvi.

26.

Abimelech and Phikhol, 7 i.e. along ivith, or in the presence of, Phikhol. Phikhol is present as witness, because the intention
is

to

make

a treaty.

Here and
was
is

in ver. 32, according to the

Septuagint, injno nrnx

also present, as in ch. xxvi. 26.

Ver. 23.
n
?i?

Abraham

asked to take an oath.
8

here, strictly hither,

with a reference to Beersheba,
to
9

the

name
DK
1

of

which the author means

explain,

and the

scene of the occurrence (comp. ver. 14).
see ch. xiv.
cli.
e.fj.

23

;

that you will not

lie

to

me nor

to

2

Comp. Comp.

xiv.
<ln

kinflnesa (ver. 23)

JV"D ITO (w. 27,

32),

injn

(ver. 30),

Vfra (ver. 26), njn (ver. 23).
3

2~t),
4 7

Elohim and the
( 'l'-

(ver. 22),

God

is

with

him

(ver. 22), especially rftiK

^ (ver.

rare

73^

p

(ver. 23).
*

xx. 2.

Ver. 20.

c

Knobel.

[Dill., con-i-t.-iitly,
b,

writes Abimelekh.]
''

xv. 16.

Knobel.

288]

GENESIS XXI.
sons

24-2!)

I.",."

my

and

scions, will

not be false to
you.
to

me

or

my

descendants,

who expect kindness from
already friendly,
future.
n
?.?J
1

Their

relationship
tin-

it

was only

be formally secured for

For the kindness already rendered, see xx. 15.
P?

alliteration, as
xviii.

in xviii.

27; the phrase

is

also

found in Job
Ver.

19

;

Isa. xiv. 22.

peace-loving and upright patriarch is at once ready to accede to the proposal, but wishes first that
f.

24

"The

they should be agreed regarding a well which he had <lu^-, and which Abimelech's servants had taken from him, 2 so that
afterwards there should be no disturbance of their compact
of friendship
3

by any strife." not " I swear herewith/' but, jotrK '3JK
not navi,
conies

"

I (on iny part)

will swear."
naini

because this

calling
;

of

Abimelech
the
verb,

to

account
xx. 16.

before

the actual oath

for

see

1X3
i>y

for the article,

comp.

xvi. 7.

see note, ver. 11.

Ver.
ignorance.
well.

26. Abimelech

excuses

himself

on

the

score

of

What
27.

follows implies that

he gives
as

back

the

Ver.

"Abraham

gives presents,
4

was customary

when

treaties were made, in order that he may dwell in Gerar undisturbed, and be under the protection of Abimelech." Ver. 28. But, besides, he placed apart separately the seven

lambs,

i.e.

those
"

used

when

the oath was

taken,
5

jntr

nN

|KSn rtaa, not

seven lambs of the flock,"

for

ns marks
is

determination.

Nor need we assume

that there

a refer-

ence to something omitted in the working together of two accounts. 6 See on o^on isn in ver. 25.
Ver.
their
1

29.

Abraham
is.

is

asked what these

are,

i.e.

what

meaning

Knobel.
Isa.

2

See
;

clis. xiii. 7,

xxvi. 15

ff.

3 5

Knobel.
Delitzscli.

4

xxx.

6,

xxxix.

1

1

Kings xv.

19.

Kautzsch-Socin.

136
nan
here.

GENESIS XXI.
in xxv.

30,

31

[288, 289

as

16, Zech.

i.

9, iv. 5,

and not meaning

ntraa

without

1

article,

but the Samaritan has nboan here

and

in ver. 30.

Ver. 30.

He

explains, in order that
this well

it

may

be

a witness

to

me

that

I

have dug

Abimelech
4

will declare that

By Abraham

"

his acceptance of the gift,
is its
J

rightful possessor."
3

The feminine
act.
irn3i>
xlii.

irnn hardly refers to nbOD,
see Gesenius, 25

but to the whole

and Wjdi
31.

91.

1,

and comp.
received

ch.

36.

Ver.

From

this

occurrence

the place

its

name
swore,

well of the seven, because there
~by

both pledged themselves, or

seven things.

We

here obtain a glimpse of one of

the oldest ways of solemnly affirming the sincerity of one's 5 pledge, and at the same time a glimpse into the origin of the

word

2320.

"

A

parallel

is

found in Herodotus,

6

where we

are told that the Arabs took as their witnesses seven stones,

which lay between the contracting parties, and were smeared with their blood." There is a similar ceremony in the Iliad 7
;

"

8 according to Pausanias, Tyndareus

made Helen's wooers
body
of a horse slain in

swear

to protect her over the divided
;

sacrifice

seven pillars were erected on the spot in
9

memory

of the act."

The government of a numeral by a construct was probably once usual in Canaanite but not in Hebrew. 10 This explains
all

the

Hebrews found
1

more naturally why, as is shown by 'y\ ^D, the in the word yzv "i3 not so much the numeral
;

7 as the idea of oath, and that although yntr does not occur
Gesenius,
2

25

126. 5 A. la;

Knobel.

Comp.

xx. 16,

comp. Num. xi. 25. and Ewald, Alterthtimer, 8 24 [Antiquities,
4.

p, 18].
8
4

On
<

tin-

25 145. principle explained in Gesenius,
;

Comp. Job iv. 5 Micah i. 9, etc. 5 >n the same subject, see notes on ch. xv. 7 'Oh. iii. 8. xiXi2 4 3ff>
Knolml.
See, further,

9.

8iii>

20.9.

10

Ewald,

2936

;

Ewald, Alterthiimer,* 24 [Antiquities, p. 18]. Geschichte,* i. 488, 494 [History, vol. i. pp. 340, 344].

L'.viiJ

GENESIS XXI. 32-34
the

137
;
.

in

Old Testament in the sense

ni'-ans clear that

It is by no the text contains a double derivation of the

of '~WTJ

1 and 0, to whom alone the doublet name, from yap and yntw might be due, is excluded by ch. xxvi. 33 from being the " Ch. xxvi. 33 contains author of an explanation here.
J

another view as to the origin of the name." " Beersheba', according to the Onomasticon,la,y 20
miles south of Hebron.
f

Roman

Bir es-Seba

,

interpreted as

According to Eobinson, the modern the lion well,' 3 is twelve hours
'

2

from Hebron. hood
of

There are

still

ruins there, in the neighbour4

which are two wells

(cisterns) with excellent water."

Vv. 32-34. See general remarks above.
the original continuation of 31&, and
;

Ver.

32a

is

not
5

still

dependent on
so.

'?.

The words jn" iton prevent our supposing
rather
to

It appears
ver.

have

been inserted from
6',

by R, as
recounted
a

33
of

certainly was.

in

that

case, also

stay

Abraham's in Beersheba' and a covenant with Abimelech, but
the place (comp. ch.
certain that ver.

without here, thus early, explaining the origin of the name of xii. 8 with xxviii. 19). It is in any case

o2b does not belong
of

to

B, for he does not

Abimelech's coming to where Abraham anywhere speak 6 7 is king of Gerar in his narrative, and and Abimelech was,
not king of the Philistines, as in C. 8 Ver. 3 3 is from C, as is 9 At most, the first indicated by the words mrp Dsrn tr^l.
clause of the verse

may have

stood in

R

10

"Near Beersheba' a famous tamarisk
stood.

tree

seems to have

According

to the legend, it

was planted by Abraham,
Legend, therefore

who had
made
1

lived there.

In later times there existed a sancin Beersheba'. 11

tuary and a priesthood
it

a place consecrated by the patriarchs as a place of
2

Kautzsch-Socin.

Palestine,

5

ii.

568.

3
4
iii.

But
f.

see

ZDMG.

xxii. 177 [refer,
i.

by Dillmann].
Russegger, Reisen,
7
iii.

See Robinson, Palestine, 3

204

;

71

;

Seetzen,

31
5 8

Wellhausen. Ch. xxvi. 8 ff.
Wellhausen,

6
9

Ver. 22.

Ch. xx.
v. 5, viii. 14.

See ch.

iv. 26.

10

JBDTh.

xxi. 408.

" Amos

138
l

GENESIS XXI. 34-XX1I

[289, 290

worship."
tioned by
7w'tf

The identity

of this

Beersheba with that men-

Amos
and

2 has been disputed.

tamarisk. 5
fyvreia

(Aquila),

The renderings apovpa (Sept. 4 ), Sev&pwv (Sym. Onkelos, Pesh.) seem due to the
of the

same intentional avoidance
DTiy

mention

of a sacred tree,
6).

as in the translation sotrc for f6x (see ch.
75$

xii.

see

notes on chs.

xvii.

1

and

xiv.

18.

The

name is quite appropriate here, where the context concerns an oath and contract but it also vividly reminds one, like
;

P7V in ch. xiv. 18, of the

Canaanite Kpovos, 5 Xpovos ayrfparos.6 Yer. 34. Abraham dwells for a long time in the land of
This
is

the Philistines.

remarked because
be

in

ch.

xxii.

6

Isaac

is

Vv.

33

already fairly grown up. and 34 are hardly

to

7

transposed,

for

although arras would be more in place at the beginning than in the following verse, ver. 33 attaches itself to ver.

32

in its

mention

of

locality,

and not

to

ver.

34.

The

Septuagint, Samaritan, Peshitta, and Vulgate have an
after yen (as also in ver.

30

after

9.

THE SACRIFICE OF ISAAC, CH. XXII. 1-19; FOLLOWING B AND R.

Isaac had

now grown

to be a lad

when Abraham

receives

from God a command regarding him. The boy is his only Obedient son, yet he is told to offer him to God in sacrifice.

and devoted, he makes the necessary preparations, and betakes
himself to the appointed place of sacrifice, resolved to satisfy even this extreme demand. His hand is even raised to slay
1

2 3

E.g.

Comp. xxvi. 25, xlvi. 1 see on ch. xii. 7. Knobel. by Halevy, REJ. 1885, No. xxi. p. 75 ff.
;

Low, Aramaische Pflanzennamen,
Denkmaler, p. 65.
1

p.

65

f.

;

Mordtmann-Miiller,

iiische
4
'

Also

Sam.

xxii. 6, xxxi. 13.
i.

Kiis.-liiu>,
'

/Yrry/r. Knunji'lim,

10. 13

ff.

I'.iiuax'ius,
7

De

Princi-piis,

123

(p.

381

f.

ed.

Kopp).

HupiVM,

nunllen der Genesis, p. 148.

L'IMi]

(1KNKSIS XXII

139

when he hears the divine voice, clear and distinct, saying that God does not desire the completion of tinhis son

with the proved willingness of the The animal patriarch to surrender even his dearest to Him. which is to be substituted in his son's place stands there
sacrifice,

but

is

satisfied

The ready by Divine Providence, and is sacrificed for him. reward of his perfected obedience and faith is a solemn
renewal of
spot
all

the divine promises hitherto given him.
all

The
it

where

this

took place

was

Moriah.

By

(1)

Abraham's

faith is

triumphantly established in the face of the
(2) his son
is

most severe
to his faith,

test of all;

a second time granted

ing of the

Church

and preserved as the foundation-stone in the buildof God; (3) above all, in contradistinction knowledge that God does not desire
all

to Canaanite practice, the

human

sacrifices is

acquired and secured for

time to corne.

The memory that, in the matter of child sacrifice, the Hebrews once stood on a level with the other Semites
and Canaanites, distinctly shines through the narrative. But it is equally clear that a higher faith must long have been

common property in the Jsraelitish community, before it could reflect itself in such a story in the legends regarding
Abraham.
was
widely

Human
spread
3

sacrifice,

and especially child
the Canaanites, 1
"

sacrifice,
2

among

Phoenicians,

and Egyptians, 4 and among the Moabites 5 and Ammonites, who were akin to Israel and by these sacrifices honoured Moloch 6 it was also practised among
Carthaginians,
;

Aramean and Arabian
1

7

peoples."

The

legal

enactments

i.

Ps. cvi. 37 f ." Porphyry, De Abstinentia, ii. 56 Eusebius, Prceparatio Evangelica, 10, and De Laudibus Constantini, xiii. 4. 3 Diodorus, xx. 14 Plutarch, De Superstitione, 12 Pliny, Hist. Xnt;

"2 Kings xvi. 3

2

;

;

;

xxxvi.
Institt.
4
5 7
i.

39

;

Silius Italicus, iv. 767

ff.

;

Justin, xviii. 6, xix.

1

;

Lactantius,

21.
;

Diodorus, i. 88 2 Kings iii. 27.
2

Plutarch,

De

hide, 73.
c

Lev. xviii. 21, xx. 2

ff.

31; Lucian, De dea Syria, 58; Porphyry, loc. cit.; See also Wellhausen, Knobel. Eusebius, Prcepar. Evany, iv. 16.

Kings
iii.

xvii.

,

37, 39, 112f.

140
against

GENESIS XXII
the practice, 1 and

[290, 291

Judges, ch. xi., show that the Israelites of even post-Mosaic times had not entirely shaken Child sacrifice continually threatened to off such practices.
re-establish itself, being aided in

especial
2
;

by the recognised

and it again gained attaching to a firstborn It was, without wider currency from the time of Ahaz. 3 in of the the highest importance doubt, struggle with this error which it was so difficult to eradicate, that the writers of
sanctity

the earliest history of Israel clearly taught in Abraham's

life,

and by
sacrifice

his example, in

what sense

it is

that

God

desires the

even of one's dearest child, and in what sense
;

He

does not

and

also that they

proved that the

full

truth on

the matter in dispute had long ago been attained.

The narrative was originally composed by B^ and not 5 by C, although much in the language reminds us of the latter. The proofs are the prevailing use of DT&K or
DTOtcn,
calls

the revelation

in

a nocturnal vision
7

6

(ver.

I),

the

and

replies (vv. 1, II),

in particular, the angel's calling

from the sky (ver. II), 8 the use of nb in a local sense (ver. 5), and the result of a comparison of ver. 13 with ch. xxi. 19. But vv. 1518, to begin with, are not from B, seeing that the
second angelic revelation which they contain is appended in the manner of an afterthought, instead of continuing ver. 9 and connects itself in expression and thought with 12,
C"s writing.

Similarly also n^fcn, in ver. 2, the related ver.

14, and the

name

njrp

i

n

ver.

11.

It is

certain,

therefore,

that the text of

has undergone revision, partly that Moriah might be introduced as the scene of the sacrifice (vv. 2, 14),
partly that this greatest act of faith on
1

B

Abraham's part might

Comp. Ezek.
xix.
4

Lev. xviii. 21, xx. 2 ff. Deut. xii. 31. xx. 26 with Ex. xxii. 28, xiii. 12, and Micah vi. 2 Kings xvi. 3, xvii. xxi. xxiii. 10 Jer. Ps. cvi. 37 f.
;

7. vii.

17,

6,

;

;

31,

f>,

xxxii.

3f>

;

E/.ck. xvi. 20f.

Hiipfc-ld,

141, 247

;

Kittel, Delitzsch,

Schrader, Kayser, Wellhausen, Kuenen, 5 Kautzscli-Socin.

Onderzoek*
'

i.

K

nnlM-1,

Bbhmer.

xx. 3, xxi. 12. Ch. xlvi. 2. Hitzig, Begriff der Kritik, p. 167 f.

Comp.

1U]

GENESIS XXII.

I, .3

141

be crowned by a ceremonious repetition of all tin- promises himself cannot have carried out this revision, (vv. 15-18).
partly because vv.
partly
DT.i'S

1518

are added in too external a fashion,

because

he

would not

have

left

the divine

name
of
7/,

unchanged.
are

We

must rather recognise the hand
niir ex:,
;

to

whom

the expressions *T\y2V} u,

-ii*

x

\y\ T-\S apy,

"pnnn,

most

easily attributed.

It

is

indeed in

itself

have contained a similar narrative, and possible that that R should have inserted from it the parts in question. 1

C should
see

But we cannot

why, in that case, he should not rather have adopted the whole of C'a narrative in place of that of of //, and so return to the conclusion that these are additions
For the various views
narrative,
see
of

the redactor himself.
earlier scholars

Schumann
4

in

Winer's

regarding the Bealworterbuch* and

Ewald

regarding the remarkable and muchwhich relates how Kronos of account Sanchuniathon, quoted son his sacrificed Israel Yeud, whom the nymph only

3

and Baudissin

Anobret had borne him. 5
Ver.
1.

After
1

these things

see note on ch. xv.

1.

nD3 irnta"

!

circumstantial clause introductory to

"icari,

6 " when God tempted Abraham, He said, no:, put to the test whether he would to see in order (ver. 12) obey Him to the

uttermost

"
;

7

it is
is

a

word never found

in A.
ff.

The

vision

by

night (ver. 3), as in xxi. 1 2

In the Sept-

uagint God calls 'A/Bpadfj, 'Afipadfj,, as in the Hebrew of ver. 11. Ver. 2. The severity of the demand is indicated by the

Thine only emphatic accumulation of the three accusatives. 8 one, who still remains to you after the dismissal of Ishniael,

and has the whole
see ch.
1

of
xii.

your paternal
1.

love. 9

Delitzsch,

6

[New Commentary,
p. 152].
3

ii.

p.

84]
i.

;

Kittel,

Geschichte,

p. 138-

[History, vol.
2

i.

I.

13

f.
ii.

Geschichte*

517

f.

[History,
i.

i.

p.

361].

4
6 8

Studien, Ex. xv. 25, xvi. 4, xx. 20. Ch. xxi. 14 ff.

154

f.

5

Eusebius, Prwpar. Evangel, 7 Kuobel.

10.

29

f.

Knobel.

142

GENESIS XXII.

2

[291, 292

Land
with

of Moriali

i.e.

neighbourhood
of the

of

Moriah. 1
2

article, is

the

name

from

the

time of

Solomon

temple hill in Jerusalem, the most important place of

worship in the
this is

In spite of the objections raised, 3 the place we must suppose to be intended here, for no
country.

other place of the name is found, and Abraham's greatest deed of faith was best localised in a sacred spot of importance.

Besides, the indications of ver.

14 point
ch. xii.

to it at least
iii.

not

less plainly

than the play on the word in 2 Chron.
5

I.

4

Moreh, beside Shechein,

mentioned in

6,

is

too un-

known
There
as

in Israelitish history,

and

is

too far from Beersheba'
6

to be reached

from

it

so soon as

by the third day
even though
it

(ver.

4).

are, indeed, difficulties

in the identification.
hill,

Moriah,

a

name

for the

temple
It

be not an

invention of the Chronicler suggested by this passage, 7

was

never in

common

use.

was

all

the less allowable, then, to

name the whole district after it, and speak of rmiDn pK, and then by inversion from this to designate Moriah itself as " But no other place of the one of the hills of that region." name is known, and the translations of the word as a common
noun by the Septuagint, 8 Aquila, 9 and Symmachus, 10 give no
tolerable sense even
of
if

the consonants of the text permitted

them.

We may
jB's

therefore assume that some other
if

word

stood in
,

original text, though,
(xxxiii.
;

so,

certainly not

pK

i.e.

Shechem
1

19)

n
;

for although the

Samaritans

1

Comp. Num.
2 Chron.
iii.

xxxii. 1

Josh.

viii. 1, x. 41.
i.

2

(Josephus, Antiquities,

13. 1

f.)

;

for the

name
;

see

Bertheau on 2 Chron. iii. 3 J. D. Michaelis, Supplementa ad Lexica Hebraica, 1551 trans. of Harnelsveld, Bibl. Geog. ii. 40 f.
4

ff.

Janisch

Israel,
5

Knobel, Delitzsch, Ewald, Geschichte* i. 476, iii. 313 [History of i. p. 332, iii. p. 230, note 4]. Preferred by Bleek, St. Kr. 1831, p. 520 ff., and Tuch.
3
),

According to Robinson (Itineraries, in Palestine
hours.
7

about thirty-five

Wellhausen,
K/V ryv
yjji/

H

JBDTh. xxi. 409 Baudissin, Studien, ii. 252. TW IA^AJJJ* comp. its translation of miD in ch. xii. 6, and
;

;

of tlin

Samaritan.
10

*etT*$*i.

7% oirroMias.

"

Wellhausen.

2i)li]

GENESIS XXII.

3-(>

143
doubtless

take

Gerizim

to

be

Moriah,

1

it

is

only

by
the

having brought

ch. xii. 6
is

into consideration.

noKn
1.

p,

reading of the Peshitta,

more

2

likely.
;

T^N ION
Ver.
3.

T.TK

as in xxvi. 2

comp.
;

xii.

Abraham forthwith obeys
off

morning he sets
the
ass
to

straightway in the " with Isaac and two servants. He takes

carry

the

wood

(ver.

6)

and other

sacrificial

requirements and provisions.

The author does not say that
the
terrible

Abraham was
sacrifice as

repelled

by

character

of

the the

such.

people in the midst of
It is

Human sacrifices were usual among whom Abraham lived." 3
'y\

to

be remarked that the words

IDX

"i&TK

do not

very well harmonise with 'N IDN *ICN in ver. because the text has been altered there.
Ver.
distance.
4.

2,

probably

By

the

third

day

he

sees
"

the

spot

from

a
"

The Septuagint wrongly takes For Dips see ch. with the ^""i of ver. 3.
to the

on the third day
6.

xii.

According

Onomasticon? the distance from Beersheba' by Hebron to Jerusalem amounted to 42 Eoman miles, about seventeen

hours' journey, according to Kobinson

somewhat more. 5
place

Ver.

5.

Some

distance

from

the

he

leaves

the

he and the boy wish to pray there alone and undisturbed, and would come " back again. An untrue statement, as in xii. 3 and xx.
ass behind, saying that

servants and the

12."

6

But there may
task
7.

lie
still

in

it

the unexpressed hope that
to

the

heavy
nD~iy

may
i.e.,

somehow be remitted

him

;

comp. ver.
Ver.

6.

so far, "

in antithesis to na, to that spot.
their

7

The two continue
8

way

alone.

Isaac,

already a fairly grown boy, carries the wood, Abraham, a knife and the fire, i.e. a glowing ember which will kindle
the
1

fire."

ZDPV.

vi. 198,

and

vii.

133,

2 4

But

see Geiger, Urschrift, p. 278.

3 5
7

8

Knobel. See ch. xxi. 31. Comp. xxxi. 37 Ch. xxi. 34.

See Bersabee and Arboch.

;

Knobel. Ex. ii. 12

6

Knobel.
xxiii.

;

Num.

15 (in

B\

144
Ver. 7
"
f.

GENESIS XXII. 7-13

[292, 293

Isaac has seen his father offer sacrifice before

now, so he asks about the animal to be offered."
nsrp
"
2 look out, provide^ or see to."

See, further, ver. 14.

In this word also

3

there
"

lies

a quiet hope that

God may

yet

The author beautifully pictures the patriarch maintaining himself unshaken by the talk of the His obedience innocent boy, his only and much loved son.
determine otherwise.
to

God triumphs over
'

the

paternal feeling of
'

his
this

heart.

The

expressions

my

father,'

my

son,'

bring

into

prominence." " The second

-IEJOI

in ver. 7 only repeats the first."

4

Vv.

911. Having

reached the

place

he

makes the
In

necessary preparations.

The deed

is

practically accomplished
to

when Abraham
spirit

stretches out his

hand

slay his son.

he has severed himself even from his dearest for the

love of God.

God
5

does not wish more.

The angel

calls

down from the

sky, and stays him.

The

repetition of the

word Abraham, 6 expresses urgency, as in ch. xlvi. 2 and Ex. iii. 4, from the same author; so in 1 Sam. iii. 10. It
is

R

who names
12.

the angel mrp

^D
f.

for DTita 1*60, because

he wishes to prepare for ver. 14
Ver.
satisfied

The angel speaks in God's name. 7 God is with Abraham's readiness to obey, with the dis-

8 position he has manifested; his perfect piety is demonstrated.

God

does not require
Ver.

human
but
it is
iii.

sacrifice.

13

is

attributed
;

to

expression nam NTi
in

a

C by Kittel, 9 because of the common phrase, and is found
sacrifice

B

in ch. xl. 6

and Ex.
is

2 as well as here.

An
the
up.
1

animal victim
being.

found for the

instead

of

human
Ch.
xli.

Behold a
33
;

Abraham sees it behind him on ram was held 10 ly its horns in the
Sam.
xvi. 1, 17.
2

looking
thicket

1

3
6

Comp. ver. AH xxi. 17.
.

5.

*
c

Ch. xxxix. 23. Knobel.

i.

10, xxi. 18
v.-r.
1-

;

cf.

note on Ex.
9

iii.

s
(

Comp. ver. 1, Sept. 2 [Dillmaim, Com.].
138 [History, vol.
i.

temp.

Geschichte, p.
is

10

p. 152].

Another reading

jn&O, held.

L

1

'.):;]

GENESIS XXII.

14

M

~,

^

i.e.

there was found, by Clod's arranging, a rain which
itself

had caught
"

Abraham's back.
In like

by its crooked horns in the bushes at For similar divine aid comp. ch. xxi. 19. manner by divine providence a stag was substituted as

victim in the place of Iphigenia,

whom

her father
/jx,

Agamemnon

wished to
this

sacrifice in Aulis."
also,
3

2

The reading
harmonise

passage

would

not

proposed for with Israelitish

sacrificial
-inN

customs.

with

Kfen.
6

4

not temporal, whether in the sense of postea taken The or in the sense of postquamf but local.
?

reading

intf

is

preferred by some,
it

8

as supported

by better

authority.
hold, a

adds nothing to the sense, and is, we may ">n -ins itself, at the same secondary reading from

But

;

time,

now

be an ancient gloss to explain why Abraham only noticed the ram. The reading "ins, another, 9 was

may

certainly never intended.

Ver. 14.

Abraham names
it

the spot Jahve
is

sees.

nan*

is

used in the sense
it

bears in ver. 8, and

punctuated as

is

with reference to that verse.

So also the Septuagint,
rather expect

but in view of what follows

we should
12

HNT

rnir.

The passage continues,
is

so that 10 it is said to-day,

the expression
seen.
first

a current one,11 on the hill where
13

Jahve

is

Other
part of

translations

are incorrect.
to

Both

this

and the

the verse are allusions
1

nnon

in ver. 2, but they do not

Ps. Ixviii. 26.

2

Euripides, Iphigenia in Aulis, 1591

ff.

Knobel.

3
4

Ganneau in JA.

vii. 11,

510.

Saadia, Rashi, Abarbanel, Rosenmiiller.

Ibn Ezra, Kimchi, Schumann. Samarit. Sept. Book of Jubilees, Targg. Pesh. Graecus Venetus, and a number of Hebrew MSS. In most of the Firko witsch MSS. which
have
7

5

8

see Harkavy-Strack, Catalogue, p. iii. it, it is forged Ex. xxix. 3 1 Sam. i. 1, and elsewhere. J. D. Michaelis, Olshausen, Ewald, Kautzsch-Socin.
;

;

9 11

Geiger, Urschrift, p. 244.

10

Ch.

xiii. 16.

See on ch.

x. 9.

12

Ewald,

332d.

Jahve he appears (Massoretes), \u TU 6'pti Kvpto; affa (Sept.; quite impossible), on the hill of Jahve there is seeing, i.e. providence is exercised (Knobel, there is no instance of the Niph. in this sense). IO DILLMANN. II.
the hill of

13

On

146

GENESIS XXII. 15-18

[293, 294

harmonise unless we read nx'V in the second sentence, with
the Vulgate, or

nv

in the

first.

Two

explanations of the

name

are,

exclusive, as seeing
If ver.

they are not mutually be coincident with appearing. may in a continuation of its was 14a, original form,
in
fact,

given, though

the preceding narrative of
allusion

B,

it

had DTita
to

for mrv,

and the
place.
is

was at

least not to

Moriah but

some other

Even
the

after the recasting of the passage
to.

by R, Moriah
it is

no

more than alluded

For good reasons
time.

not said that
article in the

name rvron was given at this name is worthy of notice (ver. 2)
great care to avoid
it

The

;

the Massoretes have taken
rtt"}N~i?N.

by the reading nnfo

15-18. Regarding the authorship, see preliminary remarks above. Jahve, by His angel, calls from the sky a
Vv.
second time,1 in order solemnly to repeat 2 to the patriarch now that he promises
decisively approved.
all

the previous

has

been

so

On

this

occasion they are

confirmed

Such an oath occurs again in by an oath ~by Jahve Himself. the Pentateuch only in Ex. xxxii. 17, which is from C or R,
though Num.
xv. 9
ff.

xiv.

28 practically amounts
to

to the same.

Gen.
D, and

is

also

an oath, but

of a different

kind

;

C,

R

often attribute

God the simple taking
njiT-DK:) is

of

an oath. 3

Here even the prophetic
xiv. 28.

ventured on as in

Num.
oath,

^
resumed

used

to

introduce

the actual

words

of

the

in ver.

17 after the causal

clause.
i.

-iBte jjp

in the

Hexateuch only in Deut.
also.

36; Josh.

xiv.

14, besides this passage.

IPS npy
the
infinitives

in xxv. 6

This and

-IB>K fjp,

as well as

absolute

^a
xii.

and

nsnn,* are for

the sake of

solemnity and emphasis.
Multiply thy
seed,
;

as

2, xvi.
xi. 4.

10

;

as the stars, xv. 5

;

05 the sand, xxxii. 1 3
1

Josh.
9.

<

'<>!ii|.

niy in ch. xxxv.
1.

2

8

Cf. especially xii. 2

f.

E.g. xxiv. 7, xxvi. 3,
di.
iii.

24; Ex.

xiii. 5, 11,

xxxiii.

1,

and frequently.

16.

L".l]

GENESIS XXII.

18,

19

147
conquer Pentateuch

Mall

take possession of the door of his enemies
cities;

and occupy their
only
in
r.h.

found elsewhere
C.
3.

in the

xxiv. 60,

from

Ver. 18. Comp. ch.

xii.

noted

;

it

also occurs in xxvi. 4,

The Hithpael "pann is to be which has been recast by li.
to Beersheba',
ch. xxi. 33.

Ver. 19 due to B.

They return together

whore Abraham remains; comp.

C.

CLOSING PASSAGES OF ABRAHAM'S HISTORY,
CHS. XXII. 20-XXV.
18.

1.

KEGARDING THE FAMILY OF NAHOR, CH. XXII. 20-24; ACCORDING TO C AND R.
The
series of sections still
affairs of

the domestic

remaining are concerned with the patriarch, and various incidents of

his family history.

ing the family of Nahor.
1

They are opened by a statement regardIt is loosely connected with what

and is introduced as news brought to Abraham from Nahor's house regarding twelve sons borne to him by two wives. The manner of introduction is not that of A,
precedes,

who
"

is

in

the habit of writing rr6in

r6tf.

It is true that
"

the formally

are, as a rule,

drawn out genealogies of the Book of Genesis from A? and that the mention of Bethuel later

A* s narrative, xxv. 20, might lead us to conjecture a But these reasons are not previous preparatory notice.
in

sufficient

to appropriate

this list here to

A?

It cannot be

established

that

seventy Hebrew as to the authorship of this passage from such a contention. We must reflect that speaks of Eebecca as the daughter

Genesis derived from Terah exactly 4 peoples, so that we can draw no conclusion
in

A

A

of

Bethuel the Aramaean resident in Paddan Aram, 5 and
1

Cf. xv. 1, xxii. 1.

2

Knobel.

3 4 5

Tuch, Knobel, Noldeke. Noldeke, Untersitchungen, 16 Ch. xxv. 20 cf. xxii. 20 if.
;

f.,

23.

148
similarly
1

GENESIS XXII.

20,

21

[294, 295

always only of a residence of Jacob in Paddan wrote anything regarding Bethuel's Aram. then, If, it was elsewhere than here Abraham to and relationship

A

different

in

character.

2

The

further

contents

of

the

genealogy also
3

are not

such as can be from A, for he has
nn*f quite

previously
genealogies.

given

py and

a different place in his
is

On

the other hand, the section
ch. xxiv., 4

indispensable

and seeing i^ in ver. for C 23 and Kin DJ in ver. 20 support the view that he is author, we may attribute it to him. 5 There is nothing pointing to
as an introduction to

B as

the author
7

6
;

the Aramaean,

whereas

on the contrary, he names Laban simply ver. 21 speaks of E1N ^x ^wop.

But neither can the whole passage be from C, for in ch. xxix. 5, which is C"s, Laban is called the son of Nahor and
;

though Bethuel
sertion.

is

named

in

ch. xxiv. 15, 24, 47,
8

and 50,

the text there suggests the conjecture

that

it

is

a later inpassage,

In that case at least ver.
is

23a

in

this

npnvriN n^ taimi,

which
I^^QI

is

due to an adjustment with ch. xxv. 20, A'a, and has replaced an original npm DK1 pi> nto.

in ver.

24 9

also points to a remodelling of the passage

(by R), just as the bringing up of the

number

of Nahor's

sons to the round figure twelve betrays the influence of A. 10

We

revised by

conclude accordingly that the section is from C, but E on the basis of other information.
see ch.
xi.

Ver. 20. For n:

29.

Kin

DJI,

found in

ver. 24,

chs. iv. 4, 22, 26, x. 21, xix. 38.

Ver. 21.
in part.

The peoples mentioned can be

identified only

py
1

see ch. x. 23.

The name
9,

is

here perhaps taken in

Ch. xxxi. 18, xxxiii. 18, xxxv.
S.-i;

26.
3

'-'

also vol.

i.

p.

404
p.

f.

Ch.

x.

22

f.

4 5

Cf. especially xxiv. 4, 10,

24
;

ff.

chichte, p.
'

Hupfeld, Genesis, 223 f.

57

f.

Bohmer, Schrader, Kayser, Budde, Urges7

*
1(1

Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 417. Me/, Harran, p. 1!) If. Cf. Ishmael and Edoin.

y

Ch. xxxi. 20, 24. See on xxv. 6.

205]

GENESIS XXII.

22

149
that
15.

a somewhat
also ch.
T13

narrower sense
28.

than in
x.

passage;

comp.

xxxvi.

For ron see

" Septuagint Bav%, to be looked for in the neighbourhood of Edom, because named along with Dedan and Tenia, 1

and because Elihu, the fourth of Job's opponents, belonged to 2 A country of Bfizu occurs in Asarhaddon's inscripit."
tions as well as

Hazu,
4

itn.

3

DIN 'UN
east
lie

bfcflOp

otherwise

unknown.

Kamula

in north-

is

Aram can hardly is out of the question. 5 it Earn for another (Job xxxii. 2); pronunciation simply in narrower a the people of Aram, although it may be
Mesopotamia
x.

sense than in ch.
Ver. 22. 1^3

22

f.

in A.

Sept.

XadS,

the assumed ancestor of the

D^b'3, Chaldeans, or at least of a

branch of that people.

See

further on ch.
itn

xi.

28.

Sept.

Assyria

6 'Aav, has no connection with Xa&vrj in 7 between Calachene and Adiabene. Xatyvrj, a
is

8 satrapy on the Euphrates in Mesopotamia,

more

9

likely.

The Arabic geographers mention, besides the Assyrian Hazza, one in Mesopotamia between Nisibis and Kas 'Ain. 10 The most probable identification is with the Chazu of Asarhaddon n see under
;

tt3

in ver. 21.

^?3
(

Sept.

$aXSe<?,

unknown.
12

It

has

no

connection

with the Pi7rd\6a<s of Procopius.
1

A

personal

name

icn^D

Jer. xxv. 23.

2 3

Job

xxxii. 2.

Knobel.
ii.

Delitzsch,

Wo lag das Paradies? p. 307, and ZKSF.

93

ff.

;

Schrader,
Tiele,

KAT. Z

141, 221 [Cuneiform Inscriptions, vol. i. pp. 127, 212]; Geschichte, p. 337. [Below, in ver. 22, transliterated Cliaxu.]
;

4 Named in Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, iii. 2, 731 f. proposed Knobel. by 5 Knobel, who quotes 2 Chron. xxii. 5 in support ; Ewald, Geschichtef i. 445 [History, vol. i. p. 310]. 6
7

Strabo, xvi. 111.

8 y
11

12

Knobel, Volkertafel, p. 173. According to Arrian in Steplianus Byzantinus, sub 10 Knobel. Yakut, ii. 263. Schrader, KGF. p. 399 Delitzsch, Paradies, p. 306 De cedificiis, ii. 4 proposed by Knobel.
; ;

f.

150
lias

GENESIS XXII.

23,

24

[295, 296

1 been read in Nabatean inscriptions, and HaleVy believes

that he has found

it

2 in the Safa inscriptions also.

P^T
^Nina
in

Sept. 'Ie\a(/>,

unknown.

not identified as the
3

name

of a place.

Bethallaha,

Mesopotamia, is proposed by Knobel, but only doubtfully. 4 5 In A, Bethuel is an Aramaean, as Laban is in

R

Ver. 23. See preliminary remarks above. 6 Ver. 24. And as to his concubine Keumah (Sept. 'Pev/jia, Samar. non), she also bare. 7 rnB to be read also in 2 Sam. viii. 8,8 in Sept. TafieK
;

accordance
xviii. 8,

with

the

Septuagint,
for nt)3.

Peshitta,

and

1

Chron.

which have

mo

known

to us as the

name

king Hadadezer, and Thsebata in north-west
south of Nisibis. 10
DH3
11

It is therefore probably one of the towns of the Syrian therefore cannot be connected with
of

Mesopotamia,

9

nor

with

SejBijdd,

Sept. Tadfji,

unknown.

The mention

of the

Banu

Juhmd, gives no additional
trnn

a tribe between the
light.

Hieromax and the Yabbok, 12

Sept. To%o?,
in
1
"

unknown.

n

?.W?

Chron. xix. 6
13

Aram Ma'akha,
15

a sufficiently
situated on
16

well-known
IJermon.
is
14

place.

The

tribe

must have been
or Abel

The

situation of

Abel

Mayim,
is

which
it

generally

named Abel by Beth Ma'akha,
places
xiv. 440.

to distinguish

from
1

other

of the

name, and which

mentioned

ZDMG.
JA.

2

vii. 19,

467

;

but in

vii. 17,

194 vnby.

3
4

Notitia dignitatum, i. 93 (ed. Booking). Chs. xxv. 20, xxviii. 5.

6 6 8 9

Ch. xxxi. 20, 24 See xxv. 6.

;

comp.
3
iii.

47.
7

Ewald,
iii.

3446.

Ewald,

G'eschichte,

207 [History,
120.

p. 153].

Pliny, Hist. Nat.

vi.

10
11
'
I

Peutinger Table, Knobel.
Dent.

xi.e

;

Arrian in Steph. Byzant.

Knobel.
449.

1

13

luirkhardt [Travels in Syria, pp. 268, 287], Germ. tr. pp. 423 iii. 14 ; Josh. xii. 2 Sam. x. 6, 8. 5, xiii. 11, 13
;

f.,

14
1(1

Onoinasticon, sub Met^uM.

15

2

Sam. xx.

14, 18.

2 Cliron. xvi.

4.

j%]

GENESIS XXIII

151
and
Hasor,
1

along

with
'

lyyon,
xx xi.

Dan,

Kedc.sh,

suits

this

situation."

2

Uilead appears as the boundary between the descendants of Abraham and Nahor." 3
ch.
f>U

"In

2.

THE DEATH OF SARAH AND THE ACQUISITION OF THE FIELD FROM A. OF MAKHPELAH BY ABRAHAM, CH. XXIII.
;

On
acquires

Sarah's

death,

Abraham,
the

for

her

place
all

of

burial,

from

'Ephron

Hittite,

with

due

legal

formality, the piece of land beside

Hebron

called

and the cave
is

in

it.

There he buries his wife.
fail

Makhpelah The narrative

A's, as

we cannot

to recognise of

from the chronological statement
purpose
of of statement,

from many indications, ver. 1, from the whole
children of Heth*
'a

the narrative, the juristic exactness and formality

"the use
of

of the

names

and
nrriK

Makkpelakf and
(vv. 4, 9, 20),
(vv. 17, 20), fe-ta

the

expressions

"n
6),

*W
Dip,

(ver.
to

1),

strin

(ver. 4), tobo (ver.

come

to

be

yav

(ver. 16),
6

as

from his later references
learn

to

and njpp (ver. 18), as well what is here recounted." 7
later

We

afterwards,

from

these

references,

that
also

Abraham, Isaac and Eebecca, Jacob and Leah, were
buried in this cave.
forefathers'

Later generations regarded it as their ancestral burial vault, and as such it was a

sacred and precious memorial to them.
the certain and

The actual cave
"
;

is

stable element in the story

the details are

He takes the a free expansion by the hand of the narrator. him Hittites met of how the afforded showing opportunity
Abraham
in the

most obliging and friendly fashion, but how
a piece of land.
;

the patriarch would neither use their burial-places nor accept

from them the
1

gift of
;

The

field

was publicly

2 Sam. xx. 15
Of. Seetzen,

1

2

i.

118,

Kings xv. 20 2 Kings xv. 29. 338; Eobinson, Later Biblical Researches in
4 6

Palestine, p. 372.
3 5
7

Knobel. See ver. 20. Knobel.

See ver.

3.
f.,

E.g. xxv. 9

xlix.

29

ff.,

1.

13.

152
handed over
to

GENESIS

XXIII. IF,

[296,297

Abraham

in

who were onlookers and listeners
price

the presence of all the people, The to the transaction.
field

was duly

paid,

and so the

was

legally

and validly
l

acquired by

Abraham

as heritable property in Canaan." similarly in

In

#s

narrative Jacob acts

the neighbourhood of

Shechem. 2

On
344
ff.

the textual

criticism of

this

chapter

see Egli

in

Hilgenf eld's Zeitschrifl fur
Ver.

Wissenschaftliche

Tkeologie,

xxiii.

1

f.

Sarah dies

at the age

of

one

hundred and

twenty-seven.

the Samaritan has nNE, as elsewhere in

A?

"n wanting in the Septuagint, and almost too redundant even for A.
Arba' -town
of 'Enak,
4

W

said to be so called

from Arba
8

f
,

the father

originally

more probably four-town. 5
7

Here and

elsewhere

A6

and

Hd

explain
i.

to Josh. xiv.

15 and Judg.

Hebron, which, according But 10, was the later name.
it
N-IIDID

of

in the

(ver. 19) and jron Nin ymKn anoiD (ch. xxxv. 27), according to which Mamre, if not another name for Hebron itself, must, it

same author, A, we

also read fran Kin

mp

been part of it or have belonged to intentionally, we may be sure, nowhere speaks
"

seems, have

it.

9

A,
the

of

terebinths of
eo-Tiv

Mamre."

10

%

eV TO) KoiKw/jLari,

The addition by the Septuagint of and of poy ^N by the Samaritan
ton, is

between jniN (Samar. jmxn) and
desire
to

define

more

closely,

in

probably due to the accordance with ch.

xxxvi. 14, the relations of
jittD

Mamre and Hebron.

pN3

as in ver. 19, written

he went in,
1
1

with a definite purpose. not he came from the field where he was
Ch. xxxiii. 19.
cf.
3

Knobel.
Joflh, xv. 13, xxi.

2

See note, ch.

xvii. 17.

11;
i.

xiv. 15.
i.

5

Kwald, Geschichtef
IM-llexicon,
6
7
ii.

494 [History,
7,

344]

;

Furrer in Sclienkel's

628.
;

Ch. xxxvii. 27
Josh. xv. 13.
xiii. 18.

Josh. xx.

xxi. 11.

See on
10

Num.

xiii. 22.

See on

xiii. 18.

L".7]

GENESIS
or

XXIII.

3-5

F.

1T>3

with the flocks, 1
correct,

from

Beersheba'

2
;

if

this

last

were

R
3.

must have substituted NTT
xxii.

for

some other verb
he
the

because of ch.
Ver.

19.

After
of

having

bewailed

Sarah

sees

to

acquisition

a burial-place.

He

betakes himself 3 to the

gate of the city, where all business and legal transactions are
settled. 4

From
nn nn see
*J3

before his

dead

from the dead body by which

5

he

had mourned,

np

is

used of both sexes. 6

ch.

For found in the Old Testament only in A. 7 x. 15. In ch. xiv. 13 the inhabitants are called
i.

Amorites, and in Judg. general names for the
9

10

Canaanites, which
of

are both
Stade,
8

people

the

country.

that

Budde, E. Meyer, and others know without a trace of doubt A has made a very bad blunder in using the name
Ver.

Hittite here. 10
4.

As

a stranger residing

among them he has no

burial property,

property in land, so he desires to become possessor of a i.e. of land which he may use as a place of
Families of consequence
all

burial for his family.

had

their

11 hereditary burial vaults.

Ver. 5

f.

Obligingly and politely the sons of

Heth

offer

him

their own family burial-places. The phrase b -ID&6 is not in use, and at the best can only be justified by an appeal
to Lev. xi. 1, so that
K?t

here and in ver. 14 12

1^

is

to

be read

as

in

ver.

13, and to

be taken with

the verses which

follow.
not,

In each case
in
xvii.

as

construed with the imperative, and 18 and xxx. 34, with the imperfect or

^ is

jussive.
1

The text thus arrived
Knobel, Keil. See ver. 10.
2 Kings xiii. 14. Lev. xxi. 11 ; Num.
vi.

at,
2
4

pray hear
Raslii.

us, suits

the

3 5 6
7

Winer,
25

3

i.

616.

Vv.

5, 7, 10, 16, 18, 20,
1

6 (Gesenius, 122. 2). xxv. 10, xlix. 32. Knobel.

8 10 11 12

Uryeschichte, 347 f. 34 f. and xxvii. 46 with xxviii. 1. 3 Winer, i. 444 Bottcher, De inferis, i. p. 41. Hitzig, Begri/der Kritik, 140 f. Tuch, Knobel, Delitzsch.
Geschichte,

143.

Cf. also xxvi.

;

;

154
polite

GENESIS

XXIII.

7-10

[297, 298

tone carefully observed by both parties, whereas the

1 reading of the Septuagint and Samaritan, &6, not, requires also the Septuagint transposition of 'JJW "^"IK, as in ver. 11. " a prince belonging to God, protected prince of God

A

and blessed by Him, and therefore distinguished, glorious." 2 In the choice of our graves " in the choicest or best of
our burial vaults. 3
"tip.

See

ch. xvi. 2

for

the use of
it

p

before

The
allow
4

offer is a

token of esteem, for
to

was not a habit
family place
of

to

strangers

be

interred

in

a

burial."

Ver.

7.

Abraham
;

rises

and prostrates himself in order
offer, for

to

express his thanks
"
f.

but he does not accept the

he

does not wish to mingle with them.
Ver. 8

He

therefore asks

them

to use their influence

with their fellow-townsman 'Ephron, that he may make over to him, at its full value, the cave of Makhpelah, which lay at
the end of
his
field,

and might therefore be more readily

5 Caves were parted with than a place in the middle." used as burial-places in Palestine, where they abound. 6

much

If

it is

in (apiui) your soul
7

"

if

you are minded,
that

if it is

your intention."

To bury

my

dead
8

"The context shows
solicit

we must

supply among you."

6

WB

approach him,

him, for me.
in this too. 9

Giesebrecht

scents out a late

Aramaic expression
is

n?EpD
Ver.
1

see ver. 20.
f
.

'Ephron

present

in

the

gathering, and
as a
gift.

immediately
<l

offers the

cave and

field to
so

Abraham
far

^? ^bp

for

*?

see ch. ix.

10; in

as they entered

the gate of his city, were in the habit of entering, i.e. his fellow-townsmen; the f> may be more distributive, like a in
.'li,
1 i

op. cit. p.

348

;

Schroring also in
Ixxx. 11.

ZWTh.
Knobel
4 6
;

xxiii. p.

388

f.

P

\xxvi.

"<
1

7, Ixviii. 16,

see also ch. xxi. 22.

Knobel.

KnobeL Ot .)! x.
,<Wl
lu-

13, \xiii. 14.

s

g ee j^i e Knobel.

Dictionaries.

n.ni

1-,-iry,

Driver, Journal of Philology, vol.

xi.

1882, p. 210.

L'!is]

GENESIS
18, as

XXIII.

12-16

155
(ver.
tin-

ver.
"ijJirn

many
the

of them

as.

The

nys?n 'jo

18)

or

^V

(xxxiv. 24) are the citizens
to

who have

right of
its

t-nl

ranee

communal assembly, and a
see on ch.
i.

voice in

deliberations.
Tiro

ver.

13

;

29.

Ver. 12f.

Abraham
outdoes

refuses the gift (comp. ch. xiv. 23),

and presses ness which
(or but), if

for leave to purchase.

With

a display of politesays, good, only

that

of

'Ephron, he

you will, pray hear me. The optative sentence with is broken off, and the speaker continues with DK begun the still more delicate construction with 6 and the imperative.
not necessary " to suppose that some words have fallen out after ^^, 1 nor to take nriK DK as the perf. Kal of nw, if you agree? But
This, at least,
is

the

Massoretic text.

It

is

|

1

the

Septuagint and Samaritan read

^ nns

DK,

eireiSrj

vrpo?

/jLOv ei.

The money of the field Ver. 14f. See ver. 5.

its price.

0/400

shekels

of

silver,

"'Ephron yields the point; a land what is that between you and me, a
be a subject of

piece of land worth

so little cannot

much

indicates

In this way he politely bargaining between two rich men. the price." 3 The same forms of speech and
still

formulas of politeness are

in general use in the East

4 (Egypt, Syria, etc.) between buyer and seller. " Ver. 16. Without delay, Abraham weighs out

to

'Ephron

the

400

shekels.
state,

At

that time there were no coins minted

by the
into

but the requirements of commerce had called existence pieces of metal of definite weight, and,

doubtless,
to the
1

marked accordingly.

These pieces were weighed
5

seller in order to afford security against cheating."

Olshausen.
Hitzig, Begriffder Kritik, p. 141
;

2

see ch. xxxiv. 15.

Knobel.
xi.
4 Lane, Manners and Customs, 1871, ii. 13, pop. ol. p. 293; ZDMti. 505 Dieterici, Reisebild, ii. 168 f. 5 Knobel. See Winer and Rielim, sub " Geld " for an early example
; ;

of the practice,

ZA.

iii.

392.

166

GENESIS
"

XXIII. 17-20

[298, 299

Compare the expressions
libram."

aere ad libra

"

or

"

per aes et

inbp

-g'y

-current with the merchant,

1

passing from one

hand
which

to another, accepted
is

by business men, who take nothing
acquired possession of
the

under weight.

Vv.

1719. "So Abraham
it

piece of land in

the cave in

Makhpelah, which lies before Mamre, with and all the trees on it. For the use of Dip

2 comp. Lev. xxv. 30, xxvii. 14, 17, 19," from A. In For ^si? the Samaritan has W^JJ (comp. ver. 19). 3 "Na i>D2 the corresponds to the ? of ver. 10, and is distribu-

tive, as ch. ix.

10 and elsewhere.
legal acquisition
of

Ver. 20.

"The

landed property in

Canaan was important, hence the repetition. found in the Old Testament only in n^Baon
learn from
in

A?

We

him that

it

was the name

of a locality in

Hebron

which lay 'Ephron's land with the cave in it. It and 'Ephron's field lay XIDD "osb or &no 'osrby, on the front side,
i.e.

east

4

of

Mamre.
"

Mamre was

therefore west of
ver. 2.

it."

For

Mamre

as a part of

Hebron, see note on

eight hours south of Jerusalem, lies in a deep, narrow valley which runs from KW. to S.E., and is built on both sides of the valley, but principally on the eastern side.

Sebron 5

The mosque which encloses the

cave,

and

is

built

on the

south-western slope of the eastern ridge, is in the southeast end of the town." It was formerly inaccessible,
except
the
11 in

to

Prince of
existence

Moslems, but in April 1862 it was opened to Wales and his retinue. 6 This visit proved
of

a great natural (double) cave under
2

the

1

'I

Kings
'i

xii. 5.

Knobel.

3

Vv.
<

9, 17,
x

19

vi. lii,

also chs. xxv. 9, xlix. 30, 1. 13. xxv. 18 ; Num. xxi. 11 1 ; Kings xi. 7.
;

further,

von Schubert, Iteisen, ii. 462 ff Hitter, Erdkunde, xvi. 209 ff. especially Rosen in ZDMG. xii. 477 ff. 6 In Nov. 1869 to the Crown Prince of Prussia, and in the year 1882
ff.
; .

".73

5 iv^-mling the situation, Robinson, Palestine,
;

i.

213

f.,
;

also to the sons of the Prince of Wales.

L'.U>,

:HMI]

GENESIS XXIV
1

157

Haram.

Eiant has published an account, which belongs to

the Middle Ages, 2 regarding the appearance of the cave in 1119. To all appearance this spot was regarded as the patriarchal burying-place even at an early date. Joseph us
localises the fivrjpeta of the patriarchs in the little

town

itself,

There are no reasons but the great terebinth tree outside it. 3 which for our not accepting this. Mamre, lay to the west, is
4 probably to be found on the eastern slope of Kumeidi, an elevation to the west which extends as far as the west side

of

Hebron, and
is

contains

a

remarkable rock-spring.
the hill-top Ne'ir, the

This
of

elevation

only a spur of
north. 6

name

which might be compared with "W. 5
lay

The valley

of

Eshkol

somewhat farther

fcnoo

may

also,

however, be

with Nimre, an elevation situated only a short distance north of Hebron, with a spring of the same name. 7

compared

In that case :B~fy would mean simply in front of, in sight of. On the other hand, it may be held that the Wadi er-Eame or
s

is

liamet el-Chaltl, to the north, an hour away from the town, too far distant to be spoken of as jnana, and to be regarded

as the biblical

Mamre.

But

since patristic times

it

has been,

and

is

even now, generally assumed to have been Abraham's

residence. 8

3.

ISAAC'S

MARRIAGE WITH EEBECCA, CH. XXIV.
is

;

FROM

C.

Abraham's steward

sent to Mesopotamia, and there in
for

Harran

obtains,

as

bride

his

master's

son,

Eebecca,

He brings her to daughter of Abraham's nephew Bethuel. These incidents are Canaan, and she becomes Isaac's wife.
1

See Rosen in Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Erdkunde, 1863, p. 369
Archives de V Orient Latin, 328.
ii.

ff.

2

411-421
i.

;

see also
4

ZDPV.
Rosen.

vii.

252,

viii.
3 5
7

Wars, iv. 9. 7 Ch. xiv. 13.

;

comp. Antiquities,

14.

6

Num.
ii.

xiii. 23.

Mentioned by Rosen,

ZDMG.

xii.

486,

and Seetzen,
Ritter.

51.

8

Von

Schubert,
2

Robinson,
p.

Seetzen,

Knobel.

See

also

Baedeker, Palastina,

173f.

158
described

GENESIS XXIV

[300

by the narrator in a beautiful
is

idyllic

story, in

which

it

his special interest to trace God's guiding

hand

in all that led
it

up

to the marriage.

It

was God who brought

about that Abraham's envoy at once found the right place and the right maiden, that he forthwith recognised her as the chosen bride, and that, in addition, her family and the

maiden herself willingly followed the indications of the divine It was by God's guidance that Rebecca became Isaac's will.
wife,

and an ancestress

of the people of

God.

Against .Z>'s authorship of the passage there is to be put 1 the absence of any name for Abraham's steward, and the contradicts ch notice regarding Eebecca's nurse, which
xxxv.

From A's authorship is also out of the question. ch. xxv. 20 we may conclude that he narrated the fact of
8.

the marriage without

much

detail

;

we cannot say

definitely

whether between

chs. xxiii.

and 20

of ch. xxv. 3

and xxv. 19, 2 or between vv. 19 The character and workmanship of the
xviii.
f.,

idyll point

us to the narrator of ch.

and
ii.

its
ff.,

exalted
that
is,

conception of marriage to the author of ch.
to
C.
4

23

this.

Other characteristics, especially Some unevenness in the style 5

linguistic, agree with may be attributed to

errors in the text rather than to the union of

two accounts. 6

reason for assigning vv. 6267 to another writer, to B, on the ground that the envoy was sent

There

may seem more
7

by Abraham

(vv.

19), but here
(ver. 65),

returns to Isaac, and, besides,
8 not, as hitherto,

calls Isaac his
1

master

and

Abraham.

2 3 Otherwise in ch. xv. 2. Knobel. Wellhausen. the of Jahve Isaac the servant of Jahve E.g. angel (vv. 7, 40), with suff. D1K (ver. 10), 'Jjttsn riVO (ver. 3), (ver. 14), nnru (vv. 42, 49), &0 (vv. 2, 12, 14, 17, 23, 42 f., 45), pn (ver. 8), (vv. 5, 39),

4

^

fyx

non

nb>y (vv.

12,

14,

49),

nto non
(ver.

(w.

27, 49),

D^n
16),

pi

(ver. 17),

n-lO TUB

16), j>T (ver.

