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CITY SANITATION PLAN FOR DEWAS

January 2011

Draft City Sanitation Plan

Prepared by:

Prepared for: DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION (DMC)

In association with: Alchemy Urban Systems (P) Ltd. Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination (CDD Society)

CITY SANITATION PLAN FOR DEWAS


Draft City Sanitation Plan January 2011

DISCLAIMER The authors views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government

FIRE (D) Project Team Lee Baker S K Tasgaonkar Hitesh Vaidya

CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS.. ix CHAPTER 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 INTRODUCTION 1

Background ... 1 The National Urban Sanitation Policy ... 1 Objectives of the Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme (IUSP) ... 2 National Rating Scheme for Sanitation . 2 Objectives of the City Sanitation Plan in Dewas ... 4 Overview of the Scope of Work... 4 Progress Update ... 5 Contents of the Interim Report .. 6 Acknowledgements .... 7 APPROACH TO UNDERTAKING SITUATION ANALYSIS... 8

CHAPTER 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Preparation of Detailed Base Map 10 Reconnaissance Survey .10 Land Use and Infrastructure Survey . 10 Household Survey by DMC . 11 Slum Surveys ... 11 Disaggregating Population . 12 Assessment of Demand and Supply 13 AN INTRODUCTION TO DEWAS .. 15

CHAPTER 3.

3.1 Location and Key Characteristics . 15 3.2 Physical Characteristics .... 16 3.2.1 Topography 16 3.2.2 Climate .... 16 3.2.3 Rainfall 16 3.3 Demography and Growth Patterns 17 CHAPTER 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.10 POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS .. 18

Objectives of Projecting Population ... 18 Population Projections and the Tradeoff Between Infrastructure Adequacy 18 and Cost Limitations of Demographic Data for Dewas .. 19 Population Growth in Dewas from 1961 to 2001 . 20 Projections Used in Other Studies .. 20 Estimation of Current Population (2010) 22 2011 population by projection . 22 Current population estimate from land use survey 22 Population Projection for 2011 to 2041 23 Ward-wise Distribution of Future Population ..... 24 Limitations of Population Projection at City and Ward Levels .. 28 Factors that can affect city level population and its spatial distribution .... 28 Illustrative list of situations that can alter population dynamics . 29 Projections of Water Demand and Sewerage Generation 30 i

CHAPTER 5. SANITATION SITUATION ANALYSIS .. 5.1 Situation Assessment from the Four Surveys ... 5.1.1 The objective and scope of surveys ... 5.1.2 Sanitation status as per three surveys 5.1.3 Hygiene behavior of households as per the detailed slum survey 5.2 Short Note on Review of Project Report on Sewerage Project of Dewas .. 5.2.1 Existing sewerage (Ref. Chapter 2) .... 5.2.2 Projection of population (Ref. Chapter 5) ....... 5.2.3 Design considerations ........ 5.2.4 Coverage of the project ........ 5.2.5 Sewage pumping stations ...... 5.2.6 Sewage treatment plants ....... 5.2.7 Manholes ........ 5.2.8 Drawings ......... 5.2.9 Estimates .......... 5.3 Comments on the MSW Management Plan ..... 5.3.1 Objectives of the plan ........ 5.3.2 Baseline description ........ 5.3.3 Nature of the recommendation ...... 5.3.4 Financial aspects ........ 5.4 Sanitation Situation Compiled with Respect to NUSP Indicators .... CHAPTER 6. INSTITUTION CAPACITY & FINANCE . 6.1 City Governance ......... 6.2 Existing Institutional Structure ...... 6.3 Allocation of Roles and Responsibilities ...... 6.4 Capacity Assessment ........... 6.4.1 Human resource and office infrastructure ..... 6.4.2 Sanitation service equipment ......... 6.5 Brief Assessment of Municipal Finances ...... 6.5.1 Dewas Municipal Corporation: receipts ..... 6.5.2 Dewas Municipal Corporation: expenditure .. 6.5.3 Dewas Municipal Corporation: surplus/deficit ... 6.5.4 DMC financial issues/concerns ........ CHAPTER 7. 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.5

34 34 34 35 40 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 44 45 48 49 61 61 61 63 64 64 65 65 65 71 72 73

STRATEGY AND APPROACH TOWARDS DEVELOPING A CITY .... 75 SANITATION PLAN Introduction .......... 75 Approach to Project Design ........ 75 Time horizon ........ 75 Approach to Provide Safe Access to Sanitation ..... 76 Eradication of open defecation ...... 76 Options for toilets ....... 76 Approach to Disposal of Household Waste Water .... 76 Possible options ........ 76 Evaluation of options ....... 77 Approach to Waste Water Disposal at Community Level .. 77 ii

7.5.1 7.5.2 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.6.4 7.7 7.7.1 7.8 7.9 7.9.1 7.9.2 7.9.3 7.9.4 7.9.5 7.9.6 7.10 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.5.5 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3

Options ......... 77 Evaluation of options ........... 77 Approach to Waste Water Treatment and Reuse ...... 77 Standards of treatment ....... 77 Options for treatment ........ 77 Evaluation ... 78 Reuse of treated effluent 78 Approach to Storm Water Disposal ...... 78 Current situation ...... 78 Approach to Collection, Disposal and Treatment of Solid Waste .. 78 Strategy of Implementation of Sanitation Plan ....... 79 Institutional arrangements ....... 79 Mapping key stakeholders for CSP implementation in Dewas .. 80 Strategic communications with the staff of the DMC ... 80 Approach for community awareness and participation .. 80 Institutionalizing community-government interactions ...... 80 Community participation at city scale ........ 81 Financing the City Sanitation Plan ....... 81 WASTE WATER SYSTEMS ..... 82

CHAPTER 8.

Sanitation Components......... 82 Existing Coverage by Toilets........ 82 Household toilets...... 82 Public toilets 82 Open defecation 82 Estimation of Demand for New Household Toilets 83 Households with no toilets ...... 83 Options . 83 Choice ... 84 Estimate of quantity ... 84 Sanitation Arrangements for Floating Population .. 85 Need .. 85 Estimate of public toilets for floating population 85 Estimate of community toilets in slums . 86 Options for Disposal of Waste Water at Household Level . 87 Fully on-site sanitation system description 87 Small-bore sewerage system description 89 Centralized or decentralized sewerage system description 90 Combined system description . 91 Evaluation of options of waste water disposal . 92 Integration of Existing Sewerage Facilities in Dewas .. 93 Existing sewerage .. 93 Approach to utilization of existing sewerage facilities .. 95 Coverage of existing sewerage and demand for new sewerage in ...95 these wards 8.7 Decentralized and Centralized Waste Water Disposal Systems ... 96 8.7.1 Decentralized systems .... 96 iii

8.7.2 8.7.3 8.7.4 8.8 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.9 8.9.1 8.9.2 8.9.3 8.9.4 8.10 8.10.1 8.10.2 8.11 8.11.1 8.11.2 8.12 8.12.1 8.12.2 8.12.3 8.12.4 8.13 8.13.1 8.13.2 8.13.3 8.14 8.14.1 8.14.2 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.17.1 8.17.2 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8

Centralized systems .... 96 Choice of decentralized and centralized systems ..... 96 Options for decentralized systems .... 99 Decentralized Waste Water Treatment Systems (DEWATS) 99 Treatment systems ........ 99 Quality of treatment .... 99 Centralized Treatment Systems ..... 100 Basic unit operations ....... 100 Commonly used options ..... 100 Evaluation of options ..... 100 Choice for Dewas .......... 101 Layout of Decentralized Waste Water Disposal Systems . 101 Time horizon for design.... 101 Broad features of decentralized waste water systems ... 102 Layout of Centralized Waste Water Disposal Systems 102 Time horizon for design ....... 102 Broad features of centralized waste water systems ... 102 Existing Situation .. 103 Climate and rainfall ........ 103 Natural drains .... 104 Secondary and tertiary drains ... 104 Flooding .. 104 Improvements in Storm Water Drainage System . 104 Roadside drains ...... 104 Primary drains .... 104 Design approach .... 105 Waste Water from Industries .. 105 Industries in Dewas .......... 105 Water supply and waste water disposal ..... 105 Waste Water from other Public Institutions .. 106 Impact on Environment ... 106 Project Components and Costs .. 106 Proposals for investment .....106 Operation and maintenance..... 107 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ...... 109 Floating Population ......... 109 Un-served and Under-served Areas ......... 109 Quantity of Solid Waste .. 109 Waste estimates ....... 109 Peak loads 110 Sources of bulk generation 110 Waste Characteristics 110 Available Equipment .... 110 Primary Collection in Residential Areas 111 Primary Collection in Commercial Areas .. 111 Secondary Storage . 112 iv

CHAPTER 9.