&c rnpn
n\S

(ver.

i),

(ver. 12), (ver. 60), (ver. 52),

(vv. 21, 40, 42, 56),

in^K

-01

(ver. 45),

&&

for

vh* (ver. 60), njnntfrn TII? (w. 28, 48), ami the, use of the name niiT throughout 'Vv. ^2, 29 If.
7

nnx mnnpn

s

Knobel. Thirteen times.

:;<iu,

;;oi]

GENESIS XXIV.

1,

2

159
(ver.

The words

ni

(ver.

65) and n^n
B.
Still

pN
is

G2) are also
in

elsewhere found in

what

surprising
if

these that

concluding verses (62ff.), ceases to be so
in
ver.
1

we

reflect

Abraham's death

is

approaching, that in ver. 36
ch. xxv. 5

Isaac appears already independent and in possession of his
patiTn;i.l

inheritance,

and that accordingly
ch.

and 116
to

must have
assume that

preceded R has made some changes of his

xxiv.

in

C.

1

It is sufficient

own

in

these

verses, especially in vv.

62 and 67.

Similarly, but for other

reasons,

R

seems

to

have made some harmonistic additions in

vv. 15, 24, 47,

and 50.
and the

Vv. 1-9. Abraham's commission to his steward to seek a
wife for Isaac

among

his relatives in Mesopotamia,

significance of the mission.

Ver.

1.

A circumstantial clause preparatory to the principal
2.

sentence in ver.
blessed

DV^a &Q in

ch. xviii.

11

in C.

God had

him

in all,

hence the wish by his son's marriage to

have further heirs to inherit this blessing.
Ver.
the
oldest
2.

He

desires to

commit

this mission to his servant,

in his house, in standing, not in actual age,
2

who
unis

had the management
named, in
one

of all his property.
is

In

C

he

is

B

the steward

called Eliezer. 3

The matter

of great

moment,

for the object is in part to preserve

the son of promise from -an alien union with the daughters
of

Canaan around him, 4 in part to prevent his return to the land from which God brought Abraham out, 5 and if it is
unattained, the promises will thereby become of no
effect.

Abraham, therefore, exacts from the servant an oath that he
will in every particular fulfil his mission.

Pray put thy hand under my
The custom
organ
vigour,
1

thigh

i.e.

to take
xlvii.

an oath.

is

mentioned again only in
as

ch.

29.
of
it

The

of

generation

such,

because the

mark
to

had a certain sacredness
Hupfeld, Quellen der Genesis,
Ps. cv. 21.
p.

attributed
145
f.

manly by the

2 4

3

Ch. xv. 2

f.

Of. xxviii. 2

ff.,

xxxiv.

1

ff.

*

Ch.

xii. 1.

160
ancients,

GENESIS XXIV. 3-5

[301

and in the worship of Phallus had every religious But the immediate reference here is veneration paid to it.
neither to
this
of circumcision,

ceremony

nor to any special sacredness due to the 1 nor to both together. 2 It is from

the thighs that one's descendants come, so that to take an oath with one's hand upon the thighs could be equivalent to

upon these descendants to maintain an oath which has been fulfilled and to revenge one which has been broken.
calling

Here

as in ch. xlvii.

29

it

is

a case of ensuring something,
"

live

the performance of to see or is uncertain
is

which the exactor of the oath does not
of

living to

see.

A

modern

recorded of an Egyptian Beduin who in making a solemn asseveration laid his hand upon the organ of generaEwald refers to a Kaffir analogue. 4 tion." 3
instance

heavens and of the earth," whose 5 knowledge and power nothing can escape. Similarly in " " 2 xviii. 5 (also xiv. God of the heavens ver. 7 comp.
Ver. 3
f.

"

God

of the

;

19, 22).
-i^N
ch. xxii. 14, xi. 7.

ni33

"here and in

ver.

37;

A

speaks of nun

In this passage Abraham plainly does not expect to live long, and makes the steward the executor of his will, so to

The representation is independent of A's chronology, according to which Abraham had still thirty-seven years to
say.
live.
7

For
5.

ver.

4 comp.
is

xii.

1.
;

Ver.

The servant
there,

raises a difficulty
to

if

no woman will
n inter-

come from
8

he

take Isaac to the spot,

rogative.

1

Tin* Jews,

on the authority

of Jerome, Qucestiones

;

Targ. Jonathan,

llashi,
*

3

Schumann, Tuch, Delitzsch. Von Bohlen, Gesenius, Knobel. Sonnini, Voyage, Germ. tr. ii. 474; Eichhorn, Allgemeine BiUiothek,
Knobel.

x. 464.
4

1
7

(

Kwald, Alterthumer* 26 [Antiquities, p. 19, note 0]. 6 K ""'"'ICh. xxviii. 1, 6, 8, xxxvi. 8 26 100. 'h. xx i. 5, xxv. 7, 20. 4. Gesenius,

2.

Knobel.

:ioi,

:m]
Ver.
6.
;

GENKSIS xxiv. 6-10

161

Abraham answers

the question with an emphatic
case surrender

negative
promise.
Ver.
occur.
birth,
1

Isaac would in

that

the land

of

7.

"

The case put by the servant
led

will, besides,

not

The God, who

who
3

has

Abraham out from the land of his 2 him Canaan, and even confirmed promised
an
oath,
will

the

promise by

also

prosper the

servant's

mission

by sending His angel before him to protect him, to bring him to the very place he desires, and to secure him
wished-for reception.
4

the

goodness and providence
continue."

of

Abraham is confident that God hitherto manifested

the
will

^

yiwi

new

if

not an insertion by
refer to ch. xv.

R
5

with a reference

to ch. xxii. 16,

must

17

f.

Ver.
the

8.

Should, however, no
is

woman
the

be willing to come,
of

servant

released

from

obligation

ver.

4.

Abraham,
God. 6

therefore, does not regard his

plan as willed by

For rpj^ see Gesenius,25 75A. 7; and for 3B>n vh c h. iv. 12, and Ewald,
:

for

nw, 126. 5A. 16;

t

320a.
oath.

Ver.

9.
25

The servant takes the
124.
Ic.

For

vnx

see

Gesenius,

Vv.

1027. He

the experience of

on his journey, and is granted God's guidance and direction, as Abraham
sets off

had trusted.
Ver.
escort,
7

10.
for

He
the

takes camels with

him
bring,

for himself

and his

maiden he

is

to

and

for her

com-

panions,

8

for

all sorts 9

of property,

i.e.

various articles which

he takes as presents, 10 and for the provisions necessary for
the journey. verse
is

The Septuagint omission

of the first ^in in the

preferable to the Massoretic text.

Aram
1

of the two streams
2

11

Sept. Meo-oTrora/jbla.
5

In any

Ch.

xii. 1.

Clis. xii. 7, xiii. 15.

3

Ver. 40.

4
7

c 9 11

Knobel. Ch. ii. 9. Deut. xxiii. 5

10

Knobel. Vv. 32, f> 1. Vv. 22, 30, 47, 53.
;

8

Page 55 f. Vv. 59, 61.

;

Judg.
II.

iii.

8

Ps. Ix. 2.
1 1

DILLMANN.

162
case
this is

GENESIS XXIV. 11-14
not
the

[302

country between the Euphrates and Tigris, Babylonia being excluded, though that has been the 1 As little is it the region between the general opinion.
2 Euphrates and the Chrysorrhoas, the river of Damascus. Most probably it is the country which lay between the

and Chaboras, Euphrates what bordered nearest to
with
the

3

"^n,
it.

4

It

including also, perhaps, may be almost identical
often

land

of

Naharina,

so

mentioned in

the
5

accounts of the

but

it

campaigns of the ancient Egyptian kings, cannot be admitted that onna is a locative and not

a dual.

It is more possibly a plural, inasmuch as the Belih and the tributaries of all three rivers are included in
district.

6

the

Eegarding

Paddan Aram, which
Harran
7
;

A
xi.

writes,

see ch. xxv. 20.

The

city of

Nahor

is

see note on ch.

31.

Ver. 11.
city,

He makes

his camels lie

down

in front of the

in

by Harran

the

fountain usually found beside a town, and here
"

also.

Towards
accustomed
wants. 8

evening
to

when the

girls

and women
for the

are

fetch

the water required
this is still
10

household

In the east

part

of

their work, 9 as it

was

in ancient times."

Vv. 12-14.

He

asks

God

to

given sign the maiden,
water,

among

those

make known to him by a who come out to draw
about.

who

is

destined for Isaac. 11

n !}i?n
1

let it

come

to pass,
;

bring

it
it

So in

ch. xxvii.

Still

found in Delitzsch 5
ff.

against

see Halevy, Melanges d'Epiiii.

yraphie, p. 72
2
1

Halevy's view, op. See ch. xxxi. 21.

cit.

p.

81

;

comp.

ZDPV.

224.

*

5

Brugsch, Geschichte, 180 Erman, Aeyypten,
;

235

ff.;

Kiepert, Alte Geographic, p. 154. E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums,

p. 680.

6
7

E. Meyer. Chs. xxvii. 43, xxviii. 10

;

see also

Budde,
;

Urgeschichte, p. 445.
p. 351.
i.

Burckhardt, Bedouins and Wakdbys, i. 9 Von Schubert, Reisen, ii. 401, iii. 134 Robinson, Palestine, 3 549, ii. 33, Germ. tr. ii. 385, 519, 628 f. "' Sam. ix. 11. Knobel. 11 Cf. Juclg. v i. 36 ff. 1 Sam. xiv. 9.
Travels,
p.
;
1

Shaw,

2

241

473,

;

302,

:'.<:;]

GENESIS XXIV.
be the one

IT.

I.

163

20.

"Let

it

drink of water, and then of her

who at his request gives him a own accord waters his camels.
;

The

sign

is

suitably
is

chosen

it

must be the most gracious
also.
1

nuiidcn
tj;3

who

to be Isaac's."

in the

Pentateuch for myj
2

Similarly sin

is

used of both sexes.
rP3in

see

ch.

xxi.

25.

Here and

in

ver.

44

in

the

sense of evidence, assign.

For

"

notes on ch. xv.

H3, ty this, see thy servant," comp. ch. xxvi. 24. 6 and 8. The Samaritan and Septuagint
"OIK.

add D.TQK after
Ver. 1 5
f.

He had
to

herself appeared.
"

not finished speaking 3 when Rebecca She carries her jar upon her shoulder.

This seems
is

there
'y\

have been the usual Hebrew custom, 4 but also mention of the jar being carried on the head." 5
"IPK
"

FfTOJ

of P>ethuel as
ing,

the use of the passive and the designation son of Milkah," here and in ver. 24, is surpris-

for

elsewhere such

an appellation
6

is

taken from the

name, not from the mother's, and the intention to distinguish Bethuel as the son of Milkah and not of Eeumah
father's
(ch. xxii.

23

f.) is

in addition,

Laban
of

not a sufficient explanation. Seeing that, " " is called son of Nahor in ch. xxix. 5, 7
it is

and not son
is

Bethuel,

at least

probable that
the
original

p

tairai>

a

later

interpolation, and

that

text

was

i" 1

/?
9

the

perfect,

objected

to
is

by Wellhausen

8

and

Gesenius
Prov.

because of ver.
25.
see ch.
xii.

45,

effectually

supported by

viii.

n&ri

raD

11,

1

Vv.
E.g.

16, 29, 55, 57, ch. xxxi. 3, 12

;

Deut. xxii. 15-29

;

see Gesenius, 25

2.5.
2

5
4

5
7

s

25 iii. 12 32A. 66. Gesenius, Samar. and Sept. add i^p ^tf, see ver. 45. Ch. xxi. 14 Ex. xii. 34 Josh. iv. 5. Knobel. E.g. xl. 16. Mez, Harran, p. 19. Comp. ch. xxiv. 48 [where the same may be implied of Rebecca]. 25 Biicher Samuelis, p. 159. 107. 1A. 1. Gesenius,
; ;
;
'

164
yr
see chs.
iv.

GENESIS XXIV. 1722
1, xix. 5, 8.

[303

Vv. 17-20. Seeing her appearance to be attractive, the servant makes trial of her, and the sign he had settled on
surprises

him by

its

exact fulfilment.

"

The readiness

to

case of Eebecca, is not oblige a stranger, emphasised in the who draw water. 1 of those however, uncommon on the "part

Eegarding the water-troughs by the well, see

chs.

xxix. 3

and xxx. 38."
"

p-i

w ith

ntrip^, as in ch. xviii. 2."

2

Ver. 21.

Meantime
see

the

man was sunk
and was

in contemplation

of her, or reflection about her, of
his,

silent,

put in no word

in order

to

taneously and

entirely,

and

whether the sign was fulfilled sponso to recognise whether God had

prospered his journey and brought him the one he sought for in the person of this maiden. doubtless only a weakened pronunciation of

and hardly
from
in

to

be connected with

nsB>', to

le desert,
lost

which

Delitzsch

and Keil derive
For

the

meaning

astonishment.

The Septuagint has
the

Kare/jidvOavev,
iy,

the
see

Vulgate contemplabatur. 25 130. 1. Gesenius,
B^inD

construct before

regarded
':i

by

Kautzsch-Socin

as

a gloss,

but

essential for
irk'n

njnf>.

in vv. 40, 42, 56, ch. xxxix. 3, 23, in C.

Ver. 22.
pares

Now
for

that the sign has been fulfilled, he pre-

the

way

further progress by taking out for her,
of

from his baggage, a ring

gold and two golden bracelets.

The

suffix in

her, or puts

them on her

rPT scarcely indicates that he presents them to 4 so the original text will be that
;

of the Samaritan,

which has after

i^pt?D

the words nsN
rip*!

*?$

Din-

We
1

cannot conclude from ver. 47 that D^p^b

originally

stood after ver. 24. 5
I

The things mentioned here were not
ii.

Nirlmlir, H.isebeschreibuny,
K.,,,1,,-1.

410

;

Robinson, Palestine,

3

ii.

22, 250.

4
''

xli. 10, 23; Gesenius, Thesaurus. Knobel. Vv. 30, 47. Igt-n, Die Urkunden des ersten Bucks des Moses, p. 147.
1

GENESIS XXIV. 23-54
the bridal

165

gift,

which cornes
of Rebecca's
is

in

ver.

53, but a spontaneous

acknowledgment we learn from ver. 47,
ypa
as in ch. xx. 16.

readiness to oblige.
1

The

ring,

a nose-ring.

a half shekel. 2

After mfcy

we must supply

i>pK>,

Up to this point everything has gone as he have wished, and now, even more wonderful, he learns, might in answer to a question about her home, and whether he
could pass the night there, that she
nearest kin.
"p3N JV3
is

Vv. 23-25.

one of Abraham's

accusative of place, as ch.

xii.

15.
(see ver.

tairava

the original reading

we may suppose
in

15) to have been
rata p.
Ver. 26
longs, he
is
f.

^N

3

mta ra

place

of

<DJK

iwro ra

Having learned
is

certain that she

to whose family Rebecca bethe chosen bride, 4 and thanks
issue.

God
s

for

having guided his journey to a prosperous
casus

DiS

antithesis

pendens, as in ch. iv. 15; between himself and his master.

it

marks an
thankfully
i.e.

He

acknowledges that God has led him on the way, mistakes or detours, straight 5 to the house of the
relatives
S

without
i.e.

brothers,

6

of his master.

HN

Sept.

""nK,

as in ver. 48,
is

and beyond doubt correct
ae\fyol
Conversely, in the avTrjs for

if

taira in vv.

15 and 24
Septuagint

not original.
ol

ver.

55,

the

has

Massoretic

^n.

Love and faithfulness as in ver. 49, chs. xxxii. 11, xlvii. 29 Ex. xxxiv. 6, and Josh. ii. 14, none of which
;

passages,

may be held, are from A. Vv. 2854. The maiden, thus pointed out by manifest divine guidance, is now won from her kinsmen to be Isaac's
it

bride by a simple recital of the events as they occurred.
1

Regarding
2

it

see

Winer,
;

3

ii.

137

f.

As Ex.

xxxviii. 26
1.

see coniin.

on Ex. xxx. 13 [Dillmann].
4 c

3 5

Of. ch. xxxiv. Cf. ver. 48.

Ver. 48.
Chs.
xiii. 8, xiv. 11.

166

GENESIS XXIV. 28-33

[.304

Ver. 28. She hastens

home with

the presents, 1 and relates
i.e.

the occurrence

to

the house of her mother,

to the female

portion of Bethuel's household, with

whom
the

she lived apart

from the men.
Ver.

29

f.

Her brother Laban,

son

of

the
;

house,

hastens out to the well.

The presents entice him
2

he

is

always portrayed in the legend as strongly selfish.
Ver. 296 anticipates ver. 30 unendurably,

and can only
its

be

supposed

to

have

been

transferred
tfajl,

from

original
error.
3

position

after ver.

30&, before

by a

copyist's

There

is

nothing else in the chapter to support the assump-

tion of a doublet

due

to different sources. 4
inaro.

n$O3
"TBy run
vii.

Ewald,

304^; the Samaritan has
24;
Isa.

as in ch. xxxviii.

xxviii.

8;

Amos

1; Ewald,
Ver. 31.

306d.
presses

He

him

to

come

in,

with the assurance

that he has prepared the house for his reception.

He
the
it.

calls

him

"

blessed of Jahve," for the servant had

named
5

God

of his

master in

ver. 27,

and Eebecca had
no

told of

Ver. 32.
N3J1

The servant goes
6

to the house.
"TIN

so punctuated, because
N3J1,

follows, otherwise

we

should expect

for

Laban

is,

without doubt, subject to

For the washing of feet see ch. xviii. 4. The guest is not asked who he is, or what is the purpose of his journey
;

courtesy forbids
Ver. 33.
before

it.

The servant
until

him

7

will not partake of the food set he has discharged his mission; so imit. With epic circumstantiality the mouth a second account of all that

portant does he consider

author

now
and

puts in his

has gone before.
selves,
1

The

facts are intended to

speak for them-

to secure the wished-for result. 8

Ver. 30.
Ver. 10 supplies no
I

;

means

of justification.
;'

<:

8

4 Knobel. Urkunden, p. 149. Vulgate, J. D. Micliaelis, Dathe, Olshausi-n.

Itfun,

Knobel.
Ch.
xviii. 8.

<

('f.

ver. 50.

::nl,

:;nr,]

GENESIS XXIV. 34-3G
also found in ch.

167

1. 26, but punctuated DK^'i here In both passages we expect a passive, and therefore, seeing there is no instance elsewhere of a Kal

C^m-i

;

the

K

e

re

is

DBW.

Efc>;

for

DV,
}

1

we must assume
3
,

either

2

a sharpening of the

passive

to

or an
'

error in transcription, in all three

passages, by which

has been put for v 4
xii.

Ver. 34f. Comp. ch.
ch. xxvi. 13.

16 and

xiii.

2; and for
11.

<J1,

Ver. 36. After she had become old; comp.
is to

xviii.

It

be observed that the Septuagint read
1^ in
111

nhjipj.
ff.,

'y\

)

cannot be explained from ch. xxi. 10
before this
vv. 1

but

only as a reference to ch. xxv. 5,
stood in
Socin,

which must therefore have

C

chapter, or, according to Kautzsch2.

between

and
vv.

Vv.

3741. As

38.
;

It

need not be supposed that

5 something has dropped out after 41 ft. after the negative sentence its ON tib literally, if not meaning is, but, on the contrary; but this is the only instance

of

such a use, unless, perhaps, Ps. cxxxi.
is

2, for in

Ezek.

iii.

6
'a.

the reading *& DK

preferable.

The Samaritan has DK
is

The alternative
To walk

to this explanation

to take

DN as a particle

of asseveration, truly. G before

Jahve

see ch. xvii. 1.

WKp
me.

from the oath (Sept. apd) which you swore to For the difference between nta and nym, opicos, see

Ewald, Antiquities? Vv. 42-44. Compare vv. 12-14.
NJ IB*

DN

8

compare
as
f.

ver.

49
of

;

for the

&o of request in
'if

a conditional sentence, see note on ch.

xviii. 3,
it

thou wilt
as

prosper

my
f.

way,

I

ask

thee,

shall

happen,'

described in ver.
Ver. 45
1

43

In Judg.

Compare xii. 3 rwybW
;

vv.
is

15-20.

the Mass, reading.

2

Ewald,

131d.
I

3
4
7

Chs. xxiv. 33,

also Ex. xxx. 32 (-|D V from ^ID). 1. 24 6 5 Delit/sch 5 Kautzscli-Socin. Konig, Lehrgebaude, p. 435 f. 8 Alterthiimer* 25 f. [trans, p. 18 f.]. Ewald, 3556.
.

168
see ch.

GENESIS XXIV. 45-52

F.

[305

viii.

21; the prayer
vv.

in

ver.

12f. was

accordingly silent prayer.
Ver.

47

f.

Compare
to

22-27.
:

p

tains

be regarded as an addition to the original

see vv.

15 and 24.
Ewald,
"p"Q

232#.
i.e.

in a true,

right road',

cf.

ver. 27.

"nx

according to the present text of ch. xxiv.

used of

brother's son as in xiv. 16, xxix. 12.

Ver. 49. Having stated the facts, he asks whether or not, in view of them, they are willing to show his master love

and faithfulness

as

kinsmen should.
l

In the latter case, he

will turn right or

left

to search

in other families for the

woman he

desires.
f.

Ver. 50

They recognise from
the

his

account

that

God
This
is

wills the matter,
settles

and they answer in the affirmative.
;

everything

daughter

is

not consulted, she

given in marriage as
as ver.

57

ff.

In this case, however, shows, the arrangement was concluded with her

was customary.

free consent.

Evil or good
tainni

2 nothing at all not a word. must be an interpolation, for in vv. 5 3 and 5 5
;

ff.

Bethuel

is

completely ignored.

It

is

doubtless

from the

hand which added Bethuel's name elsewhere in the chapter. There is no difficulty in the representation that Laban, as
3 brother, has a voice in the decision, the circumstances of a

polygamous household would furnish the explanation, but so complete an obliteration of the father cannot be original.
T:Q^>
"131

lefore you, at

your disposal
first

;

see ch.

xiii.

9.

by what took place. Ver. 5 2 f. The pious servant

thanks God,

"

and gives

Rebecca gold and silver ornaments and articles of dress in Isaac's name, and in accordance with the custom by which
the bridegroom sent presents to the bride before the wedding,
1

Ch.

xiii. 9.

2

As
;

8

So xxxiv.

5, 11,

25

xxxi. 24, 29 Judg. xxi. 22

;

Num.

xxiv. 13
xiii. 22.

;

2 Sain.

xiii. 22.

;

2 Scam.

Knobel.

906,

:'>"(;]

GENESIS XXIV. 54-59
(lie
1

1G9
But the
precious

ami thus made

engagement binding."

things which he gives to Rebecca's brother and mother are
2 the bride's purchase price.

Ver. 54. Only after that does he partake of food and
drink,

and he wishes

to start

next morning, even, in order to

Abraham again as soon as possible. Vv. 55-61. The bride herself, with most ready acquiescence, hastens the preparations for her departure.
reach
Ver. 55. The brother and mother ask that the departure should be postponed for some days, 3 or a decade of days, 4 i.e. as we say, indefinitely, ten days. 5 The reading is, however,
uncertain.
rjpepas
&>cret

The Samaritan has cnn
Seica,

is

&W, the Septuagint
;

the Peshitta
c

^

^r>n

possible that a

^ih

has fallen out

^-^ before D^ 7
11

it is

not im-

.

Ver. 56.
8
),

The servant does not wish
his journey.
herself,

to

be delayed, since,

God has prospered
Ver. 57
f.

Rebecca

when

asked, decides for an

immediate departure.
she

Ask

her mouth, ask herself, so that

may

Ver. 59.
is

say what she thinks on the subject. They let her go. The expression, their
9

sister,

used because Laban everywhere

appears as the principal

personage.

And
quence
;

her nurse

"

there were nurses in families of consefoster

10

they

preserved their attachment to their

children, remained by them, and were held by them in turn in high esteem." n Like Abraham's servant, the nurse here is
1

See xxxiv.

12, della Valle,

Viaggi,

Voyages [Eng.
1821, p. 301],
2
4

tr.

1678, pp. 172, 243],
;

Germ. tr. ii. 225 Tavernier, Germ. tr. i. 282 Jaubert [Voyage,
; ;

Germ. tr. 220 f. See Winer/ under Ehe. Ex. xii. 3 Lev. xvi. 29.
5

Burckliardt, Bedouins, i. 109. 3 See note on

iv. 3.

;

5

Eine
4].

yrosse

Woche

;

Ewald, Alterthfiinn'^

p.
7

131 [Antiquities, p. 98,

note
'

;

Cli.

xxix. 14.
2, xviii. 13, 18,

Olshausen.

8

Chs. xv. 2 Kings
Odyssey,

xx. 3, etc.

<J

Vv. 50,
ff.

53, 55.

10 11

xi. 2.
ii.

362

ff.

;

Euripides, Hippolytus, 286

;

sEneid,

vii. 1

IT.

Knobel.

170
nameless in

GENESIS XXIV. 60-62

[.306

C

\

in

B

l

she

is

Canaan only with Jacob. ra vTrdp^ovra avrfjs (? ilipD 2 ).
Ver.
60.

Deborah, and comes to For nnpJD the Septuagint has
called
their
3

They give her
which

blessing,

expressed
as

in

rhythmical

form,

serves

at

the

same time

a

benediction on her marriage.

ants.

mother of innumerable descendThousands of myriads " This was a Hebrew woman's greatest good fortune 4
;

it is still

the same in the East."

5

The gate of
Ver.
61.

those ivho hate her

see ch. xxii. 17.
of

"As

the

daughter
of

a rich
to

man, Eebecca

receives with her a

number
on

girls

be companions and

attendants. 6

marriage of his daughters, 7 however, gave each only one maid." The second part of this verse, as the text now stands,

Laban,

the

summarises

what occurred.
also

But

it it

is

not

unlikely that
before,
8

originally something stood between
for ver.

and what goes

62

ff.

show

traces of B's hand.

Vv.
his wife.

6267.

Eebecca reaches Isaac in safety and becomes

Ver. 62. Introductory circumstantial clause mainly from rendered R, necessary because he required to give a later
position to xxv. 5
6"s

original text

and 116, which in G preceded this may have been something like
is

point.

'y\

NUD K3
to

the general interpretation
i.e.

had come from
to
it.

coming

the well, 9

had returned from a journey

But
1

for

a journey one
8.

requires ro? or a similar word, not
2

Ch. xxxv.

Schleusner.

See xvi. 2, 4. 5 Sharastdni, trans, by Haarbriicker, ii. 350 (Geschichte der Religions parteien und Philosophensekten) Volney, Voyage [ii. 445, Eng. tr. 1787, ii. Knobel. 485].
iv.
ff.
;

3

Comp. Ruth

11

4

7 Cht xxix- 24, 29. Knobel. For conjectures see Kautzsch-Socin, Genesis[who suppose that the author ivl;iti'il that Abraham's death was found to have meantime taken

6

Pa. xlv. 15 [14].

place].
9

Clericus, Gesenius, Knobel, Keil.

::m;,

.",07]

CKNESIS XXIV.
less

G3

171

N13.

There

is

objection

to

translating

Direction of, 1 but

one cannot see any reason

NUO from the why we should
ded<l->
N3E. a
for "to
to,

be told where he

came from.

The same objection

2 against corrections like OVP for Niun, or "^aip

expect to be told rather where he was going he was. But we cannot translate KU K3, il vint

We

or

where
he

d'arrit'cr,

had just reached Beer, 4 for such an idiom is quite without We must either strike out NUID as analogy in Hebrew.
inexplicable, or set for

the

it i^p, which is a partial adoption of of the Samaritan and Septuagint. His "anoa reading iiii-aning may be taken to be as follows, "Isaac had reached

5 (the desert of) Beer Lachairoi,

and was living there in the

Negeb."

G

In this way

Beer Lachairoi was the place where

Isaac received his bride. 7

The present reading may be due
who, in accordance

to the unseasonable correction of a reader

with chs.

xxiii.

and xxv. 8
Isaac in

f.,

wished to make the servant reach
8

Abraham and

Mamre.
went out
pray
10 12

Ver. 63. There Isaac

to

lament
to

or

to reflect?

mbv
11

also translated to
to

or
is

commune with himver.

self,

even

fetch faggots.
reflect,

Lament

commended by

67

more than meditate or
is
14

whether the subject
provided, that

of reflection

taken to be the care of his flocks, 13 or the matter of his
or anything
original,
else,
is,

betrothal,
in

that
of
is
xiii.

67&

is

the

main

and not an addition
131556,

It's.

The
of

reading of the Peshitta
1

to

take

a walk,

worthy

Delitzscli

5
;

cf.

rosa,

ch. x.

19,

30;

NuS Num.

21; Nute,

1

Kings
-

viii. 65.

3
4

Houbigant, following xxv. 11. Lagarde, Onomast. sacra, Hi. 95

;

Olshausen.

Ps.

Hupfeld, Quellen, p. 29. " 5 Ch. xvi. 14. Ch. xx. 1. Cf. xxv. 11. 8 Knobel, Ewald, Alterthiimer* 271 [Antiquities, p. 203] comp. rvl", Iv. 3, 18, cxlii. 3; Job vii. 11, 13 Prov. xxiii. 29. 9 Sept., Vulg., Clericus, Rosenmiiller, Vater, Muurus, Tuch, Bauiu-

Ewald,

136/i

;

(:

;

;

garten, Delitzsch.
10
11
'-'

Targg., Arabic trans., Grace. Venet., Rashi, Luther. Aquila, Symmaehus, von BoliK-n.
Bottcher.
Delitzsch, Knobel.
13

Tuch.

14

172
observation
ver.
;

GENESIS XXIV. H4-66F.

[307

Gesenius
"

l

calls

attention

to

the mb>3 "pnn of

65, and approves

of this reading.

about the time of the approach of evening, 2 when the Oriental goes out." 3 Isaac sees the caravan coming.

my

rttii!?

Ver. 64. Almost at the same time Eebecca sees Isaac,
and, without

knowing him,

but, doubtless, with
the camel,
i.e.*

a presenti"

ment

of the truth, she fell

from
rode.

sprang quickly
as a
of

down from the animal she
sign
of respect to

She did so primarily
she recognised as a

Isaac,

whom

man

distinction.
5

The custom
and
it

is

several times mentioned in the Old

was the practice among other ancient Testament, 6 7 Jews peoples, e.g. the Eomans, and still exists in the East. and Christians are required to dismount when they meet a

Moslem

of distinction."

8

Ver. 65.

"When

Eebecca learned who
veil.

Isaac

was, she

covered herself with her

The bride appeared before the

bridegroom veiled, hence also the expression nubere viro. Only after they were alone together was the veil removed.
This
is still

the custom in the East."

9

'?1K explained by ver. 36 and xxv. death had not yet been related.

5,

even

if

Abraham's
19

TV-f

in the

Old Testament only in

ch. xxxviii. 14,

besides here.
"IJpn

the
f.

man

there, also in xxxvii. 19, in
all

l
.

Ver. 6 6

The servant recounts

that happened to him,

and then Isaac marries Eebecca.
1

Thesaurus, p. 1322.

2
4

Ex. xiv. 27

;

Deut. xxiii. 12.
Livy, xxiv. 44.
;

3 5
7

Ch.
1

Knobel. Sam. xxv. 23 2 Kings
iii. 8.
;

v.
;

21

;

2 Kings v. 21. Josh. xv. 18.
i.

Niebuhr, Arabien,
tr. p.

p.

50

Reisebeschreibung,

239

Joliffe, Travels,

(nil.
8

174.
p.

Niebuhr, Arabien,
iv.
;

Leitung des Hochsten,
309],
9

44; Reisebeschreibung, i. 358 Sonnini, Voyage [Eng.
;

139
tr.

f.;

Schultz,
ii.

1799,

266,

Germ.

tr. ii.

54, 92

Seetzen, Reisen,
i.

iii.

190.
p.

Russell, Aleppo (1794),

287

f.

;

Jaubert, Voyage,

303

Proverb*, pp. 137,

139;

Game

[Letters

from

the East, p. 92], Ger.
vi.,

N///,

i.

88; Lane, Manners and Customs,
Ostafrik. titudien, p. 147.
25

cli.

1890, p.

Burckhardt, Lelen u. 156. Knobel.
;

A

!-<>

M un/inger,
Gesenius,

10

34

;

Ewald,

1836.

:;<>7,

;tos]

GENESIS XXV
the
1

173
construct

hfatttll

article

before

the

cannot
is

he

explained.
to

It,

may

lu-

conjectured

that 1EN nib'

a

g]*

make

the connection with ch. xxiii. closer.
in

There

is

no

dilliculty

Sarah.

belonging to "Jacob's wives have also separate tents (xxxi. 33).
3

the

mention

of

a

special tent

Similarly the wives of Beduin chiefs."

And
decease,

he comforted himself, after his mother,

i.e.

after her
;

and accordingly now ceased
in
ch.

to

mourn
This
5

for her

with
be a

nns compare ^sb
gloss, like

xxx.

30.

may

also

1DN mb'. 4

It

is

equally possible
is,

that originally

V3N stood where IEK

now

and

that somewhere in the

narrative, perhaps at ver. 62,

Abraham's death, which had

meanwhile occurred, was
present
position, preceded for his

related.
ch.

With
xxiii.,

ch.

xxiv.

in

its

mourned
long

time.

by mother three or four years, 6 an unusually "Thirty and seventy days, even, were long
7

Isaac

must have

periods of mourning."

4.

ABRAHAM'S DESCENDANTS BY KETURAH, HIS DEATH, CH. XXV. 1-11; FROM R, FOLLOWING A, C, AND B (T).
Tuch, Knobel, Ewald, and Noldeke attribute the whole of

this

there
"

la passage to A. Kegarding the authorship of vv. can be no doubt. Its statement of Abraham's age, the mention of Ishmael as still living with him (ver. 9),
reference
to

71

the

the

cave

of

Makhpelah

(ver.

9

f.),

the

redundant style (ver. 9 f.), the expressions nn "on (ver. 10), vy ta c)DW and J3 ( V er. 8), "n \)ir (ver. 7), as well as

w

D'nbtf (ver. 11),"

and the reference

of ch. xlix.

31

to ver. 9, 8

furnish the proof.
1
;

But the case

is

otherwise with vv. 1-6. 9

In

2

n
(

25 Ewald, 290d Gesenius, 127A. 4. JBDTh. xxi. 418. Wellhausen, Arvieux \Memoires, iii. 254], MerkiourdigeNachrrichten,
1 I ..'

iii.

214. Knobel.

'.Inner,

Erste

Buch

tier

5
7

8

Wellhausen. li. 1. 3 Num. xx. 29 Knobel.
1

Thora, p. 213. Chs. xvii. 17, xxiii.
fi

1,

xxv. 20.

(

;

;

Deut. xxi. 13, xxxiv.
9

Knobel. Hupfeld, Bolimer, Schrader, Wellhausen.
8.

174
the
first

GENESIS XXV.
place ver. 5
;

1

[308

is

secured for

C by

the coincidence with ch.

though it cannot be from A in view of the contradiction with ver. 9, where Ishmael still
xxiv.

36

ver. 6 is less certain,

lives

with Abraham, and because of the word D'tM^B.
certain that ver. 6 is
of

If

it

were

from
;

C,

it
f.

would follow that

C

also

had an account

Keturah

ver. 3

cannot at least be from

A, both because of the use of n^ and because of the contradiction with x. 7.

On

the other hand, ver. 1

f.,

apart from

does not use, might very well be from A, 5)0^1, and n^N even points with certainty to another author than

which

A

that

of

ver.

6.

Ch.

xvii.

4

authorship, though
are mentioned,
is

ch. xxv. 9,

f. might also commend A's where only Isaac and Ishmael

rather against
full

it.

In addition, seeing that
years, the birth of sons to

A

makes Abraham's

age 175
i.e.

him

after Sarah's death,
;

be least surprising
before
(ver.

in
of

C

after he was 137 years old, would the account would have to stand

the
2

birth

Isaac. 1

The words miDp
advanced
4

'33

rhx

$o

4)

may,

in particular, be
1

to

support
of

C's

authorship of vv.

6

3

or of 1

5.

But the descent

Nn^

from Yokshan, while against ^4's authorship, is also decisive For these reasons we may best against C (ch. x. 28).
suppose that vv. 1-4 are from B, who in ch. xxxvii. 28 and 36, also, mentions Midian instead of C's Ishmael or that they are an independent contribution from R himself, following B
;

and A.
For
ver.

Ver. 6

we must hold

to

owe

its

present form to R.

lib see below.

Vv.
six

14. Abraham

takes Keturah to be his wife, and has

sons by her,

who have become
due
to

the ancestors of Arab

peoples.

Ver.
ch. xxiii.

1.

'as C)D^

R, connects the narrative with
5

miDp
1

properly frankincense.
Unjcschichte,

Sprenger
2
i.

is

of opinion
19

Oh*
If)

xviii. 12ff., xxi. 7.

Cf> x 29 fj ix

:

I'.ii'lde,
]>.
.3

225; Kuenen, Onderzoek, 2

144,

who

yet on
last

regards the verses as a stray passage picked
6

up by the

redactor.
1

K;iut/;.rli-Sorin.

Geographic Arabiens, p. 295.

:IOK,

:;H'.I]

GENESIS xxv.

i!

175
of

tli;it

the miDp

'33

were made the descendants

Keturah
Tin-

l>rraiise

the author
of

knew them
later times

as

traders

in

spices.

Am!) genealogists

Arabs, but they mention

"a

tribe Katura,

do not speak of Keture.m which dwelt in tinl

neighbourhood of Mekka, along with the tribe Jurhum."

The
but

names

of the

Keturah

tribes also

are only in part capable of
i.

identification.

The

list is also

given in 1 Chron.

32

f.,

in

an abbreviated form.
Ver.
2.

Firstly, six principal

tribes,

a half dodecad, are

given as descended
i"ypt

from Keturah.
a species of antelope.

from

1OT,

The Septuagint
Zafipd/j,,

has Zo/j,(3pav,
capital of
Sea. 2

Z/jL/3pd/j,.

Knobel compares

the

the K.LvatSoKO\7riTai,, west of

Mekka on

the

Red
and

Some

identify this people with the Kinda, Blau

3 Sprenger with the Kinana.

Grotius has drawn

attention

to

the Zamareni
5

of Pliny. 4
is

Shammar,

and

it

pot has nothing to do with questionable if it is connected with the

'"!T of Jer.
J^p;

xxv. 25. 6

Sept. 'lefai;, 'legai;

Ewald
The

7

pfW (Hab.

iii.

7),

Tuch compares ?Bj (x. 26), Knobel the Kaaa-avlrai, of Ptolemy. 8
;

last

named

lived south of the Kiva&oicdKTrlTai on the
to

Eed

Sea,

and correspond rather

the

Ghassan. 9
in

Arabic

genealogists identify \vp with the tribe Yakish

Yemen,

10

perhaps because in ver. 3 toi? is descended from it. of all the descendants of Keturah these are the |Hp
best

known.

They were a powerful people down

to

about
:>6

the time of the
(7>)
ii.

Hebrew monarchy.

In Gen. xxxvii. 28,

and
1

they are engaged in caravan trade with Egypt; xviii. they are found in the peninsula of Sinai

in Kx.
;

in

See Ibn Coteiba, ed. Wiistenfeld, 14; Bitter, Erdkunde, xii. 19 ff. Knobel. 3 2 30 ff.; see ZDMG. xxii. 663. Op. cit. Ptolemy, vi. 7. 5.
4 6
7

Hist. Nat. vi.

138. Sprenger, op. See Delitzsch, Paradies, 237. 3 Geschichte, i. 451 [History, vol. i. p. 315].
vi. 7. 6.

5

cit.

p. 295.

8 9

ZDMG.

xxii.

668

;

Sprenger,
x. 31.

op. cit.

43, 52.

10

Osiander in

ZDMG.

176

GENESIS XXV.
1

2

[309

they appear in the country east of the Jordan, in in the time of the Judges their conflict with the Israelites

Numbers

;

2 even in hordes overwhelmed Palestine 3 mentioned as an Arab merchant people.
;

Isa. Ix. 6

they are

jnp

Sept.
to

MaSdX,

are nowhere else mentioned, for
of

we

are entitled

assume that the B^JP

Gen. xxxvii. 36

of ver. 28. 4 Yet it may ought to be identical with the be thought that the tribes here mentioned alongside of one 5 another were also neighbours. Ptolemy mentions a place

B^p

MaSlava on the

east coast of the Gulf of

'Akaba

(as well as

6

a Ma&ia/uia in Arabia Felix).
place MaSiavrj there also,

The Onomasticon 7 knows
"

a

and

the Arabic geographers

8

a

Madian, which they place five days south of Aila on the 9 Wetzstein 10 and Sprenger n compare east side of the sea."
a

Wadi Medan 12
13

in the neighbourhood of

the ruined city of
to

Dedan.

Osiander

a Jurhamite idol
P3&*

u and Hitzig named Madan.

15

have drawn attention

wrongly identified by Knobel with Shaubak in the Jebel esh-Shera, 16 which is not heard of till the Middle
Ages.
It
is

now

believed to have been also found in the

cuneiform inscriptions as Yasbuk} 7

iw

mentioned in Job

ii.

11 as a

tribe, in

the neigh-

bourhood of the land of py. The Septuagint has Swie, in It may be taken to be the Suchu of the Job 2av%eis.
cuneiform inscriptions, 18 on the right bank of the Euphrates,
1

Chs. xxii.

4, 7,

xxv.

6,

17

f.,

xxxi.

1

ff.

2 4
7

Judg.
Stlb

vi.

ff.

3 5 8

See, further, the Biblical Dictionaries. 6 vi. 7. 2. vi- 7> 27>

Ewald,

164&.

M*S/^.
;

Istachri (ed.
;

Mordtmann,
173
;

p. 10)

;

Edrisi (trans,

333)
iii.
''

Ka/wini,
Knobel.
ii5f.

ii.

Abulfida, Arab., ed.

by Jaubert, i. 328, Rommel, p. 77 f. Mardsid,
Geschic.hte,
3 ii.

64.

Comp.
ii.

also
f.],

IKings

xi. 18,

and Ewald,

473 f.

[History, vol.
;:,,

p.

107

also Wetzstein in Zeitschriftfiir
p. 665.

A llgem. Erdkunde,
p. 295.

p.

10
'-'

In Delitzsch, Isaiah, 1
I

n
is

..

Vfikftt, iv. 445.
vii.

Geographic Arabiens, See notes on x. 7.

1

'

ZDMG.
/v'.'/.

492.
18

On
Op.

Prov.

vi. 19.

"

;

17

liurc.kluinlt, tiyria, p. 416. l-'ii.-.l. Di'lii/sch in ^/\',S7''. ii. 92.

cit. p.

91

f.

:;<)!),

:;io]

GENESIS XXV.

3

177
of

;i]>l>rnxiiii;itcly

between the mouths
tribe

the

Jtelih

and

tin-

Chabor. 1
Sihan,
of.

The "Arab

2 Syayhe, east of Aila, or even 3

a place in

2avrj,

cannot be thought mentioned by Ptolemy, deserves more considera4

the north of Edom,"

tion,

but not ^oa/ca.^

cannot say if the enumeration of the Ketureans 6 and the statement of proceeds from south to north 7 that included Josephus, they Troglodytis and the part of
;

We

Arabia
reliable.

Felix

lying

along

the

Ked

Sea,

is

not

very

Ver.

3.

For

Sons and grandsons of Yokshan. Sheba and Dedan see notes on

ch.

x.

7.

The
a

genealogy here seems to be constructed narrower horizon than that shown in ch. x.

by

one with

Kegarding the three sons of Dedan nothing further is known. Induced by the plural form of the names, even ancient expositors, 8 and more recently Hitzig, 9 have regarded

them
modes

as appelatives to be interpreted of

the occupations or

of life adopted by certain offshoots of Dedan. Knobel's view was that by the Dni^x, who are not, it may be remarked, to be identified with the "N$x of Ezek. xxvii. 23, or

with the corrupt ^K'Kn of 2 Sam. xxix., were to be underf stood the tribes of the Asir in Tihama, 10 by the D^t^> the

Banu Laith
all

in the Hijaz, 11
is

of

which

and by the D'BxS the Banu Lam, 12 For what the phonologically impossible.

Arabic genealogists made of the last two, see the ZDMG. and wvh, as names of persons, have been read on
1

Schrader,

KGF.

142

f.,

222

;

Delitzsch, Paradies, p. 297
vol.

f.

2

3 5 6 8 9

Burckhardt, Syria, Burckhardt, Syria,

p. 594;
p.

Bedouins and Wahulij*, 4 V. 19. 5. 414.
cit.

ii.

p. 10.

Ptolemy, Knobel.

vi. 7.

29; Sprenger, op.

22.
7
i.

Antiquities, Targg., Jerome, Qucestiones and Owmit*tfni.

15. 1.

Schenkel, Bibellexikon, sub. Dedan.
Hitter, Erdkunde, xii. 983 ff. Ibn Coteiba, ed. Wiistenfeld, p. 32.

10
11

12 13

Hitter, Erdkunde, xii. 913, xx. 175, xxiii. 298.

xiii. "234,

438, 451, 458, xiv. 45.

DILLMANN.

-

II.

12

178
Nabatean
peculiar

GENESIS XXV.
1

4

[310

inscriptions.

Hommel 2
D s itTK

and

Glaser

3

have

a

conjecture

regarding

based

on

a

Minean

inscription.

Ver. 4. Five sons or offshoots of the important people of

Midian are named.
r\&y

mentioned also in

Isa. Ix. 6

along with Midian as

a tribe engaged in commerce,
in

which brought gold and incense

from Sheba, and had great wealth in camels.
reads
Tefydp,

The Septuagint
identified with

Isaiah Tai$a.

It

is

now

4 the Hayapa, Ha'apa of the cuneiform inscriptions, a people 5 of North Arabia. Halevy reads a personal name nsy in the

Safa inscriptions. 6
"iDJ>

Sept.

^Afaip.

Knobel

identifies

with

the

Banu

Ghifar of the Kinana tribe in the Hijaz, 7 Wetzstein, 8 with 9 10 Glaser, 'Ofr, a place between the hills of Tihama and Aban
;

with the Apparu of the inscriptions of Asshurbanipal. 11 12 to be explained of Hanakiya, a place "^PD perhaps three days' journey north of Medina, 13 in the neighbourhood
of 'Ofr. 1 *

Seeing that na% "lay, and "pn also occur as family names iii Judah, East Manasseh, and Eeuben, it is quite possible that offshoots from these Midianitish tribes were absorbed
in Israel. 15

Nothing
1

is

known
403
f.,

of JH'?*?

an ^

r

T ??^>
r

Sept. 'AfteiSd

and

ZDMG.

xiv.

447, 477

f.

2

3
4

Aufsatze u. Abhandlungen, 1890, p. 8f. In Ausland, 1891, No. 3, p. 48. Schrader, KGF. p. 262 f. ; for the phonetic possibility, P.
ii.

Haupt

in

ZA.
6

267.

Schrader,

KAT?

146
;

f.,

Delitzsch, Paradies, 304
c
7

Hommel,

613 [Cuneiform Inscripp. vol. i. p. 132]; op. cit. p. 5, between Mekka and Medina.

8
''

JA. vii. 10, pp. 394 f., 418, vii. 17, pp. 186, 208. Ibn Coteiba, p. 32 Abulfida, Histor. anteislam. p. 196. Zeitschrift fur Allg. Erdkunde, 1865, p. 102.
;

Yfikat,
11

iii.

688, iv. 750.

10

Geog. Arabiens,
ii.

ii.

44.
12

13
14

Schrader, Keilschriftliche Bibliothek, Burckhardt, Arabia, ii. 396 (Germ. Wetzstein as in note 8.

223.

Knobel.

tr. p.

610 f.).

15

Noldeke

in Schenkel's Bibellex. iv. 218.

810,311]

GENESIS XXV. 5-8
In

179

S;il>c;in

of
x.

a person. 1
l>9.

inscriptions yT3K is found as the name The concluding words of the genealogy, as in

Ver.
C.

5.

Word

for

word

as in xxiv.

:56,

and therefore from
pnv^.

The Samaritan and Septuagint add
Ver.
6.

iJ3 after

Abraham gave

Isaac

his

whole property, and,

while yet alive, disposed of the sons of his concubines, Hagar

and Keturah, by gifts of servants, cattle, etc. 2 According to B (xxi. 20 f.), Ishmael had long left his father's house. Nor
can

have written

this verse,

if

xvi.

810
is

is

a harmonistic

interpolation.

Seeing, further, that

Hagar
is

called

nns^ and
;

noK
and

in

C and

B, while Keturah in ver. 1
in xxxv.

even termed n
also in xxxvi.

K,

and that
xxii.

B^D
24,

22, and no doubt

12

is

due to R, we are led to the conjecture that

R
in

has recast this verse wholly or in part.

He

dismissed
to

them

eastwards, to the land of the east,

i.e.

general

Arabia, with Arabia

Deserta or the Syrian

desert included. 3

Ver. 7
Ver.
takes

f.

Death and
*n,

burial of

7.

ch.

iii.

22.

Abraham, from A. Abraham's age of 175 years
is

him
to

fifteen

years beyond the birth of his grandsons

Esau and Jacob
brought
xi.

(ver. 26).

His history
in

nevertheless here
case in ch.

its

conclusion, as

the

similar

32.

Ver.

8.

n

v
)

Wi,

as in ver.

17 and xxxv. 29.

In a good

old age (ch. xv. 15).

For

JJTfl

the Samaritan and Septuagint
"
i.e.

have DV^n jnen
Gathered
to

;

comp. xxxv. 29.
his kinsfolk
4

united to them in Sheol.

ii.

The expressions vrvatrta Kin (ch. xv. 15), WTCMrbl fpjw (Judg. 10), and the frequent vnnfcTDy 3Dl^ (Deut. xxxi. 16), have
the same meaning.

They do not simply

signify die, for yu
to

and niD are frequently used along with them, 5 nor
1

be

ZDMG.
Comp.
Vv.

xxvii. 648, xxxvii.
;

399

;

Glaser, Arabien,
3

ii.
ii.

449.
107.

2

xxi. 10

Judg.

xi. 2.

Winer,
xx. 26

3

4
5

See ch. xvii. 14. 8, 17, chs. xxxv. 29, xlix. 33

;

Num.

;

Deut. xxxii. 50.

180
in

GENESIS XXV. 9-11

311

the family burying-place, for the interment often 1 receives separate mention, and they are also used of those 2 not buried beside their ancestors, or of those in whose

But they place of burial only one ancestor already lay. were originally used of burial in a common spot, and were
then applied, secondarily, to denote arrival in Sheol. 4 Sheol those who are related are found together.
further, Bottcher,

3

In
See,

De

5

Inferis"
xxiii.

Ver. 9

f.

See notes on ch.

20.
is still

Ver. 11.

The

first

part of the verse

from A, as

is

The divine blessing which had hitherto The second part rested on Abraham continued with Isaac. agrees with ch. xxiv. 62 in C, and was originally a conshown by
D\"6tf.

tinuation of ver. 5.

In A, Isaac's residence seems

to

have

been Hebron (xxxv. 27). see notes on ch. xvi. 14. 'in T6 "i2

5.

THE DESCENDANTS OF ISHMAEL, CH. XXV. 12-18;
FOLLOWING A. 6

Ch. xxv. 11

made the

transition to the history of Isaac.

But before can quite pass over to it he must add, in accordance with his custom, what was to be said regarding the branch line of Ishmael. 7 Ishmael was a leading O character in the patriarchal legends,

A

and he had received such
it

great promises in ch. xvii.

20

8

that

was quite was

essential to

trace their fulfilment, especially as it
of part of the divine

also the fulfilment

word spoken
xxxv. 29
1

to

Abraham
10, xi. 43,

in ch. xvii. 5

f.

This in
1

itself leaves
9, chs. xv. 15,
;

no doubt that the passage belongs to
;

A?

Ver.
1

Kings
28

ii.
;

and frequently.

2

Deut. xxxi. 16

1

Kings

ii.

10, xvi.

2 Kings xxi. 18.

3
4

Kings

xi. 43, xxii. 40.
ff.
;

5
fl

Ch. xxxvii. 35 ; Ezek. xxxii. 22 I. 54 ff. Knobel.

Ps. xlix. 20.

Excepting ver.

18.
2.

7

Coinp. x.\ xvi. 1 alongside of xxxvii. A in />' and (7, chs. xxi. 18, xvi. 10.

9

Knobel, Noldeke, Schradev, Wellhausen.

GENESIS XXV.

IL>,

13

181

and confirmation
Ishinarr.s
age,

is

found in the heading, in the statement of
in

and

the

formulae

comp.

also especially ver.

12 with
x

ch. xvi. 3

and expressions used; and 15, ver. 13

and the twelve princes of ver. 2 16 with xvii. 20. are wrong in Hupfeld and Bohmer in to the one vv. 13-lGa and case A, 18, in the di'iiying
(the firstborn) with xxxv. 23,

A separate paragraph, with the rr6n nta, heading yet consisting only of vv. 166 and 17, would be singularly wanting in sense. Kegarding ver. 18,
other, all except ver. 17. see below.

The

list in 1

Chron.

i.

2831

is

to be

compared

with that here.
Ver. 12. See ch. xvi. 3, 15.

Ver. 13. Comp. chs. xxxvi. 10, 40, xlvi.

8.

Vv. 13 and
heading in

17 are partial headings subordinate
ver. 12.

to the general

oniDBG

is

surprising,
if

and
it

is

completely
following

superfluous
"

be

only saved from being taken closely with the
to

Drpforf)

:

after their names, according
i.e.

their

genealogical order,"
order.

their

names

in

their genealogical

It is reasonable to

maintain that the duodecimal number
simply due to a baseless schemahistorical

of the Ishmaelite tribes is not

tism of A's? or to a transference to Ishmael of a division
4 existing in Israel, but

had

its

ground in the fact

or religious federations divided duodecimally were not infrequent among Hebrew peoples. 5 But we may admit that the Israelite author's preconceptions had pretty
free scope

that political

when he came

parts of the

to arrange the individual names as duodecimal whole. It is either this fact or a

generalisation of the

word Ishmaelite

to

desert Arab, 6 which accounts for the Midianites,
1

mean Bedouin or who were

2 3 5

Erste

Quellen, p. 58 ff. ; similarly Kayser, p. 22. Buck der Thora, p. 84.
4

Noldeke.

Knobel.

Ewald, Geschichte*

i.

Geschichte des Alt. Test. 1 p. Ch. xvi. 12.

520-532 [History, 40 f.

vol.

i.

pp. 362-371]; Reuss,

182
Ketureans according to
It

GENESIS XXV.
ver. 2,

13

[312

may

1 being also named Ishmaelites. be concluded, moreover, from the fact that the name

Ishmaelite, apart from

its artificial

resuscitation in Ps. Ixxxiii. 1

and Judith
n*23

i.

2 13, does not occur after the time of David, that

3 this confederation early lost its individual existence.

of

and ~np are the best known and the most important The former is expressly designated the the twelve tribes.

and the two are conjoined in the inscriptions of 5 4 Similarly, Pliny mentions Asshurbanipal and in Isa. Ix. 7.
firstborn,

the Nabatsei along with the Cedrei.

The Arabic genealogies

6

make Kaidar and Mbit Ishmael's

eldest sons, but they are

simply drawn from the Old Testament. rp33 The only further Old Testament statements
alliance with them, 7
(Isa. Ix. 7).

re-

garding Nabaioth are to the effect that Esau made a marriage and that they were a tribe rich in flocks

They are nowhere mentioned
to

in the history of

Israel

down

the Persian

period, though,

doubtless,
8

the

same

as the Nabaitai of the Assyrian
in the period

monuments.

But

which followed the death

of

Alexander

is played by the Nabateans. They were an Arab people who occupied Idumea, and Petra its capital, after the Idumeans settled in the south of Canaan. 9

the Great an important part

Afterwards, on the decay of the Seleucide monarchy, they made themselves supreme in the country east of the Jordan, and in the Syrian desert, 10 as far as the Hauran and Damascus, 11
while southwards they extended, not merely to Elath, but even a considerable distance into Arabia proper. 12 They were
1

Judg.
1.

viii.

24,

comp.

vii.

25, viii.

22,

26
3

;

Gen. xxxvii. 25, 27,
p. 5.

xxxix.
2
1

1

Chron.

ii.

17, 27, 30.

5

Schrader, Hist. Nat.

KAT* p.
v.
5.

Noldeke, AmaleJc,
i.

147 [Gun. Liscripp. vol.
18,

p. 133].

E.g. Ibn Coteiba, pp. Historic anteislamica, p. 192.
7

Q

30

(ed.

Wustenfeld), and Abulfida,
Schrader, KGF. p. 102. i Mace. v. 25, ix. 35.

Gen. xxviii.