9.9 9.10 9.10.1 9.10.2 9.10.3 9.10.4 9.10.5 9.10.6 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.14.1 9.14.2 9.14.3 9.15 9.15.1 9.15.2 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.18.1 9.18.2 9.18.3 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.26.1 9.26.2 9.26.3 9.26.4 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8

Waste Lifting 112 Institutional Issues .......... 112 Organizational strength .... 112 Functional incompatibility . 112 Lack of community engagement 113 Split responsibility .... 113 Lack of monitoring system . 113 Interaction with civil society . 113 The Overriding Paradigm 113 Service Levels .. 114 Projected Waste Quantities . 116 Integrated Solid Waste Management System ...... 117 Primary storage ....... 117 Primary collection and secondary storage .. 118 Street sweeping and drain sweeping .. 121 Secondary Collection and Transport 121 Features .... 121 Transfer station and long haul . 121 Waste Treatment .. 123 Waste Disposal . 127 Primary Collection . 128 Primary storage .. 128 Home composting ........ 128 Primary collection ... 128 Secondary Storage .... 129 Secondary Transport .. 133 Treatment Plant 134 Sanitary Landfill .. 135 Capital Investment 137 Operation and Maintenance Cost . 142 Current Practices 143 Septage Management System .. 144 Treatment and safe disposal of septage . 144 User charges 144 Options for septage treatment 144 Septage disposal options 145 BROAD STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ..... 146 Time Horizon for Implementing City Sanitation Plan ..... 146 Phasing of Capital Investment Plan 147 Financial Plan for Implementation of City Sanitation Plan . 149 Implementation of Toilets .. 152 Safe Collection, Disposal and Treatment of Liquid Waste 153 Safe Disposal of Storm Water Drainage and Waste Water from Industries 153 and Institutions Implementation Strategy for SWM . 154 Formation of Sanitation Committees . 155 v

CHAPTER 10.

10.8.1 City level sanitation committee .......156 10.8.2 City sanitation cell 156 10.9 Strategy for Communication and Participation 156 10.9.1 Strategic communication with the staff of DMC 156 10.9.2 Community awareness and participation .. 156 10.9.3 Institutionalizing community-government interaction . 157 10.9.4 Community participation at city scale . 158 10.9.5 Communication with stakeholders 158 10.9.6 Management information system 158 10.9.7 Training of corporate and officials 158 10.9.8 Participatory monitoring 159 10.10 Journey So Far .. 159 10.11 Next Steps . 159 ANNEXURE: 1 ANNEXURE: 2 ANNEXURE: 3 ANNEXURE: 4 ANNEXURE: 5 ANNEXURE: 6 ANNEXURE: 7 ANNEXURE: 8 ANNEXURE: 9 THE APPROACH & METHODOLOGY . 161 ALCHEMY LAND USE AND INFRASTRUCTURE SURVEY . 166 QUESTIONNAIRE LAND USE CODES & SPACE UTILIZATION FACTORS .169 ASSUMPTIONS WATER CONSUMPTION FOR VARIOUS .171 LAND USE CATEGORIES ASSUMPTIONS SOLID WASTE PER CAPITA FOR VARIOUS 172 LAND USE CATEGORIES DEWAS CLEANLINESS SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY DMC IN 2008 . 173 RECONNAISANCE SURVEY ON SANITATION CARRIED OUT . 184 OUT BY USAID IN 2010 LAND USE AND INFRASTRUCTURE SURVEY CARRIED OUT . 193 BY ALCHEMY IN 2010 DETAILED SURVEY IN 10 SLUMS OF THE CITY BY ALCHEMY .. 210

ANNEXURE: 10 COVERAGE AND NEW DEMAND OF SEWERAGE IN WARDS .. 214 PARTIALLY SEWERED ANNEXURE: 11 RESULTS OF SURVEY OF WARDS FOR DEFINING OPTIONS .. 215 OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL ANNEXURE: 12 RESULTS OF SURVEY OF SLUMS FOR OPTIONS FOR WASTE .. 222 WATER DISPOSAL ANNEXURE: 13 PROPOSAL OF DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED WASTE . 224 WATER SYSTEMS ANNEXURE: 14 BROAD DETAILS OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS .. 226 (DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED) ANNEXURE: 15 PROJECTION OF DEMAND OF ROADSIDE DRAINS ... 228 ANNEXURE: 16 PHASED IMPLEMENTATION PLAN .. 229 vi

ANNEXURE: 17 DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN CAPEX . 233 ANNEXURE: 18 DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN O&M . 234 ANNEXURE: 19 DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS .. 235 ANNEXURE: 20 DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN FINANCIAL MODEL . 236 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Points scored by Dewas in the NUSP rating study .... 2 Table 2 Progress update ........ 5 Table 3 Layers in the preparation of base map ... 10 Table 4 Population projections tradeoff between infrastructure adequacy and cost 18 Table 5 Population growth trends as per Census .. 20 Table 6 Population projections used in different studies 21 Table 7 Population projections for 2011 using standard methods 22 Table 8 Ward-wise break-up of population from land use survey 22 Table 9 Population projections by statistical methods based on 2011 23 population derived from land use survey Table 10 Population projections by CAGR method based on 2011 population 23 derived from land use survey Table 11 Ward-wise growth potential table for the next three decades . 25 Table 12 Growth rates based on growth potential for the next three decades 27 Table 13 Projected ward level population 2011 to 2041 27 Table 14 Factors that influence population growth trends 28 Table 15 Summary of projected city level infrastructure demand 30 Table 16 Projected ward level infrastructure demand for 2011, 2021, 2031 and 2041 31 Table 17 Guidelines for preparation of city sanitation plan from national rating 75 scheme for sanitation Table 18 Effluent standards for domestic sewage . 77 Table 19 Estimate of households with no toilets.. 83 Table 20 Comparison of different types of toilets 84 Table 21 Estimate of public toilets . 86 Table 22 Requirement of community toilets in slums . 86 Table 23 Evaluation of waste water disposal options . Table 24 Existing sewerage infrastructure .. 92 94

Table 25 Coverage and new demand for sewerage in wards partially sewered 96 Table 26 Proposal of decentralized and centralized waste water systems . 98 Table 27 Summary of decentralized sewerage systems . 102 vii

Table 28 Summary of centralized sewerage systems 103 Table 29 Natural drains in Dewas. 104 Table 30 Sanitation components .. 106 Table 31 Broad estimate of operation and maintenance costs . 107 Table 32 MSW trip loads to the dump site .. 109 Table 33 Equipment available with DMC for MSW management .. 111 Table 34 Strength of MSW workforce at DMC 112 Table 35 Solid waste management service levels in Dewas 114 Table 36 Projected population and waste loads for the DMC area ...... 116 Table 37 Requirements for primary collection and home composting .. 131 Table 38 Metal container (4.5 ton capacity) requirements for secondary storage at CWDs . 132 Table 39 Dumper placer fleet requirements in year 2011 .. 133 Table 40 Preliminary SLF capacity calculations .. 136 Table 41 Equipment for primary collection and transport of MSW 138 Table 42 Cost eastimates for compost plant .. 141 Table 43 Cost estimates for sanitary landfill ...... 141 Table 44 Summary of CAPEX for MSW management in Dewas 142 Table 45 Approximate estimates of operation and maintenance costs of the MSW.. 143 management system in Dewas Table 46 Options for septage treatment and disposal 144 Table 47 Summary of proposals of phased implementation plan 148 Table 48 Summary of questions and responses in Dewas cleanliness survey, 2008 . 173 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Survey blocks (green line) and land use blocks (red line) .. 11 Figure 2 Location of Dewas City in Madhya Pradesh and map showing Dewas .. 15 Municipal Corporation boundary Figure 3 Land cover and water bodies . 16 Figure 4 Growth directions in the city 17

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ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATION BNP CAGR CSP CDD CDP DEWATS DFID DMC DPR FIRE (D) GOI GOMP IUSP MOUD MPUSP MSW NUSP O&M PPP QOL SWM TOR UK ULB USAID Bank Note Press Compound Annual Growth Rate City Sanitation Plan Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society City Development Plan Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System1 Department for International Development Dewas Municipal Corporation Detailed Project Report Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion (Debt) Government of India Government of Madhya Pradesh Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme Ministry of Urban Development Madhya Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor Municipal Solid Waste National Urban Sanitation Policy Operation and Maintenance Public Private Partnership Quality of Life Solid Waste Management Terms of Reference United Kingdom Urban Local Body United States Agency for International Development EXPANSION

DEWATS TM is a trademark owned by the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA).