9,

xxxvi.

3.
ft'.

9
11
12

Diodorus, xix. 94-100

10

Josephus, Antiquities, xiii. 15. 2. Diodorus, iii. 43 ; Steplianus Byzantinus, sub

312, 313]

GENESIS XXV.

13

1

S:j

Arab peoples who then bordered on the Syrians passed for Nabateans, 1 and the whole country from the Euphrates to the Eed Sea was called Nabatene. 2
so widely spread that all the

They had kings
in

of their own, and were as warlike as they were distinguished commercially and by their achievements

the other pursuits of peace.

The ruins

of their principal

town, Petra, and the Nabatean coins and inscriptions, which date from the first century B.C. and the first century A.D.,
are evidences
inscriptions
of

their

culture. 3

have

been

Very numerous Nabatean recently found in North Arabia,
Salih,

especially in el-Hijr or

Madam

and

in el-'Ola, south
5

of

Teima.

4

Their empire was destroyed by Trajan, and fresh
It is still a debated question

Arab

tribes pressed into the broad territories of their former

dominion.

whether these later
the
n'Op.

Nabateans

are

to

be

identified

with

On

the

Nabatean inscriptions and by the Arabs their name is written 6 and B23, but the Talmudic Jews write it with n as well,
7

Josephus
to Isa. Ix.

regards
4).

it

as identical with JV3: (comp. the
if it

Targum

This would not carry us far

were certain

that the later Nabateans were Arameans. 8

But judging from

contained in the Nabatean inscriptions, it is more 9 probable that they were Arab by race while using Aramaic If that be so, the as a commercial people and in writing.

what

is

interchange

of

n and D being presupposed,

we may

still

assume that in name and
1
;

in fact the ancient rvo: are

found in

2

3

73. Strabo, xvi. 4. 18, 21 Pliny, xii. Josephus, Antiquities, i. 12. 4 Jerome, Qucestiones, ad loc. 3 Ewald, Geschichte, i. 451 ff., iv. 458 [History, i. 316, v. 351]; Noldeke
;

in SchenkePs Bibellex.
4

iv.

269.
;

See Documents e'pigr. recueillis par Doughty, Eenan, Paris, 1884 Euting, Nabat. Inschriften aus Arabien, Berlin, 1885.
5

Dio Cassius,

Ixviii.

14

;

Ammianus,

xiv. 8. 13.
f.

ZDMG.
7

xiv. 371, xv. 413, xxv. 123
i.

Antiquities,
8

12. 4.
;

Quatremere in Journal Asiatique, 1835 C. tie Perceval, Essai .?'/ rhistoire des Arabes, i. 35 ff.; Ritter, Erdkunde, xii. 128 ff.; Halevy, Revue R. Duval, JA. viii. 11, p. 107. Critique, 1887, No. 32, p. 104 9 Noldeke, ZDMG. xvii. 706 f., xxv. 122 f.; Scmit. Spnicln;i, p. 31;
;

Euting, op.

cit.

p.

73

ff.

184
the more modern D33,
rvaa

GENESIS XXV.

13

[313

who were

a blending together of the

and other Arab peoples, and, doubtless, of Arameans also. 1 But the distinction of the two peoples is insisted on by some. In any case, the Aramean Nahatu, mentioned in the

inscriptions of Tiglath Pilesar u.

and

of Sanherib, dwelling in

or near South Babylonia,
1T3J,

2

are to be distinguished from the

although later the Moslem Arabs also applied the name 83: to the peasantry who had a fixed residence in the Ara-

mean
of

3 lands, especially of Babylonia.

"T]P

often mentioned in the Old Testament in the time

the Israelite monarchy,

when Midian had now

lost

its

former importance, and especially from the eighth century onwards. They are spoken of as good bowmen, and as the first to be exposed to the attacks of the Assyrians and
4 5 Babylonians, as dwelling in black tents- and open villages, as rich in camels and flocks, 7 and as trading in these 8

6

possessions.

They

were

situated

between

Arabia Petrea

and Babylonia. 9 In the cuneiform inscriptions the Kidri are mentioned alongside of the Nabaitai, and their principal
10 Their name is used in the given as Atar-samain. Kabbinical writers, like the name Ishmaelite, for Arab in

deity

is

general;

the language of Kedar is the Arabic language. Even the Targums explain Kedar by " Arabs," once by B33 (Ezek. xxvii. 21).

^f]K
Schrader
1

Sept.

NaQBejX,

identified

n and by Delitzsch
ii.

12

13 as the Idibi'il of a text of Tiglath Pilesar n.

E.g. again
2

by

Glaser, Geschichte
p.

und Geographic Arabiens,

409

f.

Schrader,
3
4 c 7

KGF.
f.
;

105

ff.
ff.

Noldeke,
Isa. xxi.

ZDMG.
16
;

xxv. 122

Jer. xlix.

28

ff.

5

Song

i.

5.

Isa. xlii. 11

Jer. xlix. 31.
;

Jer. xlix.

32

Isa. Ix. 7.

8
1
i.

Ezek. xxvii. 21.
10
10, regio Ps. cxx. 5,

9

Onomasticon,
intMbitabilis trans

ed.

Lagarde,

Ill

;

Jerome ad
;

Isa. xlii.
ii.
;

Arabiam Saracenorum
;

cf.

also Jer.

and the comm.
10

of Theodoret

also Suidas, sub Krfdp.
ff.;

Schrader,

KGF. 52 ff.
ii.

101

KAT?
'-'

147

f.

[Eng.

tr. vol.

i.

p. 134]

;

comp. Glaser,
11

op. cit.
f.

439.

Parodies, 301

KA T?

13

p.

148 [Gun. Inscripp.

i.

135].

Cf. Glaser, op.

cit. ii.

439.

:n.-{,

:<H]

CJENKSIS xxv.

14

185
In
1

p
is

Sept. Macro-dp,

unknown.
the

Chron.

iv.

25

it

the

name
1

of a family in the tribe of

Simeon.
of

POtto
family.

Sept.

Mao-pa,
in

also

name
of
3

a

Simeonite

The Mataaifjiavel^^ north-east
the
this

Medina, and the
4

place called el-Mismiye

Leja,

south of Damascus,

have

no connection with

name.

The maps

mark a

Jebel Misma* south-east of Kaf, east of the

Wadi

Sirhan, in

the latitude of Idumea, and another farther

south, west of

the

Shammar

capital,

Hayel,

towards

Teima,

where

in-

scriptions have also been found.

It is possible that in one

or other of
npffi

them a

trace of yEtrro remains.

Hauran,

5

hardly the Duma situated in the east of the but AovpaOa? Domata, AovpeOa? probably
8

seven days' journey from Damascus, and thirteen from Medina, on the borders of Sham (Syria) 10 and Irak. this same place was four According to Edrisi,
AovfjiaiOa,

or

<U.j,

9

"

days north of Teime, and
travellers

it

n

in

the

district
12

has been found there by modern of el-Jauf its usual name is
;

Dumath

el-Jandal,"

but

it is

to be distinguished

from the
of the

nDvn of Isa. xxi. 11.

Quite a
13

number

of other places

name Duma
Nfrp

are known.

usually connected with the

Maaavot

of

Ptolemy,

14

north-east of

In the inscriptions of Asshurbanipal, For Mas'u also appears along with the Nabaitai and Kidri. 15
1

Duma.

1

Chron.

iv.

25

;

2 3 4

Ptolemy,

vi. 7. 21.

Riehin, Handworterbuch, p. 993. Knobel; see ZDMG. xxii. 672.

Delitzsch.

Euting in Nabat. Imchriften, p. 2. Pointed out by Wetzstein, Haurdn, p. 93. 6 7 Pliny, vi. $ 157. Stephanus Byzantinus. 8 one time in Arabia Felix, lie at v. 19. viii. 22. 3 it Ptolemy, 7, puts at another in Arabia Deserta. 9 Abulfida, ed. Rommel, p. 89 Yakut, ii. 625 ff. [Dillmann]. 10 Translation by Jaubert, i. 335.
;

E.g. Stieler's Handatlas, No. 70

6

;

;

11
12

Niebuhr, Arabien, Knobel.

p.

344

;

Burckhardt, Syria,

; p. G(!L

.

13 14 15

Enumerated
V.
19. 2
;

in Mulilau,

De prov. Aguri,
148
f.

1869, p. 19

f.

so

by Knobel.
102;

Schrader,

KGF.

KAT*

[Cuneiform Inscr^-

i-

135].

186
a
refutation
1

GENESIS XXV.
of

15

[314

Hitzig's

conjectures

regarding Massa, see

Miihlau, whose own opinion, however, that it was situated near the Duma of the Hauran, has also no good foundation.

Tin

this

is

the

correct reading

2
;

the Septuagint has
;

Xo^dv,
known.

in Chronicles

Xovbdv, Xo&Sdb

it

is

otherwise un-

K'n
in the

not Taima, three-quarters of an hour from Duma 3 Hauran, nor Qaifioi north of the Gherrheans on the

Persian Gulf, 4 nor the
is vi.

Banu Taim

in the

same

5

locality.

It

the trading people mentioned in Jer. xxv. 23 and Job 19, whose land (Isa. xxi. 14) is to be identified with the

Taima'u of the Arabic geographers 6 on the western border of the Nejd, south-east of the northern extremity of the Gulf of Akaba it is also mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions
*
;

7 This Teima has been recently proved along with the Mas'u. found there 8 to have been the seat of an by inscriptions

ancient civilisation.

Y tur
e

Israel,

Saul's
is

and Ndphish were neighbours of Trans-Jordan which made war on them and on the Hagrites (? in 9 time), and partially expelled them. Nothing further
of B^BD.

known
\

The

Itureans,

on the other hand, are frequently
onwards.

mentioned from 105

They are spoken of as a rude, wild, mountain people addicted to robbery, and as good bowmen. Their proper home in the Eoman period was in the hills of Lebanon and Antilebanon, 10 but in earlier times
B.C.

The they may also have occupied districts farther south. Jewish king, Aristobulus I., took from them part of their
1

2
'"''

Op. dt. p. 22 f Given by the Massora,
.

1

Chron.

i.

30, Samaritan,

and Josephus
vi. 7. 17.

"nn.
3 5
(:

Wetzstein, Hauran, p. 94.

Yakut, Mushtarik, pp. 310, 352, 413.
Gesenius, TJiesaurus, 600.

Ptolemy, Knobel.
?

*

Schrader,

KGF.

8
1

p.

262

f

.

By Huber and
I

<

'liron. v.

Euting, 1884, p. 813 ff. 18 ff. coinp. Bertlieau on Ezra ii. 50.
;

SLAW.

111

Si

xvi. 2. 10, 18 US. lix. 12.

who,

;

Pliny, v.

81

;

Josephus, Vita, 11

;

and Dio

:;it,;;ir>]

GENESIS xxv.

n;

187
1

and compelled them to be circumcised or to emigrate. l! cannot be proved from any authority 2 that they occupied Tradionitis and the Hauran as late even as tin- K'oinan
land,
3

period.
I

It

remains,

however,

possible

that

the

modern

)ruses are

descended from them. 4

Y

e

tur has no connection

with Jediir. 6
n*p"ip

mentioned nowhere

else.

The cnp

'^>

wno

are

distinguished from Midian and Amalek, and again mentioned 7 alongside of Edom, Moab, and Ammon, are not an in-

dividual

Arab
i.

tribe,

but as in 1

Kings

v.

10
;

[iv.

30]

and Job

3,

the Arabs of the East collectively

and the

name might also include 8 Amalek, Midian, and Kedar. Compare the ^frij? of ch. xv. 19. The CT}Jn or D^")an, mentioned in the sources of the
Chronicler as neighbours of the tribes east of Jordan, 9 in one case along with a separate mention of the name Ishmael, 10 are

In Ptolemy n they are set alongside of the Bataneans, and in Eratosthenes 12 occur as 'Aypaioi. 13 It is questionable if the name has any
not here included

among

the Ishmaelites.

connection with that of Hagar, the mother of Ishmael. 1 * Ver. 16. "These are the sons of Ishmael in their
enclosures

and

their

tenting places,
"
TVip,

i.e.

who dwell some

in

15 permanent villages or small unwalled towns, others simply

in

movable encampments. 16
1

derived from TIB, a word

2

Joseplius, Antiquities, xiii. 11.3. Strabo, xvi. 2. 20 included.

3 Wetzstein, Haurdn, p. 90 ; even the Onomasticon regards Itura-a and Trachonitis as identical see Schiirer, Geschichte, 2 i. 594 ff. [History of Jewish People, Div. i. vol. ii. p. 325 ff.] Riehm, Handivorterbuch, 783.
; ;

4 5 6
8 9

Knobel. See Deut.

iii.

14,

and Wetzstein, Haurdn,
7

p. 91.

Judg. vi. 3, 33, vii. 12. Judg. viii. 10 ; Jer. xlix. 28. 1 Chron. v. 10, 18 ff., xi. 38, xxvii. 31.
1 Chron. xxvii. 30 f. V. 19.2.
;

Isa. xi.

14

;

Ezek. xxv.

4, 10.

10
11

coiup. Ps. Ixxxiii.
12

7.

Stralu>, xvi. 4. 2.

13

'Ayp<r, Dionysius, Perieyetes, 956.

14
15

Baruch

iii.

23
;

;

Noldeke, Amalek,
Isa. xlii. 11.

p.

6

f.

Lev. xxv. 31

1G

Num.

xxxi. 10; Ezek. xxv.

4.

188
related
to
"vn,

GENESIS XXV.
to

17,

18

[315

circle,

means camp
is
2

;

a

camp
]

is

usually

pitched in a circular form, and

called

,L j."
is.

It is

un-

questionably a technical expression, tribal princes; comp. ch. xvii. 20.

HEN just as

Twelve

HEN

a

rare

word,

and more Arabic

than

Hebrew;

purposely used by
Ver. 17.

A

here and in

Num.

xxv. 15 of the Arab

peoples in question.

Compare ver. 8. The country they occupied. Eegarding Shur in front of Egypt, see ch. xvi. 7 and for n^n,3 the notes in vol. i. pp. 129 and 382.
Ver. 18.
;

In
ing,

the direction

4

'

for

Asshur
so
in

is

words in themselves surprisused in its political signification, and

of Asshur

this context. especially They are probably a gloss intended to intimate that the Ishmaelites extended nearly 6 as far as the Euphrates. 5 Hupfeld regards them as a

corruption of

nw

H3K3
;

7

Wellhausen,

8

Wiy
the
'm

as a dittography of
is

;

while Noldeke
of

9

holds that
locality.

miPK

a corruption of

name
f>a

some Egyptian
or alighted, 10

^B-^y
fell
first

see ch. xvi. 12.
i.e.

fea

settled. 11

The

does not use

|3P,

part of the verse in no case belongs to A, who nor does it attach itself to ver. 17. 12 It is
6.

doubtless from C, and a continuation of ver.

The second

part of the verse, where the third personal singular is surprising, appears to be an addition introduced by or a later

R

hand from

ch. xvi. 12,

with

pp

varied to

btt,

because

it

had

been used just before.
1

Sc-

Burckhardt [Bedouins and WaMbys,

p.

33],

Germ.

tr.

26.

KiK.bel.
2

In spite of Giesebrecht.
1
1

It-re

given

by

Dillmann

as

Chavila
s
r

(?

= Hawilah),

previously
i.

transliterated Havila.]
4
fl

Chs. x. 19, 30,
Quellf.it
,l,i-

xiii. 10.

Josephus, Antiquities,
i

12. 4.

f/o/rx/x, p. 150.

Sam. xv.

7.

JBDTk.
'

*

xxi.

410 (Delitzsch, Parodies,
10

"'

p. 131).

I'-

26-

11

[Of. ch. xxiv. 64.]

Jndg. TiLlS,

i*

Hupfeld.

IV.

THE HISTORY OF

ISAAC, XXV. 19-XXXVII.

1.

archal history.
of him,

ISAAC occupies a very secondary position in the patriNo one of the three sources has much to tell

and what

is

told

is

exactly paralleled in the narratives
is

of the life of

Abraham.
first,

There

the unfruitfulness of his

exposure to danger, the respect paid him by Abimelech, the strife regarding wells with the people of Abimelech, and even the domestic unpleasantness marriage at
his wife's

arising
of

all repetitions from the dissimilarity of his two sons, This remains true, whether or not in Abraham's history.

an earlier form of the legend Isaac was the original Abraham only the copy l and our materials are not
;

and
suffi-

cient to decide such a question.
it,

In Genesis, as we

now have

Isaac appears throughout as the pale copy of his father.
is

He

the son of promise, and inherits his position and the

possession of the blessings

won by

his father.

He

follows in

Abraham's footsteps, without his strength of character and In quietness and patience he faithfully preserves purpose.
his

inheritance,

serves his

father's

God, and in turn,

like

Abraham, is guided, protected, and blessed by Him. His trials meet him at the hands of strangers, the Philistines, and from his own house also, but he overcomes them by his
mild

and docile

disposition.

The

localities

also,

which

tradition pointed out as connected with incidents in Isaac's
life,

are confined to a narrower circle than in the case
in the

of

found always Abraham; iu the extreme south and in the oases of the desert, Beer
is

more detailed narratives he

Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 338 [Eng. zoek,- i. 228 f.
1

tr.

p.

320]

;

Kuenen,

Onth-r-

190
Lachairoi,

GENESIS XXV
Gerar, and Beersheba',
1

[316

though
least.

A
It

takes

him
in

to

Mamre,

2

like

Abraham,

latterly

at

was

that

which remained

Abrahamite immigration after of the of the separation Lot, and of the Ishmaelites people and Ketureans, and which now, for a length of time, settled
of the original

down

in these southern steppe lands, that those of later time

recognised that part of the

Hebrews which best preserved the

type of Abraham, and was their

own proper

ancestry.
to

The

less there

was

to tell of Isaac the
;

so say of both his sons, Esau and Jacob their is of that the Toledoth of Isaac. history part planned Jacob-Israel is the real father of the people of Israel, the

more there was A's work is even

representative

of a fresh immigration of Hebrews from from which, in union with the people of Isaac, Mesopotamia,

grew the scene of his history is in the centre (Bethel, Shekhem) and east (Mahanaim, Peniel, Sukkoth) of the land.
Israel
;

Beside him, as the other principal personage, stands Esauhe Edom, brother of Jacob-Israel, and born before him
;

became powerful, and grew to be an independent people before Jacob, but afterwards was pushed into the background by the younger and more energetic brother, who served also
higher ends.
related peoples, or
for supremacy between these two men, as they appear in the legend, is a the contents of the Toledoth of Isaac, and it gains

The contest

main part of an added interest and importance from the fact that Isaac, whose birthplace was in Canaan, stands on the side of Esau, whereas Eebecca, of Harran, is for Jacob. But this contest between Esau and Jacob, of which the underlying national
significance, as a picture of the relations of the

Edomite and
exhaust

3 Israelite peoples, is still readily perceptible, does not

the contents of the history of Isaac.
history

was

originally in

B

and

C,

The greater part of the and R, in his selection

from their material, has been guided by the same principle which he followed in the history of Abraham, where his
;

ta, xx iv. 02, xxv. Kwuld, Ueschichte*

11, xxvi. 1-33.
i.

2

Ch. xxxv. 27-29.

492-504 [History,

vol.

i.

pp. 348-359].

;;i(i,

317]

GENESIS XXV

191
a

chief interest lay in the divine training of the patriarch
religious hero.

has selected and arranged such narratives as helped him to show how from the first Jacob was destined and fitted to be the heir of the promises, and yet had to pass

He

through a long series of humiliations, trials, and purifications, until at length he became the man with whom God could

renew His covenant made with Abraham, and who could
succeed at last as Isaac's heir.
also

the

characters

of
is

the

In the course of the history two brothers are admirably

delineated.

hearty and straightforward, upright, and good-natured, but yet rude and rough, and heedless of the future and of all that is not at once apparent to him, and so in
the end the loser in the contest.
is

The one

The character
and he
is
;

of the other

ignoble, cunning,

and

crafty,

therefore involved

in a tangle of struggles
l

yet with stratagem he strives to the and strength highest ends, and so in the end, after a long course of inward purification, he is the victor.
difficulties

and

This section of the history, like that of Abraham, falls into three parts: (1) the history of Isaac and of Jacob's

youth to the time of his departure to Harran, xxv. 19 xxviii. 9 (2) Jacob away from home, and the founding of his house in Harran in the midst of strife with Laban,
;

10-xxxii. 3; (3) Jacob's return as one who has successfully contended with God, and before whom Esau must
xxviii.

yield, xxxii. 4-xxxvii. 1.

A.

THE HISTORY OF ISAAC AND OF JACOB'S YOUTH,
CH. XXV. 19-XXVIII.
9.

1.

BIRTH AND EARLY YOUTH OF
34

THE TWIN BROTHERS,

ANI>

PRELUDES OF THEIR FUTURE CONTESTS, CH. XXV. 19;

ACCORDING TO

A

AND C (AND

B).

Isaac, after his wife has been

barren for twenty years, at

length receives twin sons, Esau and Jacob, in answer to his

prayer

;

even at birth the latter seeks to precede the former.
1

Hos.

xii.

4

f.

192

GENESIS XXV.

19 F.

[.117,318

Esau grows up a huntsman, and his father's favourite Jacob, On an a shepherd, and the favourite of his mother. occasion Esau returns home hungry, and sells his birthright
;

to

Jacob

for a dish of lentils.

headings in vv. 19f. and 26&, there are in this, as is proved by the certainly fragments of A's work of the expressions T^n, use the and statements chronological
Beside
the

Paddan Aram, and

Bethuel

the

Aramean.

What

remains

forms a well-connected whole, and in view of the vocabulary, 1 and the resemblance of vv. 2426 to xxxviii. 27 ff., is to be
asssigned in the

main

to

C.

2

But

vv.

25 and 27 contain
;

redundancies, which are doublets from

B

this is

confirmed

by the
of ver.

fact that

B

in ch. xxvii. presupposes the essential parts
xii.

27

f.,

and that Hos.

4

is

evidence that ver. 26a

is

fore, that

may say, therepart of the tradition of North Israel. C has made use of as a source, but that made

We

B

R

further

additions

from
f.

B,
to

hence

the

doublets

;

Kittel

3

assigns vv.

24 and 27
It is

B

and 26&

to B.

certain,

C in common, and vv. 25 however, that in C this whole
and

section did not stand before but after ch. xxvi. (see note on
xxvi. 7),

into A's

schematism
f.,

and has been transposed by (vv. 19 f., 265).
according to

E

that he might

fit it

Ver. 19

A

;

judging from the form of the
it is

4 sentence, as well as from A's custom elsewhere,

probable

that he also had a brief mention of Isaac's marriage, which, 5 however, has been omitted by E. may suppose that in

We

or elsewhere, 6 he also gave some account of Abraham's it, 7 relation to Bethuel the Aramean it is too much to
;

say

that this would take

him out

of his

way, and

ch. xxvi.

34,

2

(in ver. 22 f.), -iny (ver. 21), VJJV (ver. 23). Hupfeld, Schrader, Kayser, Budde, Urgeschichte,
i.

217

;

Kuenen,

Oitderzoek*
8
1

144.
i.

* See p. 158. In connection, perhaps, with Abraham's residence in Harran, xi. 31,
I.

Oeschichte der Hebraer* p. 127 [Eng. tr. vol. (Mis. xxvi. 34, xxvhi. 2 ff., xxxvi. 2 f.

p. 140].

Ml.
7

P.iulde, Urgeschichte, p.

423

f.

318]

GENESIS XXV.
Islunael
is

21

193
does not support
the

win -iv nnly
assertion.
'PI*?;}
1

in

question,

Bethucl

-

applied by and Laban, and to the latter by
epithet
in

also

A in xxviii. 5 to B in xxxi. 10, 24.
3

DiN

ftQ

the

Old

signifies yoke; from the Nabatean, 5 it means oxen for the plough and their harness, and then a certain measure of land, like jugum and

Aramaic

in Arabic,

Testament only in A* HJ? in where it is a loan word

ji'i/erum

as Persian. But by Lagarde Eawlinson gives padanu, which in the form paddnu signifies in general road or path? the force of ginu, garden, and iJdu,
;

6

it

is

regarded

7

8

10

field,

and

it

may

therefore, even in Assyrian,
It

have had the

meaning
that CHK

field
rnfe>

or plain.
in Hos.
xii.

remains the most probable view
is

13
1

the

Hebrew
it

translation of

the expression.

In xxiv.

it is

replaced in

C by

Qnn:

E"}^,

and the Septuagint and Vulgate render
Syriie or

by Mesopotamia
less that
it is

Mesopotamia.

11

It does not, however, follow that the

two expressions are completely identical, still Aram was the district round Harran. Yet
that
"

Paddan
7 also,

noteworthy

the

name

pa, which stands without

D~iN in xlviii.

survives in the
in the

name

of a place

neighbourhood of
is,

Fadddn, and a 12 Harran. The district

Tell

Fadddn

of

Edessa or

Harran

we

are told, 13 a plain surrounded by mountains."
is

u

Ver. 21. Eebecca
1

also barren, like

Sarah and Eachel, 15
2

Ch.

x. 23.

See

p.

147f.

3
4 6
7

; Ewald, Geschichte* i. 490 f. [History, vol. i. p. 342]. Chs. xxviii. 2, 61, xxxi. 18, xxxiii. 18, xxxv. 9, 26, xlvi. 15 (xlviii. 7).

Of. Deut. xxvi. 5

Jawaliki, cxii.

2.

G

Lane, Dictionary, p. 2353

;

ZDPV.

ix. 54.

Prophetce Chaldaice, p. 43.

8
9

H. Rawlinson, Gun.
Schrader,

Inscrip. 1866, p. 62, line 33.

KAT. 2

p.

612 [Gun. Inscrip.
v. 1. 16,

ii.

295].

10
11

Delitzsch, Paradies, 135.

Comp. Curtius,

iii. 2. 3,

campos Mesopotamia

.

12
iii.

Peregrinatio Sylvice, in Gamurrini, p.72;
;

W.Wright,

Catalog. Syr.

MSS.

also Cliwolsohn, Die Ssabier, i. 304, and Noldeke 1127; Yakftt, iii. 355 in ZDMG. xxix. 443 ; comp. Sachau, Reise in Mesopot. p. 222. [Dillinann.]

Edrisi, trans. Jaubert, Mesopotamia, pp. 78, 132f. 14 Knobel.

13

ii.

153

;

Wm.

of Tyre, x. 29
15

;

Buckingham,
xxix. 31.

Chs.

xi. 30,

DILLMANN.

II.

13

194
for nearly

GENESIS XXV.

22,

23

[318, 319

twenty years according to ver. 2 6. This was to prove Isaac's patience, and to make his offspring the gift of grace " He prays then to Jahve, and and not the fruit of nature.
is

heard by Him." ^ " with the passive, as in xiv. 19."
nt?s nrtfb
"

literally, opposite to his wife, so

that she was
in xxx.

in

view

;

with regard to her.
i

roib only here

and
17

38

;

A

has nab."
"inyi

as in Ex.

viii.

4

f.,

25

f.,

ix.

23,

x.

f.,

from

C.

Ver. 22. She becomes pregnant with

twins,

who

jostle

one another in the womb.
contests
of

It

is

a prelude to the future
"

the

men and

peoples.

In like manner the

who were rivals for supremacy, in the womb." another even one with struggled am I if is the way of things, why then that "If so, why She attributes a sinister meaning to the occurdo I exist ?
brothers Akrisius and Proetus,
''

rence."
all

The expression MJN not more so than J? ON.

3

nr noi>

is

concise,

but
nr

after

To

set QN after

would
is

necessitate '"Vnx also,

obvious that

nt

and would not be good Hebrew. It 4 and it is more cannot be predicate, natural

to

In xxvii. 46, also, supply a njn than either 'Wn or *n*W. Eebecca is ready with a similar speech, as if it were better
not to live at
all

rather than to live and see misfortune.
in

Thus disturbed
Jahve.
It
is

mind she goes
that

to

make

implied

there

already

inquiry of existed places

where divinely-inspired responses were given, 5 or that there were seers and priests of the true God 6 to whom people
might apply
If

for explanation

and advice in such circumstances.
21
ff.

ch.

xxvi.

originally stood before xxv.

it

naturally
is

suggests
sheba'.
7

itself

that the sanctuary here thought of
it

Beer-

But

does not seem to be the author's intention to

trace the origin of the oracle in Beersheba'. 8

Ver. 23.

The answer or
2

oracle
ii.

is

rhythmical.
3
< ;

In

its

Apollodorus,
7.

2. 1.

Knobel.
Ch. xiv.
1

<

5 Ch. xiv. S.-pt., de Wette. Wdlli.mscn, JliDTh. xxi. 418.

18.

s

Stade, Geschichte,

p. 474.

319]

IS

XXV.

L'l,

L':>

L95
it

explanation of the children's jostling one another,

d
l.e

the relations of the peoples Ivloni and Jacob as they will
in

the

far

future; the younger

is

to

overcome the elder and
2

make him

serve him. 1

We cannot

conclude

that because the

author, otherwise than in xxvii. 40, says nothing of the ultimate independence of the elder brother, he therefore lived
before Kdom gained its freedom. This was not the place for such an exact description of the future as that given in ch. xxvii. From thy womb they will separate from one another on

leaving the wornb they will be at discord (ver. 26).

3&
"vyv
xliii.

in the

as in xix.
xlviii.

Pentateuch again only in xxvii. 29. 31 ff. applied to age comp. also xxix. 26,
;

33,

14.
xxxii. 9.

m
1&6&1
of her

so

Job

The article may be omitted

in poetry.

Ver. 24. Comp. xxxviii. 27.

became full, of the passage of time,3 here the time

D'Bin

pregnancy. contracted from DVptan, xxxviii. 27.
first

Ver. 25. The

boy
of

is

born ruddy,
hair,
4

WIN,

doubtless
case of

not to be understood

red

but, as in the
"

David,

5

of a
6

reddish-brown complexion.
for those Orientals

There are Arabic
red hair

writers

who account
descent

who have
case,

by

their

from

Esau."

7

In

contains an allusion to the the presence
of

name

D^

;

any and

the

word

this fact betrays

a different source, seeing that a different

The word is explanation of that name is given in ver. 30. 8 not simply a corruption from some other such as "W?' for the
words
the
'\y

rm&o ta
;

are quite sufficient
is it

when

alone to explain

name to

nor

a gloss,

9

but rather a supplement by

R

from B.
1

2

Comp. the similar announcement in xxvii. 29, 40. 3 As in xxix. 21, 1. With Knobel.
Gesenius, Tuch, Knol ><.'!,
etc.

3.

4
5
fi

1 Sam. xvi. 12, xvii. 42, in harmony with xix. 13. Ibn Coteiba, p. 19 Abulpharagius, Hist. Orient, pp.
;

7

Knobel.

8

Budde,

22, 42. Urgeschichte, p. 217.

<J

Kautzsch-Socin, Genesis-.

196
All
like

GENESIS XXV.

26

[319, 320

a mantle of hair or fur, 1

i.e.

covered with hair.

The word "W contains
the intention to explain

whole body a play on ">W, 2 the
his

3 hill-country which Esau's descendants inhabited.

But the

name which

it is

is ipy,

the

name by

which he was known, which would accordingly signify rough, Comparison has therefore commonly been made with hairy.
c

4 lJ, but against phonological law.

Kecent writers

5

are of opinion that Esau and
of

Edom were

such a character, eponymous originally gods. Against gods heroes reverenced as divine, Euhemerus would be in the right
after
all.

Ver.

26.

"

The second comes into the world with
;

his

hand holding

his brother's heel

he seeks to hold back Esau,

who

pressing before him, and to be himself the firstborn. the author takes 3\>V as a denominative from Sjpy, spy
is

heel,

and 3pj, as the

catcher

"by

the heel.

But the incident

is

When twins are born the birth of the very improbable. second child follows as a rule in the course of an hour after
the birth of the
first,

and very often even
8

later. 7

Perhaps

apjP

means one who follows
behind, follow, track out,

after,

for the root apy signifies to be
"
;
'

work against, employ cunning against

is

If, again, spy comp. also the use of the word in xxvii. 36. contracted for an original 5>fcQpJf,10 other interpretations are

also possible. 11
fcOp'l

after

the i&op^ of ver.

25

is

surprising, but no

doubt to be explained by It's having drawn on A, as he has certainly done in the second part of the verse (comp. xvi. 16),
2 3 Zech. xiii. 4. Of. xxvii. 11, 23. Ch. xxxvi. 8. See Fleischer in Levy's Neuhebr. Worterbuch, iii. 732. Cf. also the Phcen. Ofauos (vol. i. p. 37), and Ewald, Geschichte, 3 i. 494 f. [Eng. tr. i. 344 f .].
1

4

5 1 Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 435; Stade, Geschichte, p. 120 f.; Rob. Smith, Religion of the Semites, p. 43 Baudissin, Studien, i. 40 Rosch in Zn.Md. .\\.\viii. 646 but on the other side, Biithgen, Beitrage, p. 10
;

;

;

;

N..ldcke, ZDMG. xlii. 470. Of. lies. xii. 4.
7

A'Tonling to Busch, Lehrluch der Geburtskunde, 289. Bo Itc.uss, Geschichte des Alt. Test. 1 p. 52. [Dillmami.] 10 n Kuobel. See p. 4. Biithgen, Beitrage,

p. 158.

:JL'I]

'.KNESIS XXV.

L>7

F.

197

for

A

must

also have

hud an account of the birth of these

sons.
rnfel

Ewald,
'27

304a.
1

\Vr.

L

As Esau grows up
of the
field,

he becomes an

expert,

hunter, a

man

mb>

&$ means
game
;

huntsman, one
it

who
same

traverses the fields in pursuit of
as the

is

not the

HOIK iyK

of ix. 20.

He was

therefore his father's
;

favourite, for venison

Isaac

was fond

of

was in his mouth, according to his taste VD3 would have another venison. 2 meaning,
"

and

no improvement to refer the suffix to Esau, he was a venison eater, had always much venison." 3
it is

because

Efl

in

the present context can neither

mean morally
on the

blameless nor aTrXao-ros, aifKov^, simplex, simple, unsophisti-

cated

4
;

for Jacob,

in

what

follows, appears always,
It

contrary, as sly
to
5
rf/ie/jo?,

and cunning.

must be nearly equivalent

and

parallels are found in the use of the

German

fromm
wild,

to peaceful (pious), meaning quiet and in the development of the word rbv from a similar

or

in antithesis

significance to that of peaceable.

Jacob
(Sept.),

is

called a dweller in tents, not as being domesticated

but as a
"

shepherd (comp.

iv.

20), because
in
for sport,

of

his

occupation.

Hunting when engaged

as

by

not in self-defence or because of necessity, is regarded by the author as something savage, inhuman, and barbarous, especially in contrast with the life of a shepherd,

Esau, and

which was much esteemed by the Hebrews." 6 It is to be noted that mfc> B*N alongside

of

TV

yr, as

well as Dn p'K alongside of tT^HM 3P\ are most probably doublets from the other source already noted in ver. 25.

Vv. 29-34.
1

A

first

outbreak of the contest which the

Cli. xxi. 8, 20, xxxviii. 14.

2 3

Cf. xxvii. 5. 7.

Abulwalid, see J.A.
Philo,
i.

iv. 16, p.

231

;

Bottcher.

4 6

Septuagint, Aquila, Tlieodotion, Vulgate.
p. 352,

vol.
6

Gesenius, note 4].

Thesaurus; Ewald,

Gc.-l,n-]tf<,*

i.

f>0f>

[Jlistory,

Knobel.

198

GENESIS XXV. 29-32

[.320,321

brothers carry on against one another.

The verses are

also

a contribution to the delineation of their characters.
Ver. 29
"
f.

Esau returns home hungry one day, from the
is

hunt, just as Jacob

In his hungry eagerness he does not say *?m but Bj, swallow, and he cannot at once give the lentils their proper name, but calls them, just

and wishes

to

'

preparing a dish (of swallow some of the red stuff.'

lentils, ver. 34),

1

as they appear,

'

red stuff/ or a
5
'

have been the origin of his name Edom."
read
tffjsn?

<f>oiviiclSiov* " 3

This

is

said to

But should we not
expression in

The Arabic

r

*!j\ is still a
^

common

the East for anything eaten along with bread, and it is clear The from ver. 34 that D'tsny YTJ was an iddm of this kind.

Septuagint translation, ^^fnjfia, seems to have understood it in This seems, in fact, to be the best explanation. 5 this way." 4
Ver. 31.
"

Jacob

selfishly

demands

in return Esau's resig-

nation of his rights
other things, a
tribe,

as

eldest son.

These
in

involved, with

more respected

position
6

the family

and

and a larger inheritance.
fact that the

The author has

specially

in

mind the
Isaac."
7

divine promises belonged to those

in the direct line of descent, as exemplified in

Shem, Abraham,

and

Ch. xxvii. 27

ff.

gives the best explanation of

what was involved.
rnap
DVD
see Gesenius, 25 48. 5.

now,

at

this

moment

(Isa.

Iviii.

4)

;

here,

and
all,

frequently elsewhere, in antithesis to a later in the first place?
Ver. 32. Esau
.sc.

time = first

of

is

willing.

if

I

do not get something to

I am going to die, must die, 9 eat now or, perhaps better,
;

1

See Gesenius, Thesaurus.

2

4
'

As Crates in Diog. Laert. vii. 1.3. Thomas D. Anderson, Edinburgh,
I

3

Knobel.

in a letter of 26th

June 1883.

'n.]. <.<!
ii.

previously by Boysen in Synth, p. 13 (see Schleusner, Novus
fifjf)).

Thesaurus,
8

liii 33. \lviii.

13

ff.,

xlix. 3
ix.

;

Deut. xxi. 17.
1

7

Knobel.

Ver. 33
MTU!,

;

1

S.-IMI.

ii.

1C,

27

;

Kings

i.

51, xxii. 5 (Gesenius,

M-\

;

Wcllliimsen, Biicher Samuelis, 37).

11

Schumann, Turh-.

::-ji
]

GENESIS XXV.
of

:;::

1

<J9

my manner
danger,
;ni(l,

life,

as a

huntsman, leads me into constant

sooner or later, to
I

my

death

l
;

why

then should

I

desire advantages

cannot fully enjoy?
after

Ver. 33.

"

Only

the birthright has been assured to

lentils.

him by oath does the prudent Jacob hand over his dish of It is a thing he attaches importance to, whereas
it.

Esau, as the author adds in censure, despises

ID
Comp.

occurs in the Pentateuch again only in
Ps.
xlviii.

Num.

xv. 31."

-

G

for the

word painting by means

of five

successive verbs.

Esau here shows himself a man
ness, ruled

of shortsighted heedless-

by his desires and carried away by the impulse of moment one without any apprehension for higher things, and a man of common grain, 3 therefore one lightly to cast
the
;

away that which

is

really best in

life.

Jacob acts

selfishly

and immorally, inasmuch as he takes advantage of his brother's need but his cunning and cleverness are directed to higher ends, and he thereby proves himself to be the fitter
;

for God's purposes if only

he were purified from his

faults.

The brothers are presented as typical representatives of the characters they exemplify. But the incident has no further
significance.

birthright because of of it, still less God.

Jacob does not afterwards anywhere claim the it, nor does his father take any account
It

was an actual

fact that

Jacob

in

time not only wrested from Esau a superior national position, but also became the heir and mediator of the promises, God's
chosen.

that

But tradition made Esau indubitably when Jacob was chosen the right of the

the elder, so
firstborn

was

not regarded as before. 4 This had to be explained, and it is done in various ways. According to C, in ver. 22 f., Jacob's foreordained was pre-eminence by God according to B and
;

C, in ch. xxvii., it

was a consequence
;

of the paternal blessing

5

which Jacob got by guile
1

according to A, Isaac himself gives
2

Rosenmiiller, Vater, Kuoltel.

3
5

Heb.

xii. 10.

4

Knobel. Mai. L 21

Cf. xlviii. 8ff.,

where Epliraiin

is

preferred to Manassuh.

200

GENESIS XXVI

[321,322

the preference to Jacob, because Esau married foreign wives confirmed by God (xxvii. 46, xxviii. 9), and his choice is
(xxxv. 9

Here, however, the explanation refers essentially to the character of the peoples as they are typically repreff.).

1 sented in the persons of their ancestors.

2.

ISAAC MOVES FROM PLACE TO PLACE

;

HIS

TROUBLES

;

GOD'S

BLESSINGS AND PROMISES TO HIM, CH.
CHIEFLY ACCORDING TO
"

XXVI. 1-33;

C (AND
famine

R).
in

In

consequence

of

a

the

country, Isaac

journeys to Gerar, is the recipient there of a divine promise, gives out that his wife is his sister, engages in agriculture with great success, and becomes so rich and powerful that

He the Philistines envy him and request his departure. moves towards the Nachal (Wadi) Gerar, and digs there two wells, regarding which there follows a quarrel with the
herdsmen
he
of Gerar.

Thereupon he journeys
is left

still

farther off and
Finally,

digs a well,

which

him

this time uncontested.

where he worships Jahve, and again receives a divine promise. He digs a well there, and is
settles in Beersheba',

visited

by Abimelech, with

whom
all

he concludes a treaty
2

of

friendship.

Hence the name BeershebaV
that
is

This account contains
himself

ever told us of Isaac
his
sons.

apart from the
it

history

of

We

might
all

therefore suppose that
different sources

contains contributions from

the

in union.

In

fact,

however, we

find that

almost
share.
4

3 Kittel alone minimises C's everything is from C; It is indeed certain that also had some history of

A

Isaac
1

;

he related, in particular, a theophany of HB>
ix.

b

which

Comp.

20

ff.,

xvi. 12.

2
::

Knobel.

Hupfeld, Schrader, Kayser, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Kautzscli-Socin. Assigning him only vv. If., 12-14, 16 f., 19-22; the rest he regards as the work of R, who has here inserted parts of 's history of Al'iaham, e.g. vv. 7 if., 26, 28-33; GescUchte, pp. 127, 138 f. [History, vol. i. pp. 140 note 4, 153 note 4].
4

322,323]

GENESIS XXVI
1
;

201

appeared to him

and L\

too,

must have had some account
-

regarding his stay in

But

R

ri-sted

the Negeb, in Beersheba' in especial. has adopted nothing from their narratives, and has There is a good deal content with C's account.
3

indeed, which in expression reminds us of 7>;
sufficiently explained

but this

is

by the use which

C

himself had already

made of B's work, and by the fact much from it in what he wrote.
vocabulary
5

of his incorporation of

Apart from

this,

the

is

plainly that of

4
(7,

and the account

of Eebecca's

6 danger, and of the origin of the name Beersheba', can only be due to him, even though it be possible that B also related how Abimelech continued to hold with Isaac the friendly

relations he

had with Abraham.
time, vv.

At the same

16
is

do not contain C's narrative
inconsistent with

without admixture. 7

Ver. 2&

3a and

16,

8

and cannot simply be an addition made by E on his own acIt indicates that C's text has been united with another, count.
to

which pfeo 3jn

W

in

la

also belongs (see note).

According to

this second source, Isaac intends to leave the

country for Egypt

because of a famine in the land, but

is

instructed by

God

to

remain
It is
"iBK'1

in a place

He

will tell

him

of

;

so he remained in GerAr.
1, in ver.

found in the

first

three words of ver.
6,

2 from

onwards, and in

ver.

and

is

to

be attributed to

B

On the other hand, ver. 16, (comp. ver. 21 with xxii. 2&). the first three words of ver. 2, and ver. 3 a go together as (7s account; in harmony with xxiv. 62 and xxv. 11, it begins by
in

The theophany changed his place of abode. GerAr can only be from C, for in B Isaac receives God's instruction in Canaan; but the words of the promise in
telling that Isaac
2 See xxxv. 12 Ex. vi. 3. Ch. xlvi. 1-4. of xxi. 23 particularly of xxi. ver. 29 ver. 10 of xx. 28 ver. 22, 9, E.g. nnX'^y, ver. 32 (xxi. 11, 25), and the names of ver. 26.
1
;

3

;

4

E.g. nirp

;

(ver. 29), niJT
5

n&OD mitt (ver. 7), rpppn DP3 Kip"! (ver. 24).

(ver. 8),

rDK

(ver. 28),

miT

6
7 8

Vv. 7-11 compared with ch. xx. Vv. 25-33 compared with ch. xxi. 22

ff.

Already Hitzig, Begriff der Kritik,
Knobel.

p.

169

If.

202
vv.

GENESIS XXVI. 1-3

[32.,

3&-5 are due

to a later expansion (see below), probably

from

R

d
,

just as, of course, the

from R.

TOE in la are words E^nrix Of the verses which follow, 15 and 16 are also
harmony with
ch. xxi.

redactional insertions to secure
It is

xxv. 21

ff.

unmistakably clear that in (see note on ver. 7).
Isaac journeys
to

C

ch. xxvi. stood before

Vv.

16.

Abimelech

in

Gerar

;

the

promises of Jahve to him. from B, for Ver. 1. pto njn Tn
"

anything except Canaan but in ^1
nrfep

in

Canaan,"
1K3.
2
1

p&c cannot and in C Isaac

well
is

mean

not in

Tii>

to

3 This reference mostly in A and J?. the famine in Abraham's time (xii. 1 ff.) can only be an

for I? 1?^

;

insertion of
'y\

jft's,

for

up
a
to

to this point

B

has recorded none.
of

"1^1

from

C,

continuation

xxv.

11.

In
;

B

Abimelech belongs
it

Abraham's time, 4 in C to Isaac's but does not follow that there were two different individuals
5 name, only that there are variations in the legend.

of the

Nor does

Ps. xxxiv. 1 prove

that Abimelech was a

name
to

of the kings of Gerar, still less a royal title. be asked also to believe that Phikhol (ver. 26) was a

common Are we

standing
Gferdr

name
2.

for the leader of the royal troops
Philistines, see notes

1

Eegarding
to

and the

on xx.

1

f.

Ver.

Isaac

must not go

to Egypt.

The intention

do so is not previously intimated. The words are a fragment from a narrative differing from that of C, from J5's namely For the phrase 'y\ -IB>K, comp. xxii. 2. (see above).
Ver. 3a presupposes that Isaac
therefore connects itself with
in
[in
xii.
].

is
-pia

already in Gerar, and
is

1&.

found, for example,
xxi.

10 and

xix. 9 [in C],

but also in xx. 1 and

23

py

rvnto

see note, xxi. 20.

1
-

Chs. xxiv. 62, xxv. 11.
Kw.-ild, 276A; Gen. xlvi. 26. Also in Deut. iv. 35, xxviii. 69; Josh. xxii. 29. 5 'l'- rii Kir. Knobel.
(

3
'

323]

GENESIS XXVI. 3-5

203

assurance
l!y all

Ver. 3b gives a reason for obeying the injunction in the of all these lands to Isaac and his descendants.
these

lands

is

meant Canaan and the
nixiN,

districts bor-

dering

mi
1

it.

The plural

elsewhere

used

of

real

countries, signifies the different parts of the future land of Israel only here and in ver. 4, as it does in 1 Chron. xiii. 2

usage, and proves, along worked over by a has been with ver. 5, that the passage 2 The special purpose appears to have more recent hand.

and 2 Chron.

xi.

23.

It is a late

been to secure that Isaac's history also should contain an explicit assurance that the land in its widest sense would
3 But the Septuagint and belong to his descendants. and in Book of Jubilees here ver. 4 have only nracrav For 7NH see note on xix. 8. yijv TO.VTIJV.

the
TTJV

Wprn
referred to

here
is

in

the
xxii.

sense

of
(xv.

maintain.*

The
18

oath

found in

16

ff.

17

ff.).

Ver. 4.

As

xv. 5, xxii. 17,

and

xii.

3, xxii.

;

?p.3nn in

especial, as xxii. 18.

Ver. 5. Isaac and his descendants enjoy this favour because of Abraham's fulfilment of God's will in all respects.

The same principle
viii.
5 19, xix. 34.

is

exemplified in Ex. xx.
it

6,

2

Kings
of

When
laws,

said that
directions,
6

Abraham kept God's
the
picture

commandments,

and

the

patriarchal period is obtained by transferring to it features and circumstances as they existed under the Mosaic law. But this is the only passage of the kind, and that, along

with the redundant style,
of a late redactor,

7

leads us to conclude the presence

R

d
.

For
on

"urK spy see xxii. 18,
i.

Num.
1
-

53.

8 n"E>c, the commentary After nrrQK the Septuagint and Samaritan

and

for

add -pH.
Chs. x.
5, 20, 31, xli. 54.

Who had
As Lev.
Knobel.

xxii. 17
;

f.

before him.
viii.

3

Cf. xv. 18-20.

4 5 6
7

xxvi. 9

Deut.

18

;

cf.

note on

vi. 18.

See, in contrast, xvii.
Cf.
e.g.

1, xviii.

19.
s

Deut.

xi. 1

;

Lev. xxvi.

-1C.

[Dillmann's.]

204
Ver.

GENESIS XXVI. 6-9

F.

[323,324

6. Accordingly he remained in Gerfir. Vv. 7-11. In Gerar he and Eebecca have

somewhat

similar experiences to those

which Abraham and Sarah had
2

there and, earlier, in Egypt. See notes on xii. 1 ff. Ver. 7. The people of the district l asked him regarding
his wife.

3 professed that she was his sister in order not 4 5 The incident is plainly to be murdered on her account.

He

conceived of by the author as occurring in the
Isaac's

first

period of
before

wedded
ff.

life,

and
its

in

it

certainly

stood

xxv. 21

ancy of For
Ver.

ver.

changed 18 with A's chronology in xxi. 5, xxv. HNIID miD see xxiv. 16, and for js, iii. 22.
8.

6

R

position because of the discrep7,
7 20, 26.

The

secret reveals itself, however,

after

Isaac

has been some time in Gerar.
*3"]K

the

*lWn
p?n
ntf

Kal found again only in Ezekiel. 8 comp. xviii. 16 and xix. 28.
viii.

see

6.
Q

pnvo

playing

with Eebecca, in a

way

natural to
is

husband and

wife, not to brother

and

sister.

There

a play

on the name pny also. The author no doubt conceived of Isaac and Eebecca as in a garden beside the king's house,

and not
Isaac's

of

the king's looking in through
10
(!).

the

window
is

of

house
f.

Ver. 9
sented,
as

Abimelech
in ch. xx., as

reproaches
a

Isaac.

He

repreof

God-fearing

king, desirous

maintaining justice and virtue in his land. so she is after all your wife, ^JK though you told us otherwise. Found elsewhere in C n and also in J9. 12
Cf. xx. 11 [their character]. Chs. xxxii. 30, xliii. 7 j Samaritan, ^y. 3 Cf. xx. 5.
2 5
1

4

Cf< xii

12

i>y
i;
1

as in ver. 9

and xx.

3.

1

tipfeld, Quellen der Genesis, p. 155.
St.

7 s

Iliehm in
S.-c,

Kr. 1872,

p. 304.
10

further,
xxi. 9.

Num.

ix. 19, 22.

: '

<'li.

Bolimer.

"
'

<

'lis.

xviii. 32, xxix. 14, xliv. 28.

Chs. xx. 12, xxvii. 13, 30.

324]

GENESIS XXVI.
33 B> Dyft3
'ji

11

13 P,

205

Kwuld,
in

I.'.i5<;

ns

33^',

see note on xxxiv. 2.

nsnn, as

x\.

9, only that here in

C

the technical

legal

term

DB>K is used.
is

Ver. 11. All molestation of Isaac and his wife

for-

bidden, on pain even of death.
l strong evidence against the alleged greater age of this variation of the legend compared with that of xx. 2 if.

This verse

is

is greatly blessed in every respect by becomes God, increasingly wealthy, and so incurs the enmity of the Philistines, in the face of which he withdraws to the

Vv. 12-17. Isaac

Wadi
same

Gerfir.

Ver. 12. Isaac sowed

in

the land of

Gerar, and

that

year, the year of his sowing, he obtained one hundred measures, i.e. reaped a hundredfold, a most unusual yield.

So rich a harvest
in the
D'nyb'.

is

not

unknown
"

at the present day, at least
"

Hauran. 2

The Septuagint and Peshitta wrongly read
in

The expression

that year

cannot well refer to
8, unless,

the year of the famine in ver. 1 in view of ver.
that
is,

we assume

ver.

12
"

to

have been at one time more
3

closely united to ver. 6.
said to

Jacob

also,

but not Abraham,

is

have engaged in agriculture. -Many Arab nomads 4 and the similarly combine agriculture breeding of cattle." Ver. 13 f. Thus, blessed by God, Isaac became greater and
greater

he became very great, i.e. very powerful, because rich in cattle and servants, and the Philistines in consequence
till

5

envied his prosperity and good fortune.
1

Onderzoek*
2

Wellhausen, Prolegomena, i. 228 f. Burckhardt, Syria, p. 296 f
ix. 51.
7.

p.

338

[Eng.

tr.

p.

320]

;

Kuenen,
p.

.

Knobel.

Wetzstein, Reisebericht,

30

;

ZDPV.
3 4

Ch. xxxvii.

Burckhardt, Syria, \\ 273 f.; Bedouins and WaMbys [vol. i. p. -2-2], (liM-ni. tr. [). 17; Berggren, Eeisen, i. 325; Robinson, Palcnttni;"' i. 53; Seetxen, i. 339, 409, ii. 335 Buckingham, Syria, 1825, p. 9 Ritter,
;

;

Erdkunde, xiv. 978 ff. Knobel. 6 For the idiom, coinp. viii. 3, 5, 2 Sam. xix. 33 [32]. xxiv. 35, xlviii. 19
;

xii.

9

;

and

for the use of fnj,

206
For
iv.

GENESIS XXVI. 15-18
the
24.
1

[324,325

participle

instead

of

the

infin.

absol.,

comp.

Judg. again in the Pentateuch only in

The

collocation JKV n:po
xlvii.

and npn rupo occurs
f.

17

nW
Ver.

only here in the Pentateuch
;

;

recurs in Job
Isa.
is
iii.

i.

3.

It is a collective to *i?y
1 5

see

commentary on

25.

2

attached without

waw

consecutive

a redactional
wells
to

addition preparatory to ver. 18.

It explains that the

dug by Abraham had been destroyed by the Philistines

make

it

impossible

for
"

Isaac to

move about

as a

nomad

in

Such a device was used in war, 3 and the Arabs fill up the wells on the pilgrimage (hajj) road if 4 they do not receive the toll they demand."
their neighbourhood.
DiDfip

and
;

0*KW

with masculine

suffix, as in ver. 1

8 and

ch. xxxiii. 1 3

see Gesenius. 5

Ver. 16
jealous

continues ver. 14.

Abimelech also shares the
far as
to

feeling,

and

goes so

bid Isaac take his

departure, on the ground that he has become too powerful
for them.

Ver. 17. In consequence of the

command

of

the king,

and not because of the
also his

filling

up

of

the wells, which affected

new

place of residence (ver. 18), Isaac leaves for the

Wadi
"

Gerfir.

Regarding

the

topography,
ev

see

note

on

ch.

xx.

1.
6

Sozomen knows a monastery,
1C
1

Pepapo^

ev TU> ^et^appay."

.'!

as in ch. xxxiii. 18.

Vv.

1822.

Isaac's stay in

the wadi of Gerar, and his

digging of wells there.

nhxa
Gen.
Ver.
1

the punctuation as in

Deut.

x.

6

;

otherwise in

xiv. 10.

18.

Isaac
filled

redigs

7

his

father's

wells,

which

the

Mill 1st
1

i

ncs had

up
*

after

Abraham's death
3

(ver. 15),
;

and

Ewald,

2806.

[Dillmann's.]

Yon
IIH-2.

Troilo, Reiselcschreibwig [1676], p. KnolM-1.

2 Kings iii. 25 Isa. xv. 16. 682 Niebuhr, Arabian, ]..
;

8 1

135.

5A.

1.

Hist. Eccles. vi. 32, ix. 17.

Knobel.

Gesenius, 120. 2a.

:<':>]

GENESIS XXVI. 19-22

207
history
of

gives

them
is

their old

names.

In

the
in

Abraham
Gerar,
but,
<>!'

nothing
it
is

said regarding such wells

the

Wadi

nevertheless probable that
in

R

possessed some account

them
in

one of his sources

(7/),

his general
of his

narrative at

without, however, inserting it the point where he found it.

Another

sources (C) referred these wells to Isaac, so

he compromised between the two statements in his own way, His reading of the history in with the result in the text. this way makes it clear how he conceived of the possibility
of a

and in
are

double origin to the name Beersheba' (given in ver. 33 But then the three wells, also, of vv. 1922 xxi. 31).
not
to

1 thought of as quite new, but simply as repaired, for we do not read, then he proceeded further to

be

2

dig, etc.

^a

Sept.

Samar.
"

Vulg.

and Book

of

Jubilees

read

Vv. 19-21.

In the case of two of the wells Isaac's
Gerfir,

men

have
for

strife

with the shepherds of
use. 3

who demand them

their

own
njlpfe',

For

this

reason he names them P^V,

strife,

and
D'

enmity."
living
i.e. moving, flowing water as here spring water is intended." 4 journeys further "and digs a well,

D"n
opposed
Ver.

"

water,
;

to standing

water

22.

Isaac

regarding

which

there

is

wideness, because
5

God

has

made

no dispute he names it wide for them,
;

it
i.e.

rorn,

given

them room, and they are able
in the land."

to

be fruitful,

i.e.

to multiply,

p^nyn
U"i
6

see ch.

xii.

8.

accented on the ultimate because of

the

follow-

ing

y.

*3

causative, or possibly particle of quotation

;

compare

ch. xxix.
1

32f.
2

IK-lit/sch.

Kcil.

3

Cf. xiii. 7f.

;

also Ex.

ii.

17

;

Biiivkliai-.lt, Sijr'm, p.

368, Genii,

tr.

628; Bedouins and Wahdbys, vol. i. p. 146, Gerin. tr. p. 118. 4 Zech. xiv. 8 Song iv. 15. Jer. ii. 13 Cf. Lev. xiv. 5 6 5 Knobel. Ewald, 63c, 1936.
;

;

;

Knobel.

208

GENESIS XXVI. 23-25

[325,326

identified with Buhaibe, a hours south of about three Elusa, and eight south of place of wells. 2 When we remains Beersheba', where there are

The well has been usually

1

consider the

words
3

cpb pnjn and compare
njBB>

ver.

23, this

identification is quite possible.

may

even be the

Wadi

Shutnet er-Kuheibe.

'Esek cannot be found.
there Isaac goes up to Beersheba' and

Vv. 23-25.

From

4 receives again divine promises in a vision by night.

As

in

ver. 5,

God.

they are given him for Abraham's sake, the servant of In Genesis, Abraham is so designated only here, but
ch. xx. 7.
"

compare N^J in
Ver. 25.

The theophany leads Isaac
is

to

build an altar,

and Beersheba'
It is

his

5 thereby consecrated as a place of worship. surprising that he should build the altar before setting up " 6 but we cannot therefore conclude, with Knobel, tent
;

that
C,

w. 24 and
the

25, as far as mrp, are an interpolation from
of

for

text

C
It

is

certainly
rather,

continued

in

what

immediately follows.
to represent Isaac's

is

we may
to

think, intended

consequence of
night.

permanent settlement the vision which appeared
8, xxxiii.
1.

in the place as a

him on the

first

&IK D

1

"!

xii.

19, xxxv. 21.

ma
where in
that
it is

as in ch.
this

5

f.

(Ex. xxi.

23
7

;

Num.
It
is

xxi.

18)

;

else-

chapter always 1DH.
set

incorrect to say
8
;

ma means

about digging, and nan, dig out completely

more nearly true to say that tan is dig for, search by digging, and ma, hollow out, dig out? Vv. 26-33. Abimelech's covenant with Isaac and the
1
-

Knobel and

others.
i.

Kol.inson, Palestine? Desert of Exodus, p. 384 f
.

196f.;

Russegger, Reisen,

iii.

69; Palmer,
as

8

Given by Palmer,
Robinson,
1
i.

p.

385

;

and perhaps the same

the

Wadi
1,

Sli iil'in,
1

p. 200.

Bee ch. xv.
1

;

more frequent in B,

see xx. 3, 6, xxi. 14, xxii.
c

xxxi.

1,

iM, xlvi. 2.
\\i. 33, xii. 7.

Knobel.

7
''

Vv.

I:,,

I

si'.,

-2\

f.,

32.
iii.

8

Bohmer.

IMit/.M-li in

ZKW.

452.

:;-;]

CKNKSIS XX VI. 20-30

209
not the ease that
that

explanation nf the the narrative here
of
ch.

name
is

IlecrsliehaV

It is

simpler and, therefore, older than
In
xxi.
is

xxi

22&

1

parties pledge

themselves

27 ff, the form in which the more antique, and in xxvi. I'D
(!)

the journey of the Philistine king
has
little

from Gerar

to Beersheba'

motive.
26.

Ver.
I'.eersheba'

Abimelech
Phikhol
3

comes

from

Gerar
his

to

Isaac
i.e.

in his

with

and

Ahuzzath

JH&,

"

friend,

counsel

confidant, who stood by him ready to give him or render him other services." 4 jnp is found only
rwriK is of

here in the Pentateuch,
Ver. 27. See vv.

the same form as
\

fiv}.

14 and

16.

For the

in EJjM, see note

on xxiv. 56.
Ver. 28. "py mrv, compare xxi. 22.

here equivalent in meaning to a covenant confirmed by solemn curses, as in Deut. xxix. 11, 13; Ezek. xvi. 59.
rtPK

oath, see ch. xxiv.

41

;

no doubt intentionally used to vary the form irni^a WJ'a which follows; compare, further, ch. xlii. 23. nfc'jm for Ver. 29. BN, as in xxi. 23, xiv. 23. nba;n.s

When

it

is

said

their dismissal of

that they had shown Isaac only good, him from the country, 6 Dife, 7 it is true, is

disregarded; the redactional additions of vv. 15 and 18 are,
of course,

Thou
Vv.

not part of the situation. art indeed blessed of Jahve
;

and

therefore

it

is

desirable to be on good terms with you

also in ch. xxiv. 31.

3033.
8

covenant

feast,

"Isaac and his guests partake together of a and next morning swear to one another the
After this the visitors return to Gerar, and
their way.

covenant oath.
Isaac sees

them on

The same day Isaac

receives

news that

his servants,
;

have found water
1

who were digging the well (ver. 25), he therefore names the well n V?'^, i.e.
2 4

Cf. xxi. 22-31. Cf. xxi. 22.

3 5 6

Kuenen, Giulerzoek? 229. 1 Chron. xxvii. 1 Kings iv. 5
;

33.

Gesenius, 75A. 17; Ewald,

Vv.

16, 27.
II.

7

As

224c; Konig, Lehrgebaude, p. 831. 8 See ch. xxxi. 54. in ver. 31, xxviii. 21.

DILLMANN.

14

210

GENESIS XXVII

[326,327

for he takes it according to our author's interpretation oath, This was the origin of the name to be equivalent to njDB>.

Beersheba'
1

;

ch. xxi.

31 contains another legend regarding

its

origin."
ch. xxi. 11, 25.

3.

THE CAUSE OF JACOB'S DEPARTURE TO MESOPOTAMIA HE IS BLESSED BY ISAAC, CH. XXVI. 34-XXVIII. 9;
;

FROM

A

AND B,

0.

Esau marries two Hittite wives
parents (xxvi.

to the discontent of his

34

f.).

Jacob, helped

by

his

mother, cheats

Esau

of his father's blessing,

and

to escape his

revenge must

decide on a journey to Harran (xxvii.
instigation Isaac sends Jacob to

145).

At Eebecca's
to

Paddan Aram

bring back

a wife for himself.
of

Esau marries once more, now a daughter

Ishmael

(xxviii.

19).
last of

The

first

and the

the sections thus marked out

2

belong to one another, and contain A's account of the occasion This follows, without doubt, 3 and object of Jacob's journey.

from the unadorned
mention
in
ch.

character of

the

narrative, from

the

of Esau's age,

xxvii.

(see

and from the vocabulary. 4 Ver. 46 below) forms the transition from what
ff.
;

precedes

to ch. xxviii. 1

comp. also IDtt^KI in
of A's narrative
is

xxviii. 7.

Between the divided parts
the detailed account of
father's

interpolated
his

how Jacob

filched

from Esau

It not only gives another blessing (xxvii. 1-45). reason for Jacob's departure from home, his deceit, namely, and Esau's hate, and even a different account of the paternal
blessing, it

does not agree with

A

in its statements about
for in
ff.

Isaac's age, blindness,

and approaching death, 5

A

Isaac

"

4

2 ch. xxvi. 34 f. and xxviii. 1 K no Turli, Ix'l, Hupfeld, Schrader, Kayser, Wellhausen. jyj3 nun (xxviii. 1, 6, 8), DIK pD (w. 2, 5 ff.),

^^

and

(ver. 3),
5

D^p

and

Q^K (ver.

4),

^nxn

(ver. 5).

Vv.

If., 7, 10, 41."

:',L'7,

:*28]

GENESIS XXVII

211

over middle age. This is sufficient to prove that it must be from an author other than A, who, moreover, This speaks nowhere of the brothers being at enmity. the is confirmed conclusion C has by linguistic evidence.
is

not

much

been generally designated the author, 1 but we know 2 that // also had an account of Jacob's flight from Esau, and the
passage contains a be a combination

number
from

of doublets. 3

It

must therefore
accounts were,

B

and

(7.

4

Their

without doubt, very like one another, and R was therefore able to content himself with introducing into each some differences as to matters of fact found in the other. An
accurate separation
of

the component parts

is

no

longer

5 possible, but following the indications which we have, we

may

assign,

e.g.,

vv. 7,

15*, 20, 24-27, 295, 30a (as far as

35-38, and 45, to G\ and vv. II, 46, 8a, 11-13, 16, 21-23, 28, 305, 315, 33 f., 39, 42, and 44, to B. This 6 analysis differs little from those of Kautzsch-Socin and Kittel.
apjrnK),
18, 19,

The
in

significance

and purpose
it

of the narrative are

found

the explanation

offers of

how Jacob was

able to gain

precedence of his brother, and so, in particular, to secure better land and greater power, and even to exercise The explanation lies in the efficacy sovereignty over him.
a
of the paternal blessing, 7
1

and

in

so far there is resemblance

Tuch, Knobel, Hupfeld, Schrader, Kayser. ch. xxxii. (see) and xxxv. 3, 7. 3 Especially vv. 24-27a alongside of 21-23 vv. 446 and 45a*. 35-38 alongside of 33 f
2

From

;

ver.

30

and 306

;

w.

.

;

4

Wellhausen.
E.g. rnrp, vv. 7, 20, 27
ver. 41
;
;

5

;

rnpn, ver. 20
;

;

r&3

-ll 'fiO,

M

ver.

30

;

-OK

U^3,
xix.

presence
9,

the house, ver. 15 while B is revealed by,

'ft

"p-pltf,

e.g.,

ver. 296 (xii. 3), indicate C*s vv. 13 (unlike DTI^Nn, ver. 28 ;

xxiv. 8),

30

;

ont33, vv. 4, 33 (contrast
;

^

TJN,

t

vv.
;

7,

10)

;

vv. 4, 19, 31 (contrast jyo^, ver. 24)
8, 13, 43,

vv. }t3pn,

16,

42

^p

the

mode

of address in ver. 16
;

xxxi. 11 (Wellhausen)

Geschichte, pp. 127,

Bacon, Hebraica,
7

vii. 2,

"iKO'iy, ver. 33 f. 139 [History, vol. p. 143 (T.

ver. 18 like xxii. 2, 7, 11, (at least never found in 0).
i.

and

pp. 141, 154]

;

comp. B.

W.

Of. vol.

i.

p. 304.

212
to A's

GENESIS XXVII

[328

account in ch. xxviii. 3

f.

But the blessing

is

here

obtained by underhand and deceitful means, in accordance It may appear surprising with Jacob's name, the crafty. that a writer with C's capacity of moral judgment should
relate such a popular legend without a

word

of disapproval,

and should attach importance
deceitfully.

But

it

is

to a blessing obtained thus evident that in C's estimation Isaac's
will.

blessing

accomplished the designs of a higher

God

willed that Jacob should be exalted over
of the

Esau
it

;

the history

two peoples up to
of

this

In the accomplishment men's sins (ch. 1. 20).

beyond dispute. His will God makes use even of
no more than God's instrument
Jacob
is

time put

Isaac in blessing Jacob against his
;

desire, in place of Esau, is

and Eebecca's preference
deceit

for

of

more than merely The
after bless-

earthly origin (in C, ch. xxv. 23).

Still

Eebecca's fraudulent

and Jacob's

sin are not unpunished.

ing

of

Esau
of

(ver.

40),

still

more Jacob's
and
the

flight

and

the

separation
anxieties,

mother and

son,

many

struggles,

disappointments, and humiliations which all at once descend on Jacob, are the just punishments of their
sin.

They are at the same time the means of Jacob's education, by which his ignoble nature is to be done away and himself made worthy of being one in the line of those

who
rence

inherit the promises.
is

Viewed

in

this light

the occur-

the effective impulse to the course of education on
started.

which Jacob now
it,

of

one

who must
will, is
is,

The part which Isaac plays in serve the advancement of God's purposes
indeed less honourable
all,
;

against

his

but in

all

the

legend he
duplicate.

after

no

more

than

Abraham's

feeble

34 f. Esau in his 40th year, and so in Isaac's 100th year, 1 marries two Hittites. See notes on ch. xxxvi. 2 f. were a bitterness of spirit, a They subject of sorrowful
displeasure
illiance

Ch. xx vi.

and

grief,

to

his

parents,

who

did not

desire

with the natives of the land.
1

Ch. xxv. 26.

:!Ls,

:;:>'.)]

GENESIS XXVII.
com]), xix.

i-i;

213

pMJTi

."..')

!ind xxvii. 1.

Ch. xxvii.
far
oil'

1-4. Isaac,

who
to

is

old, nearly

blind,

;ind not

his death, asks
it.

Esau

hunt some venison

for

him

and prepare

1 After partaking of his favourite dish, he will impart his blessing to him. His eyes were gone out (extinguished), dim, 2 away from

seeing? so that they

no longer saw. 4
11.

Isaac's blindness in
possible.

B

and

('

is

what renders the deception
see ch.
xii.

Nrrun
vfl
!>

"

mlant
5

;

only here, from r6n, to hang, and so literally a used of the quiver, which is suspended on one's
is

person,

not of the sword, 6 which

girded on.

Bows and

arrows were the usual weapons of the Hebrew huntsman." 7 HTV elsewhere provision, here nomcn unitatis 8 to the
collective

TV
t

which stands

in

vv.

5, 7,

and 33, and which,
dainty or

according to the Kere, ought to be read here also. D'pytpo literally, something tasty, and so a
9

Isaac desires to impart his blessing only savoury dish. after he has been gratified and attuned to it by the dish of
venison.
as
jtt,

in

xix.

31,

xxi.

30,

xlvi.

34;

in

ver.

10

in ver.

25

]yd?.

Vv.
poses
to

5-13. Rebecca overhears
Jacob
that

Isaac's request,

and prothe

he

should endeavour to secure

blessing by
as

bringing to her

two

kids,

which she
offer

will prepare

venison, and which

he will then

to his

father as

such.

n nyfttr
W3\f?
in

as in 1 Sam. xvii. 28.

harmony with
son

vv.

4 and 7 the
"

Septuagint

reads V3N^. Ver. 6.
1

Her

as in ver. 5 his son,
2

as
;

we

also say

3
5 K
7

Ch. xxv. 28. Ch. xvi. 2, xxiii.
Onkelos,

6.

4

Dent, xxxiv. 7 Cf. xlviii. lo

Zecli. xi. 17.

11'.

Sept., Vulg., Graec. Venet., Targ. of Jonath.,
Isa. vii. 24.
8

Iln E/ra, Kiinchi.
176a.

Pesli., Pers., Arpi'iiius' Araliic, Haslii.

Tuch, Ewald,

9

Prov. xxiii.

3, 6.

214
his
father's,

GENESIS XXVII. 7-17
or
his
l

[329

mother's,

boy,

i.e.

darling

;

comp.

ch.

xxv. 28."

But the Septuagint here has rov

vlov atrn}? rov

Ver. 7 m.T ^sh
xxiii.

18.

Stade
is

2

is

Jova prcesente ac teste comp. 1 Sam. of opinion that an image of Jahve in
;

Isaac's

house

implied.
Z>,

Ver. Sa as vv. 13 and 43a; B,

and

R

write

In the next clause the preposition is i>, '31 "HW&, / bid you, and it is in C elsewhere that JJDP
*?

is

found

(iii.

17, xvi.
wij

2).

Ewald,

212&. prepare
in
3

/
such.
4

s/iaW

ma&e them a savoury dish
repast
"
is

them
of

as

"The
f.

a bountiful one
is

honour 5

the

head of the family who
Ver. 1 1

to give his blessing."

The only scruple that Jacob has is due to his foresight that Isaac may recognise him by feeling his neck and hands, which are not rough with hair like Esau's, 6 but smooth, and may then curse him, as one who makes
sport of (from yyn) his half -blind father.
of being

He

is

not afraid
guilty
of

treated as guilty of imposture, only as
;

mockery
i
e.

for

he would not avow more than his intention to
7

carry out a jest."
its

But Eebecca takes on
;

herself his curse,8

consequences

for she is convinced because of ch. xxv.

23 that Jacob must, and will, have the blessing. Vv. 14-17. " She prepares the kids, gives Jacob Esau's
holiday attire to dress
goat-skin,
"
in,

covers his neck

and hands with
to

and having thus made him ready, sends him
rfion

his father with the food."

With

we must supply

'HJQ
;

Esau's better clothes, 9
is

which he used on festive occasions, are what

meant."
it

A
his

Jewish interpretation in Jerome,
priestly
1

Qucestiones,

makes

dress.

"

Esau's clothes had an odour of the fields
L

[In
'-'

/.

1

< id-man, des Vaters, der Mutter Sohn.] s T\V. xi. 182.

nb y?
,

as in xviii
6> x]iii

7

4
6 8

117. Gesenius, Ch. xxv. 25.
Cf. xvi.
f,.

23

5c.

5 7 9

Cf xviii Knobel.

34

Judg. xiv. 12

f.

GENESIS XXVII. 18-24
about them
while
those of Jacob

215
smelt of the

(ver.

27),

Hocks and herds."
JT3
his tent:

"The Jahvist
in
\i.\.
'2
11'.,

speaks of Isaac's house, not of similarly, Lot dwells in a house; and
(6')
1

Jacob

(xxxiii. 17) builds a house at Sukkotli."

|Bpn run

appears, in view of xxix. 16, 18, to belong to
It
is

B, as the whole of ver. 16 does.
father satisfies his doubts

in

B

that the blind

by feeling Jacob's neck and hands,
satisfies Isaac's

and

ver.

16

is his

on that account.

Vv. 18-29. Jacob carries out the scheme,
suspicions,

and receives the
in
ver.

blessing.

For
in
ver.

18 the Sept. and Vulg. read NJ?J5. ino 20 expresses by circumlocution an adverb in our
Nbji

idiom, just as

2y

in xxvi. 18.

mpn, as in xxiv. 12.
is

Ver. 21
of the

ff.

Isaac's suspicion

roused by the early return
;

supposed Esau, and by his voice he comes to feel him.

but

it is

allayed

when

iraim

does not

mean
3

on him a blessing,"
that has gone before
this

and he greeted him 2 by invoking which would be out of place after all
"

"

;

but,

so

he blessed him then."

After

we expect the blessing itself. Vv. 24 27 a. But, instead, we are told how Isaac, rekiss

assured by Jacob's asseveration, partakes of the repast, and

by eating and drinking, by Jacob's
garments, he then does.
is

and the smell

of his

put in a fitting
It is

mood

to impart the blessing, as

true that all this does not form a bad

continuation of vv.

2123
makes

;

but the
it

last

word

of ver.

235,

inmm,
addition

nevertheless

clear that

we have here an
C, as

from another source.
1

That source must be

ver. 27Z>, its continuation, is (nirr ),

and

in view of rP3 in ver.

15

;

contrast also jyo^ in ver. 25 with "injn in vv. 4 and 19.

Ver. 24.
of

You

here are

my
12

son
4
;

Esau?
n
.T,

Without
1 9.

particle

interrogation, as in xviii.

as in ver. 21.

Jacob

simply answers in the affirmative
1

;

contrast ver.
xlvii. 7,

3

Knobel. Knobel.

2
4

Ch.

10

;

2 Kings

iv.

Gesenius, 150.

1.

216
Ver. 25.
for
:a

GENESIS XXVII. 25-29

[330

The Septuagint, Vulgate, and Book
see ch.
ii.

of Jubilees

TD

have ^3 "prm
12.

Ver. 26. np?N

Vv. 276-29. The blessing itself, partly from C, partly m,T in ver. 276 and 'Jl T in ver. 295 point to (7; from B.

D'r6n

(ver.

28) and nin
its

(

V er. 29a), to
strain.
1

#

It is in poetical

form, because of

higher

The odour

of his son's

raiment
;

still

lingers

in

Isaac's

he compares the smell, sense, and supplies his starting-point which was that of a hunter who roams the fields, 2 to the
smell of a field which Jahve has blessed,
i.e.

richly decked
in

with

glorious
3

plants, with fragrant herbs and flowers

especial.

The Samaritan, Septuagint, and Vulgate add K?p

to rnb>.

Ver. 28.

As suggested by

this thought, his first

wish for
fruitful

his son is a land in
soil

which the dew from heaven and a

beneath will in union bring forth a rich yield of corn and new wine. Canaan is the land thought of regarding its 4 great fruitfulness, see Ex. iii. 8.
;

W.
'tpo

optative, not future;
IP,

compare

rrin

in ver. 29.

partitive, as in

iv. 4, xxviii.

11, xxx. 14.

"In

Palestine

and

is

represents rain during the rainless summer, the principal condition of a fruitful season for this
;

dew

reason

here mentioned in place of rain." 5 ^Pfp not from |f (Dan. xi. 24), but necessarily, because of the sense and the parallelism, for \3t&?, a portion
it is

of the

fat,

i.e.

7

fruitful,

places, or fertile fields of the earth.
to

Ver. 29.
position of

The second wish has a reference

the future

Jacob among the nations.

May nations serve you, and peoples low doivn to you be The wish was realised subject to you, and pay you homage.
1
'

Of. iv. 23 f ., ix. 25
(

f.,

xiv. 19

f.,

xxiv. 60.
.

J

4

3 Hos> xiv> 7 Song iv< Also Winer, Realencyclopadie* ii. 188. Of. xlix. 25; Deut. xxxiii. 13, 28; Hos. xiv. 6; Zech.
'''

onr. 27.

n

.

viii.

12.

Knobel.
'

Kwald,

83a.

7 i sa> v<

830,331]

GENESIS XXVII. 30-33
still

217
EPDft6,86e

from
xxv.

.Inshiiii's
*2'.>.

time,

more, from that of David.
for nnntr
1

inntr,

anomalous

,

as in

xliii.

28.
sons

Hi

a lord to your brethren,
"

and may your mothers

bow

down

to

yon.

We

must, of course, think of Jacob's descend-

ants as possessors of this lordship, and therefore of Esau's descendants, the Edomites, as being the brethren in question.

They were subdued
Israelite

in David's time, 1

rule;

see ver.

40.

"

5

and long remained under Comp. Ps. 1. 20 for the
%

rhythmic
nin

interchange of fntf

and
(Isa.

"pjs ^2.

North Palestinian

xvi.

4) and late

Hebrew

:

also in
iii.

only here in the Pentateuch, although the Samaritan has it Gen. xii. 2, xxiv. 60, and elsewhere; but comp. Ex.
14.
V3J
also only

The third wish

found poetically, here and in ver. 37. is that people may be cursed or blessed

according as they behave towards Jacob; comp. ch. xii. 3. For the singulars "K~iN and ?jvn, comp. Ex. xxxi. 14 Lev.
;

xix. 8

;

Num.

xxiv. 9

;

Deut.

vii.

10

;

Gesenius, 145.

5.

Vv. 30-40. Immediately afterwards Esau appears, but
too late.
Isaac's blessing is given

beyond

recall,

and Esau's

requests and entreaties can only procure him an after blessing. 3 Ver. 30. begins with a sentence from (7, but then

R

gives a
:]N

still

more exact
i.e.

definition of time
scarcely,

from B.
out,

only, just,

had Jacob gone

when

Esau came. 4
Ver. 33. Isaac
is

greatly startled
"

when he

discovers the

The author regards the 5 patriarchs as men of God, and attributes the same effect to their sayings as to the divine mandates of the prophets. A divine word once spoken is a power which inevitably and
deceit, but can change nothing.

God's unchangeably accomplishes that which it declares. word cannot fail of its effect." G Isaac views it as having
1

3 4
fi

2 Sain, viii. 14; 1 Kings xi. 15 f.; Ps. Ix. 2. Cf. rfe in xviii. 33, xxiv. 15, 19, 22, 45, xliii.

-

Kuobel.

2. *

Ewald,
Cf. ix. 18

34L?.
fF.
;

Ch. xv.
f.

1,

xx.

7.

Num.

xxii. 6; 2

Kings

ii.

24; Isa. ix. 7

Knobel.

218

GENESIS XXVII. 34-37
it

F.

[331

been God's will that

should be

so.

He
fe*.

does not become

angry, but submits in patience.

For ba, Kautzsch-S^cin conjecture and in
ver.
;

INB iy only here
blessed,

34

in the Pentateuch.

He

shall also be

remain so
1

03 at

the beginning of the sentence, as in xliv. 10,

Sam.

xii.

16, and xxviii. 20.
;

Ver. 34. Without copula ably

compare

xliv. 3.

But prob-

we should

insert
2
;

Tn
it

1

as the first words, with the Septuaeasily

gint and Samaritan

may

have dropped out after

the rPiT of ver. 33.

It is not probable that the present 3 moulded 4 from an original irD")3Nl arisen or been has reading Tn Tim DJ for it is insufficient 5 to say, and I have also
really blessed him. +
"

Esau

With

passionately grieved at his father's statement. patriotic satisfaction the author pictures the deep
is

distress

then experienced by the ancestor of the people of

Edom."
"ON DJ

comp.

ver. 38,

ch.

iv.

26

;

Num.

xiv.

32

;

Prov.

xxii. 19.

6

connect themselves again with ver. 32 and in supplement to vv. 33 and 34 in order account give to include his special reference to ch. xxv. 29-34, and also

Vv.

3538

C"s

his interpretation of spy.

Ver. 36.

reason been

named

Esau says that his brother has not without The word is taken in the sense of npy.
artifice

one who overreaches another, or uses
as in xxv. 26.

against him, not

W

is it

that

he has been called

?

7

Isn't it likely that

he has been called Jacob seeing that he overreached me, was destined to overreach me, now, i.e. already, 8 two 9 times ?
Ver. 37f.
1
'-'

"In reply

to Esau's question

whether he had

Ch. xxiv. 30, 52, xxix. Schumann, Tuch.
.

13, xxxix. 13, 15, 19.
4 6

3 *
7

Hitzig, Begriffder Kritik, 127. Delitzsch 8

Geiger, Urschrift, p. 377.
135. 2. Qesenius, Ch. xxxi. 38, 41.
25

AH

in xxix. 15
ff.

;

Ewald,

3246.

8

9

Cf. xxv. 31

.",31,332]

GENESIS XXVII.

38,

3<

F

(

'2

1

J

not put aside, i.e. reserved, a blessing for him, Isaac replies that he has made Jacob his lord, and ^iven Tiim all his
brethren, the Kdomites, to be his servants, as well as assigned
to

him the most
?

fertile

land;"

1

what then could there be

remaining IBD with double accusative, Ewald,
see ch.
iii.

283k 2

For

fO^,

9.
is

Ver. 38. Esau

at one with

Isaac in

the assumption

that the blessing once given cannot

be recalled, but thinks

there

must be more than

one.

as xxi. 16, xxix. 11. hp Nbo Ver. 39 f. Isaac is persuaded to give an after blessing, which is, however, more of the nature of the contrary, and is

not in the form of a wish or prayer, but of a " The expressions of the previous blessing are prophecy. 4 3 but IP here is not partitive used, but in another sense."
therefore
5

privative,

as

is

clear

from

vv.

37 and 40. 6
dew of heaven from above}
fertile

Away from
shall
"
be,

the fertile

regions of the earth your dwelling
the

and away from
productive

You

will dwell

remote from the lands which have a
climate,

soil

and a
is

and debarred
;

from them.
it

Palestine

especially referred to

it

was from

that Esau
arid,
is

withdrew

to

Mount

8

Se'ir,

9 rocky, and sterile region.

which was, in general, an 10 According to Shaw, Edom
tableland
it
is

a

bare, lonely

wilderness
describe
12

;

11 and, according to Burckhardt,

we
a

may

shortly

the

north

of

'Akaba

stony desert."
1

Of course

only a general distinction
2

Knobel.

-

Ps.

li.

14; Jiulg. xix.

5.

3
5

6
7

4 Tuch. Vulg., Luther, etc. As Num. xv. 24; Prov. xx. 3; Job xi. 15, xxi. 9, and elsewhere. Tuch, Baumgarten, Knobel, Ewald, Delitzsch. 8 Ch. xlix. 25. Ch. xxxvi. 8.

Of. vv. 13

and 19

of ch. xl.

9

Strabo, xvi. 4.21, describes
-xJupa,

it

as being,

beyond the neighbourhood
'lov^etiec.
ft

of

Petra,

iftytof q -rAs/frr*!, x,xl

(jt.a.~hi(rra.

q ?rpo$
TV)I>

Diodorus,

ii.

28,

speaks of the Nabatean country as xaoxv
10
11

Travels* 1757, p. 438.
[Syria, p. 436]

Germ.

tr.

723.

12

Knobel.

220
that
is

GENESIS XXVII.

40

[332

drawn between Palestine and the land
fertile
is

of
1

Edom.
There

The
no

fact that there are

wadis in the latter
of.

and barren
is

spots in

Palestine,
i.

not taken account

reference to Mai.

3.

Ver. 40. Because
will live

of

the unfruitf illness of the land he
"
2
i.e.

support himself by his sword, So Ishmael in ch. xvi. 12, and live by war, plunder, robbery. and the tribes who now inhabit the old land of Edom." 3 The

upon

his sivord,

last clause of the blessing does not, indeed, recall

the necessity
its

of subjection to his

brother, but
is

it

grants a limitation of
for Jacob.

continuance, and that
exert yourself

of evil

omen

When you

you

shall break his yoke

reference
itself

is

to the reign of for

from your neck* The in which Edom freed Yoram, King
first

from Judah

the

time

5
;

it

was, indeed, again

under Amasyah (2 Kings xiv. 7), 'IJzziah, and Yotham 6 but it finally gained its freedom under Ahaz. 7

subdued

;

in
bridled,

in

the
it

sense of roaming about masterless and unhas,
8

which

is

inappropriate here, even

if
9

it

be

granted that
is

Num.

xxvii. 1

4 covers the use

of

"ifc'jo

;

a yoke

by mere roaming about, and it is already broken when one can roam at liberty. The translation, to be
not broken
gives a better sense but, after all, every conquered So we unsubmissive, people yet does not gain its liberty. should rather render, 11 career about, i.e. make exertions, put
;

10

refractory,
is

forth
iv.
12

: and */o: and Arabic rdda effort; comp. The word has not the meaning shake. The versions have Tnin, rrn, and T>? in mind, but had no other reading

an

1

2 3
4
'

3 E.g. Robinson, Palestine, ii. 154. Deut. viii. 3; Isa. xxxviii. 16.

Burckhardt, Syria,
Isa. x. 27.
-2

p.

507
ii.

f.

;

Hitter, xiv.
7

266

if.

52 Kings
Isa.

Knobel. viii. 20 ff.
6.

8

Jer.

Kings xiv. 22; ii. 31 Hos.
;

16, xvi. 1, 5.

2 Kings xvi.

xii. 1.

Knobel, Delitzsch.
x xxvii. 540.

Tucli,
11

Hupfeld on
Jer.

Ps. Iv. 3.

In spite of Noldeke,
!>

ZDMG.
;

11

Dieu on
i.

cJUt*

Rosennuiller, Winer in Lexicon; 159 [History, vol. i. p. 108, note 1].
ii.

Ewald,

Hengstenberg, Keil.

332, 333]

GENESIS XXVII. 41-4G
or Tin; the Samaritan YIND, also
1

221
in
tin-

thiiii

-inn
is

Hook of

Jubilees, evidently only an emendation. Vv. 4145. The immediate results of the whole incident, Ksau's deadly hatred of Jacob, and Rebecca's advice to the
latter to flee to

Harrau.
found in
1.

Ver. 41. DDb>
viii.

15, in

B\

\Jy^M "iK, comp.

21.

The days of mourning for
days of mourning, as
his father also
till
if

my

father
to

not,

my

father's

Esau wished

avenge himself on
to wait
7),

his father's

2 He intends by slaying his brother. death, which is not far off (vv. 4 and

and

so

spare him the sorrow
so long as
3

of

his

deed;

but

he

will not

delay

till

the conclusion of the usual period of

mourning.
Ver.

42

f.

his intention,

Esau doubtless gave verbal expression and so Eebecca learned of it."
ch. iv. 18.

"

to

For the accusative with a passive, see

With

the Hithpael Dmnn, to console one's self by taking vengeance,

compare the Niphal in
Ver. 44.
days,
i.e.

Isa.

i.

24.

For

nrin, see xi. 31.

have to remain in Harran only some Rebecca speaks in this minimisquite a short time.
will
ch. xi. 1 is

"

He

ing

way to persuade him the more easily." DHHN as in ch. xxix. 20; and Dan. xi. 10
Ver. 45.

;

different.

The words

'31

3ic "iy are
;

an explanation of 44&, and seem from the other source, not for their own sake, but because of
to

unnecessary merely as have been incorporated

their sequel

'31

naBh.

DTJC? DJ

she would lose both on

one day,

i.e.

at

one
to

time,

inasmuch as Esau as a murderer would be
hands
is

liable

suffer at the

of the

avengers of blood (ch. ix. 6).
1
ff.,

Ver. 46

the transition to xxviii.

and doubtless

an insertion by
1

R*

"

Rebecca

tells

Isaac that Esau's Hittite

See Gesenius, De Pentat. Samarit. 38.
Luther.
3

2

Ch. xxiv. 67.

4

Bohmer, Kuenen, Onderzoekf

p.

315

;

Kautzsch-Socin.

222

GENESIS XXVIII. 1-3

F.

[333

wives poison the pleasure of her a similar marriage she wishes

life,

and that

if

Jacob makes

The to live no longer." l reference to xxvi. 34f. is plain; but it does not follow, 2 therefore, that the verse is from A, or even from A and
C.
3

Nor

are

the

expressions

nn

iron

4

and

pxn rnn any
2, writes

proof so long as -4, in chs. xxviii. 1, 6, 8,

and xxxvi.

throughout

fjttD

D133
5

;

C

uses

ojjjan JYD3.

they might be imitations of by On the contrary, in ch. xxvi. 35 these
;

A

R

;

wives of Esau were a grief to both his parents and while Eebecca's initiative is quite in accordance with the representation
1
ff.,

of

the writers of ch. xxvii., Isaac in A, xxviii.
;

acts independently

D^n ^ ntb,

too,

finds

its

analogy

in

ch.

xxv.

pressions

"Moreover, the conjunction of the exthe nuaB arouses suspicion nn rrono and
22.

pn

;

Septuagint omits the former." Ch. xxviii. 19. A's account of

6

how Jacob was

sent to

Paddan Aram
Isaac.

for his marriage,

and how he was blessed by

Ver.
jVJD

1.

Isaac blesses Jacob, and gives

him

a charge.

For

nun, see note on ch. xxiv. 3 [xxvii. 46, above].

Ver.
in

2.

Q"]N nrnja

see ch. xxv.

20.

For the construct
,

n_,

comp. xx. 1

and nn^ here;

for the

ch. xiv.

10

;

for the accentuation of H

before N,Ewald,

216c and 63c;

nan in xxix. 21, etc. similarly noj in xxvii. 45,

The blessing consists in the desire that God him with fruitfulness and a numerous posterity, may prosper and may give him and his descendants the land granted to
Ver. 3
f.

"

Abraham."
nt? ta
in A.
xxxiii.

see ch. xvii. 1.
is

D^oy

trip,

as in xxxv. 11, xlviii. 4,
e.g.

DW

also used of the tribes of Israel,
xvii. 14,

in Deut.
bless-

3; see also Gen.

xxv.

8.

Abraham's

ing, in ch. xvii. 8,
1

where

also see for

Knobel.
Knobel, Schrader, Kayser, Wellhausen, Kittel. 4 Delitzsch 5 For A's nn ^l see ch. 6 Ch. xxiv. 3, 37. Olshausen.
.

2
3

xxiii. 3.

6

GENESIS XXVIII. 5-9
Ver.

223
For
'GIN,
st'<3

5.

Jacob obeys and departs.

note on

xx.
Yv.

69. Esau
to

learns from the example;

and

in order to
in

gain the satisfaction and good pleasure of his parents, and

some measure
case
of

repair his error, he marries again

;

in this

a relative, a daughter of

Ishmael's,

and granddaughter
its

Abraham's.
rfc i
;

instead of r&aty
^?,

ence on
is

also still
lEK'tal

dependthough farther on, in ver. 7, we find yDCh, which dependent on *3 N"ll in ver. 6.
probably due to R, and inserted with reference
f.

may

be explained by

to xxvii.

43
8.

Ver.

N-PI

introduces a second consideration.
he

The expression, imply that Esau now left his
Ver.
9.

went

to

Ishmael,

does
l
;

not

father's house entirely

on the

contrary, see ch. xxxvi. 6

f

.

;

he went only to obtain a wife.
;

Ishmael was accordingly still alive and this agrees very well with xxv. 26 and xxvi. 34 (comp. xxv. 17 and xvii. 24 f.). Apart from devotion to a chronology compiled by harmonistic
devices,
2

there

is

no reason for discovering
of

that

Ishmael
length
of

means the family
1

Ishmael, or
as in

for

going the

striking out ^iftD^' "^,

the Samaritan text.

Regarding

the chronology, see note at the conclusion of ch. xxxv.
Sister of

Nelayoth

comp. note on xxiv. 50.
in

Up
xviii.

to

his wives

addition to them, xxxi.

50

;

Lev.

18.
ch. xxxvi. 3.

Regarding Machalath, see note on

B.

JACOB

AWAY FROM HOME, AND THE FOUNDING OF
HIS HOUSE, CH. XXVIII. 10-XXXII.
3.

1.

JACOB'S

DREAM AT BETHEL,
FROM

CH. XXVIII.
0.

10-22;

B

AND

Jacob leaves Beersheba', passes the night at Luz, there

dreams
i

of

the

ladder reaching to
2

heaven, receives divine
i.

Tuch.

Delitzsch, Keil, Kohler, Geschichte,

135.

224
promises,
it.

GENESIS XXVIII

[334

names the place Bethel, and makes a vow regarding

had been destined by his father's blessing to be heir and transmitter of the promises, but now for the first time
receives confirmation of
it

He

from God.

His journeyings are
;

beginning, and
of

the period of his education also

so the certainty

the divine protection and of his exalted destiny
to

him
It

is given him as the star of his with guiding go wanderings.

was the same in Abraham's
2
ff.

case, xii. 1

ff.,

and in
of

Isaac's,
is

xxvi.

The
clear.

origin

also

of

the

sanctity

Bethel

here

made

43 by the jnp
and the words

The passage connects itself with xxvi. 23 if. and xxvii. The use of mrr -iao& and nrin of ver. 10.
1

,

the contents and expression of the promises in vv. 13
?#
saw (ver.

1

16,
(ver.

13),

pa

(ver. 14),
f.

and nDIN

14

f.),

reveal the hand of C.
;

Vv. 11

and 17-22, however,

of

and while ch. xxxv. 9-15 prohibits our thinking A's authorship, the later reference to the verses in xxxi. 13 and xxxv. 3, 7 proves that they belong to$; 2 this is confirmed by the expressions n Jtts (ver. II) 3 and npnn own
have DTita
4

(ver. 18),

as

well as by the mention of tenths
of
ver.

in ver.

22

and the dream

12.
JB's

5

H, accordingly,

has

worked
in in

together a narrative of

the sanctity of
Jacob's

whose special interest was Bethel and of the stone of Jacob, and
of
C's,

vow

;

and one

which

laid

emphasis on God's

In the case of ver. 19& promises to Jacob. doubt to which source to assign it probably
;

we may be
it

in

belonged to

both, for neither

can do without

it

;

B, in particular, in xxxi.
to be

13 and xxxv.
in existence. 6 of ver.

3,

presupposes the But the use of
of ver.

name Bethel

already

nnn

and the needlessness

16 alongside

15
1

f.

to

B?

It

is

17 prevent our attributing ver. just this parallelism of vv. 16 and 17

Cf. xiii. 14, 16, xii. 3, xviii. 18.

2

Knobel, Hupfeld, Bohmer, Schrader, Wellliausen, Kittel, KautzschCh. xxxii. 2. Ch. xx. 3 and frequently. Knobel.
4

Sorili.
3

chs. xx.

8, xxi. 14, xxii. 3.

5
'

c

Contrary to Hupfeld's view.

834, 336]

GENESIS XXVIII.
also, that

in

IL'

225

which proves,
that
it is

not simply a narrative of

two sources have been conjoined, and j&'s worked over by 7,',
1

or by the harmonist of

JE?

The

contents, too, of ver. 10
ij

are too naive for
to
xii.

R

or JE, and

C

in xxxii. 1

has a reference
15).

xxviii.
8,

14
(7,

(cf.

also xxxii.

10 with
itself,

xxviii.

In ch.

in

it is

not Bethel
is

neighbourhood, winch
is

but only a place in its consecrated by Abraham. Ver. 19&
(7,

from

R\ 216

is

either from

or owes its present form

to R.
itself, though not directly, to In A, Jacob's departure has been already In B, his destination is given a recounted xxviii. 5 (7).

Ver. 10, from C, attaches
xxvii.

ch.

45.

different

name
11
f.

(xxix. 1).
Isaac's place of residence, according to

jntr ">K3E

C?

from B, though C also must have had someJacob hits on the (sacred) spot* DlpD thing corresponding. 5 is better so translated than the suited for place by passing
Ver.
the night.
dence.

He

This very coincidence was itself a divine provitakes of the stones one (ver. 18) and lays it
place where

at his head-place? the

he

laid his head, at his

head.

This was already some days' journey from Beersheba'. 8 Ver. 12. In the night, in a dream, 9 he sees a ladder
10

resting on the earth

God
say

are climbing

and reaching to the sky the angels of The author does not up and down on it.
;

down and up, the angels are already below when he sees them they ascend, and afterwards return. " This ladder symbolises the thought that heaven and earth, God and men, stand in communication n that God sways the earth from
; ;

heaven by the agency of His Spirit, and guides the destinies of men." It suggests to the dreamer the double conviction
that,
1

though he

is

a

fugitive
2

and lonely wanderer, God's
Kuenen, Onderzoek? pp. 145, 247.
See
Chs.
xii. 6.
4

Bohmer.
Ch. xxvi. 23 (also xxv. 21 As in 5th ed.
il'.).

3

5
7

<!

iv. 4, xxvii. 28.

Ewald,
Ch. xx.
3.

160ft.

8

9
11

10

Ch. xxii. 4. Ch. xxi. 17.

Cf. ix. 17.

DILLMANN.

II.

15

226

GENESIS XXVIII. 13-1G

[.335

angels are already with

him

to protect
is

and support him, 1 and
heaven and earth.
the

that this place where he rests

a true Divine sanctuary, 2

where there

is

communication
is

between
of

The communication

by means

a ladder, because

3 angels were not at first thought of as having wings. Vv. 13-15, from C. This author narrated a Divine manifestation, and the giving of a promise to Jacob during

his sleep (ver. 16), but nothing of

any dream
the account

of a

heavenly
intends

ladder.

R, by his insertion of

here,

God's words to be taken as an interpretation (ver. 15) and

expansion (ver. 13f.) of the heavenly ladder.
vf>y

what was

implicit in the

dream

of

the

up

4 generally translated up above on it, the ladder above is the very thing not expressed, and

;

but
it
is

why Jahve should stand on the ladder. impossible Besides, the whole verse is from C, so translate Jahve stood
to

see

above (before) him. 5

God
I give

of

the patriarchs

Abraham and
7, xiii.

Isaac,

cf.

xxvi. 24.

you the land, as
of

xii.
xiii.

15, and frequently.
nsiBl, xxx. 30,
'31

As
Sept.

the dust of the earth, see

16.

43

;

and

Book

Jubilees
18.

have

pai.

na^

see

xiii.

14.

131331, xii.
"1JTIT31

3, xviii.

does not
6

make

the impression of being a subse-jyita in ver.

quent addition
Ver. 15.

more than
also

13

7
;

see note on

ii.

9.

expressly promises His protection to Jacob during the period of his wanderings, wherever he goes. until that, when, Num. xxxii. 17 DK ity'N iv Isa. vi. 11
;
;

God

shorter in xxiv. 19.

Ver. 16, from C.

Jahve
seats
1

is

present in this place,

Jacob on awaking is astonished that and not merely in the sacred
e.g.

where Isaac worshipped Him,
xxiv.
also
7.

at Beersheba', xxvi.
2

24

f.

Cli.

y ei

.

17

ff

Enoch
xviii.

Ixi. 1.
2,

4

5

As by
8,*

As

in

xxiv.

13,

xlv.

1

;

cf.

xviii.

Sept. Vulg. Pesh. xxiv. 30. Tucli,

Hiijii''ll, etc,

\\Vlll,au<,-,,,
7

JBDTh.

Al.M., Imw.-vrr,

xxi. 421 Kautzsch-Socin. regarded by Wellhausen as a supplement.
;

336, ii.%]

GENESIS XXVIII.

17,

18

227

he has learned that his separation from home has hot yet carried him from the sphere of Jahve's presence. px in truth, elsewhere in the Pentateuch only in
T<> his joy

Kx.

ii.

11.

Ver. 17. B's statement of the impression the vision

made

on Jacob.

The place

is

sublimely awful, a true abode of deity
is

(ver. 19), the

gate of heaven, where, as
of deity),

proper in a real

heaven opens to men, and true sanctuary (abode intercourse with the upper world is possible. In C and R the patriarchs erect altars, Ver. 18, from B.

where theophanies have appeared to them. Similarly, Jacob here sets up the stone he slept on as a memorial or monu1 Stade 2 finds ment, and sprinkles it with oil to consecrate it. in this a rudimentary form of sacrifice to a spirit dwelling in

the stone.

This Jacob-stone in Bethel was regarded by the patriarch and his house as deeply sacred. 3 Sacred stones are not

spoken of in the history of Abraham, but for the
in that of Jacob,

first

time

whose home was
4

in central Palestine,

and

then

several times.
felt
all,

need
after

for
to a

This leaves the impression that the such signs of the Divine presence belonged,

later stage of the religious
of

development, and

was not independent
stones to

Canaanite

affinities.

But the stones
was an ancient

are not reverenced as deities, they are only sacred stones,

mark the

sanctity of a place.
of

It

remarkable events, and memory 5 in of miraculous Divine In the case memory help. especially of theophanies it was a natural addition to the custom to

custom

to erect stones in

consecrate the stones themselves, and to reverence

them

as

sanctuaries or places of sacrifice where Divine worship was
6

paid.
1

More
1

than

this

is

not

said

of

the

Jacob-stone.

See

Comm. on
i.

Ex. xxx. 30.

2
th-ii

Geschichte,

460-494 f.j but see Hermann, Gottesdnn Cliche Alter-

tm-r^ p. 139. 3 See also xxxv. 14,
5 6

and comp.
iv. 9, 20,

xlix. 24.

4
f.;

Of. xxxiii. ^o.

Ch. xxxi. 45 Ver. 22.

;

Josh.

xxiv. 26

1

Sain.

vii. li'.

228
Memorial
l
;

GENESIS XXVIII.
stones
of

18

[336

this

kind long continued beside the
2

sanctuaries of the Israelite cultus, especially in the northern

kingdom

even to Isaiah
of Jahve.

memorials

they are not objectionable as Among the Canaanites, however, they

were inseparably bound up with the worship of Baal, and the popular consciousness readily thought of them as Baal pillars.

For

this reason

opposed to Masseboth to be placed beside the altars of Jahve. Stones in another stones which had Divine sense, namely, holy honours paid to them as being deities in corporeal form, or
stones animated by deity, or which were applied to all kinds of

and prophets 4 of early date are 5 them, and Deut. xvi. 22 directly forbids such
even laws
3

magical purposes, are of frequent occurrence among heathen peoples, not only in Canaan and among the Syrians and
Arabs, but elsewhere in the East and in the West.

They are They
of

termed
include

"

\lOoi, \iirapoi or aX?;Xt/x/>tez/ot, lapides

uncti. 6

also

the

so-called

fiairvXot,,

$aiTv\ia, laetyli?
;

Western
instances

Asia, which were, in
of

part, aerolites

there

were

Phrygia, among the 10 11 the in and Phoenicians, among Emesa, Syrians Heliopolis 12 13 among the Egyptians and the Arabs, e.g. in ISTabatean Petra, 14
Pessinus,
9

these

in

in

8

and in Mekka, the black stone know whether the Hebrews,
1

of the like
4.
1.

Kaaba."
other

15

We

do not

the

Semites,
2 4

once
19.

Hos.

iii.

4, x. 1

f.

;

cf.

Ex. xxiv.
;

Ch. xix.
Mic.

3 5
6

Comm. ad loc. [Dillmann's]. Pausanias, x. 24. 6 ; Minucius Felix, iii. 1 Apuleius, Florida (at begin.) ; regarding their religious veneration, see Theophrastus, Characteres, Clem, of Alex. Strom. 7 (p. 713, ed. 16; Lucian, Alex. 30, Cone. dear. 12
; ;

Ex. See

xxiii. 24, xxxiv.

13

Lev. xxvi.

v. 12.

Syllmrgius)
7

;

Arnob. Adv.
135.

gent.

i.

39.
8

Pliny, xxxvii.

Herodian,

i.

11

;

Livy, xxix. 11.

9
10

Sanchuniathon, ed. Orelli, p. 30. Photius, Biblioth. pp. 557, 568.

n

Herodian,

v. 3.

12
;

Gale on Jamblicus, De Mysteriis, p. 215. Maxim us Tyrius, Disser. 38 Arnobius, vi. 196.
;

14
''

ii. 521; Riehm, Handworterbuch, 1330 f.; Ewald, Altherthiimer* 158 ff. [Antiquities, p. 118 f.]; JB. x. 17 f. and v. 287 f.; Grimmel, De lapidum cultu apud patriarchas, 4, 1853; Ph. in JA. vii. 8, 252 ff. p. 253 ff.; Halevy in JA. vii. 18,
i

Suidas, sub Qsvadpns. Knobel. Cf. Winer, 3

p.

;;:;i;,

:?]
this
is

CKXESIS xxvm.
stone worship.

19,

20 FF.

229
be identified as

practised

If j3aiTv\o<i

h$ JV3,

it

not, a

far-fetched assumption that Jacob's Bethel
1

stone was originally a stone fetish of this character,

which

//

only transformed into a rnjfo in the sense above described. P>u t the connection of /Sa/ruXo? and JT3 is at least very 2 no in there is stone worship the public worship questionable

^

;

of Israel in historical times

3
;

the rovo, whose origin the writer

here wishes to relate, was undoubtedly still in existence in his time as a raD, and its shape must have been that of a

ms,
in

not of a stone

fetish.

Ver.

19a

essential to

C"s

narrative, but also suitable

4 (comp. ver. 17), and in expression rather from him. Ver. 19& is doubtless a gloss from R. Jacob names the place

B

Bethel; in

he does not do so till his return (xxxv. 15). as in xlviii. 19 Num. xiv. 21 Ex. ix. 16. D^&o 7N JV3 The statement that Bethel was earlier see xii. 8.
;

A

;

called Luz,5

is to be understood in the sense that the more modern Bethel lay in the neighbourhood of the more ancient Luz. The place where Jacob passed the night was also not

in Luz, but near

6
it.

Ver.

20

ff.,

from B.

Further, Jacob vows

that

if

God

protect him, and bring
will
8
'"P'7!,

him home again safe and sound, 7 he make the stone a sanctuary, etc. The apodosis begins
not with ver. 22, 9 as even the order of the words
ftrbvb ^ rvrv, in who has appeared god
1

with

shows.

But we must regard the words
to venerate the

which he binds himself
to

For the him, as an interpolation of It's (? from C). The stone to be see xvii. 7. is a house expression, of God, i.e. a place of Divine worship it is made so in xxxv. 7, when
;

Jacob erects an altar there.
1

Dozy, Israelite* zu Mekka,
482.

1864,

p.

18

ff.

;

Noldeke

in

ZDMG.

xlii.
2

See Qrimmel and Halevy as just quoted.
Isa. Ivii.

3
5 6
7

6

is different.

4
i.

See note on xxxii. 31.

Chs. xxxv.

6, xlviii.
i.

3

Ewald, Geschichte* Ch. xxvi. 29, 31.

Judg. 435 f. [History, vol.
;

23

;

of.

Josh, xviii. 13.
i.

p. 304].

8

Sept. Pesh. Vulg.

Tuch, Hengsteuberg.

230
Jacob's words

GENESIS XXIX

[337, 338

He

will give
is

Him

take the form of address to the god. 1 The the tenth of all that God gives him.

now

It is not not related, perhaps it was omitted by sequel clear how the author thought of the tenth, perhaps in the

K

form

of

an offering or
is

of a

tithe to a priest (comp.

Book

of

Jubilees, ch. xxxii.).
in view
in

What

the story of the

vow

chiefly has

an

Israelite sanctuary, 2

any case the time in which Bethel really was where tithes also were paid.

2.

JACOB IN HARRAN WITH LAB AN, CH. XXIX. FHOM B AND C.

F.

:

meets

Jacob arrives in the country of the sons of the east, Rachel (Rahel), Laban's daughter, even before he
Harran, and goes
to
live in

reaches

Laban's house (xxix.

shepherd for seven years to obtain Rachel as his wife, but is overreached by Laban and given Leah, the elder daughter, whom he does not love.
1-14).
serves
as

He

him

After the wedding with Leah is over, however, he receives Rachel also, in return for a promise of seven years of further
service
Leah's,
(xxix.

15-30).
lastly,

By

Leah,

by

Rachel's

maid,
in

by
all

and,

by Rachel

herself,

he

obtains

eleven sons and one daughter (xxix. 31 xxx. 24). He now wishes to return home. But Laban is unwilling to let him Jacob agrees to go, for he has been of much service to him.
serve,

him longer for what is apparently an insignificant wage, but by his cunning he so increases it that in a short time he
The leading thought
in

acquires very large possessions (xxx. 25-43).

the narrative remarks the presence of God's protection and blessing (xxviii. 15) which follow Jacob everywhere, in his contest with Laban's cunning
Mini selfishness as well as in

the

rest.

But Jacob's merited

punishment
brought

for

the deceit he had practised at

home

is

also

to notice,
1 -

though
26

less

prominently, in the service to
Sam.

See xiv. 20.
-Judg. xx. 18,
ff.;

1

x.

3;

1

Kings

xii. 29.

338]

GKNKSIS XXIX

231

which he must submit, extended by Laban's fraud to double its original length, and in the long continued barrenness of
his favourite wife.

are to be the

means
the

The punishment as well as of teaching him to cling
is

the protection
closely to his
it

God.
ethical
;

But

standpoint

more national than

is

Jacob

is glorified
is

as the ideal of a

and an account

given of the origin of
these

Hebrew shepherd, the Hebrew tribes.

The narrow

limits of

ch. xxxi., contain in a

two chapters, supplemented in compressed form the essential points
Oral

regarding Jacob's deeds and contests in Mesopotamia. tradition at one time told the story more fully.
features of that story are
still

Some
the

plainly recognisable in

condensed

account.

Examples are
are

the contest

in

which

Hebrew and Aramaean cunning
another, and Jacob's

matched against one

many

discoveries in the contrivances of
ff.).

a shepherd's skill (xxx. 37

Other features have almost
e.g.

vanished beyond recognition,
hero's

the

representation of the

In the giant strength (xxix. 10, cf. xxxii. 25 ff.). written sources, also, this part of the Jacob legend was at
one time more fully detailed.
presents
all

Ch. xxx.

3542,

for example,

the appearance of being an extract from a fuller
It
of

narrative. 1

was B, without doubt, who gave the
these events
(cf. ch. xxxi.).

fuller

description

Even

(7,

who was

acquainted with B's work, laid less stress on such merely secular materials R, above all, made the ethico-religious
;

points of

view so dominant that he did not consider

it

worth

his while to record

much
is

of the secular tradition.

The present text
in a
2

from

C

and B, and

is

worked together

Only chs. xxix. 24, 29, xxx. 22a, remind us of A; ch. xxx. 4a and 91 might In analysing what remains, possibly also be from him. 3 Wellhausen makes xxix. 1-30 essentially the text of B.
But we cannot
ver. 1 5
1
;

way

similar to that of ch. xxvii.

fail

to

recognise an artificial transition in
if

ver.

1

6

f.

proceeds as
vi.