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India (GoI), announced the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in December 2008. The NUSP seeks to address the gap in sanitation infrastructure and move Indian cities towards Total Sanitation through a systems driven approach. As part of the policy implementation, the Government of Madhya Pradesh has initiated the Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme (IUSP) for the State. As directed by the policy, cities are to prepare City Sanitation Plans, which should address all aspects of city sanitation. USAID FIRE (D) project has been providing technical assistance to Dewas Municipal Corporation in partnership with the Madhya Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (MPUSP) programme (a partnership between the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID), with the objective of delivering sustainable access to effective services by the urban poor. USAID FIRE (D) project has now extended the scope of its technical assistance to include preparation of a City Sanitation Plan for Dewas city. An Inception Report was submitted in the month of June with preliminary impressions of the sanitation status in the city based on stakeholder consultations and site visits. The Interim Report, Situation Analysis, which includes a detailed assessment of the sanitation status based on intensive field surveys carried out by the consulting team and a reconnaissance survey conducted by USAID FIRE (D), was submitted and discussed with Dewas city stakeholders in November 2010. The Draft City Sanitation Plan, presented here, comprises strategic proposals in line with GoIs NSUP to provide: (1) safe access to household sanitation; (2) disposal of household waste water; (3) waste water disposal at the community level; (4) waste water treatment and reuse; (5) storm water disposal; (6) collection, disposal and treatment of solid waste; (7) implementation plan for sanitation; and (8) financing plan for CSP.

1.2 The National Urban Sanitation Policy The overall goal of the National Urban Sanitation policy is to transform the status of sanitation in Indian towns and cities.
The specific goals are: Awareness generation and behavior change Achieving open defecation free cities Integrated citywide sanitation: o Reorienting institutions and mainstreaming sanitation o Sanitary and safe disposal o Proper operation and maintenance of all sanitary installations. Government of India recognizes that sanitation is a state subject and on-ground implementation and sustenance of public health and environmental outcomes require strong city level institutions and stakeholders. Each state and city, respectively, needs to formulate its own sanitation strategy in overall conformity with the national policy. In conformity with the National Urban Sanitation Policy, the Government of Madhya Pradesh has formulated the Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme for the State. The city of Dewas now seeks to prepare its City Sanitation Plan with the support of the USAID FIRE (D) project.

1.3 Objectives of the Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme (IUSP) The main objective of the GoMP Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme is to develop citywide sanitation plans and implement them by integrating all aspects of sanitation in an effective way. Dewas city, one of the 30 pilot cities in Madhya Pradesh, is to prepare a City Sanitation Plan. The programme implementation strategy is based on the following principles:
Develop sanitation facilities in the urban areas with special emphasis on slums, through active participation of the communities, especially women. Eradicate the practice of open defecation in the city by providing household toilets, community toilets and public toilets. Safe disposal of human excreta, solid and liquid waste, including institutionalizing and provisioning the implementation of policy guidelines of Government of India on Management of Municipal Solid Waste and Management of Biomedical Waste. Improve the quality of life of sanitation workers. Engage civil societies and communities (women in particular) in awareness generation, hygiene education, creation of sanitation infrastructure and its maintenance. Strengthen institutional setup and build the capacity of municipal staff for effective programme implementation and meeting the challenges of technology and management. Encourage Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) to ensure generation of funds and sustainable programme implementation. Ensure inter-departmental coordination and integration projects/schemes/programmes for their optimum use and outcome. of various relevant

1.4 National Rating Scheme for Sanitation In order to rapidly promote sanitation in urban areas of the country (as provided for in the National Urban Sanitation Policy and Goals, 2008), and to recognize excellent performance in this area, the Government of India has instituted an annual rating and award scheme for cities. The award (Nirmal Shahar Puraskar) is based on the premise that improved public health and environmental standards are two key outcomes that cities must seek to ensure for their citizens. In doing so, governments in states and urban areas will need to plan and implement holistic citywide sanitation plans, thereby putting in place processes that help achieve outputs pertaining to safe collection, confinement and disposal (including conveyance, treatment, and/or reuse without adverse impacts on the environment in and around the cities).
The first rating of cities with regard to their performance in sanitation improvements, based on a set of objective indicators of outputs, processes and outcomes, was carried out in 2010 to set the baseline ranking. Cities are expected to undertake an objective self-assessment from time to time. Dewas ranked 336 out of 423 with 26.78 points and falls in the red category in the baseline survey. The NUSP document on ratings states that those in the red category are Cities on the brink of public health and environmental emergency and needing immediate remedial action. The following table shows the break-up of points scored by Dewas for each indicator.
TABLE 1 POINTS SCORED BY DEWAS IN THE NUSP RATING STUDY

No INDICATORS 1 OUTPUT RELATED A No open defecation i. Access and use of toilets by urban poor and other un-served households (including slums)

Points* 50 4

Score given to Dewas 0.00

No INDICATORS Individual and community sanitation facilities ii. Access and use of toilets for floating and institutional populations - Adequate public sanitation facilities iii. No open defecation visible iv. Eliminate manual scavenging and provide personnel protection equipment to sanitary workers B Proportion of total human excreta generation that is safely collected (6 points for 100%) C Proportion of total black waste water generation that is treated and safely disposed off (6 points for 100%) D Proportion of total gray waste water generation that is treated and safely disposed off (3 points for 100%) E Proportion of treated water that is recycled and reused for nonpotable applications E Proportion of total storm water and drainage that is efficiently and safely managed (3 points for 100%) Proportion of total solid waste generation that is regularly F collected (4 points for 100%) G Proportion of total solid waste generation that is treated and safely disposed off (4 points for 100%) H City wastes cause no adverse impacts on surrounding areas outside city limits (5 points for 100%) TOTAL FOR OUTPUT RELATED 2 PROCESS RELATED** M&E systems are in place to track incidences of open A defecation B All sewerage systems in the city are working properly and there is no ex-filtration (not applicable for cities without sewerage systems) C Septage/sludge is regularly cleaned, safely transported and disposed after treatment, from on-site systems in the city (maximum 10 marks for cities without sewerage systems) D Underground and surface drainage systems are functioning and are well maintained E Solid waste management (collection and treatment) systems are efficient (and are in conformity with the MSW Rules, 2003) F There is clear institutional responsibility assigned; and there are documented operational systems in practice for B/C to E above G Sanctions for deviance on part of polluters and institutions is clearly laid out and followed in practice TOTAL 3 OUTCOME RELATED A Improved quality of drinking water in city compared to baseline B Improved water quality in water bodies in and around city compared to baseline C Reduction in water-borne disease incidence amongst city population compared to baseline

Points* 4

Score given to Dewas 0.97

4 4 6 6 3 3 3 4 4 5

2.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.75 0.00 0.00 12.72

30 4 5 0.00 0.00

6.00

4 5 4 3

2.00 1.17 0.00 0.00 9.17

20 7 7 6

4.9 0.00 0.00

No INDICATORS TOTAL GRAND TOTAL

Points*

Score given to Dewas 4.90 26.78

* The results for the above indicators will be reviewed every two to three years. Over time, more stringent indicators, e.g. no-urination or spitting in open/public spaces, etc., will be introduced as indicators. The weights accorded to each category and specific indicators will also be reviewed. ** In this context, bigger cities may consider instituting good practice systems that comply with ISO (International Standards Organization) and/or BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) process systems. Section 5.4 of this report provides a systematic assessment of the sanitation situation in Dewas against the NUSP Rating of Cities 2010 indicators. The draft CSP will propose remedial actions for ameliorating many of these deficiencies.

1.5 Objectives of the City Sanitation Plan in Dewas


The City Sanitation Plan is being prepared after carrying out a situation analysis and after a structured consultation with stakeholders. The Plan will attempt to achieve the following objectives: To adopt locally suitable methods, technology and materials, and provide necessary facilitation support to Dewas Municipal Corporation. To encourage community and private participation and define their role in creation and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure, thereby ensuring a sense of ownership. To ensure coordination between various departments working in the field of water supply and sanitation, such as departments of health, education, public health and engineering, industry, environment, transport, pollution control board, etc. To ensure an optimum use of funds allocated by the 12th and 13th Finance Commissions for solid waste management and other sanitation-related projects. To coordinate various externally aided projects for their optimum results. To promote novel ideas in mobilization of funds, including reforms in tax regime, public private partnerships, exploring the private market, user charges, beneficiary contribution, etc.

1.6 Overview of the Scope of Work The following are the broad tasks included in the scope of work; the current status is also mentioned:
Task 1 - Formation of City-level Implementation Committee/Cell A city-level committee consisting of government and private sector stakeholders is to be formed for the purpose of overseeing preparation and implementation of the City Sanitation Plan. It has been decided that the city technical advisory group already constituted for the preparation of a CDP under JNNURM may be involved as the implementation committee for the sanitation plan. Task 2 - Conduct 1st Consultation A first level consultation is envisaged to orient the city stakeholders on the objectives of the IUSP and NUSP, and on the process and methodology of preparing the City Sanitation Plan. This has been carried out in the form of individual meetings with key stakeholders in DMC at the start of this project. Task 3 - Reconnaissance Survey (to be carried out by a separate team of FIRE (D)-sponsored consultants).