Rachel had not hitherto
2

Cf. notes

on

iv.

17 and
f.

1-4.

Knobel, Wellhausen.

3

JBDTh.

xxi. 425

232
been mentioned.
giving xxix. 1 to
to C, 1

GENESIS XXIX
It will

[338, 339

therefore be

B (see

note), to assign xxix.
2

more accurate, while 2-14 or 15a
vv.

and xxix. 15& 30

in the main, without

24 and

29, and without ver. 26, because of rrpjra and ITVM, to B. In xxix. 31 -xxx. 24, which relates the birth of Jacob's
children, the foundation

narrative

is

in

the main from

(7,

as mrr*

and nnsp make plain; in
the only source, but
in

xxix.

3135

and xxx. 9-16
HEN) there

he
is

is

xxx.

l-3a
in

(DTita,

a

characteristic

description from B, and in
for
(7s
;

vv. 6

and 8
the

two

etymologies substituted thread of the narrative, even, belongs to
of

xxx.

17-24

B

(D'nta)

and the

divergent etymologies (vv. fragments from the same source (vv. 21, 22c) are inserted in
his text. 3

C

20& and 24), and one or two

and

its

procedure shows that the course of the narrative material were very much the same in both sources
jR's
;

that they were, in fact, essentially alike except for

certain

noticeable variations in the etymologies, so that either

B

or

be drawn upon in fi's compilation. The concluding xxx. of Jacob's 2543, telling paragraph, acquisition of flocks
of

C might
his

own,

is

decisively (7s, as
J5's

is

proved by the want
his

of

agreement with

chronology

4

and with

parallel state-

ments

in xxxi. 6

ff.,

as well as

But here
by C

also parallels

5 by the linguistic evidence. have been worked in from B? and

isolated expressions of his are

found which have been adopted

by E, e.g. D^n"i (vv. 38, xxiv. 20), Bta (ver. 35), nty (ver. 35). It
that the

or inserted

41
is

in contrast to
to be
is

remarked
in several
is

text

in

this

concluding paragraph
of

instances distorted.

The analysis given

the whole

followed in almost every particular by Kittel and KautzschSocin.
1

Of.

>

-IPK (ver.

9),

2

ntOp^ pi
15),

(ver. 13),

-nbOl 'JOT (ver.
(vv.
16,
18),

14).

Cf.

rro'po

(ver.

ninj and

map

nsn

-isn

r\v

(ver. 17).
;

Hoarding vinaj?
4

in xxx. 18, see note there.

Sci;

note on xxx. 25.
'y\
;

6

fea and
Vv.
26,

fn TlfcOftD

KrDN

in ver. 27,

6

28

p>

in vv. 30, 43.

hardly 32-34, as Wellhauscn thinks.

:!)]

GENESIS XXIX.
Ch. xx ix.

1,

2 F.

233
his

1-14. Jacob

safely reaches

relatives in

Harran.
Ver.
1.

He

lifted

his

feet,

i.e.

continued

his journey,

which was a long one, and
the sons of the
east.

went, not came, to
here.

the land of
at

v^n Nbo only

The Septuagint

the end of the verse has a long harmonising addition,

TT/JO?

Aaftdv,
Dip

K.T.\.
'33

see
in

notes

on

xxv.
it

15.

The

expression

is

surprising

itself,

because

nowhere

else designates

the

inhabitants of Mesopotamia, which might, however, be termed an Dip pN, 1 and because it offers a third variant to the

DIN

nna

-j^i

of xxviii. 7

and the nrin

^i

of xxviii. 10.

The

Septuagint reads Dip pN without not belong to C, 2 but along with

"03.

The sentence does
20
ff.,

xxviii.

to

B,

who
ideas

accordingly differed somewhat from

A and C
rule

in

his

3 regarding the place of residence of Jacob's kinsmen.

This

makes

it

the less possible to lay

down the

4

that

C

only

writes city of

Nahor 5 and not Harran. 6
The journey itself is not described, any more xxiv. But Jacob is just as fortunate as
case.

Ver. 2

f.

than

in

ch.

Abraham's steward was in the other
once
at/

He

arrives at

the right well, and finds kinsmen there. It is not, however, the city well of Harran, as in ch. xxiv. lOf.

Three flocks were lying at the time beside the well, from which it was the custom to give them water at certain times. The 1 stone, with which wells were habitually
8

covered,
right,
well.

was

large, in

order that

and

these

altogether,

only those who had a might be able to use the

The
1

perfects in ver.
xxiii. 7
;

3

with

waw

consecutive
2

are co-

Num.

cf.

Gen.

xi. 2.

Delitzsch 5

.

3 4 5
6 7

Cf. xxxi. 21

and

23.

Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 426. Ch. xxiv. 10.
Chs. xxvii. 43, xxviii. 10, xxix.
See. xiv. 13.
4.

8

Robinson [Palestine*

i.

490],

Germ.

tr. ii.

414.

234
ordinate

GENESIS XXIX. 4-9
with
is

[339, 340

ipsj>\

and

express

custom

or

habit. 1

The

"Such scenes given with a view to ver. 10. description 2 3 and are so still. at the well were usual, Troughs of stone
are set

up beside the comer waters his flocks
only use

wells,
first.
4

and the rule

is

that

the

first

Among

the Beduin Arabs the

wells belong to particular tribes or families.

Strangers

may
5
;

them

in return for presents, in effect a

they are therefore often the occasion of 7 Arabs are skilled in covering them over so that they remain

payment The contention. 6

unperceived by strangers." Vv. 46. Jacob inquires

8

of

the

shepherds

regarding
is

Laban

;

they point him out
flock.

his daughter Rachel,

who

just

approaching with her

My

brothers

see ch. xix. 7.

Nahor's son

p must

be

son in

the

widest sense,

i.e.

grandson

9
;

Laban was
Ver.

but as a matter of fact in C"s original narrative 10 really Nahor's son.
?

Is he well

see

xliii.

29

f.

7

f.

Jacob

together (pps) for

they have driven the cattle the night, and proposes that they should
thinks

water the sheep and then pasture them, for the day is still large, i.e. it is still a long time till evening. They reply that
they must wait till all are together to be able to roll away the heavy stone by their united strength.

Dmyn
Ver.
perf.
1

the

Septuagint

reading

D'jhn

is

easier

;

the

Samaritan reads the same in
9.

ver. 3 also.

Meanwhile Eachel arrives at the well
xxvii.
25

(for the

comp.

30).

She

is

a shepherdess.
2

Among
.

the
ff>

Gesenius,

112. 3.
2
'

C]l>

xxiv

.

n

ff

Ex>

^

16

3
4

Robinson, Palestine, i. 201, 204, ii. 22, 26, 35, 226. Schubert, Reisen, ii. 453 Burckhardt [Syria, 1821,
;

p. 63],

Germ.
ii.

tr.

128f.
6
<

Burckhardt, Bedouins,
tr. iii.

i.

p.

228

f.

;

Robinson [Palestine*
ii.

99],

term.
s

7

;

cf.

Num.

xx. 17, 19, xxi. 22.
7

lh.XXvL
Knobel.
9
10

19ffi

Diodorus,

48, xix. 94.

2 Kings ix. 20 and ix. 14 Sec, xxiv. 15, 24, 47, 50.

;

Ezra

v. 1

compared with Zech.

i.

1.

:;in]

GENESIS XXIX.
of Sinai it is

io-i:5

i

.

235
daughters
I^N, as in

A nibs

the rule that the unmarried

1 drive the cattle to pasture.

For the form
xl.

of

the sentence, see Ewald. 2

f>

5, in

a
1

Ver.

"
f.

One

look

at

Eachel

affects

and inspires

Jacob

with determination and strength he singly rolls away The the stone, and with willing hands waters her cattle.
;

thrice

repeated ION TIN
3

is

an indication that he

gave his
in

service as her cousin."

The interpretation
the background

just given

is

of

the present text

;

we may

justifiably find the representation to
of

be that Jacob was a
xxxii. 26.

man

herculean strength

;

comp.
those

ch.

"Jacob, as Eachel's cousin,
a

may
29."
5

also

kiss her

openly, as

brother his

sister.

4

His tears are
xlvi.

of
Nb>3,

joyful emotion, as in xlv. see xxi. 16.

14 and
as

For ^p
xiv.

Ver.
xxiv. 48.

12.

Brother

= cousin,

in

ver.

15,

16,

Ver. 13f. Laban at the news of him,

i.e.

of his

arrival,

hastens to meet him,
6

embraces and kisses him

much and
learns, coni.e.

long,

takes

him

to

his house, and,
is
7

from what he

vinces himself that Jacob

really his lone
"

and

flesh,

his

blood relative or kinsman.
recall ch.
ii.

The expressions

of the passage

remains

Jacob 23, and r\$r\\h pi, xviii. 2 and xxiv. 17. 8 with Laban a whole month's time." There is

nothing which requires us to attach this last statement to
ver. 15,
i.e.

to B, as is
^,

pGW

with

done by Kautzsch-Socin. as xxxi. 28, xxxii. 1, xlviii. 10
no other than
i.

;

in xxxiii.

4

with accusative.

^
1 -

only,

i.e.

;

see also note, xxvi. 9.

Burckhardt, Bedouins,
341rf. Syntax, Canticles viii. 1.

351

f.

;

see, further,
3
"

on Ex.

ii.

16.

Knobel.

4

Knobel. Knobel.

Piel.
7

Ch. xxxvii. 27; Judg.
Cf.
xli.
1
;

ix.

2; 2 Sam. v.
f.

1,

xix. 13

f.

8

Num.

xi.

20

Knobel.

For D^OS see Gesenius, 25

131. 2c.

236

GENESIS XXIX.

15,

16 F.

[340,341

Vv. 15-30. Jacob marries two wives,

sisters.

In this

respect he is not a model for Israel (Lev. xviii. 18), but the double marriage was at least not of his own choice one of the
;

sisters

was forced on him by the cunning of Laban, and so See the marriage has more the aspect of a Harran custom.
note on ch. xx. 12 regarding the consanguineous marriages of the patriarchs. While, however, the excuse lies in Laban's
deceit, there is also

Jacob's

own

fraud

perceptible the ethical consideration that on Esau and Isaac is avenged by the

deception he himself must
Ver. 15.

now

suffer.

small gap is here visible, inasmuch as it has not been said that Jacob has entered Laban's service as shepherd, or even that he wished to do
is

A

so.

Laban's offer of wages
is

apparently unselfish

;

but, in truth,

doubtless due to his

observation of Jacob's skill as a shepherd, and to his desire to
retain his service.

Ought you
to

to serve

me for nought when you
than
less
is

are

my

brother

?

whom more

rather

given.
still C"s.

^n, as in

xxvii. 36.

Kittel therefore

makes

ver.

a

Jacob
7,

is

asked to choose his
elsewhere
Ver.
I3fc>, e.g.

own

reward,
f.,

m'ato, as in xxxi.

41;

xxx. 28, 32

xxxi. 8.

16

f.

Circumstantial
to

clauses

regarding

Laban's

make the answer in ver. 18 compredaughters required " hensible. The narrator who had already spoken of Kachel
in ver. 9
ff.

done here."
^!?1

could not very well introduce both daughters as is l Probably E here extracts from his other source.
(oryx leucoryx), like Arabic
in view of Assyrian
un
.

ewe (Eahel).

n

?!?

perhaps
3

gazelle

la'dt

z

Paul Haupt

makes

it mistress,

li'at.

hj and

ful in figure

eyes,

as in xxvii. 15, 42. The younger is beautiand appearance,6 the elder had weak (lit. tender) "without brightness or brilliancy of lustre. Among
jbp
4

Orientals,
1

and especially Arabs, the chief point
2
<

of a

woman's
xl. 167.

Knobel.
'/'/AT.

But

;

1883, ]. 100.
11;

see Nbldeke, Ch. xxxix. 6, xli.
7.

ZDMG.
18.

1

Oh.

xii.

njOO

rQID, xxiv. 16, xxvi.

:m]

GENESIS xxix. is-24

237

beauty consists in bright, eyes, the eyes of a gazelle."
Ver. 18f. "Jacob
is

fiery,
l

clear,

and expressive black

willing to serve

Laban

as shepherd

seven years, and asks in return his loved Eachel to be his
wife.

Lilian

is

content, for he prefers to give his daughter
to a stranger ("ins
3
;

to a

kinsman rather than

*).

Among

all

Beduin Arabs a cousin has a prior claim

the Druses in

4 When Syria always prefer a relative to a rich stranger. cousins are married they often address one another as such,

even after marriage."
ary 7 found.
"bride

5

Jacob's service represents the custom-

price for the
"

woman. 6

Modern

parallels are to be

Ver. 20.
to Jacob, for

The seven years
is
9

of service are like
;

he

happy because near Eachel

a few days 8 and time passes
10

quickly when one is happy." Vv. 21-24. At the end of the time he asks for
for his days,
i.e.

his wife,

his

time of service, are

full,

have expired. 11
;

Laban acquiesces, and prepares the customary wedding-feast but he puts Leah, not Eachel, in the marriage chamber. The
deception was
possible in

came

veiled.

12

the evening, especially as Leah She receives only one maid for her service

;

Eebecca had more. 13
Ver. 24, like ver. 29,
is

loosely attached,

and unrequired

by xxx. 2, 4, 9

the style of both reminds us of A, and u be regarded as introduced from him by R. they are to
f.
;

1

Hamasa, i.

pp. 557, 584, 696, 622
i.

;

Hartmann,
tr.

Ideale, p. 77

ff.

Knobel.

2 3
4

As

Jer. vi. 12, viii. 10.

Burckhardt [Bedouins,

272],

Germ.

219.
tr. ii.
;

Volney

[

Voyages,

ii.

74,

Eng.
;

tr. ii. 80],

Germ.

62.

Burckhardt, Bedouins, i. 113 Proverbs, p. 218 Layard, NincnJi <tn<I Lane, Manners and Customs, ch. vi. pop. ed. p. 143. llalnjlnn, 1853, p. 294 Knobel. 3 6 Winer, i. 296 f. 7 Hitter, Erdkunde, xv. 674 Bmvkhardt, Syria, 297 f. Knobel. 9 8 Knobel. Ch. xxvii. 44. n 10 xxviii. 2. Ch. xxv. 24, 1. 3. nan,
;
;

5

12
14

Of. xxiv. 65.

13
;

Ch. xxiv. 61.

Knobel.

Knobel, Wcllliausen

cf. xlvi. 18,

25.

238
Ver. 2 5
f
.

GENESIS XXIX. 25-30

[341, 341

Laban excuses the deception by the custom was not to give a younger daughter which the country, This was law in India, 2 and marriage before an elder.
1

of in
is

known

3 sporadically elsewhere.

But Laban had

said nothing

of this before.
rrvjre

and m^n, as

xix. 3 Iff., xxv. 23.

Ver. 27. But Jacob will obtain Eachel also in return for
further service of seven years.

Make full
of

the

week of
4

this (one)

complete the celebrations

your marriage week with

this one.

The wedding
5

festivities

usually lasted a week.

We

will give

"

I

and

my

family

";

but the Septuagint

and Samaritan have Jim Vv. 28-30. At the end

of the

week he obtained Eachel,

who

also was given a

maid with

her.

He

thus married two

in to Eachel also,

For ver. 29, see ver. 24. He went wives within eight days. and loved her more than Leah, preferred
her to Leah.
?rrrnK~D|

6 simply to emphasise f>m, 7 Either or along with JD to express "etiam, still, more than." Nor can it belong to nn&ri as explanation is against usage.

the

DJ,

we

are told,

is

if it

he did not merely go in to her, but loved her also. 8 The only translation possible is, he loved Eachel also, not But this contradicts ver. only Leah, and more than Leah.

were

:

and Vulg. Ch. xxix. 31 -xxx. 24. Jacob's eleven sons and one daughter these two wives and their maids. The account is short by and bare. The explanation given of the sons' names is a in some cases two interpretations are chief feature given.
31, therefore omit
DJ,

as do the Sept.

;

The children are named by the mothers in each instance, as elsewhere in B etc. But the narrative has also an ethical
t

1
;;

Ch. xxiv.
A'.'/.
,

7; 2

Sam.

xiii. 12.

2

Manu,

3. 1GO.
;

Lane, Manners and Customs, cli. vi. pop. ed. p. 144 c.li. sJH, wishes even to make it the law for Israel.
xi. 18.
fi

Book

of

4

Judg. xiv. 12; Job

See xxiv. 50.
Delitzsch.

Knobel.

Gcscnius, Thesaurus, 294.
8

7

Knobel;

see against this xxxi. 15, xlvi. 4; 1

Sam.

i.

G.

342]

GENESIS XXIX. 31-33

239
it

content.

Where

there

are

two wives
that,

is
is

prefer one to another.

Jacob does

and

not right to corrected by

God through
wife
;

the long-continued barrenness of his favourite the other is also compensated for the want of her

husband's love by the number of her children. Joseph, too, the best of his sons and the most populous of the tribes, is,

and Esau- Jacob, born only after long waiting, as a The arrangement of the specially precious gift from God. sons is as in A in xxxv. 23 ff., except that the maids' four
like Isaac

sons are interpolated between the

first

four and the last two

All the sources are at one in their division of the by Leah. twelve sons among the four wives. 1
Ver.
31. nKUb'

because

of

ver.

30, to

be understood

2 relatively, less loved. 3 Opened her womb, made her pregnant, and a mother. By this God restored the balance between the sisters for a wife
;

valued by her husband if she has children. 4 The word in appearVer. 32. She names her son l?^"i. ance means, see a son, but is presented as an allusion to n*o
is

"3JO, for

Leah

said,

Jahve has seen

my

need,

5

for

husband
not

will love me.

The
is

original

meaning

of
it

the

now my name is

clear.

No
is

result

got

by deriving

from Arabic

ra'dba?
case
el is

its

In that more possibly a variant of feuo.7 lion like be or Arabic riled the would wolf, meaning
It
\

sufficient to exclude its being a

name

of deity. 8
"oanjo, see

For 3 after n "3PfJ, comp.
S

ver.

33 and

xxvi. 22.

xix. 19.

Ver. 33. PJW hearing (favourably); Jahve heard and Ewald 9 conjectures that took notice that she was unloved.
1

is

more cautious
2

This alone disposes of Stade's remarks, Cescliichte^ 63). (Geschichte des Alt Test. 3 See xvi. 2. Dent. xxi. 15; Matt. vi. 24.
Cli. xvi. 4.
5

i.

145

ff.;

Reuss

4
6

Ch. xvi.

11.

As

f-iT

from

YV

Baetligen, Beitriige, 159.
;

1 Lagarde, Otiomastica sacra, ii. 95 it is the substitute of Josephus, and (Jreek MSS. ('Pow/3/A, 'Poy/3jjX). versions and Ktliiopie Pesh., Arabic,

7

8

Kuenen, ThT.

v. 291.

9

167a.

240
the word
2

GENESIS XXIX. 34-XXX.
is

1

[342, 343

a diminutive from
it

Smith, that

l Hitzig and Eobertson 9 comes from Arabic sim'u, a cross between wolf
'>

and hyena.
Ver. 34.

^

adherent, for

Leah hopes that from now her
It is regarded

husband

will

adhere to her in affection.
;

by

many the name
covenant

3

as

a nomen gentile from Leah
of

Lagarde

4

interprets
Israel, or

foreigners

who

joined

themselves to

alternatively of
;

the attendants and escort of the ark of the
attention to a supposed

Hommel 5 draws
ii.

Minnean

word

lau'dn, priest.

Dyan, as in

See further regarding Levi, Kuenen. 6 24. Kip should be read n ^1PT with the
,

Peshitta, Samaritan,

and Septuagint
of

(e/eaXecre

not

e/c\rj&r))

;

comp.

ver. 35.

Ver.
8

35.

TOn
for

N
_

subject

praised

God

him.
10

derivative. 9

Steinthal

laud and praise? for Leah The name is taken as a Hophal tried to prove the existence of a

God "W.
Leah now paused from bearing n the interval
;

is

doubtless

to be

12 put at not less than a year, to be noticeable as such.

Ch. xxx.
Ver. 1
f.

18.
"

Birth of

Dan and
13

Naphtali, by Bilhah.

Eachel, jealous

of her sister's fertility,

demands

children from her husband, otherwise she will die of grief.

He
who

angrily checks her with the words,
is

Am

I in God's

place,

the cause of death and
?

a request
author."
1

and can alone grant such life, The same words occur in L 19, from the same

14

15

i.

2 Journal of Philology, ix. 80, 96. 150 Wellhausen, Prolegomena, [Eng. tr. p. 145]; Stade in ZATh. 112 ff. cf. Literar. Centralblatt, 1879, p. 828; Noldeke in ZDMG.

Geschichte, 47.

3

;

xl. 167.
4 5
(i

Orientalia,

ii.

20

f.

Aufsatze

und Abhandlungen, 1890,
312
ff.

p. 30.
s

7

Volksreliyion, 1883, p. Delitzsch.

Of. xlix. 8.

9
111

"
1:1

For the n, cf. Pa. xxviii. 7, xlv. 18 Nell. In Die Nation, 1891, No. 46, p. 716.
;

xi. 17.

Bee xvi.

2.

12

Knobel.

N3p, as in xxvi. 14.

14

DIM it, xxx ii. 39

;

1

Sam.

ii.

6

;

2 Kings v.

7.

15

Knobel.

343]

GENESIS XXX. 3-11
Ver.
3.

"2

-11

Eachel helps herself as Sarah had done

(xvi. 2

f.),

mid gives Jacob her maid Uilhah to be his wife, that she may bear children on Eachel's knees, who will thus also be built

up by

her.

The

last clause is

from

C

(cf. xvi.
1

2).

?3">?~?y,

Rachel will take the children on her

lap,

and acknowledge

them

as her own. 2
as in xx. 17, xxi. 10,
its

nEK

12

f.,

from B.

Ver. 4a. Because of
of rinse*

repetition of ver. 3

and
of

its

use

also

perhaps from A, who speaks as Abraham's n$N (xvi. 3). So ver. 9

from

0, or

Hagar

ft.

Ver. 6. r\ judge, is the name she gives the child, for God has judged her, i.e. decided her case as she wished. Kuenen 3 here also conjectures a name of deity.
fnpu

yoy

as

iii.

17, xxi. 12, xxvii. 13.
at least one cannot see

Ver. 7, from
i>m should

C

';

why
4

nriD^ nrta

be an addition to the original text
is not.

when

na^r

i>m nri3B> in ver. 1 2

Ver.

8.

yJJW

combatant,

for

she

has

contended

with

Leah
victor.

in a wrestling

match of God, and has come

off the

The genitive DTita does not express the idea that the contest was of divine importance, as the founding of
Israel was, 5 nor that
it

God brought
grace and

it to

a decision, 6 but that
7

was one
2.

for

God's

blessing;

cf.

xxix.

31,

xxx.

Vv.

912.

Leah, also,

now
For

gives
8

her maid to Jacob,

seeing she obtains no

more

children,

and Gad and Asher are
on
9

the fruit of the marriage.

ver. 9, see note
;

ver. 4.

Ver. 11. 13
fortune, eV

child of fortune
10
;

she says
;

"Ha,

with good

Tv^y

would read
1

"U Ka,
12.
;

the Massoretes comp. np'&o in ver. 1 3 n so at least the is come fortune Targums
;

Job
Ch.

iii. 1.

2

23

cf.

Stade in

ZATW.

vi.
4
6

143 ff.

3 5
7

ThT. v. 291. Knobel.
Tuch, Delitzsch.
-na, pausal.
Cf. Isa. Ixv. 11

Wellhausen,

JBDTh.

xxi. 427.

8 10

Hengstenberg. Ch. xxix. 35.
Sept.

9
11

and the name Baal-gad in

Josli. xi. 17, xii. 7.
1

DILLMANN.

II.

6

242
and
Peshitta; the

GENESIS XXX.

13

[343,344

Samaritan

1103,

and

Graecus Venetus

There was a god of good fortune, Gad, Tv^rj, whose worship was widely spread 1 among the Aramaeans.
rjKei o-Tpdrevfjia, interpret as in xlix. 19.

Ver.

13. "i^N
;

of

even tenor,

i.e.

both fortunate and
;

propitious, lucky

may

the star of fortune for Gad.
i.e.

comp. n^'x, the goddess of fortune Leah says, with
fortune, for daughters
2

as one

my

good

fortune,
as the

it is

my good
many

call

me happy,
Vv.

mother

of

children.

3 'onc^N, perfect of certainty.

Vv.

1420.

Birth of Leah's

fifth

and sixth

sons.

1416

give C*B explanation of the

name

Issachar (Yissakhar),

and "tell the story of the D'fcTOi,* which Eeuben, still a young child, found in the fields and brought home in the 5 days of the wheat harvest, i.e. in May."
D'KTtt

"according to the versions, the

yellow

apple-

shaped

fruit of the
is

Mandragora

vernalis or mandrake, a shrub

which

common

in Palestine, or in Galilee,

and so was well
nutmeg,

known
of

to

the Hebrews.

Its fruit is the size of a

and has been found ripe by

travellers as early as the

month

May.
it

6

that

inclines to love,
Its roots

They say that the Arabs are fond of it, and believe and gives vigour in the production of

were used in love-potions,8 and, according to Hesychius, MavSpayopins was among the names of the It is therefore to be rendered amatoria, goddess of love.
children. 7

love-apples,
1

from
87

'HFi."

9

Of.

on
i.

Isa. Ixv.
;

11; see Lagarde,
in

Symmicta,

Mordtmann
;
;

ZDMG.
xlii.

Gesammelte Abhandlungen, 16; xxxi. 89 f ; Halevy, Melanges
.

de critique, 183, 212
Beitracje, 77,
2

Siegfried in

JPTh.

1875,

p.
f.

361

ff.

;

Baethgen,
25
1.

159

f.

Noldeke,

ZDMG.

474, 478

4
c

Song Song

vi. 9, ii. 2.
yii. 14.

3

Gesenius,

106. 3b.

Judg. xv.

Mariti, Viaggi,

Germ.
tr.

tr.

564

;

Sclmltz, Leitungen des Hochsten, v.
ii.

Hasselquist [Eng. Schubert, ii. 457.
7
s
''

197;

Travels, 1766, p. 160]; Seetzen,

98;

Von

So

also Maundrell, Narration, p. 82.

Diosr-orides, iv. 76.

Theoplirastus, Hist, plant, ix. 10.

Kwal<l,
Hi.-.
'
,

1890.
ii.

Sfator,
!:{!

IV.;

See further Tuch, Gesenius, Thesaurus-, Chwolsohn, 725 f. Knobel. Wetzstein in Delitzsch, Hohelied u, also Winer, 3 i. 43 Riehm, Hqndworterluch, 48,
;

:m.

:?I.V|

GENESIS XXX.

IS,

1!F.

24)'

wishes some of these love-apples in order to use Leah at first refuses this means also to attain her object.
h'aohel
is it too little to

:

have taken

my husband, who

preferred Rachel's

But she company, that you wish to take the mandrakes also ? finally Ljivi's her some in return for Rachel's renunciation of
their
in

husband
1

for the following night.

Leah's words to Jacob

ver.

(i

are an obvious {illusion to the

name

Issachar, hired.

n ni?fl

the infinitive expresses intention

more

decisively
j

than the more obvious perfect with and to take = and you wish to take?
sin

waw

consecutive nnppl

See xx. 16.

rWs

see xix. 33.
fails,

Rachel's second expedient also

she does not become

pregnant. to be a consequence
ver.

But Leah

does.
of

The
eating

result,

however,

is

not said

the

love-apples.

On

the

17 continues, God heard Leah, which precontrary, the offering of a prayer of which there has been no supposes E is therefore now quoting from a different source, account.

Knobel advances yotr as evidence for A, namely, from B. but the expression is occasionally found in the other writers
also son,
l
;

^

the mention, also, of the fact that this was Leah's

fifth

2

was almost a necessity imposed by the interval from

here back to xxix. 35. 3
Ver. 18.

"9^.4

i.e.

"Ob>

B*, there

6 has given her her reward because husband (ver. 9 ff.) plainly not the same reference of *ob> as
;

a reward; 5 God she gave her maid to her
is

that

given
;

in

ver.

16.
8

Ewald

7

interprets

the

name

as

reiuard

Wellhausen,

as "Ob> B*S.

must have been
Ver. 19

altered

by R, or a copyist, from

so in xxxi. 3 3 in the Samaritan.
f.

Two

Zebulun.
1

In

B Leah

explanations are also given of the name says, God has gifted me vrith a good gift

;

2
4 5 r

Chs. xvi. 11, xxi. 17, xxxix. 10. So ver. 19, the sixth.

3

Cf. xxix. 34.

For another punctuation, see Baer's
Cf. Jer. xxxi. 16.

Genesis, p. 84.

Chs. xxxi. 49, xxxiv. 13, 27.
8

273

;

Lolmding.

Samuel, p. 95

f.

and

preface.

244
the l of nnt
time
3
l

GENESIS XXX. 21-24

[345

is

made equivalent

to

2
f>.

In
4
;

C

my

husband

will dwell (lie) with

me

Zebulun

she says, this is thus

given a meaning like neighbour or borderer, comp. xlix. 13. An Assyrian root has led to the proposal 5 of the meaning
will
6 The (esteem) me, but it has been contested. the termrenders fie. freely alpenel Eegarding Septuagint

exalt

ination

fy

see Stade. 7

Ver. 21.

The mention

of Jacob's
;

daughter Dinah

is

inserted

in preparation for ch. xxxiv.

other daughters are presupposed in xlvi. 7 (A) and xxxvii. 35 (C), but without their names

being anywhere given. Though A speaks of Dinah (ch. xxxiv., cf. xlvi. 15), the present notice is not from him, for in his
narrative
it is always the father who names his children. Vv. 22-24. At last Eachel also receives a son, though

not by her human devices, but by God's grace and favour. Ver. 22a is at least unrequired alongside of n^x yro^' v
8
;

)

9 DTita certainly reminds one of A, and may be regarded as from him, while ver. b a is from B and b ft from C. For

it

yBh,
ness

see ver. 17,
f.

and

for

nrw,

xxix. 31.
of childless-

Ver. 23
10
;

God has taken away my reproach

from B, who thus interprets ^p^ as *1DN\ May Jahve add to me another son, 11 is from C, and gives Joseph the

meaning more.
sayer.

thinks Sayce See also p. 4 (Yosefel).

12

*\&

= Assyrian

asipu, sooth-

Vv.

2543.

Jacob continues to serve Laban under a

new
small,
1

contract.

The wage agreed upon is in appearance but Jacob by cunning and skill so increases it that he

See Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 401.

2

For the interchange, see Gesenius, Thesaurus,
Ch. xxix. 34 f. For the accus., see Judg.
v.

p. 727,

and Ewald,

51&.

3 4

17

;

Prov.

viii.

12

;

Ps. v. 5, cxx. 5

;

for a parallel to the thought, xxix. 34. 38,
St. Guyard in JA. vii. 12. 225 Fried. Delitzsch, Hebrew Language, and Prolegomena, 62 (Delitzsch 5 Kautzsch-Socin). Halcvy, REJ. 1885, p. 299 Noldeke in ZDMG. xl. 729. ' 298. Cf xxi. 1 and xxvii. 44 f. Lehrbuch, Knobel see note on viii. 1, but cf. also 1 Sam. i. 19. J 11 Oh. xvi. 14, Cf. xxxv. 18, ZA. iv. 387 f,
;

6

;

;

.

''

;

i

:;i:.,346]

GENESIS XXX. 25-27

245

succeeds in possessing himself of a great part of the wealth of his selfish father-in-law and becomes very rich.
Ver. 25f. After Joseph's birth Jacob asks to mitted to return home.
"oipB
.Z?'s

be per-

comp. xxix. 22 and 26.

chronology as given in xxxi. 41 cannot be assumed here. Jacob's first child was born in the first year of his second period of service, and if the other births followed in
the order in which they are enumerated in this chapter
is

it

Rachel afterwards Joseph
that the

impossible that Leah could have borne her six sons and l by the end of the period, so

new

contract could be

made

at the beginning of
ff.

the

loth year.

We

must therefore
f.

either insert xxx. 1
2

before xxix. 35

and xxx. 9

before ver.

7,

and

so achieve

the possibility, or

we must allow

the births

to occur

in

3 part in the third period of service.

The

latter alternative
it

is

the

more natural, and has nothing against

in the text

;

for

the expression,

my

service,

i.e.

my

time of service, need not

necessarily be restricted to the seven years of ch. xxix. 18 and 27. It is thus clear that this verse is not from the

author of xxxi. 41.
Ver. 26 coincides in
is

its

contents with vv. 2ob and 29a, and

a doublet from

B

;

so ver. 28a,

which

is

coincident with 3 la.

H^

n&o

subordinate, with

my

children.

Ver. 27. Laban does not wish to allow the departure of
his valuable servant.

His selfishness makes him

polite,

and his

perplexity occasions his speaking brokenly or stammeringly. the apodosis, do not leave me, is as in xviii. 3 'ai &O~DK
;

omitted, and

Laban proceeds, recovering
the

his self-possession,

/ have
effect
blessed

omens* the auguries are good, to the that that (your departure) will not be, and Jahvc has
observed

me on your

account? so that I
Dinah out

must be very desirous

1

The inx
Book

of ver. 21 leaves

of the reckoning.

-

Kcil, Knubel.
of Jubilees
;

3
1

Delitzsch, partially.
5

Sec also note on xxxvii.
xii. 13.

3.

Ch. xliv. 15.

See

246
that

GENESIS XXX. 28-32

F.

[340

you should

stay.

It

is

wrong

to

translate,

/

have

observed unmistakably that Jahve has Messed not have been required, and it is not simply

me

1
;

$na would

= jn\

Ver. 28. Starting afresh, he bids Jacob name his wage for further service, ^y, because there will be an undertaking

But ~iDN is surprising in imposed on him in consequence. itself, hence omitted by the Septuagint, and the request is
l|

l

repeated in ver. 3 la; so the verse is from B (see ver. 26). Ver. 29 f. From 0, containing Jacob's answer to ver. 27.

He

does not hesitate to remind Laban in express terms of
it

the value of his service, and makes

also

clear to

him

that

he must now exert himself
"fltf

2

in the interests of his

own

family. 14.

with me, under

my

charge,

pa

11

!,

as

xxviii.

At
a

my foot, in every step of mine. Ver. 31. In reply to Laban's question Jacob says, with show of disinterestedness, that Laban need give him
(following)
if
lit",

3

nothing

as in xxvi.
of
xii.
f.

he accepts the following proposal. 18. IID^N has to be taken as an
4

in-

tensification

fiJHN,

but

is

doubtless only a variant from

E-

5

cf.

Hos.

13.
is

here corrupt, so that it is not entirely clear from the statement what the proposal really was. It is based on the fact that the sheep, with few
Ver.
6 exceptions, were white, while the goats were dark coloured, 7 brown or black. Jacob accordingly proposes to go through

32

The text

Laban's flocks that day and pick out

8

from the sheep every

one which was speckled and spotted (K&3 only in vv. 31-39) or black, and from the goats those which were spotted and
speckled
sarily
1
;

this

should be his wage.

The statement neceswage was
19
;

leads us to understand that the
2

to consist

Delitzsch, Kautzsch-Socin.
Isa. xli.

Ruth

ii.

Prov. xxxi. 13.
349a.
;

3

2

;

Job

xviii. 11.

4

Ewald, Syntax,
vi.

5
7

Kautzsch-Socin.

Song iv.
i.

1;
;

Arvieux [Me'moires,

iii.

Song iv. 2, 254], Germ.

6

tr. iii.

Dan. vii. 9. 214 Berggren,
;

lleuen,

326

Burckhardt, Bedouins, pp. 42, G7, 201; Lynch, Expedition,

205

f.

Intiu. ;ibsol., as in xxi. 16.

:;

in,

347]

GENESIS XXX.

:*_'

1'.

247

of

the unusual

separated that
ver.

parti-coloured animals which were to be 1 But neither ver. 31, noiKD &6, nor day.
(ver.
still

35

f.,

in

which

separated by Laban
this
;

365) the unusually coloured animals belong to his flock, harmonise with
ff.

on the contrary, ver. 37

represents

that

Jacob's
to

share

was

to

consist of those lambs
of

and

kids, still

be

born, which should be

the unusual colours.

But

of this

nothing is said in ver. 32, nor could it be implied in rrrn 2 Wellhausen 3 is therefore without express mention. nsb'
of opinion

that a statement has fallen out after ver. 34, to

the effect that after Jacob had separated the rarely coloured
animals,

Laban found they were too many, and the wage, therefore, too high, and so required Jacob to make another
.

But it is incomprehensible proposal to him comp. xxxi. 7 f how such a gap could originate, and the contradiction with nniND ^~inrr&6 in ver. 31 would be really too obvious.
;

We

must rather assume
series of

4

that before or after
out, in

i-oi?

irm a whole

consequence it may be of Massoretic punctuation, the or that, despite homoioteleuton, the Athnach is to be set at the first K^D1, so that we should

words has

fallen

render

:

everyone black among the sheep and parti-coloured
the goats, that shall be

among
o'5).

my
lr

wage

(in future, "inp, ver.

We
1

might
to

also delete

ob> PITH

as

a gloss, 5 but the
difficulty.

words

Nitai np3 nb> ^a
6

would

still

remain a
f.

Bacon's
J>,

proposal,

strike out ver.

32

as

an insertion from
Ver. 31

leaves things in unrivalled confusion.
y

leaves only

one possibility regarding G 's account, viz. that he wrote, now you need give me nothing but whatever afterwards, after
;

have been purged of all the unusually coloured born (becomes) of that character, shall be my is animals, All the rest is in agreement with this. wage.
the
flocks

In the case of the sheep no other word than Din
1

is

Knobel,

Delitzscli, Keil.

2

3
4

As Tuch, Baumgarten, Knobel, Delitzsch maintain. JBDTh. xxi. 429 f. As was done even in the 3rd ed. of commentary.
Kautzscli-Socin.
<;

5

Hchnn'ca,

vii.

226

f.

248
1

GENESIS XXX. 34-36
for Din is equivalent to ia Din i^N,
2

[347

required,
is

on which there

black

;

neither here nor in

vv.

33

and 3 5 are entirely
;

In the sentence ntrb D n ion white goats presupposed. aotai TipJ the absence of Din is explained because n^ includes sheep and goats, and black goats are normally coloured, not
abnormally; parti-coloured
is

shortly

used for

all

that

is

abnormally coloured, and
ver. 35.

is,

besides,

more

closely defined in

The Septuagint and Vulgate render respectively the simpler readings ^ -ay and Son -QJJ, and both take ion as an
s

imperative (because of ver. 35).
T)p-J

show

Jacob says further, that his integrity will easily n roy is itself, will be its own witness, or speak for him
;

a legal term. 3

Animals other than those agreed on, entirely white or goats entirely black, if found in
will be self-evidently stolen

i.e.

sheep

his flock

property.
4

It is

unnecessary to

take

^npltf

in the

sense of

'p-rc,

my

right, that

which right-

fully belongs to me.
"ino

DVl

to-morrow,
come,

i.e.

5 hereafter, as crastinum tempus.

When you
through

over

my

wage

before

you

when you go
ecrri,

my

flocks to inspect
6

them, they being, of course, near

The Septuagint has you and accessible. Q^rn = Din 13JW. Samaritan NIT for Sy ^nn.

and the

Vv. 34-36. Laban agrees: good, may 7 it be so. But, for security's sake, he himself makes the and separation, gives his sons charge of the animals thus It is clear separated.

from the word v:n that Laban
ch. xxxi.
1.

comp. 8 and the remaining normally journey between himself coloured animals which Jacob had charge of, in order that
1

He

also

the subject in ver. 35 a distance of three days' put
is
;

Of. vv.

2 4 5
(1

33 and 35. See ver. 35.
in 2
xiii. xiii.

3
;

As
Ex. Ch.

Sam.
;

29 [28] 14 Deut. vi. 20. 9. Knobel.
xix.

Neh.

ii.

20.

g ee Lexicons. So Knobel.

7

Chs. xvii. 18, xxiii. 13.
Sept., Samar.,

*

W3

between his

sons.

347, 348]

GENESIS XXX.

37,

249
the

there might be no intermixture of the two parts in matter of procreation.

v\n

as in xxxii. 15.
striped,

ipy

here apparently synonymous with
it

lpj,

but

distinguished from

in ver.

39

f.,

ch. xxxi.
skill to

8-10,

12.

turn the agreement He takes to his own advantage by the use of artificial aids. 2 l and peels on them green rods of poplar, almond, and maple,
Ver. 37.
white peelings, a laying bare of the white on the rods,
strips off the
i.e.

"

But Jacob has the

he

ing strips,

dark coloured bark or skin, but only in alternatso that each rod is both dark coloured and white,
seen from jra (Samari4

and so parti-coloured." 3 collective and feminine, as i>|3B
tan

is

om)
n

;

elsewhere masculine.
;

generally regarded as the storax, from the Arabic but more probably, in view of Hos. iv. 13, the populus alba. 5
.J?P

PIKTUD

Ewald,

239a.
6

Ver. 38f. "These rods he set up by the watering-places
to

which the

flocks

came

to drink,

and that in face

of

them,

so that they

had them in view."

But they were
to drink, so

in the habit

of interbreeding

when they came
7

they interbred

in the direction of or beside
parti-coloured young.

the rods, and afterwards bore

D^prn

trenches,

rare

and rather Aramaic,

also found in
8

Ex.

16; here explained by D^ ninjw (from n^). Eegarding the watering-trenches or troughs by the wells, see note on
ii.

xxix. 3.
v:>n5
for

irn,

coinp. Judg. v.

28

;

Ps.

li.

7

9
;

masculine,
in

because the males are referred to
."i)tt.

also.

The emphasis

falls

on niDrrfa which contains somethin
vi. 3.
2

additional

1

Num.
I

Gesenius,

''

\uobel.

4

Gesi'iiius, Thesaurus, 740.

5

8
''

See Rielnn, lliin<(icortcrlnu-h, 113(5, 15G7 f. 7 See xxv. 21. Ch. xxiv. 11; Samar. Ch. xxiv. 20; see Ewald, 316, 2126.
Kwjild,

193a.

250
to the

GENESIS XXX.

40

[348

mnuh }an nj&m
1

of

ver. 38,
is

and

so is

not exactly a

doublet,
"

though the expression

heavy.

The

striking, parti-coloured rods

made a
and

vivid impression

on the animals

in their state of passion,

this

had

its effect

A nervous impreson the character assumed by the foetus. 2 Jerome gives a more sion was produced by the rods."
Old writers say that the colour complicated explanation. of the lambs is influenced by the river from which the parents drink during the breeding time and, according to Oppi;

3

"

4

was customary, in order to obtain fine, variouslyanus, coloured foals, to allow an ardent mare when breeding to see
it

5

Dove the figure of a handsome, variously-coloured stallion. breeders obtained purple-coloured young in a similar fashion.
Ancient
effect

6

writers,

of
7

however, allude more frequently to the such nervous impressions in the case of human
sets

births."

apart the specially coloured D'taa, kids as well as lambs, and turns the looks of the (rest of the)
flock

Ver. 40. Jacob

towards the
i.e.

Laban's,
as

and black animals, which were towards those whom he had just separated and,
striped

now told, placed in front of the others, that they be might constantly in sight of them and stir their imagination. This second device successfully supplements the first,
are

we

with the rods, and Jacob forms special flocks of his
1

own from

2 Knobel. Wellhausen. Observabat ergo Jacob, et tempore, quo ascendebantur pecora et post calorem cliei ad potandum avida pergebant, discolores virgas ponebat in

3

"

canalibus et ad missis arietibus et

liircis in ipsa potandi aviditate oves et eapras faciebat ascendi, ut ex duplici desiderio, duin avide bibunt et ascenduntuT a maribus, tales foetus coiiciperent, quales, umbras arietum

et liircorum
lv\

vir^is
4

cnim in canalibus

desuper ascendentium in aquarum speculo contemplabantur. positis varius erat etiam imaginum color."-

Qucestiones.

Aristotle, Hist.
1.

Anim.

iii.

12,

and
f.

^Elian, Hist. Animal,

viii.

21;

cf.

Strabo, x.
5

14; Pliny, xxxi. 313

Oynegetic. i. 33 Iff. E.g. in Spain, according to
;

i.

52 Oppiamis, 358 ff., Pliny, vii. 618ff. (cd. i;.>s.mniilU:r). Knobel.

7

Jerome (Qucestiones). and others in

Bocliart, Hierozoicon

:!is,

349]

GENESIS XXX. 41-43

IT)

1

Lin-

animals ho has thus acquired, and does not place them
1

with

Liibiin's flocks.
is

Such
matters

the account of the Massoretic text; nor does

it

help

if

we

read *?$ for
\3B

*?&

(Sept., Samar.), or
before

with others, 2
sight of?

ta
'y\

In that case
"^3

would mean
to
jivi.

and in

and

would be object

The

difficulty lies

in

the fact
still

that the coloured animals which have been set apart are
called
]J?

|K3
'jn

Dini

4

lp>y,

whereas in the circumstances we

should expect

nt^l

mention

of the second device,

The whole immediately to follow -man. from jm to pi>, seems to be a

5 secondary addition to the original text. Ver. 4 If. "He also secured his becoming possessed of It was only when strong adults were strong offspring only.

If they breeding that he placed his rods before them." showed weakness, i.e. were weakly, so that only weakly lambs The distinction drawn might be expected, he did not do so.

between weak and strong animals is perhaps 6 to be explained from the fact that the stronger animals breed in summer,
the weaker ones not
till

autumn, and that the offspring

of

the former, born in winter, are counted stronger
offspring of the latter,
E'f 1,

than the

born in spring. 7
consecutive

perf.

and

waw

= B'E*.

n

JpD7,

infin.

Piel of nrp (xxxi. 10), with
in xli. 2 1. 8

3rd plur.

fern, suffix;

comp.

n:

v

Ver. 43.

By

the success of his devices Jacob becomes

possessed of large property.
the narrator
xxxi.
vv.
1)

"It

is

worthy

of

remark that
found in

makes no such

allusion to

God

as the writer of
is

If.

does.

A

similar case in his narrative

14-10.'"-'

1

py us

in xxviii.

!),

in addition

to.

2

3

Targunis, Saadia, Houbigant, Kuobel. As Ex. xxiii. 15 Ps. xlii. 3.
;

4
5 6
7

See,

on the other hand,

ver. 36.
;

8

Hupfeld, Olshausen, Delit/scli also Holnm-i-, Wcllliausen. Aquila, Symmachus, Onkelos, Jerome, Saadia. Columella, Res rufs. vii. 3 Varro, Res rus. ii. 2 Pliny, viii. 25 91. 1A. 2. Knobel. Gesenius,
;

;

187.

''

252
pa, as in
ver. 30.

GENESIS XXXI

[340

IND 1ND, see
16.

ch. vii. 19.

For other

points, see note

on

xii.

3.

JACOB'S

KETURN FROM HARRAN, CH. XXXI. 1-XXXII. MOSTLY FROM B (ALSO FROM C AND A).

3

;

After having served twenty years with Laban, Jacob, with the concurrence of his wives, resolves to return to

Canaan with
his sons,
(vv.

all his

possessions.

The jealousy

of

Laban and

and an admonition from God, were what decided him 116). His departure was like a flight, without Laban's

knowledge, and Rachel took with them her father's household Laban set after him, and overtook him on Gilead. god.

But Laban had been warned They have a sharp discussion. and has to be content with making a covenant of by God, This is the origin of the friendship with Jacob on Gilead.

name Gilead
army
of

17-54). They part in concord. A whole angels meets Jacob immediately on his entering the
(vv.

land of the Hebrews, at
tive here
last,

Mahanaim

(xxxii. 1-3).

The narra-

shows how God guided the object of His care to the guarded against his being overcome in the contest with

the Aramaean, and brought him back in safety from the foreign land, the head of a large household and the possessor of much
1

property.
of

An

explanation
in

worship teraphim between Aramaeans and

given of the origin of the Israel, of the boundary on Gilead
is also

Hebrews, and

of

the

sanctity of

Mahanaim.

The narrative

is

bmw
to

onwards,
3

is

Only ver. 18, from mostly from B. from A] 2 the proof is found in the

language,

the redundancy of expression, and the reference xxxv. 27. need not suppose that ver. 17& 4 or the

We

whole

of ver. 17, 5 because of the repetition of Dp"
1

11
)

in ver. 21,

Cf. xxviii.

20 ff., also xxviii.

15.

Knobel, WellhaiMen.
3
4

Bb-1,

Bb%

jjjjp,

DIN

pis,
&

j^D

p.
p. 32.

Scliradcr.

Hupfcld, Quellen,

:!!'.>,

;r>o]

GENESIS XXXI.

1,

2

"253

is

also

from A.

Vv. I 1 and
3

2

3,

probably the words

"irm DN in ver. 2

from G\ vv.
in

25 and 27,4 are insertions 46 and 48-50 are also doublets from C\ and
1,

certainly vv.

the working up of the texts of

B

and

(7

in vv.

the hands of li and of one or more annotators have
considerable modifications.

44-53, made

from

7>,

What
due
to

Vv. 10 and 12 also, although have received their present position only from remains forms a well-connected whole, and is certainly

K

I>,

as is proved
it

by the use

of D s r6x, 5

by the different
to

explanation

gives regarding the

manner

of Jacob's acquisi-

tion of wealth (vv.
xxviii.

712), by

the reference in ver. 13

6 by the dream revelations it contains, the mention 7 of teraphim, and the expressions used. 8

20

ff.,

Ch. xxxi.
Ver.
1, to

116.

Jacob resolves to return home.

be joined with ver. 3, is from C. Laban's sons 9 declare that Jacob has taken away their father's property,

and in
of
it.

this

way has made
J;BE

his great wealth.

Jacob hears
if

After

the Septuagint read apy\
10
;

It is doubtful

ver. &

be a doublet to ver. a

if it

were

it

would be a

frag-

ment from B.
nbty
"123

see ch.

xii.

5.

of riches, as in Isa. x. 3, Ixvi. 12;

Ps. xlix. 17.
is

Ver. 2, to

be connected with ver.

4f.,

from

B

and

parallel to the contents of ver. 1.

Jacob observes in Laban's

unfriendly countenance the signs of his change of feeling toward him.
lE>y

in his intercourse with him, in his bearing towards in ver. 5
f>K is

him n
;

used in the same way.
2

1

3 5
r>

7

Hupfeld. See below. Vv. 7, 9, 11, 16, 24, 42 xxxii. 2 Vv. 10, 24. Vv. 19, 30 ff. cf. xxxv. 2 ff.
;

Schrader.

4
f.

See below.

;

8

Laban

the

Aramcean
2),

(vv. 20, 24).

(ver. 37),

yja (xxxii.

the antique
35.

nos (ver. pn^ ins

33),

33^

(ver. 26), rib here

(xxxi. 42, 53),

and

(vv. 7, 41).
9 10

Mentioned in xxx.
Kautzsch-Socin,

n

Ps, xviii. 24,

26 f,

254

GENESIS XXXI. 3-9
Yesterday and the day before
previously, formerly

[350

;

as in

ver. 5;

Ex.
3.

v.

7

f.,

14, from

R

Ver.

Jahve Himself, who guides every important step

taken by the patriarchs, commands his return to Canaan. The verse is from C, and is referred to by him in xxxii. 1
ver.

;

13 corresponds

to it in B.

Land
xlviii.

of your fathers

again in the Pentateuch only, in

21.
see
ff.,

-jrnhio

xii.

1.

Ver. 4

continuing ver.
to him,

2,

from B.

Jacob sends

for

his wives to

come

and

lays the matter before them.

and services on Laban's account, and the thankless attitude assumed towards him in return.
recalls, first, his exertions

He

Ver.

5.

has blessed

And yet the God of my father has been with me, me in my service for him, and has brought me
nans, Gesenius,25 3 2 A. 5.

such great riches. Ver. 6. See xxx. 26.

Vv.
his

79.

"

As

his thanks,

Laban deceived him, changing
i.e.

stipulated

wage

at

will ten times,

several times."

l

But God did not allow him
those very animals which

to succeed in his

deceptions

;

Laban

settled as Jacob's

wage were
41 and

always those born. bnn, from hhr\, Ewald,
xxix. 15.
n'jT,

127^.

rnab'io,

as in ver.

D*?kj
25

Gesenius,
for

faro, see xx. 6. only here and in ver. 41. 145. 7A. 3. and waw consec. fyjl, perf.

Dims

IMK.*
xxx. nothing

is said of these repeated acts of has inserted this speech in its entirety so as to include B's divergent account regarding Jacob's acquisi-

In

ch.

deception, and

E

tion of flocks, at least in this form.

With
to

the same intention,

E

has here also included vv. 10 and 12, which were not

originally part of
1

what Jacob
3.
i.

said

his

wives,

3

but yet

Num.
As
r,A. 1)

xiv.

22

;

Job xix.
xli.

2
1

xxxii.
;

1G,

23; Ex.

21;

Num.

xvi,

17

f.

(Gesenius,

25

:,:..

cf.

3

JBDTh,

xxvi. 15, xxxiii. 13, xxi. 428,

:::.n,

:;:.!
]

GENKSis xxxi. 10-10

255

doubtless shortly reproduce the contents of a

B

section which

has

been omitted.
This view

Ver.

12

is

given quite an appropriate
expressed

position.

relieves

the difficulties

by

Wellhausen.
Vv. 10-12. "It

was
sa\v

God who gave him
part i-c<>l<>mv<l

his

Hocks.

Jacob

in

;i

drca.ui

Females,

and (Ind himself told him

males covering the that He had seen all
to

Laban's doings.
births
of

Jacob was thus instructed

regard the

parti-coloured

young

as

a

gift

from God.

This

and says nothing

author accordingly attributes the blessing directly to God, l of the use of rods; comp. xxx. 18." "na for C"s K^p (xxx. 32 f., 35). The dream (see xx. 3)

and the use
Ver.

of DTibtf -|tfta (see xxi.

17) are characteristic of B.
of
ver.

13,

originally

a

continuation

11.

God
18
ff.),

made Himself known
ta 1V3 bsn

as

the

God

of

Bethel (xxviii.

and bid him return home.
either with ta rpaa *p?N napan understood or
btt

shortened from
rnro "KTK
*JJT6lB

JV3 ta tan.

2

Samaritan and Septuagint 'y\ new. Septuagint adds KOI ecropai fiera aov.

Vv. 14-16. The wives willingly accede to the proposal. At home they have Their father has alienated them also.

no further heritage to expect other than what they may Their father have received at their marriage (xxix. 14, 29). 3 treats them as strangers, for he has sold them, and now 4

consumes the proceeds by himself, 5 i.e. he enjoys what he has gained by Jacob's service without giving them any share. ninaj, Sept. and Samar. nnaja. fyni, see ix. 23.
D3

the

infin. absol.

makes
4
in B.
so

it

clear that

it

goes with the

verb

;

similarly in xlvi.
(ver.

*3
1
2

16)

not

that?

nor

affirmative

yea? but
xxiv. 53.

Knobel.
Gesenius,
25

127A. 4a.

4

Ch. xix.

9.
;

4 Knobel, Delitzsch

Ch. xxix. 18, 27 Ex. xxi. 35. nor in Deut. xiv. 24 Job x. 6
;

3

cf.

5

;

;

cases

like

ver. 3G, xx. 9, xl. 15 are different.
7

Delitzsch

5
.

256

GENESIS XXXI. 1719

FF.

[351, 352

emphatically introducing the antithesis to any connection with their paternal home l on the contrary, we are inde;

pendent, and
reason

all

that

God has taken from our

father (ver. 9)
;

belongs only to us, not to him, is our

property

there

is

no

why we

should not depart.
;

"TO in the Pentateuch only here comp. ijTOTn in xiv. 23. Vv. 1725. Without Laban's knowledge Jacob departs with his family and property Eachel carries off her father's
;

teraphim.
Gilead.

Laban follows and overtakes the

fugitive

on

Sons and wives, in Sept. and in Samar. wives and sons.
camels,

On

comp. xxiv. 61.
8.

Ver. 1

irwpErfernK Jnri, from B, see Ex.

iii.

1

;

the rest

of the verse

from A, comp. xxxvi. 6
of
his
possession,

The
Laban's."

animals
2

(also xlvi. 6). "

therefore

nothing
secret
his

of

Ver. 19
of

ff.

the nature of a

The departure, according to B, was Laban had gone to flight.

and

sheep-

shearing, which, seeing his flocks were large, lasted a
of

number

off his

Eachel used the opportunity to carry days (1 Sam. xxv.). household gods, with the intention, at least, of securing

their protection

house, for herself

and blessing, or the good fortune of the 3 Jacob availed himself of it to make a
;

secret departure. D^ain 4 no certain

etymology

has

yet
6

been
to

found.

Neubauer's
tarpu

5

reference to D^NBI, and Sayce's
ghost,

Assyrian

= dimma,

ancestral spirits,

which would lead us to the meaning are of no more value than the numerous
f.

conjectures enumerated in
It

may
1

Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 1 5 2 be supposed that no more than a single image 7

is

here intended; the plural pronominal suffix of ver.
3
I In

34 and

Ps. xxxvii. 20, xlix. 11 [10], cxxx. 4. Just as ^Eneas took with him the Penates
;

2

Knobel.

from Troy, Dionysius
tr.

Hear.
4
r>

i. 69 Knobel. Virgil, JSneid, iii. 148 f., iv. 598. See Winer, 3 ii. 608 Ewald, Alterthiimer* 296 ff. [Eng. Academy, 1886, No. 756, p. 297a.
;

223

ff.].

{

'%A.

ii.

95.

J-

1

Sam,

xix. 13, 16,

352]

GENESIS XXXI.
ol ver.
1

L'l-24

257
v,

the

*fylt

30 arc not certain evidence that there
still less is

than one,

xxxv.

_!.

Aramcan
has

as in ver. 24.

See note on xxv. 20.

Lai an

heen frequently named in what goes before, and the epithet is here attached, not so much because of any Hebrew
national
self-consciousness, as
to

explain

the difference of
;

so in religion, and perhaps also to prepare for ver. 44 ff. 2 ver. 24. Budde would explain it to be from A, but it is

presupposed in ver. 47
3^
333

;

see also Deut. xxvi. 5.

also in ver. 2 6, delude one's (intellectual) perception',
;

3 in ver. 2 7 more shortly comp. /c\e7TTiv voov in Hesiod with accus. of person, like /cKeTrretv iiva and decipere*

y2Tvy

because of the want
5
;

of,

i.e.

because or

inasmuch as

he did not

only here in this sense.
to flee, i.e.

That he intended
Ver. 2
if so,

depart,

make
6

off (cf. ver. 27).
7
;

1.

"imn

is

generally assumed

the words "irurrnK
ver. 23.
set
;

"Wi

1

Dp" !

Euphrates must be an insertion from

to be the

C; see

And
of Gilead

his face

took his course, towards the mountains
xii.

comp. 2 Kings
f.

1 8.

Ver. 22

It is not
;

learns of his flight
his kinsmen. 8

till the third day after that Laban he sets after him with his brothers, i.e.

After seven days' march he overtakes him on the mountains of Gilead. At whatever speed (ver. 36), it is to reach Gilead from Harran in seven days, or impossible

with flocks

9

in

from ten

to

twelve.

It follows, seeing

the
1,
10
;

number cannot be impeached, in agreement with xxix. that B thought of Laban's home as much nearer Gilead
and
also

that "irurrnK "UJH Dp

1

")

in

ver. 21,

where iron can

only be the Euphrates, must be from another source (C). Ver. 24. Laban and his people are much stronger than Jacob (ver. 29), who is in danger of falling a victim to his
1

Ewald, Syntax,
Theoloy. 613.

318a.
322a.
;

2

Uryeschichtc, p.
4

4-2-2.

3 5
7

Ewald, Syntax, As Ex. xxiii. 31
Ch. xxxiii. 13
f.

6

Knobel. See xxiv.
Lev. x. 4
;

10.

Mic.

vii. 12.

8
I0

2 Sam. xix.
.

3.

9

5 Against Delitzscli

DILLMANN.

II.

17

258
vengeance.

GENESIS XXXI. 25-27

[352, 353

But God intervenes before they meet, and warns
l

by night not to speak, much less take Jacob yviy aiBD. These words do not mean action, against 2 3 beginning with good and passing to evil, but anything at all,

Laban in a dream

i.e.

evil

;

this follows

from

^

"iDK>n.

The Septuagint
unlike

rightly

has Trovrjpd; so in ver. 29. Ver. 25. (7s account of the meeting,
distinction between puin,
to

23b.

A
over-

be

close

behind, and

yfrn, to

take* cannot be maintained.

Jacob had

pitched

his

tent
theirs

on

or
or

beside
beside
"inn

inn,

and
in.

Laban and
Taken
understood

his

brethren

on

Iffon

in connection

with vv. 21 and 23,

can only be

as

Ijfein in,

Laban encamped on

the

and we should require to render, same spot. 5 But no writer could

Either in had a qualification express himself in this way. 6 attached to it, which R has omitted because of the discordance with B's text, or

C

delayed mention of the
its

name
the

because he wished to relate
latter case, ver.
etc.,

origin in

ver.

48

;

in

255

must be from E.

Eegarding Gilead,

see p.
tatf

268f.
only here in the Pentateuch.

ypn

vn&s

7 unnecessary to replace this by Vv. 26-42. Discussion between Jacob and Laban

it is

^.

;

abash-

ment

of the latter.

Vv.

2628. Laban

first

becomingness of his secret
foolishly.

reproaches him with the unWithal, he has acted escape.

Ver. 27

is

in part a variant

to

ver. 26,
mi>.

insertion from
tilings

C\ note
easier

ajji

without

and probably an In the Septuagint
first five

are

made
27

by the transposition of the
5.

words

of ver.

after rVTO of ver. 26.

*H?, see note on xx.
1

Captives of the sword, gained in
2 4

Ch. xx.

3.

3
5 6
7

xxiv. 50, xiv. 23. Vulgate, Knolu-1.

As

Knobel, Bunsen. Knobel.
cf.

Ace. to Lagarde, Ayathangelus, p. 157, nBSBil Laganli', liuhl, Kiuiun, p. 250.

;

ver. 49,

353]

GENESIS XXXI.

L'<),

30

259

l|, Septuagint b have sent That Imi/jJit you away, with "irfc-'Ni 3 and have music might merriment, song arranged festivities on the occasion of your leaving. 4 ^a, grandsons, see ver. 43

war. 1

m^> nxsm,

verb as adverb. 2

rnjn

with

as apodosis.

;

and
;nj

xxxii. 1

;

cornp. note

on xxix.

5.

B?IM,
i&jJ

in the sense of
nit^j;

in the

and taon, only here in Pentateuch, same document. 5
Ver. 29.

for

elsewhere

He might
;

well be justified, then, in

requiting

himself on Jacob
6

but

God has

forbidden

him

in the night

just past. ?N&

^
9

7
t?1

has been literally rendered,

it is to

God

my

hand? which might suitably express, I can accomplish anything,
though not, /
lated,
it is

am

able,

have the power.

It should be trans-

I

am

able.

according to the power of my hand, it is of my power, PN does not mean " strong," from ^N, but is a noun
see vol.
i.

like QfP

and H>;

p.

56.

God of your father
and
his family
is
10
;

the plural suffix referring to Jacob

the Samaritan and Septuagint have T??.

Isaac

the father.
that
it

Laban knows from the contents

of the

warning
him.

was Jacob's ancestral God who spoke
though Laban
it is

to

Ver. 30. But

willing
is

to

call

him no

further to account because his departure
plished fact, and because
desire to see his
his gods to

now an accomn may be accounted for by a great
But
in
this very he comes off

home
in
is

again, he cannot allow the theft of

pass

a similar fashion.

particular,
1

where he
vi. 22.

undoubtedly

in the right,

2 Kings

25 114. 2A. 3. For modern Eastern examples, Ger. tr. i. 415 f Knobel.
2 4

Gesenius,

3

1

Sam.

xviii. 6.
2
i.

see

Harmer
Knobel
;

[Observations,
25

435
2.

f .],

.

5
<!

Chs. xlviii. 11,

1.

20; Ex.
Prov.
iii.

xviii. 18

;

Gesenius,

75A.

7

Ch. xix. 34. As in Mic. ii.

1

;

27

;

and with a negative, in Deut.

xxviii.

32

;

Neh.

v. 5.

8

9
10

Seb. Schmid, Knobel, Hitzig, Bertlieau. As the older expositors ; Gesenius, Tuch, Ewald, Delitzsch. n Gesenius, 25 113. Cf. xxxvii. 46.

3.

260

GENESIS XXXI. 31-35

[353, 354

second best in the end.
daughter,

He

is

over-reached by his
of her

own
ff.).

whom
f.

he had before cheated
Pentateuch

due (xxix. 25

cpM
Ver.

in the

only here.

first complaint Jacob replies that he the from feared, judging past (xxix. 23 ff.), that Laban might As take his daughters from him by force; ^, as in xx. 11.

31

To the

to

the second charge, Jacob
said nothing to

is

conscious of innocence, for
of the theft
;

Eachel had

him

he therefore

declares confidently that he will

with

whom Laban may

find the

to death anyone he gives him and teraphim,

condemn

though imitated 2 in the Aramaic versions, and acknowledged by Ewald and
n^'x,

permission to search. "IPK Dy for toy

1

quite unusual,

Gesenius. 3

We

also miss the presence at the beginning of
4

the verse of
Shall

"ioar v

not live
life

rendered by the Septuagint. the patriarchs had over their families
(xxxviii. 24).

the power of

and death
as in ver.

Our brethren
with him. 5

23

;

Jacob had a large company

^"ijn

xxxvii. 32, xxxviii. 25.

Vv. 33-35. Laban searches the tents, of which there was one for each person of consequence. 6 Kachel had put
the teraphim in a camel-pannier or
litter,

and seated herself

on

it was the time of her monthly and so the period, escaped duty of rising up on her father's 8 and him of his desire to make a thorough entrance, deprived
it
;

she professed that

7

search.

9

The words
to

nriDKn

w

^n&ai in

33a are given

their position

make

Rachel's tent the scene of all that follows, but are
;

followed awkwardly by n&6 ^HKID ^1 the transposition of the Septuagint is no help it would be more effectual to put
;

nxb bn&oi after niriDKn.

After

pi> ao'i

the

Septuagint
25

and

Samaritan have
1

(

'h.

xliv.

9

f.

2

Syntax,
Athrenlese,
i.

333a.

Grammatik,
8.
7

138.

1.

H

liiittcher,
5

Neue

22.

6 *

Chs. xxx. 43, xxxi. 37, 46, 54, xxxii. Of. xxiv. 67.
Lev. xix. 32.

gee ^iu.

11.

Lev. xv. 19.

Knobel.

354]

GENESIS XXXI.
not?

3(5-39

261

see xx. 17.

-O
it is

"a palanquin,

five foot

in length,

with a seat in

it

;

placed crosswise on the .saddle of the camel and fastened with cords; there are rods ;it the sides and crossing overhead on which coverings are hung so that the traveller may
or sit in the shade.
of the saddle are smaller,

lie

lengthwise on both sides

The palanquins which are placed and are
women."
;
]

specially for the conveyance of the

Let

it

not burn in the eyes

so xlv. 5

the

fire of

passion

shows

itself in

the glance of the eyes.

i"an

xliv. 12.

Ver. 36

passed off

Jacob becomes bolder now that everything has well for him, and in his turn takes Laban to task.
f.

3p];^ irpi

iv.

5.

ID (2nd)

Samar. Sept. Pesh. Targ. of Jonath. and
flame, be hot
2

many
one

Hebrew codices ni. " to 'D nnK pin
hotly;
cf.

after

one

= follow
^i.

1

Sam.

xvii.

53."

3

'3 (v.

37)

Sam. Sept. and Vulg. not so well,
as

na, as

xxii. 5.

Decide between us

arbiters

4
;

rP3in, in

B, in xx.

16

and

25 has another meaning; also in C in xxiv. 14, 44. Vv. 3842. In order to set Laban's conduct in its
xxi.

proper light, Jacob, in language which is eloquent and at times even poetical, recalls his twenty years of earnest, unselfish, and toilsome service, and Laban's many attempts to
deprive

him

of

his merited reward,

which were frustrated
They made no mis10; the care of the
xxii. 12.

only by the intervention of Jacob's God. Ver. 38. nt, as ver. 41, xxvii. 36.
carriages, as

Ex.

xxiii.

26; Job

xxi.

shepherd was so great. Ver. 39a is to be interpreted in the light of Ex.
1
;

Burckhardt [Bedouins, vol. ii. p. 85], Germ. tr. 370 f. W. G. Brown [Travels* p. 453], Germ. tr. p. 473 ; Ker Porter [Travels, London, 1821-22, ii. and others in .lalni, Bibl. Arch. i. 1, 285 f. [Eng. 232], Germ, tr.ii. 239
;

tr.

3

p. 54,
2

Isa.

without references]. Knobel. 3 v. H. Knobel.

4

Isa.

ii.

4

;

Job

xvi. 21.

262
for

GENESIS XXXI. 40-43

[354, 355

replace,

1 here in the sense make amends for, njNBns for which D^ is the usual word.
j

rut^pon

wanting

in

Sept.

and Samar.

;

Laban required

him
as
it

to

This and the preceding irnpf., were set before our eyes the events as they occurred
the losses.
translate, I will

make good

;

we must not
Stolen

make
~by

2 good, thou mayest demand.

ly day and stolen

night

I

replaced, as

you

required, the missing animals, whether they were stolen by

day or night; comp. Ex.
Gesenius.
3

xxii.

11.

For the

*-r-

of TO::, see

Ver. 40.

The

service

was a trying

one.

/ was

~by

day

heat consumed me, I

was wasted by the heat by day. 4

"

It is

well

known

that in the East the nights are cold to a degree

5 corresponding to the heat of the day.

My
6

sleep,

that which

was

my due, which I ought to have had." Ver. 41 f. Because ver. 38 opens as

this verse does,

we

need not therefore assign vv. 3840 to a different author; 7 in such vivid speech the repetition is quite in place.
Eegarding the twenty Ten times, as in ver.
years'
7.

service,

see

note on xxx. 26.
Tii?K

The second

in

ver.

42

is

wanting in Sept. and Vulg. The Fear of Isaac the object of his fear and awe, numen referendum, cre/3a? an ancient name for God; so ver. 53
;

(comp.

Isa. viii. 13).

v
nny

for me, favourable to
''D

me;
anaS)

as Ps. cxxiv. 1
sent

f.,

Ivi.

10.

then in truth
tj

8

you would have
Ji

133 yi^

u
10

t

n Of m y

me away empty? m y toilsome work God
;

saw, considered,

and so decided. 11
Jacob's
speech,

Ver.
1

43.
26

Ashamed and overcome by
74A.
26

Gesenius,
3 5

4.

2

Xucli.

p.

Ewald, 128a. Morier [Second Journey, 1818, p. 97], Germ. tr. 104 Wellsted [Travels in Arabia, i. Katte, Reise in 86], Germ. tr.i. 64 <'/">/', pp. 12, 56 Rosenmiiller, ad loc. c Isa. xxi. 14, xxxi. 9. Knobel. 7 * Wellhausen. Ewald, Syntax, 358,
Grammatik,
;

90. 3.

*

Cf. Jer. xxxvi.

30

;

;

;

Cf. xliii. 10
10

;

Num.

xxii.

29

;

1

Sam.

xiv.

30

;

2 Sam.

ii.

27.

Chs. xvi. 11, xxix. 32.

"

Ver. 37.

355]

CKNKSIS xxxi.

n

Lilian begins, indeed, ly
ri;j;ht

to nil that

Jin attempt to in;iint;iin liis Jacob had, wives, children, and property; hut

immediately opens the way for a reconciliation by saying, do to-day to these my daughters and their yet what can
I

sons,

i.e.

how do them any
]"2,

evil?

For

b nb>y in its

bad sense,
a

com]),

\.\ii.

xxvii.

45; Ex.

xiv. 11.

Ver.

44.

He

proposes

that
1

they

should

conclude

covenant of peace and friendship. Ex. come ! as in x xxvii. 13 np7
;

Hi.

10, in B.
is

irni

the subject cannot be rro, which
2

feminine, nor

the action,

which
8

itself,

as something transitory, requires a

permanent
following
fallen
out,
>,

witness.

We
5o

must therefore
that
before
n-ri

either delete the

or assume

some words have
the

such as

n'^i or rnsra nb^l, according as the
I>'s
;

verse

was originally C's or

comp.
in
vv.

omission

in

ver. 25.

The narrative which follows
the conclusion of the covenant,
duplications,
is

regarding disconnected and full of

4554,

and

is

certainly the result of a union of several
4

sources, besides containing

several glosses.
it

The Septuagint

5

unsuccessfully tried to reduce

to order

by transpositions.

Various attempts at analysis have been made, in part too C's account is found in vv. complicated, in part insufficient.

According to it the witness they and the ^3, promise made was that Jacob would treat Laban's daughters well the ns>'p is a harmonver.

48 50

7

and

46.

8

erected was a

;

istic interpolation.

It's

account, contained in vv. 45,

5154,

being erected, and that as a witness that the Arameans and Hebrews should respect the spot where it The covenant is stood as the boundary between them.
speaks of a
1

mro

CL

xxi. 23
.

ff.,

xxvi. 28

ff.

2

Delitzsch 5

3
6

Olshausen.
Ilgen.
p. 161.

4 6

Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 431. 3 Ewald, Geschichte, i. 498 [Eng.
Aatruc, Schroder, Dehtzsoh.

tr.

i.

347]

;

Hupfeld, Quellen,

Bohmer.
7 8

Wellhausen.

264

GENESIS XXXI.

45,

4G

[355, 356

1 sealed, in both accounts,

by a meal which they partake

of

together.
incident.
to B,
this

C

(ver.

Kittel's analysis
ver.

48) accounts for the name Gilead by the 2 assigns vv. 45 f., 48a, 50, 53 f.
without the maro, to
C.

and

51

f.,

It

would have

advantage that the D'nta of ver. 50 would have a simple

explanation.

Hebrews
M3"iNn
;

(ver.
if

But the boundary between Arameans and 52) is more in place in B, who names Laban
ver.

and

46 were

_Z?'s

continuation of ver. 45,
S

we

B

should expect IBK npjn there instead of 3py -IDK 1. Besides, has already mentioned the njfei in in vv. 21, 23 (25&), and

seems to have had no special explanation of the name nyiy. A stone is set up as a memorial by Ver. 45. From B. to the text, but by Laban according to ver. Jacob, according
51.
ver.

We

must assume
p&?

3

that

the original continuation of
is

44 was simply
expansion.

np

s<

i,

and that 3py
ruj?D

a

later
to
s

and

erroneous
certainly in

The

here

referred

was

an elevated position, visible from far off; Q ")n is a therefore rightly chosen expression, and is no proof that
the author
used. 4
is

not the writer of ch. xxviii. 18, 22, where

&&

is

Ver.

46 presents once more the text

of

C.

Stones are

collected to form a

^

or

mound on

which, then, the covenant
is

meal
but

is

held.

so clear as in
it
is

The Septuagint has lEp^l for inp^. 5 It ver. 45 that npjP is here an erroneous

not
6

gloss,

probable because, in ver. 48 ff., it is Laban who There would be no difficulty explains the meaning of the i?j.
Jacob's people gave their kelp.

if

The meal can only have taken place after the oaths had been taken, but might easily be mentioned by the narrator beforehand. Still, the second part of the verse may, perhaps,
originally in
1

(7,

like
ver.

ver. 485,

have stood after

ver. 50,

and

Ver. 46 in

(7,

2

Geschichte, pp. 129,
3
6

54 in B. 140 f. [Eng.

tr. vol.

i.

pp. 143, 156].
4

Astruc, Ilgen, Wellliausen.

Against Knobel.
ii.

Approved by
Wellhausen.

1 Pliischke, Lagarde, Onomas. Sac.

95.

Olsliausen,

K;iul/sch-Socin.

:*:>(;]

CKNESIS xxxi. 47-4

(

.)

265

have been transposed by E to allow of the two promises, vv> 48-50, and vv. 51-53, following one another directly.
Ver. 47. Neither from C, in view of ver. 48b, nor from
//,

who only spoke

of

ji

ri3D, not of a

*?).

It

is

therefore an

independent insertion, suggested by 'msn in vv. 20, 24, :md with the object of defining more precisely the words of

48k
snnnb
regarding the

b

for D, see note

on Job

xvi. 19. 1

Both names, the Hebrew and the Aramaic, denote hillock or mound of witness. " The situation of the place on the border
seems
to

have

occasioned

the

double

designation.

The

country north of Gilead was inhabited in part by Aramaic 2 speaking tribes, while there is no trace of them in the
southern part of the country east of Jordan. The Arameans of Damascus at times also extended their sovereignty as far
as Gilead. 3

In what follows also Gilead

is

regarded some-

what as a boundary." 4 Ver. 48& was doubtless 50
;

originally, in C, followed
like

by

ver.

ver.

485
JR.

is

also

from C, but,

46&, owes

its

present

position to

"W?
firmus,
is

from

the

same
by C
as

stem

as

Arabic jatad
this
is

= durus,
was

explained

W3,

although

not very

consistent with the ordinary usage by which the article

prefixed

(e.g.

vv. 21, 25).
5 always in C. The words nBTOm

lEtT'Nip p'Sy

Ver. 49.

are

surprising,

because

nothing has been said before of a nDSD, place of observation, watch-tower? though a ms, here the reading of the

As to the grammatical conSamaritan, has been spoken of. we can doubt that navo is co-ordinate with struction, scarcely
the
-ijfa

of ver.
for

485

he named the place, 7 or the Massebah, 8
alone
suits
2

Mispah,
1

this

construction

the

following
.

3 5
c 8

[Dillm. Com.] 1 Kings xxii. 3

Ch> xxii 24

ff.

;

2

Kings

ix.

14

f. f.

Knobel.
1

Clis. xi. 9, xix. 22,

xxv. 30, xxix. 34
tier

But

see note

on

ver. 25.
Contjw*.
Genesis,

Knobel, Keil.

Saaclia,

Ewald,

04; Gesenius,

206
because
l

GENESIS XXXI.
he said. 2

50

[356, 357

But the sentence
are driven to the

is

so loosely joined to

ver. 48&, that

we

conclusion

that in

its

present form

R

not from C, but has been touched up by of his time, which spoke rather of a tradition suit the to
it is

Mispah than
the

of

a Massebah, and had, perhaps, transferred

scene

of
is

the
that

legend

to

another

spot.

Wellhausen's

supposition

R

interpolated msioni, and that afterwards
rraaro

another writer was induced by the bad odour of the
to
;

change it into navom the words 'jn rw cjyi, along with But the ver. 50&, were also an addition by this later hand. the word 51 ff. because in vv. is 45, improbable, explanation
mjTD has been
left

untouched.

The only question
and the related

is,

whether
are

from

t\y

to injno in ver. 49,

ver. 50&,

an independent insertion of B's, or are based on something he found in C. If we consider that in B ver. 53 follows ver.
51
f .,

it

is

quite
to

possible

that

in

C,
'y\

similarly,

there
11

was

something that R has only redacted and transposed his original with an eye to naxcm.
,

follow 50a, such as

1^11 o'a mir nan

and

PIV

God

is

to

spy out
his

watch that each
to be out of

fulfils

between him and Jacob, keep covenant duty, because they are

sight of

one another, 3 and so will be unable to

watch one another.
the Septuagint has o @eo?. rniT Ver. 50. The special point in the promise, according to C, was that Jacob should not oppress or ill-treat Laban's

daughters in revenge for their father's deception, nor take other wives in addition to them.

ty

as

in

ch.

xxviii.

9.

DK in an oath, as

xiv.

23,

xxvi. 29.

No
is

one

is

with

us, as

witness and arbiter

;

God, therefore,

to be witness
*x

between them.

The

original idea (ver. 48),

that the
~i
:

will be witness, falls completely as xxvii. 27, xli. 41.
->

away.

1

3

Ch. xxx. 18. Ch. iv. 14.

Of. x. 9, xvi. 13, xxii. 14.

:*:>7]

GENESIS xxxi.
snqn-isiiig after the

r,i-r>p,

D\"6s

mrp of ver. 40, and no doubt

a proof that the words have been inserted or revised by //. Vv. 51-53. The contents of the agreement, according
//.

t<> <!'

Laban

and Jacob, the descendants
engage
in

of

Nahor and

Abraham,
C, ver.

will not in future

hostilities against one

another, nor cross Gilead with such an end in view.

As

in

48

who

is

the covenant, ff., it is Laban, the one who proposed rightly made to define for Jacob tho words of the
is

oath he

to take. 1
i

But the words

run

^n

run

(ver.

51) and
for
_/>,

(ver. 52) are an interpolation by
(p.

R?
i?a.

nrn ^n ny we may assume
i

2G3), contained no mention of a

R

harmonised

/>

and

C by

adding C's
So.

^

to 7>"s roxiD, as in ver.

48

f.

he put naso

alongside of

In

ver.

521

the

twice repeated

nrn

^rrns had been
could, withn3i*Dn nsi

ntn Tj^an

n

in B, for

we can hardly suppose he
nyfei

out more ado, call

the

*?}.

The words nxrn
does not
3

must be an addition by E. ;vv Job xxxviii. 6
s

;

rrv

mean throw
nason

stones
is

together,

and
DS

is

therefore no proof

that

mm

an

interpolation.

DN
in
ver.

an oath probably rather as 50^, to emphasise the double negation, / certainly
sive* but in
etc.

= sive

will not,

njr6
xviii.

for

evil,

i.e.

with

hostile

intentions

(2

Sam.

32).

Ver. 53. Laban invokes the

God

of

God

of
5

Nahor
by
<l

to

judge between them.
i.e.

Abraham and Jacob now

the
also

swears

the

Fear?

the

God

of his father.

nn^N i-6x unifies the conjugate expression " God of Abraham and God of Nahor," to which it is in apposition, as if Terah's God had become a duality in his sons' lives xxiv. 2). But it has a halting appearance, is (cf. Josh.
1

Cf. chs. xxi., xxvi.

2

Ewald, Wellhausen.
note
1].

3
4

Kittel, Geschichte, p. 141 [Eng.

tr. vol.

i.

p. 156,
t!

Delitzsch, Keil.

5

Ch. xxi. 24.

Ver. 42.

268

GENESIS XXXI.

54

[357, 358

1 wanting in the Septuagint and certain Hebrew MSS., and

is

doubtless a gloss. 2
1

BQgji

3 Sept. Samar. Pesh. Vulg. DBK>\

Ver. 54. After the taking of the oath there follows the
covenant
5

meal,

4

anticipated in

ver.

46

:

it

is
6

prepared by

Jacob, and the very expression employed (mt)
it

shows that

was a

sacrificial feast.

Jacob invites those who were with

him

(ver.

46), and Laban's presence

may

be inferred from

the purpose of the meal.

Afterwards they spent the night
the principal food
8

on the

hill.

Eat bread
for the

partake of a meal

;

is

put
is

whole meal. 7
the Arabs

The mere

"

act of eating together

among

one of friendship,"

between those who
;

have been at enmity it is one of reconciliation here it plainly forms an integral part of the ceremonial observed in

making the covenant.
ijfan in

in the

a designation for

Old Testament generally, like njfein ptf, the whole mountain district and country

Yarmuk as far as the plains of Heshbon. 9 At present the name Jebel Jil'ad is that of a mountain range eight kilometres south of Wadi Zerka (the Yabbok), which
south of the
stretches from
east to west a distance of about nine kiloit

metres.
Jil'aud
1

"
10
;

On
it is

are situated the ruined cities of JilTid and
its

north of Salt, 11 and east of 'Allan, 12 and

2

3
4 5 c
7

In the Samaritan, DITUK Tl^XKennicott, Houbigant, Olshausen, Wellhausen, Geiger, Urschrift, 284. But see Josh. xxiv. 2.
Of. xxvi.

30

;

Ex. xxiv. 11

;

2

Sam.

iii.

20 f.

Cf. xxvi. 30.
Cf. xlvi. 1.

Cf. xxxvii. 25, xliii. 25

;

8

Niebuhr, Arabien,
3
i.

p.

48

;

Ex. ii. 10, xviii. 12 Matt. xv. 2. Sonnini [Voyage, ii. 129], Germ.
;

tr.

i.

439

;

Volney [Voyage,

314; Buckingham 412], [Syria, 1825, p. 15], Germ. tr. ii. 18; Burckliardt [Bedouins, i. 164, 327 f., Knobel. 330], Germ. tr. 140, 264, 270. Deut. iii. 12 f. Josh. xvii. 1, 5 2 Kings x. 33, and frequently. 10 Buivklmnlt [Syria, p. 348], Germ. tr. 599 f. 11 Robinson, Palastina, iii. 922 [oil Eng. map cf. i. 570].
395, Eng.
tr. i. tr.
i.
''

Germ.

;

;

12

Seetzen, Reisen,

i.

393.

358]

GENKSIS XXXII. L-3
Jcbel 'Oscha. 1

269
(vi.

highest

point

is
2

Hosea

8) speaks of a

We may conjecture that the Miapah of 34 no other than the Mispeh-Gilead of was Judg. xi. 29 and was also doubtless one and the same as it Judg. 3 4 liumatli-Mispeh, the well-known Eamoth in or on Gilead,
town
of

Gilead.

xi.

11,

;

Eamoth

of

Gilead,

5

which lay

fifteen

Eoman

miles

west
6

(north-west) of Philadelphia, according to the Onomasticon."

in

According to most, this Mispah or Eamoth is to be looked for 7 the modern es-Salt, but more probably 8 in the ruins of
el-Jal'ud, eleven kilometres farther north.

With

these facts

in

view, Knobel believed himself entitled to identify 15^3 (xxiii. 25) and lj| (ver. 47 f.) with the modern Jebel Jil'ad,
(ver.

and naron But

this is inconsistent

49) with the ancient Mispah or Eamoth. with xxxii. 2, 23 f., which show that
till

Jacob did not cross the Yabbok
spoken
of

afterwards.
lies

What

is

must be the part

of Gilead

which

north of the

Yabbok,

i.e.

the Jebel 'Ajlun, which alone

is

suitable as the

But we can no boundary between Hebrews and Arameans. determine what in Jebel longer locality 'Ajlun the author
had in mind,
nothing;
different
it

navo,

which

is

may
view
;

be that

R

due only to E (? C), can decide was under the influence of a

tradition
in
f

Eamoth
one of

regarding the locality, and had Mispah but it is also possible he intended a Mispah
"
f

in Jebel Ajlun.

Beke found on Jebel Ajlun a cromlech, those well-known monuments of the earliest time and
;

the Consul Finn was assured by his Arab companions that there were quite a number of them on the hills there." 9 Ch. xxxii. 1-3.
1

From
i.

B.

Laban and Jacob
tr. ii.

separate.
[Syritt,

Robinson [Palestine?

532],

Germ.

481
3

;

Buckingham
xiii. 26.

1825, p. 20],
2 4 5 6
7

Germ.
17
?
;

tr. ii.

24.

Judg. Dent.
1

x.
iv.

Josh.

43

Josh. xx.

8,
;

xxi. 36.

Kings

iv. 13, xxii.

3

ff.

2 Kings

viii. 28, ix. 1

ff.

Knobel.
Seetzen,

2 Baedeker, 287

8
9

Buckingham, Xyrm [1825, Riehm, Handioorterbuch, 1003. Hitzig, Langer in Ausland, 1882, p. 181.
i.
;

397

p. 40],

Germ.

tr. ii.

45

;

;

Schenkel,

Bibellcjiicon,

ii.

472.

270

GENESIS XXXII. 1-3

[358, 359

A

host of angels meets Jacob on his way at Mahanaim. The encounter, which took place after the Aramean border had

been crossed, corresponds to the vision of angels which Jacob had when he set out (xxviii. 10 ff.) it reminds him of the
;

divine

protection

which

has

followed

him

hitherto,

and

assures

him
1.

Ver.

continuance in the face of further dangers. Laban says farewell, and returns home. D3^l,
of its
xxi.

as in xx.

8,

14, xxii.

3,

xxviii.

18.

Kissed

Ms

sons,

comp. xxxi. 28.
Ver.
2.

lyjEn, as

xxviii.

11.

Angels of God, as xxi. 17,

xxviii. 12.

Ver.
D.^np 1 a plural.
is

3.

':1

top

11

!

as xxviii. 19.

the Septuagint (Vulgate) irape^oKai understood It is in itself quite possible that the final syllable

due to a disintegration of an older form BJ?, camping place, This is probably the case which has assumed a dual aspect.
other instances
in
of
T

in

the
or

many
2
1

pre-Israelite
it

which once ended
that
vv.

T

,

and

may

place names be evidence here

we are only told of Q^x wno.s But it follows from 8-11 that in this particular word D^nD the pronunciation
is

as a dual

very old

;

and

in

this

verse itself (ver.

3) a

suggestion of the double

camp may

be found in the camp of

the angels and in that of Jacob. 4

was sacred from early times, 5 one of the most important towns in Gilead, belonging to Gad but on the 6 7 border of Manasseh, the capital of Ishbaal, and David's

The

city

residence
principal

during

Absalom's

rebellion.

8

It

was

also

the

town

in one of the districts into

which Solomon

divided the country for fiscal purposes, 9 but is unmentioned in the history of later kings and after the exile. There is
therefore
1

no

tradition

regarding
496.
;

its

site.

It

cannot

be

As Gesenius, Thesaurus,
Sec
\.\.\vii. 17,

-

xxxviii. 21

Philippi in

ZDMG.
5
1

xxxii. 63

ff.

;

\\Cllhuusen in

JBDTh.

xxi. 433.

1

See also note on xxxii. 22.
.lush. xiii. 26, 30.
-2

i:

2 Sain.
1

Levitical, Josh. xxi. 36. ii. 8, xii. 29.

Sum.

xvii. 24, 27.

9

Kings

iv. 14.

35!)]

GENESIS XXXII

271

Buckhardt's 1 Meysera,- ruins two hours south of tin; Yabbnk, but must have lain nortli of the Yahhok (vcr. 2M), not too
i'jir

from the Jordan
ii.

(ver. 11),

by pin? (2 Sam.
of Ju*i'^
3

29;

cf.

and separated from thu 'Araha 2 Sam. xviii. 23 if.). Tin- ruins
;

are too far north and east to suit here

it

would at

have been preferable for Jacob to descend to the Jordan by the Wadi Yabis rather than over the Yabbok.
least, then,

C.

JACOB FROM HIS EETURN TO CANAAN TILL THE DEATH OF ISAAC, CH. XXXII. 4-XXXVII. 1.
1.

JACOB MEETS ESAU AND WRESTLES WITH GOD, Cn. XXXII. 4-XXXIII. 17 FROM C AND

R

A

new danger

threatens Jacob in the settlement with

arrival to
his

He sends word of his Esau which has yet to be made. Esau in Se'ir, but learns from his messengers that
brother
fear
is

already
his

on

the

way with 400 men.
he
takes

In

mortal

of

vengeance,

precautions

by

dividing his servants and flocks into two camps, and implores

He prepares rich presents for his God's help (xxxii. 4-13). in front (vv. 1422). on them and sends That brother,
During what remains of it, night he crosses the Yabbok. he wrestles alone at Peniel with a divine being who encounters him, and finally names him Israel, and blesses him (vv. 23-33). Jacob and those with him now humbly advance
approaching. They meet, however, with a fraternal reception, and Esau accepts the presents prepared for him only after repeated entreaty.
to

pay their respects

to

Esau,

who

is

Jacob prudently refuses the escort Esau offers, the latter returns to Se'ir, and Jacob settles in Sukkoth (xxxiii. 1-17).
This incident
is

the crucial point in the history of Jacob's

spiritual education.
1

His

last

danger

is

his greatest,
2

and

its

3

[Syria, p. 347], Germ. tr. p. 597. Mahiieh (Robinson [on Eng. map], Germ.
i.

Knobel.
iii.

tr.

920);

Mulilmy

(Seetzcn,

385); or

Mihne (ZDPV.

xiii.

20G).

272
issue, fortunate

GENESIS XXXII
to a degree
ff.)

[359, 360

beyond hope,

is

a result of his
(ver.

prayer (xxxii. But he must

10

and

of his struggle

with

God
full

25

ff.).

first

pass through this experience of

earnest

striving for God's grace, he

must

feel

to its

extent the

anxiety which the sin against his brother brought on him, and must seek his refuge in God alone before its consequences

can be turned away. Only now, as one who has wrestled with God, as Israel, is he Jacob as God wished him to be.

B

and

C gave an

essentially similar
flight

account of the

estrangement from Esau and the and they seem to have agreed also
the

from his vengeance,

in their accounts of
reconciled.
It
is

how
from
;

brothers
that

met again and were

them

R

has compiled the narrative just outlined

A

contributes nothing, for he had no story of any estrangement,

and makes the separation
later
xxxii. to
C.

of

the brothers occur only at a
of

date (xxxvi.

6).

The whole

the

first
is

paragraph,

413,

with the inclusion of

ver.

14a,

to be assigned

Almost every word
;

of the prayer in vv.

10 13

J

is

evidence for his authorship in ver. 8 f. the origin of the name Mahanaim receives a different explanation from that given by

B (ver.

3); and, lastly, vv.

4-7

are preparatory to vv. 8-13, and

betray (7s hand in the

Vv. 1 4622, regarding nriBJ? of ver. 6. the propitiatory presents, are, on the other hand, to be attriIt is true they
ver.

buted to B.
vv.

form a suitable continuation

of

4 14&, but

22b takes us back

to the point already

reached in ver. 14a, 2 and the writer knows nothing (ver. 22&) of a division of Jacob's camp into two. It has not preserved B's parallel to vv. 47, the message to Esau and word regarding

he him, which must necessarily have preceded this point 3 have blended into C's account. On the however, it, may
;

must have contained something regarding a present sent to Esau, as is clear from xxxiii. 8-10, and 4 But the presence of perhaps ver. 21 may be from him.
other hand,
also

C

n^n

in xxxiii. 1 1 (from B), instead of nrup, is
1

no proof that

3

See notes below. See ver. 4.

-

"Welllifiusen.

4

See below.

380, :;i]

CKNKSIS xxxn

273

Jill

vv.

141-22

is

from

C.

1

In the verses which follow next,
;

vv.

ff., the story of C, the wrestling contest, can only be a continuation of ver. 24,

23 and 24, there is an evident duplication 2 In the next place, ver. 25 ver. 24 from B.
7>"s

ver. 2.)

is

from

not of ver. 23.
in

ver.

31

3
;

authorship is further indicated by tPrfot and from Hos. xii. 4 f. we learn that the legend

of Jacob's wrestling

was indigenous

to

North

Israel,
4

where
is

B
6

wrote and not

C.

Against C's authorship

there

the

5 underlying reference to bsUQ in xxxiii. 10, and xxxii.

31

is

linguistic

evidence for
7

B

y

seeing

it

cannot, without arbi-

trariness,

be

Ver. 29
the

is

name

as merely an insertion from him. regarded not proved to be C's, because in xxxv. 21 he puts if so, the substitution should Israel for Jacob
;

have begun in
hand,
here.

xxxiii. 1

ff.,

which

it

does not.

On

the other

B

20 doubtless presupposes the narrative The objection, that B has elsewhere no such material
in
xxxiii.
8

is refuted by theophanies, more strictly angelophanies, xxxii. 2 (cf. Ex. iii. 2), and the crossing of the river by night 9 10 is rather against C than for him. cannot (ver. 23 f.)

We

decide whether

C had

also a similar story,

and whether he

accounted for the name of Israel in B's manner or A's
part played by the narrative in B's history Ch. xxxi. 1 ff. prayer of ver. 1 f. in C.
xxxii.
is

n
;

the

taken by the now continues
of the narra-

23 (wives and

children),

and the thread

The language 12 is proof of this, and taken up by C. there is no express mention of the arrival of the presents There are, indeed, which B spoke of as being sent in front.
tive is
2 vii. 278 ff. See notes below. Bohmer on the other ; Schrader, see, hand, xxviii. 13, 16, Ilgen, where C continues to write niiT in spite of his mention of the name
1

Bacon in Hebraica,

3

1

Bethel.
4
5 G 8

10
12

Maintained by Wellhausen, Kuenen, Kittel, Kautzsch-Socin, Bacon. see below. C, and irreconcilable with that here] 7 As by Bacon. See note below. 9 Wellhausen. Wellhansen. n But see note on xxxv. 10. See below.

[From

;

ninSK> (ver.
cf.

1

f.,

6),

DfcOp^
jn

pi

(ver. 4),
N'J

nvn

(ver. 1), "rj?2 |H

(ver. 8,

xxxii. 6),

73^3

TINVD

DN

(ver. 10).
1

PILLMANN

II,

8

274

GENESIS XXXII. 4-8

F.

[361

unmistakable phrases from

B

(vv.

5,

lla, D<r6x), but this

only makes it clear that B and of the meeting of the brothers.

C had

Ch. xxxiii. 4

very similar accounts may be also
be supposed to be

a fragment from B. from E.
Ch. xxxii.

Ch. xxxii. 33

may

47.
He

Jacob, on reaching the neighbourhood of

the Jordan, sends messengers to Esau in Se'ir to announce
his

return.

learns

from

them that Esau
xiv. 7

is

already

advancing to meet him with 400 men.
D'IN

mb>

for the use of mb>,

comp.

and xxxvi. 35.
to to

The expression gives the impression of being a variant Esau's change of home Tyb> pN, and is perhaps from B.

Edom must

have been recorded in a passage
;

from

C

or

B

not preserved when Jacob left, Isaac had not long to live A's account was different (xxxvi. 6). (ch. xxvii.).
Ver. 5
"inx
|N
f.

p-iBNn

xviii.

28

ff.

impf. Kal syncopated from
better
fNVl,

1 "inKK, as in Prov. viii. 17.

as

Sept.

Samar. Vulg. Pesh. and some
use
of
"rip,

Hebrew MSS.
peculiar.

The

collective

etc.,

is

here

Ver. 7. Esau had already set out to meet Jacob.
are

We

not told his intention, but the fact that he brought 400 men allows us to infer that he intended under certain
It

circumstances to assert his rights or show his power.

was just this uncertainty in regard to was bound to awaken in Jacob pangs
past misdeed (ch. xxvii.).
TjVn DJ]

his intentions

which

of conscience for his

without

Kin.

2

Vv. 8-1 4a. Jacob's precautions. Ver. 8 f. In his anxiety he takes the precaution, not uncommon, of dividing his people and flocks into two camps,
so

as

not to lose
It is

all

at a

blow in the event

of a hostile

attack.

certain that in

C

the

name Mahanaim was
definite
ver.
3.
25

explained by statement on
i

this incident.

R

must have omitted a
of
2

the subject because
68.
1,

The &&
H6, 5 A,
3,

of

Gesenius,

25

Gesenius,

\
:;r,i,
:;<;_']

CKNKSIS xxxn. io-u

275

ver.

14^ shows that C

Mahanaim.
in

really mentioned a locality, namely, In the enumeration of the animals, the asses,

included in vv. 6 and 16, are left out; the camels, omitted
ver.
6,

are

named
">P3 is
"TC.
1

as in

ver.

16; both are together

in

xxx. 43,
-iv>l

where
from

unmentioned.

nntf

the feminine
;

is

surprising,

for

the

masculine

is

immediately resumed the Samaritan has inxn. Vv. 10-13. But Jacob feels that without God's help
this

precaution will avail

him

little.

He

therefore betakes

himself to

God

in prayer, and,

with humbleness and thankful-

ness as well as faith, puts his trust in God's promises and in

the help Ver.

He
10.

has so often vouchsafed him in the past.

Comp.
JE 'njBj:

xxviii.
is

13

and xxxi.

3.

My

father

Abraham,
unworthy

as in xxviii. 13,

to be specially observed.
too small, too insignificant,

Ver. 11.

I am

for?

i.e.

of, all

the manifestations of grace and faithfulness
15

(to the promises).

This Jordan

he was

Jordan and on the way to the river Mahanaim was no great distance from
Ver. 12.
in

now once more in the basin of the we may gather that
;

it.

And

slay me, mother and children together

as

Hos.

x.

cruelty.

^

14, a proverbial expression denoting merciless pictures the mother leaning over her children

for their protection. 4

Ver. 13. The promise of a numerous posterity (xxviii.
in

14

C) would come to nought if God did not protect him. See xxii. 17 and xvi. 10 for the language.
Ver. 14ft
is

still

part of the paragraph from C, and
is

its

original continuation

found in

ver.

23

ff.

Vv. 14&-22. The preparations for meeting Esau, accordIn B's narrative also the arrival of news regarding B. to ing
Esau's approach
1

is

implied.
3.
2

Gesenius,

25

67 A.

Chs. xviii. 14,

iv. 13.

3
4

Of. xxiv. 27, 49.

Tuch, Knobel

;

cf.

also Deut. xxii. 6.

276

GENESIS XXXII. 14-21
Ver. 146ff. Jacob prepares a present for

[302

Esau/rom what
it

had come in

his hand, 1 in

his possession

;

from the property
,

he had brought with him. 2
sort of tributary present,
3

According to

is

and

in xxxiii. 1 1 a n ?")?.

a nnpp, a has a

somewhat
is

different representation (see ver. 21).

The present

a very considerable one, in all

representation of all

580 animals, containing a the five species of pastoral wealth, and

with the males and females chosen in the right proportion

determined by the superior value of the latter as regards
4 breeding and milk. DT'Ti, xxx. 35.

DiTOU,

masc.

suffix, as

xxxi.

9.

D>

")^1,

Gesenius,

25

28.

2.

Ver. 17ff.

He

entrusts the selected animals to servants,
in herds separated

from one another, 5 and tells them to leave free space between each herd on the road. By this he intends to make the procession long and
herd, herd, alone,
i.e.

imposing, and the effect surprising as one herd after another
arrives.

The delivery

of presents

possible

number

of persons

by means of the greatest and beasts of burden is spoken of
is is

as a custom. 6

Each servant

meets Esau that his flock
behind him.
7 D3N5fb for D ?N??.

charged to explain when he a present from Jacob, who is

jnsnn, see pniOKn, ver. 5.

Ver. 21. After vv.

18-20
8

ver.

a
9

is

superfluous, ver.

I

defines the present as a propitiatory one.

The verse seems,

when we

consider also v*K

R

from

C.

an insertion by s^, After npy, the Samaritan and Septuagint have N3.
"OS

and

to be

/ will
1

cover his face

bring

it

about that he will not see

the injury done
Ch. xxxv.
Of. 2
4.
2

him

(xx. 16).

3 4

Rightly so translated by the versions. Kings iii. 4 2 Chron. xvii. 11, for tribute from nomads. Job i. 3 ; 2 Chron. xvii. 11 cf. Varro, De re rust. ii. 3 ; Tucli.
; ;

5 6

Gesenius,
ii.

25

123A.

2.

Delia Valle [Fiaggi,
378],
5
,*

[Voyage,

Germ.
74A.
2,

tr. ii.

1G50-53], Germ. tr. ii. 120, 165; Sonnini 108 ; Harmer, Observations, 2 1776, ii. 1711'.
s

KnobeL
Sec
noli; xvi. 2,
''

C'h. xix. 21,

GENESIS XXXII.
Ver. 22.

22,

23 F.

277
in front, n:hilc
i.e.

The animals
the

for

Esau pass on
the

he
his

himself remained

same night in

camp,

with
to

people and was said in

flocks.

The narrative thus comes back
'/.

what

ver. 1-1

regards this as a proper name, Mahane, and refers to ver. 3, where he holds D:no denotes one camp only. But Mahane is nowhere else found in the

nn:D3

Wellhausen

l

Old Testament for Mahanaim
is

;

and the appellative

signification

quite

in

place.

If

B

would have required to the author,2 would he not require to say camps Jacob was ?
Ver. 23
f.

had intended a proper name he If C were write Djno, as in ver. 3.
in

which

of his

two

The crossing
to
ver.

of the

and

C.

children

According and crosses
is

Yabbok, as related by B Jacob takes his wives and 23,
with

the

Yabbok

them (himself)

;

two camps. nothing According to ver. 24, he takes his wives and children and sends them and all his possessions over the river it is not said that he
said of his property or the
;

himself crosses. 3
ver.
11.

Here,

if

anywhere, there are two accounts
ninat?, so ver.

;

23

is

pointed out as (7s by
first

24 belongs

to

The
"

words,

'n '^3 Dp"i,
(cf.

perhaps belong to both, but

certainly to ver.

24

ill

vv. 27, 32).

ver.

usual in the East 4 ," so that Journeys by night 23 presents no difficulty; but the crossing of a river
are

with large flocks (ver. 24) is different and unusual, and only required by the necessity of leaving Jacob alone during the It is not fear of night for his encounter with the "]xta.
that occasions the passage by night induced Jacob not to cross at all.
ton

Esau

5

;

fear

would have

rWo

chs. xix. 33, xxx. 16.

l^r-HPKIW
\>&_
1

Sam. Sept. Pesh. Vulg.
pyn.

ii>

ic'S ^5 nx.
iii.

Samaritan,
xxi. 433.

According to Deut.
2

16 and

JBDTh.

Bacon.
tr.

3
4

On

the contrary, he stays behind, ver. 25
Troilo, Reisebeschreibiuiy, 458
;

(cf. 32).

Von

Burekhardt, Syria, 245 (Germ.

390).
5

Knobel. Ver. 8. Wellhausen.

278
Josh.
xii.

GENESIS XXXII.

25,

20

[363

2,

once the boundary between
least in its

'Ammon and
l
;

the

Amorite kingdom, at
in quarto milliaris

upper course
i. e.

according to
et

the Onomasticon? inter

Amman
;

Philadelphia,

Geresam

ejus

the

modern Wadi Zerka, which

divides the districts of 'Ajlun

Jordan in the latitude of
ravine between steep hills

and Belka, and falls into the It flows in a deep Shechem. 3 with a somewhat rapid course.
11) somewhere just after
24, from B.
Israel.
it

The ford was probably
leaves the
hills.

(ver.

Vv.

2533. A

continuation of ver.

Jacob

wrestles with the

Itfta,

and receives the name
or

Ver. 25. Jacob remained,

was alone
is

behind, on the

right or north bank, of course, since this
ver. 24.

a continuation of

The march

in

Esau comes from
It of the flocks in

Se'ir to

4 any case was from north to south. meet Jacob (ver. 7), and not ^"JH^P-

of the head of the party and owner such a case to be last on the ground and see that nothing was left behind. In the night, when thus alone 5 by the Yabbok, one in appearance a man wrestled with him

was the natural duty

coming up of the dawn, and so a long time it was only afterwards that he recognised in him the presence of a
till

the

;

celestial being.
6 only here and in ver. 26; in its signification wrestle 7 related to pnn, or only a dialectical variant. The choice of

P??*l

the rare word
P2*,

as

if

it

determined by the wish to play on the name meant river of wrestling. In the legend the
is

contest was associated sometimes with the river, sometimes

with Peniel

(ver. 31).

Both associations were known

to our

author, but he preferred the former,

and only hints
is is

at the latter.

Ver. 26.
8

The unknown

sees that he

not a match for
9

Jacob, cannot get the better of him, so strong
1

he,

and so

But

2 4 6
7

see comment, on Num. Sub Jaboc.

xxi.

24 and Deut. ii. 37. 3 See Bible Dictionaries.
6

Against Knobel.
Sept. Pesh. Vulg.

Chs. xviii.

2, xix. 5.

8

Cf. Talinudic p^x, Levy, Neuheb. Worierb. i. 146. Ch. xxix. 10. Judg. xvi. 5; 1 Sam. xvii. 9.

,%.V*fJ4]

tiKNKSIS XXXII. 27

279
when

manful

his wrestling.
is

To get

free of him, for the time
i.e.

he must vanish

come

(ver. 27), he touches him,

strikes

him

(a hlow)

on the hollow of his hip, the socket of his thigh
it

bone, so that in the struggle
joint (impf.

was

dislocated, put out of

Kal

of yp*).

Ver. 27.
for the

"At
is

the same time he asks Jacob to let

him

go,

Supernatural beings do not expose rising. themselves to the eyes of mortal men. In Plautus, 1 Jupiter

dawn

says,
volo.

Cur me

tenes ? tempus est : exire ex urbe priusquam hcciscat But Jacob recognises that he has encountered a being
;

more than man
Vv. 28-30.
is

he uses the opportunity for his advantage,
2

and refuses the release unless he receive a

blessing."

He

receives the blessing he asks.

His name
is

changed than an introduction to

to

Israel.

The query
that.

as to his

name

no more

been able,
ful

For you have contended with God and with man, and have 3 i.e. have The successconquered in your contests. He has had struggle with God has just taken place.
contests with
;

many

men

before now, in especial with
is

Laban

4

and Esau

that
it

with the latter

reference to

the

Wj obtains the significance

In not yet finished. of a promise

;

having contended successfully with God he has as good as won the combat with men, which now concerns him (cf.
xxxiii. 1
ff.).

The change

of

name

to

Israel

is

thus not
gift,

merely an honourable recognition, but
blessing.

itself

a valuable

a

bmfe^
xii.

the rare expression
f'Ni'^,

rnb'&
is

is

chosen, as in Hos.

4,

because of
i.e.

which

therefore interpreted theais

gonist,

wrestler with God.
6

The meaning

transmuted

side arid with
I

by many into Gods combatant, one who fights on God's His help; others 7 render God's ruler. Thr
3
II

Amphitr. i. Ch. xxx. 8.
E.IJ.

3. 35.
4

-

Ch. xxxi. 26
tr.

ff.

5

Knobel. See Lexicons.

Redslob, Alttestament. Nimirn, IStG; Tuch, Gesenius, Thesaurus;
i.

Ewald, Gcschichte*
Test.
7
l

493 [Eng.

i.

344]

;

Reuss, Geschichte des Alt.

52.

Ilgen,

Gramberg.

280
most
comp.

GENESIS XXXII.

30

[364

likely conjecture is
htfVftW, etc.
is

El

is

ruler* or, EL

is

combatant

;

Ver. 30. Jacob

now
2

desirous of

knowing

his opponent's

be satisfied with having told. name, but he is gained the blessing, and the issue will not leave him in doubt.

not

He must

It

was with God that he wrestled, according to vv. 29 and The author might here have spoken of God's angel, for 31.

presents Himself in the person of His angel, and God and But he has not His angel are always thus interchanged. 3

God

done

so.

He

felt a significance

in

the fact that Jacob had

striven with God.

The story
bold
it

is

certainly,

amongst other things, a

glorification

of the physical strength of this ancestor of Israel,
spirit,

and

of his

celebrates his elevation of
set the highest
till

which quailed before nothing. But, still more, mind and the power of his faith,
ends before
blessed him.
it,

which

and would not

let

go

God Himself
when
is

He

only that they
This,
all

may
is

obtain from
is

Men wrestle Him grace and

with

God

blessings.

considered,
in
chief.

the end set before all men,
is

and before
which
mirror. 4

the real spirit of Israel here glorified and set before the people as in a
Israel
It

But, from the context in which
acquires,
besides,

it

is

placed, the story

a
it is

special

significance.

Jacob has been

guilty of

wrong

;

only because of this that he must so

fear his brother,

against him.

he has won

find in God an adversary who comes has long to struggle with God. But after His grace, the threatened danger from his brother

and

He

has also vanished.
(xxxiii.

4

If.).

It

was

Everything assumes a smiling aspect to this result that the words D^fcTDjn

referred (see above).
1

The struggle here
2

is

the last of the

Knobel.
Cf. xvi. 10
xii.
if.,

3

Cf.Judg.
if.,

xiii. 17.

Hot.
here,
4

and how f., which in other respects varies somewhat from the account replaces Eft&M by Tjxfe, having thus both.
xxi. 17f., xxii. 15
f.,

xxxi. 11

xlviii. 15

4

f.,

Hos.

xii.

4

f.

:;<;!,

Mi;:,)

GENKSIS XXXII.

ill

281
purilied

events
length,
It

by which Jacob's character was Jacob has become Israel.
is

;

now, al

indisputable that the wrestling with God, as understood by the legend, was a physical occurrence in the material world. The statement about Jacob's limpiiig (ver. 32) is

more than

sufficient

to

establish
"

this.

It

is

only

entire

explain the occurrence as somemisapprehension which can a vivid dream, 1 or a fervent as such thing purely subjective,
wrestling with

God
is it is

in

2

prayer."

The standard supplied

in

John

iv.

24

3

not that by which

we have
what

to test those old

legends.

But

no

less

certain .that
in* is,

the
to

writer,

like

Hosea, discerned spiritual truths popular legend.
of the
4

begin with, a

It is against the text to interpret the tr'K

guardian deity of the land of Canaan, who sought to 5 Studer, who does this, believes oppose Jacob's entrance.
also that the

whole legend

is

a transformation of a Canaanite
of

temple myth regarding the contest

the

Sun with the
xli.

demon

of

6 Winter, told at Peniel.
'y\

Ver. 31.

jop^i

as in

ver.

3,

xxviii.

19,

5 If.;

otherwise in xxxiii. 17.

?N^3

face of God, in ver. 32 and elsewhere ?KtoB; the

name given by Jacob to the place of his combat, " because he saw God face to face 7 without forfeit of his life. 8 Somewhat But the Phoenician strange as the name of a locality.
promontory Qeov
1

9

irpoa-wirov
10

must have been the same or
is

similar in Phoenician."