A detailed reconnaissance survey has been conducted by a separate team appointed by USAID FIRE (D). This survey includes information on the following, which has been reviewed and used as part of the situation analysis: o Field Survey of Public Latrines in Wards and Slums o Field Survey of Surface Drains o Field Survey of Solid Waste Arrangements o Sample Survey of Industries o Sample Survey of Public Institutions (Health & Education) o Testing of Quality of Water and Waste Water. Task 4 - Preparation of Situation Analysis A ward-wise and slum-wise situation analysis report has been prepared after assessing existing secondary data, outputs of the reconnaissance survey, and additional surveys conducted as part of this assignment. The situational analysis report, presented here, details out existing household sanitation arrangements, public sanitary conveniences, waste water disposal, solid waste management and water supply. It highlights the deficiencies in sanitation facilities, which particularly affect women and the urban poor. The analysis also projects the future demand for sanitation services. Task 5 - Conduct 2nd Consultation A second consultation workshop will be held with the city implementation cell to present the findings of the situation analysis for feedback and suggestions Task 6 - Preparation of Draft City Sanitation Plan A draft city sanitation plan will be prepared incorporating assessment of strategies and technology options for safe collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of both solid and liquid wastes in the city. The analysis of options will include costs of capital investment, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and evaluation. Task 7 - Preparation of Implementation Plan
A strategic implementation plan (short-, medium- and long-term) and an immediate action plan (1-3 years) that will include a multi-year financial plan for implementing the City Sanitation Plan in a timebound manner will be prepared.

Task 8 - Conduct 3rd Consultation The draft City Sanitation Plan and implementation plan will be presented to the city-level implementation committee/cell. The recommendations of the committee and other stakeholders will be documented for their incorporation into the final version of the City Sanitation Plan. Task 9 - Final City Sanitation Plan The final version of the City Sanitation Plan will be prepared after appropriately addressing all comments and suggestions of the 3rd consultation meeting of the city-level sanitation committee/cell.

1.7 Progress Update


TABLE 2 PROGRESS UPDATE

No. Task Date 1 First consultation 30th April 2010 & reconnaissance survey

Remarks Meetings were held with city stakeholders and FIRE (D) team. A quick reconnaissance of the city was also carried out.
5

Detailed reconnaissance survey Orientation of field staff for land use survey Land use survey of the city Sample slum survey Review of DPRs Review of municipal finances and institutional structure Demand supply gap assessment Situation Analysis report Draft City Sanitation Plan

All major routes of the city were covered to understand growth patterns and extent of development. The old city areas were also covered. 11th May and Team of about 6 people oriented and sent for land 12th May 2010 use survey. 10th June 2010 Rapid land use survey completed. The preparation of base map on GIS and data entry of building attributes from the survey were also completed. Qualitative information captured in about 10 sample slums in various locations in the city. Preliminary technical review carried out. Preliminary review of the municipal finances of the last 5 years carried out and included in the report.

10th May 2010

5 6 7

25th June 2010 5th July 2010 21st June 2010

8 9 10

15th July 2010 July-November 2010 January 2011

Draft included in Situation Analysis report. Several iterations of draft prepared and reviewed by FIRE (D) team and submitted to DMC. Draft finalized and circulated to Dewas city, state and center stakeholders for review and comment.

1.8 Contents of the Interim Report Chapter 1 and 2 provide the background and the methodology for carrying out the situation analysis. The overall methodology of the assignment is included in ANNEXURE: 1.
Chapter 3 presents an overview of the city of Dewas. Chapter 4 provides detailed population projections based on various approaches and the assumptions for the projections considered for this assignment. This includes the distribution of projected population across different wards in the city. Chapter 5 provides the framework within which the situation analysis was carried out at various scales city level, ward level and neighborhood level2, including focus areas like slums. This includes an assessment of the institutional providers of infrastructure and analysis of the demand supply gap. Chapter 6 includes an assessment of institutional capacity and municipal finance. Chapter 7 gives broad strategies for addressing issues related to sanitation in the city. Chapter 8 considers options and provides a comprehensive plan and cost estimates for the disposal of human excreta, liquid wastes, and storm water. Chapter 9 analyzes appropriate and relevant options for integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management and develops approximate cost estimates.

A homogenous land use and built typology block is considered a neighborhood. The purpose of defining a neighborhood is to explore technology or management options for infrastructure service provision.

Chapter 10 provides a strategic implementation plan [short-, medium-, and long-term and an immediate action plan (1-3 years)], which includes institutional arrangements and a multi-year financial plan for implementing the City Sanitation Plan.