There

no tradition whatsoever

ii.

2,
2

Jean Gerson, J. D. Michaelis, Hengler, Eichhorn, Gabler Uryeschichte, p. 53 f. Ziegler in Henke, Neues Mac), ii. 35. Herder, Geist der Heb. Poesie, i. 265 f Hengstenberg, Geschichte
;
.

;

Hi I

<-<i.

HI?*,

51.
is

Knobel.
a spirit," etc.]

;;
|

"

Uod

4
i.

See, further,
IT.

Umbreit
p.

1

in St. K>:
;

I

s

is, p.

1

1

3

II .,

512
5
t;

[Eng.

tr.

35711'.]
i.

for the parallels

and Ewald, Gesch i,-ht< from antiquity, Ewald
,

;:

|_p.

358, note 2],

and Winer, 3

523.

In JPTh. 1875, p. 53G II. See also Popper, Urspruny,
;

p.

369
10.

tf.

;

see above, p. 3.
9

7

8
10

Ex. xxxiii. 11 Deut. xxxiv. See note on xvi. 13.

Strabo, xvi.

2.

15

f.

Knobel.

282

GENESIS XXXII. 32-XXXIII.

4

[365

regarding the situation of Peniel
the
text

;

what we may learn from
ver.

has

been

stated
viii.

under
ff.

25.
xii.

It

is

again

mentioned in Judg.
elsewhere.
Its

8

and

1

Kings

25, but not
it

name and

the narrative here show that

was regarded as a holy place. Ver. 32. The sun rose after Jacob had passed Peniel on his way to overtake the others. But the combat had left a
lasting

mark upon him.
had
'
'

He

crookedness, which

limped on his thigh, as if the previously adhered to the moral

"

nature of

the wily

Jacob, had
l

now
The

passed over into an

external physical attribute only."

Ver. 33.

No

doubt from R. 2

Israelite

custom

of

not eating the sinew of the thigh of slain animals is ascribed to this incident. Having been touched by God it was
sacrosanct.

The custom
;

is

not mentioned elsewhere in the

Old Testament

it is

3 prescribed by the Mishna.

Eegarding

4 It n^jn T3, the sinew of the thigh muscle, see Gesenius. is the nervus ischidiacus, the most of the prominent thigh

muscles.

Its injury involves limping. 5

Ch. xxxiii. 1-16. The meeting of Esau and Jacob turns

out amicably. Mainly C's account. Vv. 1-4. Having reached the other side of the Yabbok with his wives and children (xxxii. 23), Jacob sees his
brother approaching with
his

company

of

400

(xxxii.

7).

He

resolves

to

meet him, and

separates

(xxxii.

8)

his

wives and children into three groups, 6 for the same reason as in xxxii. 9, giving each mother her own children. He
places

those

whom

he

cared less for in front, his better
himself precedes

loved ones behind.
sevenfold

He

them and makes a

approaches his brother, i.e. approaches in the most submissive manner, such as only
prostration
fear
1

as

he

and prudence could have induced.
Ewald, Geschichte* i. 513 [tr. vol. See x. 9, xix. 37 f ., xxvi. 33.
Thesaurus, 921.
i.

p. 358].
3 5

2
4
' ;

Chullin Knobel.

7.

There

is

Wcllhausen,

JlWTh

nothing about a division of the camp into three parts (as by
xxi. 435).

305,300]

GENESIS XXXIII.

}-!)

283

But Esau hastens whole-heartedly to meet him, 1 embraces him, falls on his neck and kisses him. Both weep from joy at meeting again.
Ver.
4.

inpnrn
xlviii.

being before
^'1

'Ji

^

may

be attributed to

B (ch.

10). as
in
xlv.

nri>y
neck,
so

14, xlvi.

29, in C.

In these

passages the weeping immediately follows the falling on the
that
it is

the

supra-pointed

2

Vnpt^i

may
of

well

be un-

authentic;

wanting

in certain

MSS.

the Septuagint. 3

The Jews had, indeed, another view of the word. " From Bereshith Rabba and Kimchi 4 we see that even at an early date NiaBh, and he lit him, was thought of the Jerusalem
;

Targum
"

explains Jacob's weeping from pain in his neck

"
(?),

Esau's from pain occasioned in his teeth."

Vv.

57.

Jacob's wives and children

also salute
is

from
!?n

B

Esau by prostrating themselves. in view of DTita.
ver.

now approach, and At least ver. 56
accusative,
to

as in

11.

Here with double
in

favour one with something? "13 n not hither?
8

any more than

xxi.

29, but

the

personal pronoun.

Vv. 8-11. Esau accepts the present of cattle only at his brother's urgent request. It had previously met him, but

whether exactly in
tionable.

five herds, as in

B

(xxxii. 1 4

ff.),

is

ques-

runs
together.

camp or host in C the animals were therefore all The Sept., because of xxxii. 14 fF., corrects into avrai
;

al TrapefjuftoXai.

Who

to

yon

is all

this host ?

A

question as to Jacob's object.

what do you intend by it ? Who for what gives promi-

nence to the persons present. 9 " Jacob, with unattractive humility, does not venture to call his very considerable gift
1

See

xviii. 2.

2 3 5
7

Clis. xvi. 5, xviii. 9, xix. 33, xxxvii. 12.

In Lagardc's Knobel.
Delitzsch.

Genesis,
8

AEcmtx.
xiii. 1, xiv. 15, etc.

4
'

[Dill, here Kimhi.] Geaenins," il7.*5&.

See

y

Ewald,

325.

284
a present
;

GENESIS XXXIII.

10,

11

[366

he replies only that with kindness by you." 2
present, seeing that he has
to be received

I might find

grace? be treated

Ver. 10. Further, Jacob asks his brother to accept the

now had

the fortune to see his face,

by him and not repulsed, and that he has been 3 He desires his brother welcomed (cf. Job xxxiii. 26). kindly shown to continue the kindness he has by accepting the gift.

As
4

one sees the face of God, strictly, face of a heavenly
i.e.

being,

so propitious

;

for celestial beings only

show them-

selves to those to

him with a kindness which was
is

Esau met they are well disposed. divine. Such an explanation not absurd, 5 and more in place than the rendering, for this
I

whom

reason

God (and not

have appeared before you as one appears before Wellhausen 6 before kings ?), sc. with a gift.

has acutely, and no doubt rightly, remarked here the presence of an allusion to the name Peniel different from that of
xxxii. 31.

But, along with the whole of ver. 10, it is from for 'y\ NJ DK 7 and p"6sna 8 are phrases of C's C, not from

B

;

as

well as MB n&o, 9 and

mn

11

could not be here written for
is

trr6fet,

because an angelic being

intended.

The thought
is

lying at the root of both variations of the legend

that at

Peniel the unfriendly God was found to be a friendly one. It does not follow that in the original Peniel form of the 10 legend Esau himself, as the wild huntsman, was this God.
'21

MB rntro

Ver. lla.

A

without subject. 11 doublet from
infinitive

R

n:m

"

blessing

;

salutation which consisted in invocations of blessing. 12

here the present, which accompanied a In the
of ecclesiastics

Middle Ages the presents
tiones"
13

were called bencdic-

1

1

(
;

li.

xxxii. 6.

2

Knobel.

Sept.
4
fi

1

and Vulg. incorrectly MVini. Sam. xxix. 9. Bacon,
xxi. 435.
*

Genesis, 280.
3.

JBDTh.
Sec

xviii. 5, xix. 8.

See note on xviii. Ch. xxxii. 21.

10
J

See above,
1

p. 196.

"
1:!

Ewald,
Knobel.

304.

-

Sam. xxv.

27, xxx. 26.

,;<;,

:;?]

GENESIS xxxnr. 12-17
vocalised nxin by the Septuagint.

285
<:3n,

see ver.

.".

'31,

and

because (Josh.
16).

vii.

15; Judg.

vi.

30;

1

Sam.

xix. 4;
-IVD,

Isa. Ixv.

I have
Esau

everything, I

am

rich enough.

in

xix.

3,9, in C.
Ver. 12
f.

oilers, for

Jacob's protection, to travel the

rest of the

way on before him, so that Jacob might have him

in

view (not

eV

evOetaiv, Sept.).

But although Esau was

pledged to peace by his acceptance of the present (cf. xxi. 30), Jacob, still addressing him as lord, refuses the escort.
doubtless influenced, not merely by mistrust, 2 but by the wish to be under no obligations to his brother, and to
3 He gives the excuse that his preserve his independence. children are still of tender age, and that his sheep and cattle are suckling, i.e. include many suckling mothers,4 who would

He was

die

if

Dipsn

they were driven hastily even a single day. for the masculine suffix, see xxvi. 15; and for the
plur.,

3rd

pers.

Ewald, Syntax,
DTipani.

357ft.

But the Samar.
5

Sept. Pesh.

have

Ver. 14.
his ease,
i.e.

He

wishes to continue his march according
it

to

slowly, as

suits

him, and according

to the

foot of

his flocks

and children, according as they are able

to march.

He

concludes by speaking of his intention to visit him in Se'ir. The author does not say whether this was a mere

pretence, or whether he really wished to visit

Esau

in

acknow-

ledgment
rDJOD

of his friendly reception of him.

6

in

ch.

ii.

2

f.

work, here goods or property, in

7 n especial property in cattle, like ppp.

Ver. 1 5
escort.
rarri

f.

Esau

offers

him some

of his followers

as an

This also Jacob refuses, and Esau returns to
xxx. 38,
xliii.

Se'ir.

9, xlvii. 2.

as Sukkoth.
1

Ver. 17. Jacob, on his part, continues his journey as far He builds a house there,8 and makes booths for
Gesenius,
of the
25

74A.

1.

2

Tucll)
4
1.

Knobel

3 5

Delitzsch.
^

Isa. xl. 11.

norm,
7

as Isa. xi. 3, xxxii.

6

Knobel,

Cf. Ex, xxii. 7, 10; 1

Sam.

xv. 9.

8

See xxvii. 15,

286
his cattle

GENESIS XXXIII.

17

[367, 3G8

Sukkoth

This residence in hence the name of the place. intermediate an is, however, pause on the only
;

homeward journey, whose proximate

goal was

Bethel. 1

A

stay of some time had to be assumed, because in ch. xxxiv. The verse is probably the young children are grown up.
still

(7s.

Besides the use of

rva,

the expression

p-f>j; is

evi-

dence for him or for
ni3p
4

R?
There
is,

3 lay on the east side of the Jordan, in an open

valley,

west of Penuel. 5

indeed, a

modern Sakut
It
is

west of the Jordan, south of
question
vii.

Bethshean. 6

an open

if this western Sukkoth was intended in 1 Kings 46 (comp. iv. 12); if so, there were two places of the But the second cannot be thought of in the present name. 7

connection, because quite out of the line of Jacob's march.

The eastern Sukkoth
localised trans

is

alone suitable. 8

But

it

cannot be

Jordanem in parte Scythopoleos? or at Abu 10 where the Obeida, valley broadens, which would be north of the Yabbok, nor yet so far south as between the Wadi
Nimrin and the Wadi Mojib. 11
to Nablus. 13
of

It

must be placed

12

south of

the Yabbok, near the ford of Damie, on the road from es-Salt

For recent discussions regarding the situation

Penuel and of Sukkoth, see
1

ZDPV.

i.

44,

iii.

80.

2

Ch. xxxi. 30, xxviii. 21 f., xxxv. Iff. Unlike xxxii. 3 and 21; cf. xi. 9, xvi.
Josh.
xiii.

4, xix. 22, xxviii. 30,

1.

11.

3

27

;

Judg.

viii. 5.

4
5

Ps. Ix. 8 [6].

For Gideon when pursuing the Midianites eastwards marched up from Sukkoth to Penuel (Judg. viii. 8). 6 Burckhardt [Syria, p. 345], Germ. tr. p. 595 Lynch [Expedition, 1849, p. 221], Germ. tr. p. 133; Eobinson [Later Researches, p. 309 ff.] Germ. tr. p. 406 ff. Van de Velde, Reise, ii. 301 ff. 7 Knobel Ewald, Geschichte, 3 ii. 546 Hitter, Erdkunde, xv. 446 f.
;
; ;
;

[Eng.
8
10
11

tr. ii.

158

f.].

Book

of Jubilees, ch. 29.
1

9

Jerome, Qucestiones.
4
.

Knobel.

12
13

Arnold in Herzog, Itealencyclopcedie, Kohler, Geschichte, i. 147; Keil.

xiv. 764; Delitzsch

Lynch

[Expedition, 1849, p. 248],

Germ.

tr.

p. 150,

:ws]

<;KNKSIS xxxin. IK

287

2.

JACOB AT
On.

SIIECIIKM,

AND

TIIK

DISHONOURING OF DINAH,
y;,

XXXIII. 18-XXXIV. 31; FROM R, FOLLOWING A, AND (7.
Jacob reaches Shecheni, pitches
his tent beside the

town,

While there his daughter ami buys a piece of ground there. Dinah is dishonoured by Shechem (Sh e khem), son of Hamor, Jacob's sons are enraged, but accept prince of the country.
the proposal that Dinah should marry Shechem, and that the

two families should become

allied to

one another, on condition

that the Shechemites should submit to circumcision.

The

Shechemites allow themselves to be circumcised.

While they
is

are in the state of fever caused by the wounds, Simeon and

on the town and slay them. The town to avenge the injured honour of the family.
Levi
fall

plundered Jacob dis-

This is the first of the approves of what his sons have done. troubles brought on the patriarch by his sons, and in so far
rather belongs to the Toledoth of Jacob, which begin in ch. xxxvii. But in one or other of R's sources it must already have belonged to the period of the return to Canaan.

The

hostile

encounter

with

the

Shechemites

was

a

frequently-recurring subject in the tribal legends of Israel.

The deed wrought by Simeon and
differently described,
xlix.
is

Levi, though somewhat mentioned in the old verses of ch.

57,

ascribed to Jacob.

In Jacob's blessing

(ch. xlviii.

22, from

JS)

we

are told that Jacob with his sword and

bow

took Shechem from the Amorites.
ch.

Here, in the narrative of

xxxiv., there are, further,

unmistakably two accounts of
(ch.

the

incident.

Even the introduction
of

xxxiii.

1820),

which commences the account
ch. xxxv., is

the journey continued in

from two

(?

three) sources.

Ver. 18 contains a

1 fragment from A, in ver. 19 f. we recognise y?'s hand, and in In ch. xxxiv. 2 vv. 186 and 20 there may be traces of C.

1

2

to

A

See note below. 4 Assigned by Ilgen to 7J by K \vuld and Delitzscli to A; by Knobel and C; by Hupfeld, Schrader, Bohmer, Kayser, to C by Kuenen to
;

;

288
vv.

GENESIS XXXIII.

IS

[368, 309

27-29

1 are a loosely-attached addition to the rest.

What

remains

falls into

two

divisions.

In the one

Hamor

conducts

the negotiations with Jacob regarding Dinah for his son (vv. 4, 6, 8-10); he receives a reply (15 (14)-17), and in

due course lays
self

it

before the assembled citizens of the

town

for their approval (vv.

20-24).

In the other, Shechem him-

asks Dinah from her father and brothers, and after their

reply (ver. 1 1
require (ver.

immediately submits to the conditions they In the first account Dinah is still with 19).
f.)

her family (ver. 17), in the second she is already in the town Ver. 2&, therefore, which speaks of her in Shechem's hands.
being carried

away and
with
it

ravished,

must belong
7,

to

the latter

;

and

it

carries

all

the verses (5,

13, 31) in which

the anger and malice of Dinah's brothers are spoken of, for it There are linguistic differences provides their explanation.

In the first corresponding to these differences in the story. in ver. 8 account &otM (ver. 2) (ppn compared with pm in
ver.
(ver.
etc.,

3),

rnw
IJpi?

(ver.

10),

"orb n^ tan
(ver. 23),

(

vv

.

15, 22),
(ver.

-orb
24),

24),

and

nm

wy "W 'K^b
The

are indubitable signs of A' a authorship.
(e.g.

diffuseness

of style

ver. 1), the value attached to

circumcision,

and

the resemblance of the proceedings in the popular
to

what

is

found in

ch. xxiii. are also

evidence for A.
"iyj

assembly In the

other account

we

find

pm

(ver. 3),

(vv. 3, 12,

and 19

;

contrast mf? in ver. 4), :win>
7),

nin,
*sb

and rfew &6 p

(in ver.

Da^jn
all

;n

KVD

(ver. 11),

:nn

(ver.

26), -oy (ver. 30),

which

belong to

C's special vocabulary.

vv.

without any hesitation attribute 15 Hamor la, 2a, 4, 6, 8-10, (14)-17, 20-24, to A. wishes Dinah to be Shechem's wife, i.e. he desires the
therefore

We may

2 amalgamation of part of the house of Jacob with Shechem, and the citizens even agree to be circumcised in order to

C and

following him, Cornill 1 See below.
2

a very late redactor; by Wellhausen (Composition, 312 f.), and, (ZATW. xi. Iff.), to C, B, and a late redactor,
i.

See Ewald, Geschichte*

541

f.

[Eng.

tr.

i.

378

f.].

GENESIS XXXIII.

18

289

keep the house
\vluit

25

f.

Jacob amongst them. 1 It is uncertain --/'s account of the upshot of the mailer was, i'<.r vv. But it seems as if and 30 f. are in the main from 0.
of
2

he also related
plan.

that Simeon and

Levi

spoiled

the

whole

In C, to
f.

whom
;

vv. 2&, 3, 5, 7,

11-13

(14), 19, 25*,
off

belong in and dishonoured her

20, 30

the

main, Shechem carried

Dinah

but as his love for her grew he asked

her in marriage from Jacob and his sons, and offered to Dinah's brothers were accept what conditions they pleased.

fuming at the outrage to their sister, and treacherously made He cirShechem's circumcision their condition (ver. 19).
cumcised himself, and Simeon and Levi then murdered him
(and the other Shechemites) while in a state of fever from the wound they carried off Dinah, but were severely blamed
;

who feared the consequences of their deed. In putting the two accounts together R had, of course, to
by their
father,

make

certain changes,

e.g.

in vv.

13

f.

and 18, where Hamor

and Shechem, Jacob and Jacob's sons are put in one, or in ver. 25, where the circumcision of the townspeople is presupposed, as
it

was

in

A.

He

has also interpolated vv.

27 2 9, 3 and the emphatic addition there of Dninx INBD "IB>'K (ver. 27) leads us to conclude that 136 and NEO in ver. 5,
perhaps also 1 4&, are due to him stronger expressions of this kind betray his later point of view.
;

Wellhausen
analysis.
6

*

and

Kuenen
it is

5

raise

objections

to

this
of,

As

authorship,

said, is

not to be thought

for elsewhere

his story proceeds in a peaceful

and orderly

fashion,

and he could not make circumcision the instrument
7

of treachery.
it is,

But there

is

no treachery in A* 8 account, and

on the other hand, in agreement with his characteristics that the legal question of procedure on the occasion of a
daughter's marriage should be treated
1

of.

The assumption

Cf. in

It

and

(7,

chs.

xxi.,

xxvi.,

the trouble Abimelecli takes to
3
5
7

secure the friendship of
2 4

Abraham and

Isaac.

For

ver. 256 xxi.

may
435

be from A.
ff.

JBDTh.
Kuenen,

See above. ThT. xiv. 256-281.

op. cit. p. 277.
II.

Hupfeld, Quellen,
'9

p. 186.

DILLMANN.

290
that all that
is

GENESIS XXXIII.
not from
is

18

[369, 370

diaskeuast of A's school,

has been interpolated by a late refuted by the fact 1 that we have

before us, not simply a redacted narrative, but, plainly, two It is further asserted that the narratives welded together.

conception of circumcision as the condition of membership in 3 2 the community could only exist after the exile, and that 4 C could not have had any such implication in his narrative.

His account must then have been somewhat
a

to the effect that

man named Shechem

carried off

Dinah and seduced

her,

then asked her family to condone the act and legitimise the 5 which they asked of him union, and paid the bride-price

;

when all was amicably settled, Simeon and Levi slew him in his own house, and brought back their sister to Jacob's great But does not ver. 25 (C) presuppose the fever displeasure.
caused

by circumcision

?

If
it

C"s

original

narrative

had

nothing of this,

how

did

occur to the late diaskeuast to

In ver. 30, drag in circumcision and alter the whole story? of it is not the the Shechemites which Jacob also, vengeance
but that of the people of the country, so that C cannot merely have related Shechem's death and that of some of his
fears,

relatives.

whether

C

Kuenen, accordingly, finally leaves it undecided had anything regarding Shechem's circumcision as

6

a condition of the marriage, and attributes vv. 1*, 2*,

46,

8-10, 13*, 14*, 15-17, 20-24, 25*, 27-29, to the late 7 redactor. and Cornill now Following this, Wellhausen
acknowledge that ch. xxxiv. contains two narratives, but from C and Bf the redaction of which is on the lines of A and
t

that in

B

circumcision was

made

with a treacherous intention.
circumcision of
1

a condition of the marriage In C, J$'a predecessor, the

Shechem

only,

not of
2

all

the Shechemites,
p.

See above.

g ee above,
i.

77

f.

3 4 5
<;

Kuenen, p. 276 Wellhausen, p. 437 In view of Ex. iv. 25 f. cf Josh. v. 2
;

;

Geschichte,
ff.

365.

;

.

7 Composition, p. 318 f. According to Cornill, vv. 1, 2* 3*, 4, 6, 8-10, 13*, 14, 16 f., 18, 20-24, 25*, 21 a, 28, 29a, without the phrases from A, are from 11.

Replacing the agreement to circumcision. Underzoek* i. 316.

8

370]

(IKNK.SJS

XXX 111.
its

L8

was demanded, ;md that in
circumcision of a bridegroom

more primitive form,
wedding
2
;

1

the

before his

or

the

demand was something
transfer of

quite different, such as for a formal

ship

of

some property beside Shechem. 3 one of the two narratives in vv.

But #'s author-

126

cannot be
of

granted.

The mere
to

possibility of

attributing some

the

expressions
verses
in

cannot prevail against the fact that the question are saturated with As characteristic

B

expressions without there being any perceptible cause to In B circumcision would account for their later admixture.

be a wholly anomalous phenomenon in it has a meaning 4 and xxxiv. It cannot be proved from xxxv. 5 (ch. xvii.).
;

A

2729
context,

that

B had
it is

and

a story of this character in the present rendered improbable by xxxvii. 12 as well

as by xxxi.

41

(see note

on xxxiv.

1).

Ch.
at least,
D-IN

xxxiii.
is

18.

Jacob's

arrival in

Shechem.
fyjiD

Ver.
IP'K
17
;

a,

certainly from A, in view of
is

pxa

5

and

6 pSD ism, and

not a continuation of ver.

ver. b

may

be from 0.

If

the verse were from

B

1

it

would not be

why anyone should have inserted the words DIN* fiDE l^ 3 wholly superfluous cf. ver. 19 and xxxiv. 2. City of Shechem
possible to understand
-

oiy

Samaritan Di^,

as

in

xliii.

27,
8

not a

name

for

or of a place near Shechem, which in that case would occur only here in the Old Testament, although east
of

Shechem

Nablus there

is

a modern village called Salim.
is

9

It has

the meaning unharmed, safe and sound, and

equivalent to

the oft^a of xxviii. 21, to which
reference added by R.
1

it

is

possibly a

backward

Geiger

10

gives various strange con2
*

3 5
7

Ex. iv. 25 f. Corn ill. See xi. 31.
\Vellliausen.
Sept.,

Wellhausen. See note, ad
See xxv. 20.
Luther,

loc.

6

8

Book

of

Jubilees,

Pesh.,

Vulg.,

Mercerus

;

cf.

Onomasticon, sub Salem and 2aAj^.
9
10

Robinson

[Palettt'n,;"7,").

ii.

275, 279, 291

f.],

Germ.

tr. iii.

314, 322, 336.

Urschrift, p.

292
jectures

GENESIS XXXIII.

19

[370, 371

regarding the 0?^ does not commend
|IT1

word
itself.

;

Wellhausen's

1

correction

to

Jacob encamps before 2 the city, where In the plain previously Abraham had also halted (xii. 6).
as xxvi. 17.

east of

Shechem Jacob's well was shown

in later times.

Ver. 19.
his tent.
3

buys the piece of ground where he pitched Later on Shechem was still a place where he had

He

flocks stationed. 4

The Bene Hamor were the clan
5

settled in

and around Shechem, and in Shechem and prince of the

this

way Hamor was
(xxxiv.

father of
similarly,

district

2)

;

Shechem himself
Shechem. 6

in his turn is regarded (xxxiv. 2
is

ff.)

as lord of

There

no mistake in the statement that Jacob
;

bought the field from the -non ^3 order to harmonise with xxxiv. 1 ff.
ntp'6?jp

the Sept. omits

-on

in

elsewhere only in Josh. xxiv. 32 and Job

xlii.

11,

where

it is

a repetition from here, literally perhaps something
to

weighed out, or according
case a piece of money.

rule,

vo^ia^a (BPp, LuJ), in any
if it

We

cannot be certain
It has

was the

same as

i>pK>,

or perhaps larger.

no connection with

Koptic CKITG, KITG, i.e. the Alexandrian drachme, double An old tradition 8 gave it as being lamb, it may be drachme. 7 without knowing why. 9

The purchase of property in land beside Shechem corresponds to what A has in ch. xxiii., and has the same meaning
;

it

was there that Joseph's bones were
Everything points
Israel, so

to be interred (Josh,

xxiv. 32).

to

this
is

Northern
There
is

that the verse

to

being a tradition of be assigned to B.
22,

no real contradiction with

xlviii.

B

in xxxv.

4 a residence

of

Jacob's in Shechem,
2

presupposes A and 6Y1
Lev.
iv. 0.

1

Composition, p. 316.

Ch. xix. 13

;

3 4 6 7

The statement

is

repeated in Josh. xxiv. 32.
5

Ch. xxxvii. 12 f. Cf. notes on xiv. 13 and xxiii. 20. E. Meier, Heb. Wtirterbuch, 394.
pt. Vulg. Onkelos. See also Madden, Jewish Coinage, 1864, Ch. xxxvii. 28.

Juclg. ix. 28.

<J

p. 6.

10

37l]

r.F.XERIS

XXXIIT. 20-XXXIV.

1

293

reckon

by

shekels.

The words

D3B>

UN

alone

may

be an

addition of E's occasioned by ch. xxxiv., but they are found
in Josh. xxiv.

32

also.

Ver. 20. nvi

never elsewhere with
Either,
2

ratio

as object, but
ratio
is

found certainly with nixv. 1
correction
for

therefore,
Dlpc6, or
;

a

mano,

and b

for rb or

R
it

has
is

run

together nnro 3V1 from B with ratio \$\ from C 3 an original ratio p l likely that E contracted
s

najrtD

hardly DVi into

Jacob names
of Israel,
1

4

the altar (or standing-stone) El, the God
G

not predicate to ta, 5 but in apposition in any case Israel in B is thus early a reference to xxxii. 29. The altar bears the name of the god to whom it is deditani^ Tita
is
;

cated

7
;

the

name
1.

is

a contraction for altar of El,

etc.

The

Septuagint wrongly reads
Ch. xxxiv.
to look at
10

^

for

^

ft

9 goes out one day, from the camp, the daughters of the country, i.e. to look about

Dinah

8

among them and make

their

acquaintance.

She

is

here

supposed to be of marriageable age. difficulty in such a supposition, for Jacob in his account
cannot have delayed his journey to Bethel too long 12 but not in C (R\ who records a long intermediate residence
;

In B n there would be

in

Sukkoth

(xxxiii.
f.),

Jubilees (ch. xxix.

According to the Book of Jacob makes a stay in Sukkoth, then,
17).

after crossing the Jordan, for seven years pastures his flocks

between the Dead Sea and Bethshean

till

he reaches Salem
old.

(Shechem)
xvi.

;

Dinah, when seduced, was twelve years

Daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob compare 15 f. and xxv. 12 in A as parallels to this expanded see also, however, xxi. 9 and xli. 50, in B. style
;

Daughters of the country
1

see note on xxvii. 46.
3
4

3
5
7

Ch. xxxv. 14, 20. Kautzsch-Socin.
Knobel.

Wellhausen. See xxxv. 7.
Cf. notes

6

on

xvii. 1

and

xiv. 18.

9 11

Ch. xxxv. 7 Ex. xvii. 15. Ch. xxxiii. 18. Cf. xxxi. 41 with xxx. 21.
;

8
10

12

Ch. xxx. 21. Judg. xvi. 27 Ch. xxxv. 1 ff.

;

Cant.

vi. 11.

294

GENESIS XXXIV.

2,

3

[.372

Ver. 2a. Certainly from A, because of

N'm

C ?), Shechem is son of Hamor, the Bene Hamor are Hivvites, 3
22).
It is a

prince of

Iu (and the district, 2 and

1

A

otherwise than in

B

(xlviii.

mere assertion that A, or one
etc., also

of his school,

wrote ^nn.
in xxii. 2, xxxv. 22, ptfn small extent.

used of districts of

Ver.

2Z>,

from

C.

He
"

took her,

i.e.

carried her
is

off,

and
;

seduced her. 4
ver.
17
is

Compare

ver. 26,

where Dinah

in

Shechem
5

different.

Such conduct was not unusual in
xii.

those times,

we

learn from

15, xx. 2, xxvi. 10."

nnx

33Bh

32^

is

construed
ntf is

with Dy and DN

;

the

question remains whether
sign
of

the preposition with or the

the

accusative.

The Massoretes understand the

and always point it as such before suffixes. 6 We cannot decide whether they were right the Kere of Deut.
latter,
;

30 proves nothing regarding the older language. If the tradition is justified, n aatr, in which the verb is transitive,
xxi.
is

plainly the coarser expression, and quite in place here and in 2 Sam. xiii. 14, where it is a case of violation. It is
useless
course,
to

maintain that
xxx.
8

C

could
7,

not write
12,
14,

this,

7

for,

of

in

15f.,

xxxix.
in

appropriate,

and

C

also,

xxvi.

10,

only &y was has 2D^' with n

and a following noun (comp. ver. 7 and xxxv. 22). Ver. 3. Love for Dinah follows his violation of her.
doubtless
'y\

A

had something corresponding
ii.

to ver.

a,

such as

WBJ

pKTirp (ver. 8).

P?.
30,
in
C.
1

24

(xix.

19), in

C.

aruoi,

xxiv.

67, xxix.
55,

32.

"W,

as

vv.

12,

24,

14,

16,

28,

57,

Chs. xvii. 20, xxiii.

6,

xxv. 16.

2

Of. xxxiii. 19.

3
4

Ch.

x. 17.
;

Deut. xxii. 24

Judg. xix. 24, and frequently.
;

Knobd,
6

Lev. xv. 18, 24

Num.

v. 13,

19

;

2

Sam.

xiii. 14.

8

Ch. xix. 32

ff.,

where the woman

is

subject,

is

not a parallel.

372]

CKNKSIS XXXIV. 1-7
/A'

295

sought to hearten, to quiet, by and the prospect of the future, the feeling aroused 1 by what had occurred. \Vr. 4. In any case not from the source whose account
spoke to the heart of
his love

precedes, in view of the use of

m^

for

1573,

and because

in

C

Shecheni himself seeks Dinah in marriage (ver. 11).

Shechem
;

asks his father to get him Dinah to be his wife it was the business of the parents to do such a thing (xxi. 21).

There

is

no hint

of the occurrences of ver. 2

;

the wooing

is

proceeded with as if there had been no previous motion, and as if the girl were still in her parents' house.
Ver. 5. Belonging to the narrative of vv. 21 and 3. Jacob had learned, indeed, of the occurrence, but had kept 2 demanded no account, silence, i.e. had made no movement,

because his sons were absent with the flocks, and he wished
to await their return.
to

This explains why what happened led no immediate action on the part of Jacob and his sons. The brothers' judgment was of consequence (xxiv. 50).
Ntttp

dishonour, defile (Ezek.

xviii.

6

ff.,

xxxiii.

26),

as

vv. 13,

27

;

fcy'nnn

xxiv.
6.

comp. 21

ver. 31.
;

Ex. xiv. 14.
4.

Ver.

A's continuation of ver.
C"s

Ver.

7.

continuation of ver.

5

;

all

the expressions

used are foreign to ^t's vocabulary. By the time Hamor came out from the city the sons had heard the news, and
returned

home

full of anger.
vi.

n^Wi
as
if
nrT"i

as in ch.

6,

from

C.

The

Sept.

translates

the text were tttfjmn Djnpra.
see ch.
iv. 5.

For he has done in Israel an

act

of folly

committed

what
the

The regarded in Israel as an infamous deed. one the for such an offence between is expression stereotyped
is

sexes. 3
1

"

Eather naively the author applies the ex;

3

Knobel. Cf. 1. 21 Hos. Sum. xix. 11 [10]. Deut. xxii. 21 Judg. xx.
;

ii.

16,

and frequently.
;

6,

10

2 Sam.

xiii.

12

ff.

2

GENESIS XXXIV. 8-11

F.

[372, 373

pression of a later time to that of the patriarchs,

when

there

was as yet no

Israelitish people."
it

1

And

thus

is

not

done

it

is
2

contrary

to recognised

usage and practice (current morality). Vv. 8-10. Hamor's proposal, according to A, with the
Besides has changed in (ver. 6) into DriN. exception that between them, proposing that there should be intermarriage

R

he

offers

a

permanent settlement
do.
3

in

the

land, which, as

prince, he could

njWi

Deut. xxi. 11

;

a different expression in ver.
suffix, see ch.

3.
;

Your daughter
pers.,

plural
is

xxiv.

59

f.

2nd

because the father

addressed,

but plural, because

the brothers are also in mind.
13HK

unnnn

ally us in marriage, n&*

being, according to
4

the Massoretic punctuation, the sign of the accusative;

but

the writer
iii.

1

may have intended the preposition with. 1 Kings The verb is found again allows either construction.
xxiii. 12.

in the

Hexateuch only in Deut. vii. 3 and Josh, D3W& "before you, ver. 21 and xlvii. 6,
in
xiii.

in

A

;

else-

where

9, xx. 15.
xlii.
it,

nnno
ver. 21).

in

34, in B, but "inb in

xxiii.

16, in A.
(cf.

Pass through

quite at

your

will,

with your flocks

m irnxni
sion in
it
;

and

settle

yourselves in

it,

take abiding posses-

so

rnw

again, in

A,

in xlvii.

27

;

Num.

xxxii.

30

;

Josh. xxii. 9, 19.

Ver. 11

f.,

from

C.

In ver. 6

Hamor came

alone.

When,

accordingly, Shechem now appears conducting his own suit, there is want of agreement with vv. 4 and 6, and proof that we have here the account of another source. Shechem declares
i

himself

ready
is

to

carry out anything

they

may

mi)ose.
}n

The language
in
vi.

that of C.
3,

KD

8,

xviii.

and frequently

;

especially

xxxii. 6, xxxiii. 8, 15.
1

3

Knobel. See xx. 15.

2
4

Q^ xx
Ewald,

9?

xxix 6

1246.

373]

CKXESTS XXXIV. 13-17
"info

297
is

1 the price of the bride paid to her parents. |n The words are distinguished the present to the bride.

in

xxiv.

53

also.

iW

see ver. 3.
to

Ver. 13. Introduction

and Hamor

toycther

;

from

C and

the reply given to Shechem The sons of Jacob, E.
ver. 11,

who were

directly addressed

by the wooer in

esteem

the honour and purity of their tribe more than material gain, The and are determined not to accede to the proposal.
condition of circumcision, which they are about to make,
is

Their whole thought part. was to revenge a disgrace which they have already incurred. The present text speaks of all the brothers being concerned we cannot decide whether, in C, only Simeon and Levi were

an intentional device on their

;

originally

named;

in ver.

14 the Septuagint expressly gives

their names.

mm

the meaning, act in a behind-hand manner, 2 cannot

be proved for rroca raTl. 4 It

^\

3

so

we

are

most

justified
is

in

restoring

may

be,

however, that TDTI
;

an insertion
likely than

by the hand to which 'y\ T^'K is due this is more that the word is a survival from another source. 5
For rro3, comp. xxvii. 35 27 and xxxi. 49 (from R).
;

and

for -IPK

=

because, ver.

Vv. 14-17. The reply itself; only in vv. 15-17 in the original form which it had in A, in ver. 14 mixed and
redacted
expressions Dfpfat nos' (inconsistent with ^nins ver. 6) and (in vv. 17 and 8 ^na) are on the lines of (7's narrative, and r6~iy "6 IP'K stands apart from both
;

the

1

!

not only asked Dinah in marriage, but had proposed connubium between the clans, and that they should dwell together from now onwards; vv. 15-17 are the reply to this. They will agree to amalgamate as one
narratives.
1

Hamor had

Ex.

xxii. 15f.; 1

Sam.

xviii. 25.
.

2
:)

4 Schultens, Gesenius, Knobel, Delitzsch Regarding 2 Chron. xxii. 10, see Bertheau.

4

Schumann, Schrader, Olshausen.

5

Cornill.

298

GENESIS XXXIV. 18-24

[373, 374

themselves.

people and settle together only if the Shechemites circumcise Otherwise they will take Dinah, and, i.e. with

her, leave the district.

According

to

this

Dinah

is

not in

Shechem, as
those

in vv. 2
tib

and 26.

Ttiwh tau

see xix. 22.

They regard marriage with

who

are imcircumcised not merely as objectionable, 1
is

but as a disgrace, which
nNT3
as ver.
.

a later view of the matter. 2

pretii, in exchange

for

this,

i.e.

on this condition,

22 and
we

1

Sam.

xi. 2.

ni&u
xii.

will agree, only here, ver.
nitf

22f. and

2

Kings

9

;

impf. Niph. of
xxiii. 13).

(according to Hitzig intrans. impf.

Kal; see
'm

ten^

as xvii. 10.

wna

see ver. 8.

Ver. 18. In

no case from A, in view of
18.

'y\

utD"l.

3

It

introduces
condition.

ver.

They are

willing

to

agree

to this

Shechem

Ver. 19. Belongs to the account of ver. llf., in which He does not hesitate to is himself the negotiator.
i.e.

do the thing,

to accept the condition

proposed.

As he

was the most esteemed
honour for the house
also of

of all his people, this

was a great
if

Jacob

;

it

is

uncertain

we should

supply the thought

that

he also easily induced the

others to follow his example.
"in*?,

for "inw, because of K. 4

pan,

Num.

xiv. 8.

Vv.

20-24

continue vv.

15-17

(18*), and are therefore

from A.
all
5

According to him, Hamor (and Shechem) first of lays the matter before the assembly of the people in the
at

gate
getting

Shechem

for their decision,

and

is

successful in
recalls

the doubtful condition accepted.

He

the

friendly disposition

of the people of Jacob, they are on good
;

terms with us, on a friendly footing further, that the land is 6 7 wide, and has room enough for them left and right, and
xiv. 3.
4

2

Knobel.

3
5
7

Konig, Lehrgebaude, p. 397. Judg. xviii. 10 Isa. xxii. 18, xxxiii. 21.
;

See Lev. x. 19. Ch. xxiii. 4, 10.
Cf. ver. 10.

374]

C.ENESIS XXXIV.

LM,

2r,

F.

299

then
as

impresses
the

tin-

advantage
being

they will secure, inasmuch
rich,

that

people,

very

will

increase
it.

tin-

prosperity of Sheclicm by amalgamation with

D'Bfe

QBp
D^bp

Geiger gives a strange rendering. Sam. Sept. Pesh. and Vulg. have
xvii. 26.

l

simply

13B?.,

which would then be taken with*unK.
also in xxxvi. 6 and Josh. xiv. 4, in 'ji DrupD (comp. Gen. xxxi. 18). As distinguished from mp&, n p[ 2 are the beasts of burden (camels and asses), as in Num. xxxii. 26 pjp is other property.
|

A

;

The Shechemites accept the proposal, and have themselves circumcised. It is assumed that they were
Ver. 24.
hitherto uncircumcised, but that they found nothing strange
in the custom.
2

Their circumcising of themselves
as in xvii.

all

on one

day

W

(ver.

25)

is

23 and Josh.
10, 18.

v.

3

ff.

'N^ ba

comp.

xxiii.

Ver. 25f.

From C

(comp. 266 with 25) and

A

(at least

25& indicates
cision,

his hand). 3

On

the third day after the circum-

when

the pain and illness are greatest in the case of

4 grown-up persons, Simeon and Levi, doubtless with followers, fall on the Shechemites, kill all the male inhabitants of the

town, and carry Dinah off with them from Shechem's house. In this way -they prevent Dinah's being given to her lover
(A's account), or took on themselves to revenge her dishonour
5 (according to C).

There must be a historical explanation of Keuben's not having participated in the deed of Simeon and Levi (cf. xlix. 6 f.).
n

9|

elsewhere n P??, untroubled, in fancied security

;

to

1

Urschrifi, p. 76.

2

See above,

3 4
iii.

p. 77 f Assigned to R in 5th edition. Arvieux [Mvmoires, iii. 172], Germ,
.

tr.,

Merkiviirdige Nachrichten,

146; Winer,
5

3

i.

160.

Cf. 2

p. 224],

Sam. Germ.

xiii.
tr.

28

f.

;

361

f.;

Niebuhr, Arabien, p. 39 Burckhardt [Syria, Bedouins, pp. 116, 278 f., Germ. tr. 89, 224f.
;

Knobel.

300

GENESIS XXXIV. 27-30

F.

[374,375

be taken with Tyn, as in Ezek. xxx. 9, 1 being accusative of
condition.
2

mn

*&
it

according to the sword's mouth, as

much

as

it

can

devour, as

does in war
rin,

;

as in a war, and without mercy.

Only here with
but not in A.
IN^I

frequent with other verbs, especially nsn,

from the city (ver. 25), not from the house. Vv. 2729. Attached without I, 3 is seen to be an addition to the original text.

Ver. 30

f.

continues 25f. without

any consciousness of
addition
is

27-29; and
'

if

the text were from one
or cnKBfcn

hand we should have either
from

b

spy ^.

The

R

or from a redactor, inserted perhaps to

harmonise with

xlviii.

22, and

4

to give the rest of Israel also

a share in the honour associated (by a later time) with the
deed.

The clause Dninx

iNttts

IP'S reveals

the same hand as

13& and 5 a.

and
are

|^i?

out of the question, if only because ^21 are wanting. It cannot be proved that the verses
is

A

what suggested Num. xxxi.; 5 they might as readily be 6 themselves a copy, or be due to the same late hand.
The sons
of

Jacob come down on the
cattle,

slain,

plunder the

city, carry off the

and take away captive the women
Jacob blames Simeon and Levi for

and children.
Ver. 3 Of.

From

C.

the mischief they have wrought in exposing him to the hate and revenge of the inhabitants of the district. " Jacob does

not here blame the wrongfulness of the deed (as in xlix. 6f.), but the thoughtlessness of his sons which brings calamity 7 upon him."
1

Knobel.

3
is

The

\J;H of the Sept. Sainar.

25 118. 5a. Gesenius, and Pesh. for IKI^, which
2

we

expect,

only an attempt to get out of the difficulty.
4
5
''

Bohmer, Merx in
Cornill.
( '!'

Bibellexicon,

ii.

5

f.

else in

^Tl, possessions, property (ver. 29 and Num. xxxi. 9, and nowhere Pent; ? Deut. viii. 17f.); D'nDni Ipai }K (ver. 28 and Num. xxxi. 28 ff.; Gen. xii. \yy QrPBO n*0 DDO DK (ver. 29 and Num. 16).

xxxi. 9).
7

Cornill.

Knobel.

375]

GENESIS XXXIV.

.31

-XXXV.
vi.

1501

oy
B^fcCfi

again in the Hexateuch in Josh.

18 and vil 25.
odour with
1

make

to

stink,

i.e.

bring into

bad

someone, make an object of aversion and hatred. Kana'ani and Perizzi see xiii. 7.

While

I am

people of a

number

computable, few, a
WlOfcbl

mere handful, 2

people are easily overpowered if the

I

and

my

inhabitants of the country attack.
Lev. xxvi. 30, but especially in Deuteronomy.
of their

Ver. 31. But the honour

tribe

stands above

sister

every other consideration with the sons. May he treat our as a prostitute? have liberty to do with her 3 as one
does with a street
4

girl.

3.

JACOB'S JOURNEY TO ISAAC BY

WAY

OF BETHEL, AND THE
B, A,

END OF ISAAC'S

LIFE,

CH.

XXXV.; FROM

AND

All the remaining narratives which belong to the Toledoth
(a) Jacob removes every grouped together, and having done so journeys from Shechem to Bethel, and there builds an altar to his

of Isaac are here

sign of idolatry in his family,

God.

AB
his

Deborah, Eebecca's nurse, dies below Bethel (vv. 1-8). section, with ver. 5 inserted by R and Qa in accordance
t

with A.

(b)

El Shaddai appears to Jacob in Luz, changes

name

to Israel,

and promises him a numerous posterity

and the possession of the land of Canaan. Jacob erects a memorial stone, consecrates it by a libation and oil, and names From A, except niy in ver. 9, the place Bethel (vv. 915). Farther on the journey, Eachel and perhaps ver. 14. (c)
dies in giving birth to Benjamin,

and

is

buried by Jacob on
'Eder,

the road from Bethel to Ephrath.

Beyond Migdol
his
father's

Eeuben commits
(vv.

an

offence

with

concubine
(d)

16-22a).
1

A

compilation by
;

E

from

C

(A) and B.

2 3

Ex. v. 21 (1 Sam. xiii. 4 Deut. iv. 27; Ps. cv. 12
Of. Lev. xvi. 15.

2

Sam.
4

x. 6).

;

Isa. x. 9.

Ch. xxxviii.

15.

302

GENESIS XXXV. 1-4
reach

[376

Jacob and his twelve sons

finally

Isaac in Hebron.
(vv.

The account

of Isaac's death

and burial follows

22&-29).

From A.
(a)

Vv. 1-8. Jacob moves on to Bethel; the death of

Deborah.
Ver.
Bethel.
1.

God's

command
of DTita
1

that Jacob should set out for

The use
is

shows that

C

is

not the author
not
yet

;

but

neither

A,
is

for

whom

Bethel

did
is

exist

(vv. 6, 15).

B

the author.

But there

causal or otherwise, with the events of ch.

no connection, xxxiv. This shows

that in the present context (between xxxiii. 20 and xxxv. 1)

B

had no account

of hostilities

with Shechem,2 but, on the

contrary, placed his parallel history (xlviii. 22), if he had Jacob is still one, elsewhere (see also note on xxxvii. 13).

on his return journey, according to

JB's

narrative,

and the
(comp.

command
xxxi. 13).

is

explained by the

vow

of xxviii.

20

ff.

commanded to make a stay in Bethel, and erect The temple which he had vowed (xxviii. 22) an altar there. is here made an altar by divine order.
Jacob
is
n!?JJ

Bethel was situated on the

hills.

3

p^N n&njn tan

Vv.

24.

Jacob

preparations.

He
4
"

the foreign gods.

family the necessary requires them to put out of their midst Rachel had teraphim 5 Jacob's servants
his
;

compare xii. makes in

7.

had other gods; 6 and ver. 4 includes in what was put away objects of heathen superstition, like earrings, which served as

Anything connected with heathenism is incompatible with the worship of the one God, whose 8 he had vowed his Further, as worshipper willingness to be.
was customary and necessary before acts of divine worship, 9
1

7 amulets and charms.

Knobel.

2

3
1 7

Against Wellhausen, Ch. xii. 8, xiii. 15.
<

JBDTh.

xxi. 437.
4 c 8

'h.

xxxi. 19.
3

Josh. xxiv. 20, 23, in B. ch. xxxi. 53; Josh. xxiv.

2, 14,

in B.

9

Winer, i. 56. Ex. xix. 10

Ch. xxviii. 21

;

cf.

also xviii. 19.

II'.

;

Josh.

vii. 13,

and frequently.

:;7.;|

GENESIS xxxv.

r,

303

Jacob requires them In /m.rify themselves, c.y. by ablutions, and by keeping free from all that renders unclean, and to change
their garments,

dress in

their

best

*

(elsewhere,

wash

their

clothes

2
).

He

desires to erect an altar (ver. 1), and, of course,

also sacrifice, to the

him in the day, i.e. when the time, of his distress (pressure)? e.g. needing help 4 5 against Laban, and was with him on the way, homewards
listened to
also.
6

God who

He

buries
8

7

the heathen symbols under the terebinth

beside

Shechem

He

certainly does not thereby consecrate
it
9
;

the spot

rather he debases

reason against B's authorship;

but this does not provide a as a matter of fact, it is in

B

that the place

is,

so to speak, consecrated

anew

for

Israel
n
?x,

(Josh. xxiv.
oak).

2026,

where the Massoretes punctuated

The Septuagint adds, as a concluding sentence, Kai d7ra)\ecrev avra ecu? rrjs arffjuepov rjfjiepas.
Ver.
5.

or haste, they start on the way.
their

After these preparations, and so without hurry The author accounts for

exemption from pursuit by the neighbouring towns by a terror of God, i.e. a state of fear brought on them by God,

which made them faint-hearted. 10
idea supernatural.
11

DV&C

suffices to

express the

The verse
and 6
f.

is
is

an interpolation into

It's text,

12

for in vv.

4

Jacob
16,.

as in ver.

subject, but here a plural (the sons of Jacob), Ch. xxxiv. is presupposed by it, and it is an

1* by R hardly from A, in spite of DTita, more possibly from C, who in any case also recounted Israel's journey from Shechem by Bethel to Isaac.

insertion

iyD s l

see xvi. 21, xxxiii. 17, xlvi.

1.

nnn
1

only here.
2

3
5
7

Ch. xxvii. 15. Ch. xlii. 21. See xxi. 20. Ex. ii. 12.

4 G

8

Ex. xix. 10, 14; Num. Ch. xxxi. 24, xxix. 42. Ch. xxxii. Iff. See xii. 6.

viii. 7.

9

Bohmer.
Ex. xxiii. 27; 2 Cliron. xiv. 13. Knobel. 2 Chron. xx. 29 alongside of xiv. 13, and Zech. xiv. 13. 13 So also Kuenen, OmlcKoek, 3 316. Against Wellhausen. Knobel.

10
11

12
14

304
Ver.
6.

GENESIS XXXV. 6-8
Arrival in Luz (Bethel).

[377

In

name
R,

narrative the place spoken of had long held the 1 Bethel, so that he could not write ver. a as it has been
It's

written, while

A

could certainly. 2

tarrn Kin

is

a gloss from

who

reverts to

B

in

what

follows.

E may
in
(7

be supposed to

have had ^jvn Wi. 3
ley "i^K
Djjrri>3

see ver. 2,

and
an

xxxii. 8.

Ver.

7.

He

builds

there

altar.

Nothing

is

said

regarding the worship itself, nor, in particular, regarding the may have congiving of a tithe, promised in xxviii. 22.

E

densed the original
sions.

;

the

Book
spot

of Jubilees

4

contains expanof Bethel
(cf.

He named
This
is

the the

(own)

5

God

xxxiii. 20).
spot,

name

of the altar, or of the sacred

which comprised, we may suppose, more than the altar. The Sept. Vulg. and Pesh. For 'y\ &rip'i, see xxxii. 3, 31.

find a difficulty in DipE>n,

and therefore omit ^K before
the
6

^KJVa,

unlike xxviii. 19.

to
meaning
Ver.

plural,

because

angels

are

included in the

of D'fl/W (see also xx. 13).
8.

Below Bethel the death

nurse, takes place.
trast xxiv.

Her name

is

of Deborah, Eebecca's mentioned only here con;

59
in

in C.

She was doubtless a character

of

some

Her memory was the old heroic legends.? importance oak or alive the of weeping, kept by mourning, below Bethel,
where her grave was shown. also, will be the same tree
;

Deborahs palm
9

8

(Judg.

iv.

5),

compare, too, Tabor's terebinth
C,

in

1

Sam.

x.

3.

10

According to

Eebecca's nurse had

come with

her

to

Canaan

(xxiv.

59).

have been made to reconcile
1

B

and

C by

attempts supposing that the
xxxiii. 18, in

Weak

Ch. xxviii.
Cf. ver. 15

19,

xxxv.

1, 3.

2

and

xlviii. 3,

and the addition in
4
c

A, in

the

land of Canaan. 3 Kautzsch-Socin.
5
7

See

xii. 6, xxviii. 11.
i.

8

Kwald, Geschichte* See note xiv. 6.

Ch. xxxi.f. Ch. xxviii. 421 [History, i. 293 f.].

12.

10

Bolilen, Tueh, Kwald, Delitzsch, Wellhausen. Ewald, Geschichtc* iii. 31 [History, iii. 21].

377]

GENESIS XXXV.

.),

10

305

nurse had returned to Mesopotamia in the interval, 1 or had been the messenger sent by llebecca, in accordance with her
2 promise in xxvii. 45, or had come from Hebron to Bethel

to
in

meet Jacob. 3
the tradition,
1

We
( '.'

must recognise that there
this
is

and

is divergence an additional reason for not

ascribing ver. 8 to
(b)

Vv.

915.

A

passage from
again

A

originally introduced
f.

by 6 a-, and referred

to

in xlviii. o

The subject
it

is

Jacob's installation as mediator of the promises, arid

has

the same significance in Jacob's history that ch. xvii. had in

Abraham's.
Ver.
ver.
1

9.

See ch.

xvii. 1.
ff.,

iiy,

once more, does not refer to
is

a,

but to
C).

xxviii. 1 1

and

an insertion by

R

(? fol-

lowing

For

ink, the

Sept and
7

Sainar. read DTita ins.

Ver. 10. The want of any explanation of the

name

Israel

but due to an excision by is, we may suppose, not original, At least the significance of the E, occasioned by xxxii. 29.

name was by no means clear, as it was in xvii. 15 and Num. xiii. 16. We are doubtless to explain the fact that A continues to name the patriarch Jacob 8 and not Israel, just
as

B

9

does,

although he

calls

the sons

10

"33,

by the

usage, never departed from, by which Israel was more a national than a personal name. 11 It is all the more remark-

able that

G and R

from now onwards use Israel

for Jacob. 12

We may
first

conclude from this that C, as well as A, here for the
(see, further, ver. 14).

time spoke of the change of name
Nachmann, Abarbanel.
;

1

4 Rashi, Kinichi, Delitzsch imagine a woman, and one more than a hundred years old, sent through the desert as a messenger.

2

3
5 7 9

Mercerus, Keil.

4

Knobel.

As Hupfeld
Cf. xvii. 5.

does.
8

Tuch, Knobel.
E.g. ver. 15.

But
Ch.

see xxxiii. 20.
xlii.

10

5,

xlv. 21, xlvi. 5,

8,

xlix. 28,

1.

25

;

but see xxxv. 22,

xlvi. 26, in
11

A, where
f.,

is still used. 3pjji 133

12

Tuch. Ch. xxxv. 21

xxxvii. 3, 13,

xliii. 6,
1.

8,

11, xlv. 28,

xlvi. If.,

30,

xlvii. 29, 31, xlviii. 2, 8, 10, 13, 21,

2.

PILLMANN,

II,

20

300
If not,

GENESIS XXXV. 11-14

F.

[378

we

require to assume

l

that
C,

R

only

now

allowed
this point
2

to stand in the passages

from

and had up to
3

removed

it

out of consideration for A's account.
is

Geiger's

explanation
to the facts.

untenable, and

Kuenen

does not do full justice

Kip^
is

110 t therefore

he

is

named* but and he named.
'y\

This

the reason that ver. 1 1 begins afresh with
Ver.
11.

-IE^I.

The promise
and
xlviii. 4.

of

multiplication

and

of

royal

descendants, as in xvii. 6, 16.
also xxviii. 3

For the phraseology, comp. For TWip, comp. xlvi. 26 and
*nt? ta,

Ex.

i.

5

;

see note on xxiv. 2.

see xvii.

1.

Ver. 12.

The assurance

of

the future possession of the

Up to this point A has not comp. xvii. 8 and xii. 7. expressly recorded a promise of the land to Isaac, nor does
land
;

Isaac in xxviii. 4 (from
is

A)

claim any such promise

;

still

it

implicit in the covenant promise given to Isaac in xvii. 19,
1.
5

2

See also

p.

200

f.

Ver. 13, as xvii. 22.

Kuenen
of the

regards ver. & as a ditto-

graphy from ver. 14. Ver. 1 4 f As a memorial
.

theophany, Jacob erects
it,

a monumental stone, as in xxviii. 18 (B), and consecrates

not only (as in xxviii. 18) by pouring oil over it, but also by a libation, of wine if the ordinary linguistic usage is followed. 7

There
111

is

no reason for taking {&>

rr^y p^i as

epexegetical to

and understanding a libation of oil. 8 Sacrifices, altars, "ID and standing stones are mentioned by A nowhere else in the patriarchal histories, and it is therefore questionable if this
!,

verse

is

from him.

9

It

may

independence of his sources, for
1

be an insertion by R, but not in he himself no longer possessed
i.

Kittel, Geschichte, p. 142 [Eng. tr. vol.
Urschrift, p. 37 If.

p. 156,

note

3].

2

3
4

Onderzoek* 310 f.
Kautzsch-Socin.
Onderzoek,
2
;

5

Knobel.

6
7
s

316 Kautzsch-Socin. Targ. Jon., wine and water. Winer, Knobel, Kbhler, Wellhausen.
Wellhausen, Kuenen,
etc,

IJ

378, 37! i]

GENESIS XXXV.
in standing stones.

1C

,,07

any interest
2

It is

not from

1

7?,

but from

here not, indeed, the theophany which now C, stands in xxviii. 13ff., 3 but perhaps, we may suppose, mi account of a new manifestation of God in Bethel, parallel to

who gave

change of name It was then in consequence of this that Jacob (see ver. 10). erected and consecrated the mafD already referred to by B in
A's, u id doubtless also an account of Jacob's
;

xxviii. 18.
if

the wish were to

The expression p mam is also remarkable, as mark it as a mere stone monument. For
16-22a.
Continuation of
the

ver. 15, see xxviii. 19.
(c)

Vv.

journey.
of

First,

Benjamin's birth

and the death and burial

Rachel are

In also (xlviii. 7) the death and recounted (vv. 16-20). burial of Eachel in Ephrath are mentioned, but vv. 24 and 26
exclude his having related Benjamin's birth in Ephrath. For 4 vv. 16-19 are from C, but ver. 20, this and other reasons
because of
apjp,

A

from

J5,

who, however, must have had the
5

notice in another context.

Ver. 16. '3D

iyb'1,

as in ver. 5.

pn rraD
to be covered

the length of the land, the stretch of road still

before Ephrath was

reached.

The distance
(xlviii.

and) the expression (without the article) In any case it was not great 6 the Septuagint again occurs. makes it a tV-TroSpcyio?, the Peshitta a parasang. 7
exactly
2

cannot

be

determined, even from

7

Kings

v.

19, where

;

Ephrath
Eachel's
1

in ver.

19

(xlviii. 7), identified

8

with Bethlehem,
x.

two hours south
grave

of Jerusalem.

But
north

1

Sam.
the

2

ff.

puts
of

much
xi.

farther
15
ff.,

in

territory

Cornill in

ZATW.

who imagines
fiDlflD

originally a continuation of ver. 8, the and the offering one to the dead.
2

to

ver. 14 to have been have been a gravestone,

3
4

Kuenen, Onderzoek* 222-316 Bacon in Hebraica, vii. 283.
lyD*!, ver. 17,

;

Wellhausen, Composition, 319.
laid in Ephrath.
also

compared with xxxvii. 10; the scene
10.
6

5
7

Because of xxxvii.

Knobel.
;

See, further, Jerome, Qucestiones,

and Gesenius, Thesaurus
i.

Schumann.
8

Originally according to Keil, and Kohler, Geschichte,

150.

308

GENESIS XXXV. 17-19

F.

[379

Benjamin, or on the border between Benjamin and Ephraim, on the way between Eamah of Samuel and Gibeah of Saul,
not very far from Bethel
;

and

Jer. xxxi. 1 5 agrees

with

this.

That also

suits the requirements of the case, for

Eachel was
is

the ancestress of Joseph and Benjamin.

But there

as yet

an Ephrath on the borders of Ephrairn and The name Ephrath here must therefore really Benjamin. have been intended for Bethlehem, and the interpretation
no trace of
1

of ver. to

19
2

will be, in so far, original.

In that case we have

assume

a Judean tradition other than the Ephraimite,

according to which Ephrath, and that

the grave was situated near the Judean
it is

this

which the Judean writer
has
prevailed

C

(and

A)
ing

records.

Their

tradition

among Jews,
of extend-

Christians,

and Moslems. 3

The harmonistic device

pK

rn33 to be a distance of several miles, so as to allow

Ephrath to be the place beside Bethel, makes shipwreck on the meaninglessness of a statement of distance from
Bethlehem.
She was hard
difficult delivery.
set

in giving birth

she

had a hard or

Ver. 17. The midwife, a
"

woman

skilled in such matters,
:

encourages her with the prospect of a son for this one too is a son for you, in this as in your first birth you will have a
boy, a child of the

preferred sex."

4

Ch. xxx.
i.

24 was the
and Gen.

expression of
xxxviii.

her hope,

m^o

in Ex.

15ff. in B,

28

in C.

Ver. 18. But she dies, and

when dying names her

child

my
her.

son of misfortune, inasmuch as he brings her death to

In place of this nomen infaustum the father chooses the

name

son of the right, or child of fortune, seeing the right side was the lucky one to the ancients. 5

Ver. 1 9
1

f.

Eebecca

dies,

and

is

buried on the road which

2

3
4 *

Thenius, Knobel, Graf, Hitzig, etc. 5 Noldeke, Delitzsch See Matt. ii. 18 Winer, 3 i. 334 ; Eiehm,
.

;

Handworterbuch, 1263.
if,

Sam. iv. 20. Knobel Gesenius, Thesaurus, 559 also ZDMG. xxi. G01
1,
;

Cf. iv.

xxix. 32

1

;

379, 380]

CKNKSIS XXXV

L'l,

i':i

leads (from Bethel) to Ephruth.

Jacob erects

-i

iiionuniL'iitsil

stone over her grave.

1

about the
Robinson. 2
fl*}?!?,

grave

half

Regarding the Christian tradition an hour north of Bethlehem,

also

in

xlvii.

30

;

Deut.

xxxiv.

6.

DVmy,
fc&ob*,

as

xix. 37f. (?

from R). Ver. 21, from 0.

JJD*I,

as vv. 5

and 16.

see note

on

ver.

10

;

ritax t^i, see

note on xxvi. 25.

Beyond a cattle tower such towers, used for pastoral 3 that here purposes, were numerous, at least in later times
;

intended, though without the article, is defined by the context The earliest exposias lying between Ephrath and Hebron.
tors
4

gave
5

its

situation as at Jerusalem
this

;

and so more recent

writers.

With

idea the Septuagint has even set ver.

21 after ta nuo
Mic.
iv.

in ver. 16.

But the
it

figurative language of
of the

8 does not prove that

was a tower on one

hills of

Jerusalem.

Later tradition localises the tower in the
6

neighbourhood Ver. 22& seems to have been remodelled by R, as Ettfa 7 even though in its origin from C. Reuben lies indicates,
with his father's concubine, Bilhah. 8
of this brief statement is
of

of Bethlehem-.

The ultimate meaning

presumably that the ancient custom

marriage with the wives or concubines of one's father, which 9 long continued an Arab practice also, and is even mentioned
10 continued as occurring in the history of the Israelite kings,
11 notoriously prevalent in the tribe of Reuben.

The abrupt

conclusion,
1

and

Israel

heard

(it), is

doubtless not due to a
from B.

Cf. ver. 14,
l',i.lestine*i.

2
"

but also 218 f.

xxviii. 18, xxxi. 45, xxxiii. 20,

1

~2 Ohnni. xxvi. 10. -2 Kiii^s xvii. !>, xviii. 8 .lews in Jerome's QiHratfnm-x.
;

5

Von

Bohlen, Knobel, Wi-llliaust-n, and others.

6
7

Tobler, Bethlehem, 255 ff. See note on xxv. <>, xxii. 24.

8
10
11

See xlix. 3f. Kuran, iv. 26
p.

Strain), xvi. 4.
;

L'.V

Abulfida,
113,

Ilitt.

Anteisl. p. 180, ed. Fleisclu-r.

ix.

See above, 8G ff.

and Robertson Smith in Journal

of Philology,

310

GENESIS XXXV.

27 FF.

[380

mutilation of the text, 1 but
xlix. 3
f.

is

an intentional reference
;

to

The sentence and paragraph ends here

but

later,

the text was read in public, the reader did not linger over such a doubtful passage, but hurried on and this practice
;

when

has found

its

expression in

the second accentuation of the

2 Massoretes (placed before the earlier). (d) List of Jacob's twelve sons, his arrival at

Mamre

where Isaac was, Isaac's death and burial, vv. 22&-29, from A. The list of sons suitably follows the account of the

They are arranged according to their and the order of age within this arrangematernal parentage,
birth of

the

last.

ment

agrees with that of ch. xxix.

f.

All the twelve sons,
in

including, therefore, Benjamin, are born

Paddan Aram,
excepted

according

to

this

statement.

R

has

silently

Benjamin, and
1?*

so

most modern

expositors.
fljj,

Samar. and some

Hebrew MSS.
with
3

as in xxxvi. 5

;

for T^, see iv. 18, xvii. 5, xxi. 5, xlvi. 28.

Ver. 27
Isaac in

ff.

At

last Jacob,
f

all

his following, reaches

Mamre, the Arba town.
itPK.
4

After pnv

W

the Sept.
as

adds

TI

Isaac

is

buried

by Esau and Jacob,

ch. xlix.

Abraham had been by Isaac and Ishmael (xxv. 9). From 31 we learn it was in the cave of Makhpelah. For
"

VBjrta, see xxv. 8.

The writer gives thus early

his account of Isaac's death

because he wishes to conclude his history of him. 5 According to his chronology, Isaac was still alive at the date of the
occurrences in ch. xxxvii.
years old, and

At

Isaac's death
to

Jacob was 120

when he migrated

6 Egypt he was 130.

But
these

his

and the

latter

130th year coincided nearly with Joseph's 40th, was only 17 years old in xxxvii. 2." 7 In
Knobel assumes
that the

statements
f.

chronology of

xxxvii. 2

and

of xli. 46, regarding Joseph, is
2

from A, and

1

Comp. the addition by the
See See
xxiii. 2.
xi. 32.

Sept.
4

3 5

Geiger, Urschrift, 373. See xxv. 7.

*

Chs. xxv. 26, xxxv. 28, xlvii.

9.

7

Knohel.

380, 381 ]

GENESIS XXXV.

27 VV.

3

1

1

he brings to his help the years of blessing and of famine in 2 1 since Joseph's Egypt, of which nine or ten had passed
preferment.
this,
3

But

it is

questionable

if

we

are entitled to do
all

seeing that

we cannot

certainly

prove that

these

numbers are from A.
certainty
is

What we
all

learn

from

as follows.

Ch. xlvi. states that in

him with his 130th
their

year

4

Jacob's

sons

had
ten,
If,

already

sons

of

own,

each

Benjamin as many as two grandsons.
"

and that Judah and Asher had
however, we
list

aside
fitted

on the ground that the
into

put its testimony cannot in any way be
of

the historical framework

Genesis,"

5

and

is

marked by the work of a later hand, other evidence remains. Chs. xx vi. 34f., xxvii. 46, and xxviii. 1 ff. make it clear that Jacob migrated to Paddan Aram between his 40th and 50th
years,

regarding Ishmael, agrees with this. Between this migration and that to Egypt there is, then, an

and

xxviii.

9,

interval of over
to

80

years.

How much

of this period belongs

the

stay in

Paddan and how much

to

the time spent
it

afterwards in Hebron
sufficient

we cannot now

say.

But

is

clearly

to allow of his

having many grandsons and even

great grandsons, and to dispose of the assertion that ch. xlvi. cannot be fitted into the historical framework of Genesis.

Ch. xlvi.
xxxvii. 2

may
is

be given

its

place even

if

the figure given in

-from

A

as well as that in
fixed

xli.

26;
2

for in

13

+9

years

6

after the date

by

xxxvii.

even

Benjamin

(xxxv. 24), might have ten The assumption of the harmonists, 7 that Jacob, children. when he migrated to Harran, was over 70 years old, more

who was younger than Joseph

exactly 76, makes no distinction between the sources, does

not do justice
xxviii.

to

the

statements of xxvi.
9,

34, xxvii.

46,

1

stay in
1

must unduly prolong the Sukkoth and Shechem (xxxiii. 17 11'.), and after all
ff.,

contradicts xxviii.

3

5
7

Ch. xlv. 6. Ch. xlvii. 9. Chs. xxxvii. 2, xli. 46, xlv. Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 440 f. See in Delitzsch, Keil, Kohler, Gcschichte, i. 135 f., 150 f.
Chs.
xli.

47

f.,

53

f.,

xlv. 6.

2

Ch.

xli. 46.

4

6.

312
does not explain

GENESIS XXXVI

[381

how

in

ch. xlvi.

Judah could already have

grandchildren, and Benjamin, even, ten sons.

4.

ESAU AND THE EDOMITES, CH. XXXVI.
FOLLOWING A.

;

MAINLY

Before the transition
the collateral line of Esau

is

made

to the Toledoth of
of.

Jacob

is

disposed

First

we

are told

Canaan, had five sons by three he then how wives, gave place to Jacob and departed to the mountain land of Se'ir with his dependants and all his

how

Esau, while

still

in

There follows an enumeration of property (vv. 18). Esau's sons and grandsons in Se'ir, and of the Edomite tribes descended from them (vv. 919), also of the aboriginal
Horite tribes of
Se'ir (vv.

2030).

Finally, there

is

a

list of

the Edomite kings (31-39), and a second enumeration of the the Edomite tribes of later date territorial division of
(

vv 40-43).
.

The amount
explicable from
Israel's brother,

of detail

devoted to these various matters

is

the

fact that

Edom was

always counted

and was

of the greatest

importance in the
original inhabitants

history of Israel.
of the land in the

The Horites were the
mountain country
of

Se'ir (ver. 20).

The

Hebrews under Esau entered

and amalgamated with them, Esau married the Horite Oholibamah (ver. 2), and his son Eliphaz the Horite Timna' (vv. 12, 22). But
their country

the Esauites became the rulers of the land in Se'ir as the
Israelites did in

country as far Horite communities must
their supremacy, so

Jahve gave them Se'ir, 1 the whole as the Gulf of 'Akaba. 2 Yet clearly defined

Canaan

;

still
it

have continued to exist under
to give a

that

was not only possible

separate description of

their tribal divisions, but of sufficient

moment

also.

expelled by the
1

They were only by degrees absorbed or new masters of the country until those of a
ii.

I

)eut.

5

;

Josh. xxiv.
;

4.
1 ff
.

'-'

Num.

xxi. 4

Dent.

ii.

;

1

Kings

ix. 26.

381, 382]

r.KNKSJS XXXVI

313
say
that

Liter

date, on

looking

back,

1

could

Kdom
the,

liad

extirpated the Horites.
as well as

The information about
at
least

Horites,

that

regarding the

ancient kings of
its

Edom,
is

is

evidence that this passage, or

sources,

of a

relatively ancient date. A's authorship of the chapter has been

much
still

disputed
assigned

since Hupfeld's time, only portions of
to him, 2 while the rest is

it

being

B

or other sources.

and pronounced to be by R from There is, indeed, hardly any linguistic
is is

evidence against A, although the language so decisively testimony in his favour as it
40, and 43.

not everywhere
in vv. 6-8, 30,

prove redaction.

See below regarding linguistic usages which The formal chronicle-like way of statement

also pervades the

whole

(e.g.

also vv.

31-39).

The objections

drawn from the subject-matter. It is said that it was not part of A's scheme to mention the Horites, or that he holds much too steadily to his archaic standpoint, and has
are
too little objective, historical interest to allow of our suppos-

ing that the

list

of Edornite kings

is

his (see

on vv. 29 and
in

40

for other points).

But

A

is

in

no degree archaic

the

sense that he puts forward his writing as the composition of

Moses

;

he,

and he only, makes quite open allusions
if

to the kings
it is

of Israel (xvii. 6, 16, xxxv. 11);

any

writer,

A

who

takes pleasure in material which
or chronological,

is statistical
is

or genealogical

which means that he
interest.

influenced by the
considerations

motive

of

historical

General

are

exactly what requires us to assign the passage to A.
in the this it
it

Edom

time of the monarchy was a dependency of Israel, and was which compelled A to be more minute regarding

than regarding Ishmael.

But

it

has to be acknowledged

that the chapter has been pretty extensively revised by

R

on
in

the basis of another source

(? C).

The double heading

1

Deut.
E.y.

ii.

12, 22.

-

Reuss),

1-8 (Hupfeld, Kayser), 6-8 (Bolimer), 1-14 (Nokleke, 6-8 and 40-43 (Wellhaiiseii, JBDTh. xxi. 438 Kuenen,
vv.
11'.
;

Ondtnotk,*

i.

08).

314
vv. 1

GENESIS XXXVI

[382, 383

and 9

is

what

first

surprises us.

But the solution

is

not

that ver. 9 ff. are not from A, and that vv. 1-8 are his only with the deduction that R has altered the names of the wives in

accordance with the other source, ver. 9
in ver. 2
f.

ff.

1

The

list of

wives

cannot even be taken from that in vv. 10 and 13,
is fuller

seeing that the former

than the

latter.

Besides, the

expressions of vv. 10 and 15 (see below) are certainly those of A, and there is no sense in denying to him, because of vv.

40-43,

all vv.

1519,
4
f.

and, similarly, vv. 9-14,
still

if

the names

of the sons in ver.

are

allowed to be

his.

Finally, the

use of DIN "OK (see ver. 43)
ship stronger in ver. 9
DViN Kin).
Positively,

makes the

case for

As

author-

we may

than in ver. 1 (comp. ver. 8 for its assert not only that vv. 6 Sa

are indubitably from

A

t

but also that the formulas of 5b

2

and 2a

3

reveal his presence.

the main, the

names

of

the wives

Vv. 2-8 are accordingly, in being excepted, to be
to

attributed to him.

But then we are best
1,

assume

4

that

these notices, like xxxvii.

were

originally, in

the pny nnf>n, and were included
of ver.
1

in the

it^y

A, part of nn^n by the

from R, who, at the same time, revised heading them and expanded ver. 9 by the addition of 9. He then
altered in

the

names

of the wives (vv. 10, 13f.,

beginning of A' 8 Toledoth (vv. 919) the 16-18), to be in accordwell as pfoy PJ^N (ver. 16), and
list

ance with his additional source, and added ver. 12, and,
doubtless,
also ver.

14, as

DViN Kin (ver. 19).
.

In the

of Horites, also (vv.
;

20-30),
.

only ver. 2 9 f can be certainly reckoned A' 8 ver. 2 f is a doublet to ver. 29 f. 5 and the contents of vv. 22-28 show a
close connection with the second source of vv.

119.
is

It is
e.g.

questionable
ver. 35,
'jn

if,

in

the

list

of

kings,

there

matter,

naon, due to insertion. 6

Most
1

of the

names which occur here are found nowhere
.

2
4 5
i;

Urgeschichte, 347 f 3 xxxv. 266. C f. xxviii. 1, 6, 8. With Bruston in Revue TMol. 1882, pp. 18 ff., 134 ff. With DIN 'N3 in ver. 20 contrasted with -|iyb> 'N3 in ver. 30.

Budde,
Of.

Ilcgardiiig the unity of

what remains,

see Bruston, op.

cit. p.

135

f.

383]

GENESIS XXXVI.

1,

2 F.

315

else.

When

the people disappeared so also did the names,

so far as they were

not place-names.
traceable.

Even

of

the place-

names only a few are now
(a)

A
i.

part of the records

of the chapter is repeated in 1 Chron.

35-54.
as they

Vv. 1-8. Esau's
;

wives

and

sons

were

in

Canaan

his departure to Se'ir.
1.

Ver.
ently in

DIN

Kin,

ver. 19.

repeated in ver. 8, and somewhat differIt agrees with xxv. 24 ff. (JJ, C), accordis

ing

to

which Edoni

another name for Esau,

whereas

in vv. 9
is

and 43 (A) Esau is father of Edom, so that Esau a personal and Edom a national name. 1
Ver. 2
f.

Esau's
2

wives.

Their

marriages

.

have

been

this explains why instead of np^ (cf. x. 1) already related; the author writes Esau had taken his wives, etc. The start-

ing-point in a discussion of the verse
is

is

the fact that ^n

an error

for
is

3

"Hn,

seeing
is

that

'Anah,

whose
son, in

daughter
ver.

Oholibamah

said to be,

in vv. 20,
It is

25 a

24

a grandson of Se'ir the Horite.

now

at once evident

no longer suitable, for only }jttD one Canaanite woman has been married. The words my DK
that the expression

nunn

is

'31

have therefore

riot

been written by the author of
text (xxvi.

ver.

2a.

But, further, in A's

34

f.,

xxviii.

9)

the

three wives

na
ntoJ,

na rnirryand P^

married by Esau in Canaan are the Hittites na notra, and the Ishmaelite nintf nbnp

whose
in

names

are

either

wholly
here.

different

or

only

partially

agreement with
"

those

Attempts have

been made to reconcile

the discrepancy either by supposing

that Esau had five wives, or that they had double names, or had been renamed," 4 or that errors have been introduced by 5 A copyists, which must then have been very extensive.
difference
1

of tradition

or of theory can alone satisfactorily
3

2

3

Ewald, Geschichte, i. 494 [Eng. tr. i. 344 f .]. Chs. xxvi. 34, xxviii. 9. J. D. Michaelis, Tuch, Bertheau, Knobel, Ewald, Delitzsch. Cf. Sept.
See, further,
Josli. ix. 7.

rrading in
4
8

Ilgen, Rosenmiiller,

Schumann, Hengstenberg, Kurt/.
i.

3 Knohi'l, E\v;ild, tiwhii-hte,

533 [Eng.

tr.

i.

372, note

2].

316

GENESIS XXXVI. 4-0

[383, 384

1 explain the discrepancy, and this requires us to give up any idea of identity of authorship 2 i.e. either here or in xxvi.
;

34

f.

and

xxviii.

9,

the

from another source into
itself

names must have been inserted As text by R. The former is in
is

the more probable, 3 and

recommended by

ver. 2a,

which, as has just been shown, does not agree with ver. 2&. cannot decide whether B or G was this source in any

We

;

case they too

4

have had something regarding Esau's domestic
19.

history and departure to Se'ir.

TO

see

iv.

nsn^nN
(Ex. xxxi. 6),
|isn>-n;a

words compounded with ^HK occur, as Israelite 6 5 Sabean, and Phoenician names.
after

njxrra

as

in

ver.

14,

but

sufficiently

surprising;
translate
it

some have therefore corrected
granddaughter
is (cf. ver.

m to

p,

7

others

a variant to rusrm, which
ver. 18),

39); perhaps it is only dependent on vv. 20 and 25 (cf.
text.

taken from ver. 24 and finally allowed into the
also

n6?a

a

Hebrew name

in

1

Kings

iv.

15; the

Samaritan has everywhere 8 n?Qi following xxviii. 9. Ver. 4 f. Esau's five sons, all born while their father was
still

in
is

Canaan.

The correction

of

try, in vv. 5

and 14,

to

ny\

the name, which was a
Sept. has 'leou?
tion with the

based on ver. 18, and on the form usually taken by common one in Israel also. The

which prevents

9

approval of the identifica10

Arab deity laghiUh.
with

The words

JJ;J:D

*:a nta,

in 5& are identical with A's in xxxv. 26.

Ver.

6.

Esau departs
xii.

all

his

possessions.

The

phraseology as in

5,

xxxiv.

23

(in A).
it
is

pH"^K
1

without meaning, for

impossible to supply

2
:5

1

Tuch, Nbldeke, Delitzsch, Keil, Kohler. Hupfeld, Bb'hmcr, Kuvscr, Wellhausen, Bruston. Cf. the composition of x. and xi. 27 ff. * See xxxii. 4. Journal Asiatique,

f&
''

i.
I,

1, p, 1-1.
!),

7

vii. 4, p. 554 Following Samarit. Sept. Pesh.

f.

13, 17.
;

Latfirde,
10

Bilduny der Nomina, 133 Nbldeke, ZDMG. xlv. 595. Robertson Smith, Wellhausen, Skizzen, iii. 19 Nbldeke in ZDMG.
;

xl.

108.

384]

GENESIS XXXVI.

7,

8

31
before,
i.e.

and the translations
Jacob 2 or remote

into

a land

east

of,

from

Jacob;' arc

negatived by the proper
definition.

meaning
Fallen

of ^Qp, or give

no proper

A

word

lias

mil ai'Irr
4

Peshitta

px, probably TW, given by the 5 ^i" and vcr. not because the land of !*, S), (comp.
is
1

which

Kdom
Se'ir/'

(3xpresses

in

itself

a wider conception than land of

The jwa
his

pK

of the Sept.

and Samar.

is

a subsequent
7

correction.

Before

brother

Jacob,

i.e.

because
land.

of

Jacob,

who
it

extended greatly, and required

much

Esau thus gave

way

to Jacob,

was after
Ver.

and the passage leaves us in no doubt that the return of the latter from Paddan Aram. 8

7.

The cause

of the emigration, viz. the insufficiency

of the pasturage of the

the phraseology, comp.

xiii.

country for the flocks of both. 6 in A. n?$&, see iv. 13.
in

For

Ver.

8.

Esau

settles
9

the hill-country of Seir.

This

included also the Edomite hill-country, east of the 'Araba, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of
in later times

name

'Akaba,

"

known

in

its

whole extent by the Arabic geo-

10 graphers as the Jebel esh-Shera, but

Jebfil in its
11

part,

more frequently named northern portion, and esh-Shera in its southern exactly in accordance with the distinction made in
times."
12

modern

But

13

originally
f

the

name belonged

to the

the Araba, which, though not so high and Jebfil as Shera, yet towers aloft in wildly torn masses of
hilly country -west of
1

2
4

Targg., Vulg., Clericus, Rosenmiiller, De Wette. 3 Bohmer. Gesenius, Von Bohlen. Knobel against Nbldeke's doubts see ver. 30 and xxxii. 4.
;

5 7
9

Cf. ver. 16

f.,

xxi. 31.

6

See ver.
Knobel.

8.

Ch.

vii.

7

;

Isa. xvii. 9.
ii.
;

8

E.g. Deut.

Ezek. xxxv.
Jaubert,
i.

15.
;

10

E.g. Edrisi,

tr.

337

11 12

E.g. Istachri, ed.

Mordtmanu,
;

p.

Yakut, Musktarik, 270. 34 f.
;

410],
iii.

i. Burckhardt [*%n', pp. 401, 415, 418, iii. 16 Germ. tr. pp. 674, 688 Robinson [Palestine, 3 ii. 154 f.], Germ. tr. 103 f. 860 f. Knobel. See also Winer, 3 i. 397, ii. 442; Gesenius,

Seetzen, Reisen,

Thesaurus, 258, 1335.
13

Judg.

v.

4

;

Deut. xxxiii. 2
xv.
1,

;

comp. the statements of

Num.

xx. 16

:

Josh, xi, 17,

xii. 7,

318

GENESIS XXXVI.

10,

11 F.

[384, 385

" rock of gleaming whiteness, south of the bare hill," which forms the southern boundary of the hill-country of Judah.

It is a wild, desolate,

mountain land now inhabited by the

Arab

1 tribe 'Azazime.

DVIK Kin
(b)

m

see ver. 1.

Vv.

919.

List

of

Esau's

grandsons,
five

and

of

the
Se'ir.

Edomite

tribes

which sprang from Esau's
in

sons in

They
Israel,

are twelve, as
or thirteen
(so

the

cases

of

Nahor, Ishmael, and
of

when the

related people
p.

'Amalek
fall

is

added

with Yoktan).

See above,

148.

They

into

three groups, as Esau has three wives.

Ver.

9.

Not
2

"

an erroneous repetition from
DTJK 3N, see ver.
<I

ver. 1

and

to

be struck out,"
vyjp,

but A'B original heading to the passage,
5.
1.

"inn

unlike ver.

Ver. 10. niB> r6,

see xxv.

13.

The intention

is

to

name only

sons of Eliphaz and Ke'uel, which explains their being placed together here, and the separation from them of
the sons of Oholibamah (ver. la).
Ver. 1 1
Eliphaz.
f.

The

first

or Canaanite line.

Its

ancestor

is

His name did not become that
;

of a tribe,

any more

than that of Ee'uel

he only sums up a number of tribes of
ancestor.

whom

he

is

the

common
3

!'n

"elsewhere in the Old
district,

Testament name
for its wise

of
4

an

Edomite

which was celebrated
Job's
its

men, and
Ezek.

was the home

of

5 discerning friend Eliphaz.

xxv. 13 points also to

being situated in northern
7

Edom."

6

Ver. 42 does not require us to suppose
of

there was also a Yet the Onomastica name a place Saipdv, city a Eoman was there and where garrison, place it 15 Roman

Teman.

miles from Petra (Jerome 5 miles).
1

8

See Bertheau in

Bibellex.

ii.

51.

["Bare

hill," Josh.

xi.

"

17; Dill.

platten Berg."]
2

Lagarde, Orientalia,
Jer. xlix.

ii.

40.

3
4
' ;

20
;

;

Amos

i.

12

;

Hab.
f.

iii. 3.

Jer. xlix. 7

Baruch

iii.

22

*
7

Job

ii.

11.

Kuobel.

Knobel.

8

Comp.

further, Wetzstein in Zeitschrift fiir Allg. Erdkunde, xviii. 52 f.

:wr>]

CMXKSIS xxxvi.

IL>,

is

819
Zaxfrup,

1

Nothing further is known of Omar, Scphn (Sept. Chron. i. 30 'BV), and Ga'tam.

UP explained by the Kenizzites of xv. 19, a people which once dwelt south of Canaan. Kaleb (of Judah) l is called " the
Kenizzite," and his younger brother, or son-in-law, a son of

Kenaz;

2

and we hear
it

of a

Kenaz who was Kaleb's grandson. 3

These facts make

people was absorbed

apparent that one part of this petty in the tribal union of Judah, while

another, according to this passage, attached itself to

Edom,
by a

and therefore here appears as son of Eliphaz. 4 Ver. 12. 'Amalek is also a son of Eliphaz. but

What is intended concubine (Timna), and so not a full son. is, of course, not the great people of 'Amalek, or their ancestor,
5

which

south of

and had settled in the desert regions 7 Canaan long before Esau, but only an offshoot
is

6

older,

from

it,

which attached

itself

to

the tribes
to

of Eliphaz,

or

stood in

some

relation

of

subordination

them.

What

remained of them in
in

the time of
(?

was driven away by the Simeonites Hezekiah (1 Chron. iv. 42 f.). Timna', the
Se'ir
is

mother

a district, ver. 40),

included

amomg

the Horites

in ver. 22,

branch of 'Amalek already stood in a somewhat close relationship with the Horites.

which implies that

this

8 The expression t^Q shows that this verse is not from A and the same is then probably true of pboy f^N also, in Without 'Amalek the tribes are twelve in number, ver. 16.
;

as elsewhere in

A, with

it

thirteen.
line,

Ver. 13. The second or Ishmaelite
sons of Ee'uel.

namely, the four

They

are

unknown
;

elsewhere.

The

first

three are also Israelite

names

the Septuagint gives

Zape,
1

2ofjL,

Mofe.
;

Num.

xxxii. 12

Josh. xiv. 6, 14.
1

Judg. i. 13, iii. 9, 11; Josh. xv. 17; 3 1 Chron. iv. 13. *Ewald, Geschichte* i. 361 [Eng. tr.
iii.

2

Chron.
251

iv.

13.

i.

f.]

;

IVi-tlu-.-iu

in

IHbellex.

521.
5
6

Winer, Hengstenberg, Keil, See also Num. xxiv, 20,

,-iinl '

otlirrs.
7.

Ch, xiv.

xxii,

:>4,

\\v,

G.

320
Ver. 14.

GENESIS XXXVF. 1419

[385, 386

The

third,

or Horite line,

is

not composed of

grandsons, but of Esau's three sons by Oholibamah, already

named
bainah.

in ver. 5,

and comprehended under the name OholifiW and rnp were also Israelite names. D?V! is

perhaps a derivative from an

see ver. 5. regarding Vv. 15-19. List of the tribal princes of Edom,
:

W

animal name,

?JP

or

r6jp

l
;

,

who

are,

with one exception, identical with the already-named grandsons and sons of Esau.
CI^JK

n ot

tribe*1

or

community or canton? but as a

cjta (see ver. 30), a thousand, or confederThe word in Zech. ix. 7, xii. 5f. chiliarch or a phylarch. acy, 4 is also used of the subdivisions of the tribe of Judah, and

denominative from

was in Edom, so
tribal prince
;

far

as

^K,

itself

the expression for the being designation for the largest
judge,
tribe,

we can

5

subdivision of the nation, the

as ^EK

was in the case
of

of

Ishmael
princes
is

(xxv.
at the

16).

The author's enumeration

tribal

same time an enumeration

of tribes,

and

is

paralleled by xxv. 16 and xvii. 20, where he speaks of the DWto of Ishmael. In Ex. xv. 15 the parallelism of 3Nto fyx
also

makes

it

apparent that
itself.

tji;JK

is

the chief of the clan, and

not the clan

to TOa
different).

see

xxv. 13, xxxv. 23

(xxii.

21

is

somewhat

Ver. 16. nip

*ii;>N

wanting in the Samaritan, transferred
;

by mistake from

ver. 1 8

Korath, according to another view,
It Eliphaz tribes. not the same name.
is

perhaps a gloss to the effect that was reckoned one of the
that two different tribes had

certain

Ver. 19. D11K
point (see
6
.

Nin,

a gloss to to, put
it

in

at

the wrong

xiv.

12), or
of

may

be a mutilation of Kin
(cf.

to

The Targum

Jonathan gives DIN ^K Kin
2

ver. 9).

1

3
4

Robertson Smith. Sprenger in ZDMG.
Cf. Cf,

Knobel.

xii.

315

ff.

;

Bbluner.
1].

Micah

v. 1

;

6

Ex. xv. 15.

Ewald, Atierthtimer,* 321 f. [Eng. tr. 245, note Samar. cf, ver. 8,
;

3S<;]

GENESIS XXXVI. 3

:>,

1> 1

(c)

Vv. 20-30. The Horite

tribes.

Their ancestry
1

is

traced to Se'tr, elsewhere the

name
and

of a country.

They are They

spoken of as
Esau's people,

the inhabitants of the

land,

2

as contrasted with

who came

later

settled

among them.

were the
Their
"

earliest population, as far as

our knowledge goes. 3

name,
or

^n, from

"rin,

cave,
is

designates
full

them cavecaves. 4

dwellers,

troglodytes.

Edom

of

The

population used them as dwellings.
habitatiunculas

They had in

specubus

Ver. 20
are,

f.

and tuyuria subterranea." 5 Seven sons of Se'ir are first enumerated, who
f.

however, identical with the alluphim of ver. 2 9
that in the words

Seeing

now

nnn

'ai^K nta

(21&) these sons of Se'ir

are even called alluphim, and that

pared with

iw

pfeO in ver. 30,

we find DTIK pao as comwe may rightly infer that
f.

these verses are due to another source than that of ver. 29

Each son has
Ver. 22.

also sons of his

own

given, and some daughters

;

these are to be understood as subdivisions of the tribes.

The

first is

Lotdn, rightly identified by
also a
'")in

Ewald

with Lot, father of

Moab-Ammon, and
by
its

(xix. 30).

The Arab
is

tribe Liyathineh,7 in the neighbourhood of Petra, 8

excluded,

even

spelling.

His

sons

are

Hori,

in

name appears as a clan name, and 9 Hemam, compared by Knobel with Humaimeh, a town south
the national

whom

of Petra, 10 but against the phonology.

A

sister of Lotan's is

Timna', the same as in ver. 12, and due to the same source. There is no connection Ver. 23. The second is Shobal.

with Syria Sobal
1

(i.e.

nrtof

Di)

;

" and

if

"the name Syria
etc.

Cf. in

Gen.

x.

Asshur, Aram, Misraim, Canaan,

2

Ex.

xxiii. 31;

Num.

xxxii. 17; Judg.

i.

33.

3
4

5

8
9

Ch. xiv. 6. Robinson, Palestine* ii. 68 f.; Ritter, xiv. 991. Jerome, ad Obadiah 5. Knobel. 7 Knobel. Geschichte* i. 448 [Eng. tr. i. 313]. 3 420 433 f., Robinson, Palestine, ii. 156. Burckhardt, Syria, pp. 1 Cliron. i. 39, Homam Sept. in both cases, kiftoiv.
;
;

10

Yakut, Mushtarik, 146
Judith
iii. 1,

;

Robinson [Pakstine^

ii.

168],

Germ.

tr. iii.

128, 861*.
11

Vulgate.
II.

DILLMANN.

21

322
Sobal
is
1

GENESIS XXXVI.
applied by the
historians

24,

25

[380, 387

of the
2

crusades

to

the

Shobek
less

named above under
confusion (with

xxv. 2,"

there has been doubt-

Variants are given in Shaubak). |vV for jw, Chronicles to two of the five names of his sons
a

and

W

for

iBB>.

Knobel hazarded a comparison
tribe Alawin, north
of

of
3

'Alwan

with the Beduin

'Akaba,
4
;

and

of

Manachat with Menochia, a place

in

Edom

and Movvv-

5 It is %taTt?, the region west of Petra. that in 1 Chron. ii. 52 (cf. 54) half of

more worthy of note Manahat is derived
His sons are

from a Kalebite Shobal.
Ver. 24.
njN,6
f

The
kite,

third

is

Sibeon, Arabic hyena.
;

Hebrew

and TO
in last

not an animal name, for Arabic

anah, compared

edition,

Eegarding 'AnaJi, we are told
asses he found the
1

means only troop, herd. 7 that when watching his father's

Dp.1

in the steppe land.

not mules? nor giants, 9 nor QEP, lakes, or D?&, waters. 19 Hot waters or thermal springs n would be more in place, and
&P.
!

would then
the

be,

not those of Kallirrhoe, 12 but others

13
;

translation

u

rests

perhaps
'Anah.

yet with a on confusion only
This
a son of the Se'ir
24.

Ver. 25.
of
ver.

The fourth
the
3

is

is

20, and not the same
is

as

in

ver.

From him

Dishon
1

derived

;

name
161
f.,

is

that of an animal in Deut.

2

Robinson, Palestine, Knobel.

ii.

163

f.j

Ritter, Erdkunde, xiv. 61, 987.
5

3

Burckhardt, Syria, pp. 508, 512; Robinson, Palestine,

i.

165, 171;

Seetzen, Reisen, iii. 10, 102. 4 Notitia dignitatum, i. 79, 343 (ed. Booking).

Ptolemy, v. 17. 3. To be read for ,TK1, with Samar. Sept. Pesh. Vulg. Hebrew MSS. and 1 Chron. i. 40, if a name has not rather fallen out before it.
6

5

7 8

Noldeke in ZDMG. xl. 168. Jems. Targ., Saadia, Kimchi, Luther
i.

;

see Lagarde, Orientalia,

ii.

58

;

Levy, Neuheb. Worterb. DS'N, Onkelos.
<J

476a.
10

See Jerome, Qucestiones.

11
12

Vulgate; Gesenius, Thesaurus, 586.
Delitzsch
E.g.
;

see note

on

x. 19.

13
14

Burckhardt, Syria, p. 401. See Jerome.

Knobel.

387]

GENESIS XXXVI.

2<

2H

323

His appearing here as Se'ir's grandson, as'Anah does in ver. 24, whereas in ver. 20 f. they are both sons, is explained if a part of 'Aiiah was absorbed in Sibeon, and of Dishon in
xiv. 5.

'Anah.

The Septuagint

partially
"

by another punctuation. standing one in genealogies, and was even used where only one son had to be named." l Oholibamak is Esau's wife (comp.
ver.

smooths away the difficulty The formula 'ps "03 fvK was a

18).
2

father,

or ver.

There were either two traditions regarding her 246 is to be placed after 25&. 3

Ver. 26.
1

The
also

fifth
;

is

Dishon*
?

One

of

his four sons is

rj

??
1

;

Sept. 'A/jia&d
is

in Chronicles

i"J

?D, parallel to |3B>N,
I"J3
;

which

in Arabic

name

of a colour.

Sept.

Xappdv, perin

haps connected with
Ver. 27.
'no-dp.

">?,

agnus,
is

aries.
;

The sixth

Eser; Sept. 'Acrdp
|n?2i

Chronicles

He

has three sons.

is

doubtless a derivative
;

from nrta

X Sept. Zovtcdp ( xix. 29); Sept. Bakadp. iJJJT.; but there Samarit. JiM. in Chronicles is fpy without ] JjjJJ
;

the Sept. has KOI *A/cdv, here

it

has

/cal 'lov/cap.
'

reads a

name

;py in

the inscriptions of Safa.
xxxiii. 3 If.

Halevy The |j$*_ ^3 of

5

Deut. xx. 6 and

Num.

have been compared with

the reading in Chronicles.
Ver. 28.

The seventh

is

Dishan.

Here and

in

vv.

21
;

and 30, but not in Chronicles, the Septuagint gives 'Picrcov and certainly I^l, as a tribal name alongside f^, is somewhat suspicious. His son 'Us is doubtless only a section of
the well-known Aramaean
syllable an, as in

py 6
the

Ardn

is

the second.

The

many

other of these names, appears to be
interpretation
of
1

formative, and
|j$1), for

therefore

chamois (from
ii.

which the punctuation
is

Chron.

25, P.K
8

is

better
1

suited,

very questionable.?
;

The reading p
i.

or

Ch. xlvi. 23
Delitzsch.

Num.
-2

xxvi. 8
14.

;

1

Chron.

41,

ii.

8

Knobel.

2

See notes on vv.

and
1

3
4 5 6 8

Reading JA. vii.
See

ffejvn

with

Chron.

i.

41,

and Sept. Pesh. Vulg.
xl. 168.

17, p. 236. note on x. 23.

7

ZDMG.

Samar.

324
1
,

GENESIS XXXVI.
occasioned by
PJN
piy, is of

29 F.

[388

no value.
3

Knobel and Sprenger 2

with the Arreni of Pliny. Enumeration of the seven tribal princes of the Horites, who are, however, identical with the seven sons of Se'ir. DrPS&fcO, according to their tribal princes, is taken to

compare

Ver. 29

f.

4 But seeing *\?x is written mean, enumerated one by one. without only here in the whole chapter, we should rather
i

read DrPB^tO, according

to their tribes

The

fact that the total
5

number

of

(comp. Sept.). the sons of Se'ir

is

not

very large, only proves that we must not look for such in these genealogies, and not that vv. 20-30 is a late addition.

In the
i

list

the animal names, and those which terminate in

(fi),

are

noteworthy.

amongst

whom

very natural for peoples arts and manufactures have not yet been
It
is

developed to take their names by preference from those of animals. There is no need to infer an original animal

worship among

the

Semites.
to the

family names common Edomites and Horites,
(d)

For a comparison of the Jewish family Hesron and the 7 see Wellhausen.
list

6

Vv. 31-39.

A

of the kings

"who

ruled in the

land of

Edom

before an Israelite king ruled."

The

state-

ment

generally taken absolutely, and then the period ends " " before the time of Saul if the words over Edom are to be
is
;

8

supplied,

the period ends before the time of David, which

would determine a
of

date

more

suited

for

the

conclusion

the

list.

kings

in

Israel
11

The heading shows that there were already in the author's lifetime, and xvii. 6, 20

and xxxv.

attached to the monarchy. It shows equally that the last mentioned in the list lived immediately before the time of the Israelite monarchy or
just at
1

prove what value

A

its

beginning, and not,

e.g.,

before or about

Moses'

Heb. MSS., Targ. Jon. (also MSS. of Sept. and Vulg.).
Geog. Arabiens, 145.
.

2
4

3

6.

157.

4 6 Noldeke. Knobel, Delitzsch 6 R. Smith in Jour, of Philol. ix. 75 ff., and Kinship, 1885 Geschichte* i. 408 ff. See also Noldeke in ZDMG. xl. 161 ff. 7 8 De fjentil. Jud. p. 38 f. Bruston, op. cit. p. 133.

;

Stade,

.".ss,

:;s<>]

GENESIS XXXVI.
If it

32,

33

325

time. 1
to say,

had been otherwise the author would have had

left Egypt or conquered Canaan, or In the development of a monarchy as something well as in his settlement in the country he made his own,

before Israel
similar.

Esau preceded Israel he is the firstborn. Yet Israel in won from him his precedency. " There are in the list the names of eight kings, so that it might well extend
;

the end

back to the time of Moses.
tell

Num.
is

xx.

14 and Judg.

iv.

17

us that the Edomites had a king thus early.

No

one of

the kings

who

are

named

son

of

his

predecessor.

The

Edomite monarchy was therefore probably elective (cf. Isa. xxxiv. 12). But it may also be assumed that princes of
ability

attained the dignity

pushed themselves to the front by their own of royalty, and maintained it
'

efforts,

for

the

period of their lives."
DViN

pKn

as in ver. 216, unlike ver.

30& -vyw pfcCJ right

from A' a point of view, because the kingdom embraced a wider country than the home of the Horites. See on ver. 8,

and compare 40-43, where a like area is presupposed. Ver. 32. For yb the Sept. has Ba\d K Dinhdbah,
.

in

the Sept. and Vulg. Aevvaftd,
"

is

not to be found in Edom.

But the name occurred elsewhere, e.g. there was Aava/Bd in 3 4 Palmyrene Syria, and davdfti) in Babylonia, Dannaia and Dannaba in Moab. 5 The coincidence of the name Bela len
Be or with that
he
is

of the

seer

BiVam
Targum

ben Be' or
of

is

remarkable

;

thought

of here

by the
i.

Jonathan and by the

Targum on
Job (lyob). 7

1 Chron.

44."

6

Ver. 33.

Yobab was

later identified

Bosrah, his city,

was one
8
;

of the principal

by the Greeks with towns
usually localised at

or the capital of
1

the country
4

it

is

2

3

Hengstenberg, Delitzsch, Keil, and others. Knobel. Assemani, Biblioth. Orient, Ptolemy, v. 15. 24
;

iii.

2,

pp. 595

f.,

606.
4
fi

Zosimus, Hist. Knobel.

iii.

27.

6
7

8

Amos

i.

12

;

Jer. xlix. 13, 22

;

Onomasticon, i. 114f., ed. Lagarde. Sept. Job xlii. 18 [17d in Swete]. Isa. xxxiv. 6, Ixiii. 1.

326

GENESIS XXXVI. 34-37

[389

el-Bmeira, a small village in

Jebal,

two and three-quarter
is

hours south of Taflla
Wetzstein, who
Ver. 34.
2

1
;

but the identification

opposed by

regards
;

rmn

as the old
;

name

of Petra.
;

Dl^'n

Sept. ^Ao-wp

in Chronicles 'Acro^

comFor

pare the Jewish

name D^n
3

in

Ezra and Nehemiah.

Teman,

see ver. 11.
is

Ver. 35. ffadad
4

also

the

well-known

name

of

a

Syrian deity.
is

T]3

;

Sept.

BapuS.

One
it

of this king's deeds
5

recorded, namely, his victory over Midian in the field
;

of

Moab

the exceptional notice taken of

was doubtless due

to its being of

make him
TerOal/j,,
is

importance to Israel flourish in the time of
identified
8

also.

Ewald

7

would
Sept.

Gideon.

JVIJJ,

by Knobel with the hill-range Ghu-

weithe on the eastern side of Moabitis.
Ver. 36.

The

Sept. has

^a^a^d

etc

Maae/ctca?.
'EBcbfjL

But
Trepl

in
rrjv

the Onomasticon, Mcurptied' TTO\^ /3ao-i\eias

Ver. 37. "There are

many

places of the

name Eehoboth.
and
so

Probably there were seyeral in
Eehoboth of the River.
It is

Edom.

That here intended

was situated on a Nahr, here a small

river,

was called

the place which the Notitia
localities

dignitatum

n

cites

among Edomite
12

as Eobotha,

and

which Eusebius and Jerome
in Gebalene."

quote as existing in their day So far Knobel. But it is hardly credible
be

that "irm
indication

is

to

looked

for

it

gives us, others

in Edom. Following the understand a Eehoboth on the

Euphrates,
1

e.g.

Eahaba

13

on
407
;

its

western bank somewhat south
5
ii.

Burckhardt, Syria,
iii.

p.

Robinson, Palestine,
1

167

;

Seetzen,

ii.

51, 357,
2

17

;

Biideker,

2

191.

4
5

ZDMG.

3 In Delitzsch, Isaiah, 8 p. 704 f. Of. xxxi. 734 Bathgen, Beitrcige, p. 67. Chs. xiv. 7, xxxii. 4 Num. xxi. 20 Ruth i. ff.
;
; ;

Kings

xi.

14

ff.

B
7

Of. ver. 24.
;

Geschichte* ii. 476 [Eng. tr. ii. 108] cf. Riehm, Handworterbuch, 996. 9 Burckhardt, Syria, 375. Yakut, Mushtarik, 203 f 10 But the Sept. has 'Poufiud Tij? Trctpoc, KOTctpw and not irotp* rov. [Dillmann.] 11 12 13 i. 78. 346 f. Onomasticon. Sachau, Reisen, 279 f.
8

.

:'.,

:o]

CKNKSIS xxxvi. 38-43
of the
1

of the

mouth
38.

Chaboras,

and hold that Shaul was a
like

foreigner in spite of his

Hebrew name.
a

Ver.

ijn

bya.

formation

the

Israelite

ijnta

and

11

jjni

and many similar

PlKPiiirian,

Punic, and Sabean
Baal.
"ri2p, mouse,

names; it is evidence of the worship is also an animal name.
Ver. 39.

of

"nn
;

Sept.

'ApaS

;

in

1
;

Chron.

i.

50, some

Hebrew MSS., and the Peshitta Tin
and Tin
2
;

in the Samaritan -nn

the variant

of this very

name. 3

one elsewhere frequent in the case " with WSJ; Chronicles ^'a Sept. $oywp?
is
;

which we

may compare
is

the ruins of Phanara in Edom."

5

Hadar's successor

not given, nor

is

his death recorded,

either because he ceased to reign before his death, or because

he was the
ver. 40).

last

who

reigned in the author's lifetime (see on

His

wife's genealogy is also given,
;

not done in any other case the reason is same as the Hadad of 1 Kings xi. 14 ff., and that his wife
therefore

though this is not that he is the
is

an Egyptian princess, 6
wife's

for

that

Hadad was Pip
;

^n,

and the

names are genuinely Semitic
of this

it

may

be
of

because
1 Kings For 3HJ

descendants
xi.
nil,

marriage,

e.g.

the

Hadad
for

14,

were not without importance

Israel.

the Sept. and Pesh. have vlov Matod>B', see
ver. 2.

end
with

of note
"'?

on

Elsewhere proper nouns compounded
list

are

names

of places. of

(e)

Vv.
to

4043. A

the

tribal
to

princes

of

Esau

according

their families,

according

their localities, with

their names.

To take account only

of the last part of the

heading and regard this as only a list of the principal Edomite towns'' has no justification, not even in ver. 43;
1

2
3 4 5 6

Gesenius, Thesaurus See de Rossi.

;

Riehm, Handivorterbuch, 1273.
i.

E.g. 1 Kings xi. 14 ff., Sept.; see Baudissin, Studien, Cf. Sept. of Josh. xv. 59 ; &-/ap in Judali.

309 if.

Knobel. Seetzen, Reisen, iii. 18. A. Bernstein, Ursprung der Regententafel von Edom, 1880;

al.<

MS.

gedruckt. ' Knobel.

328

GENESIS XXXVI. 4043

[.390

besides, MP, for example, is hardly a place

name.

The

list is,

on the contrary,
family names,
e.g.

of a

e.g.

mixed character, and includes both old npl^ng and Mi?, and the names of districts,
the historico-genealogical
1

"6

and

|J'B.

As compared with
it
is

list

of vv.

1519,

geographico-statistical,

and divides

the Edomite population according to the districts they inhabited, giving names which only in part coincide with the
old

clan

names, which

are in

part taken

also

from

the

names

of cities, districts, etc.,

and include sometimes,
localities also.

as in

the case of

won and

njpy,

Horite

It contains,

in fact, the political divisions of

the country at a certain

time, and so the representation of a later state of affairs, per-

haps as they existed in the time of the Edomite monarchy, but more probably as they were after it passed away, per2 The haps even under the new Israelite supremacy.
Chronicler even takes this view, for in
introduces
"

1

Chron.

i.

51

he

the

list

with
" 4

the words

Wl
15
if.

Tin

noV

The

flagrant

contradiction

with

ver.

cannot in this

light be said, without difficulty, to exist

Of the names in
as Alluphim.

vv.

1519

only

Mi?

any longer. and JO'fi recur here

22,

and
;

Of the others, J^pn is known from vv. 1 2 and noa^K from vv. 2, 14, 18, 25; nji>y (Chron.
T(o\a)
of

nvV

Sept.

may
fby

be conjectured to be merely the
in
ver.

original
'N'HJp,

form

(To)\dfjb)

23

niv
;

('Ie0ep),
DTtf,

Sept.

and D^V have as yet been untraced. For in Genesis and Chronicles has Za^coiv, i.e.

the

D^DV,

due

5 perhaps to an exegetical gloss DfypWfc, occasioned by IBS in vv. 1 1 and 1 5 but see below. nf>, almost certainly
;

the customary rfra*, 6 the seaport town of Ailah. P'Q, elsewhere Punon? in the patristic period a viculus in deserto,
for

ubi ceris metalla

damnatorum

suppliciis

effodiuntur,

between

1

Cf

a 3
*

Kings iv. 7 ff., with the old Israelite tribal lists. Ewald, Geschickte* i. 113 f., 529 [Eng. tr. i. 75 f., 369]. * See Bertheau, ad loc. Noldeke. Knobel.
.

1

Cf.

6

See xiv.

6.

^

Num.

xxxiii. 42

f.

IM)]

GENESIS XXXVI. 4043
1

329

So'ar

and Petra, not infrequently mentioned by the Church
as

Fathers
Christian

a

place
2

to

which,
sent
to

during
labour.

the

persecuti

martyrs mention by Seetzen

were

Compare

tin;

of the ruins of

Kalaat Phenan.

"i>'3O

3 certainly not Sela or Petra, more possibly the Sept. 5 same as nnxa in ver. 3 3 4 but the Onomasticon says ert KOI
:

Ma fa/a,

;

vvv
rfj

Ko^fjirj fjieyia-Trj

Ilerpa, so

it is

Ma/3<rapa eVi TT)? ra/3a\7jvfj<:, vTrarcovovaa most probably not the same as Bosrah.

6 conBecause there are only eleven Alluphim, Ewald in stood the text have one time at that 12V jectures may

alongside of

wy.

As

a matter of fact, the Liber Genealogus

'

has the addition Fazon after DTy.

expect a geographical division to exhibit the
Ch. xxxvii.

But we do not necessarily number twelve.
8

6-8.

A, followed Esau withdrew (xxxvi. 6
1, in

originally, perhaps,
ff.),

xxxvi.

but Jacob remained in
;

Canaan.

11

f.,

Importance is attached to the fact For D'TOO, see xvii. 8. xxv. 6, 11.
<bi\>uv,

comp.

xiii.

1

Onomastica, sub

Fenon.
Ix. 11.

2

Reisen,

iii.

17.
6.

3 5 6

Knobel, basing on Ps.
Lagarde,
1

4

Hitzig on Isa. xxxiv.

277.
i.

Geschickte,
7

[?]

350 [Eng.

Ed.
See

Mommsen
p. 314.

tr. i. 369, note G]. in Mon. Germ. Hist., Auctorum Antiquiss., pt.

ix.

p. 175.
8

V.

THE HISTORY OF JACOB,

XXXVII.-L.

THIS
sons.
of

last section deals

Now
in

that Esau

is

with the history of Jacob and his gone, Jacob is head of all the house
his history is

Israel

Canaan.

But regarding him personally, comis

paratively

little

more

told us

;

now

that of

The sons play brought on him by their actions. a more independent part than previously, and bring much
his sons, or

sorrow on their old father by their evil deeds and ways. He, for his part, in trustful patience overcomes his adverse
fortune,

which God turns
at
last

for

him

to

a

blessing,
of

and

is

revealed

as

a

highly- favoured

man

God.

The

foreground

of the narrative is therefore occupied by the of Jacob's sons, by the story of the deand deeds doings velopment from them of a house of Israel, and of the

preparation for
therefore

its

migration to Egypt.
a
different
it

assumes

aspect.
to

The whole history The many divine

revelations by which
in

was sought
three

the

breasts

of

the

found a purer faith patriarchs cease, with one
;

The foundation has been laid the exception (xlvi. 24). task is now to strengthen the house of Jacob and take it to Egypt under God's guidance. But that is so intimately
connected with Joseph that

we

are able to say that all the

his fortunes and history which follows centres in Joseph his deeds. In fact, excepting ch. xxxviii., which has for its

subject

the

origin
is

of

the principal

clans

in

the

tribe <