1.9 Acknowledgements The description and analysis of the sanitation situation in Dewas is based on the following three surveys:
(1) Dewas Cleanliness Survey, Dewas Municipal Corporation, 2008. (2) Reconnaissance Survey, Acute Consulting Services, USAID FIRE (D), 2010. (3) Rapid Land Use Survey, Alchemy Urban Systems (P) Ltd., USAID FIRE (D), 2010. The text of Chapters 1 through 6 has been prepared largely by Alchemy Urban Systems (P) Ltd., while Chapters 7 through 10, which are based on the previous chapters description and analysis of the sanitation situation, have been developed in a collaborative effort by the USAID FIRE (D) team, in association with outside consultants Acute Consulting Services, rapid ground surveys to support analysis of sanitation options; Shikha Shukla, social development specialist; Asit Nema, solid waste management; and Abhijit Bhaumik, financial planning. FIRE (D) wishes to place on record its deep appreciation for the efforts put in by these organizations and individuals in the process of preparing the City Sanitation Plan.

CHAPTER 2. APPROACH TO UNDERTAKING SITUATION ANALYSIS


This chapter explains the approach to the situation analysis. The output of the situation analysis using data from various sources appears in subsequent Chapters 3 through 6. The analysis of sanitation situation for Dewas city includes an assessment of how much waste is generated in the city and how the waste is handled. The extent of waste water and solid waste generated gives the demand for sanitation infrastructure. The amount of sewage and solid waste collected, transported, treated and disposed of safely gives the extent of supply of sanitation infrastructure.

It is understood that, as of now, supply systems are weak and inadequate and there is a huge deficiency gap. In addition to understanding the overall demand/supply mismatch, it becomes important to assess the spatial distribution of the mismatch. This assessment will enable the formulation of appropriate strategies, both at the micro and macro levels. Demand Estimation City Level at

Demand Estimation for Slums

Supply Assessment

Gap Assessment The assessment of demand and supply and the resulting mismatch has been carried out at city level, ward level, slum level and neighborhood level3. Assessment of the demand/supply gap at the disaggregate level can be done only if population figures can be disaggregated. This will require a spatial database and field assessments. This has been carried out by preparation of a detailed base map on GIS platform (as elaborated in Section 2.1) and a land use and infrastructure survey covering the entire geographical area of Dewas Municipal Corporation (refer Section 2.3). In addition, a survey of selected slums was carried out to get a qualitative understanding on access to sanitation in slums. Existing systems and deficiencies have been captured from the reconnaissance survey conducted by USAID FIRE (D), the infrastructure survey and consultations with DMC engineers.

A homogenous land use and built typology block is considered a neighborhood. In the context of this project, it is understood that the purpose of defining a neighborhood is to explore technology or management options for infrastructure service provision. To illustrate, it may be easier to organize waste segregation, or reuse of treated waste water, in one of the DDA colonies with more or less homogenous built typology and socio-economic status. If the area cannot be connected to the central system, alternate technologies or solutions can be explored at this level.

2.1 Preparation of Detailed Base Map A detailed base map was prepared for the city of Dewas using archived satellite images (0.6 m. resolution images from the Quick Bird satellite were interpreted online). Available maps were used to add layers of information to the base map. The base map contains the following layers of information on GIS.
TABLE 3 LAYERS IN THE PREPARATION OF BASE MAP

No. Layer 1 Building footprints 2 3 4 5 6 7 All roads Railway line Water bodies and drains Open spaces Land marks Administrative boundaries Proposed and existing water supply infrastructure Location of public toilets, septic tanks, solid waste bins, solid waste dumps, sewage cess pools, sewered areas Spot levels

Remarks Existing foot prints have been updated Existing roads have been updated Natural drains have been digitized from satellite data up to where they join River Kshipra Have been verified and updated Municipal Corporation, ward (new ward boundaries), zones, development authority, etc. These have been transferred from CAD drawing provided by client These have been transferred from CAD drawing provided by client

Data Type Polygon Centerline & polygon Line Polygon Polygon Point Polygon

Attribute ID, area Name, length, width, type Name, type Name, area Type of open space, area Name Name, area, Census data ID, sizes and other available data Name, ID, ward no., area, etc.

Lines, points

10

Point data

11

13

Sewerage proposals from DPR

These have been transferred from Water Supply DPR CAD drawing provided by client Sewer lines

Point data

Name, ID, elevation Name, ID

Diameter

2.2 Reconnaissance Survey


The outputs of the reconnaissance survey carried out by the USAID FIRE (D) have been used extensively in the qualitative assessment of demand and supply. The data, wherever possible, has also been attached to the GIS base map. A summary of the reconnaissance survey output has been included in Section 5.1.

2.3 Land Use and Infrastructure Survey A detailed land use and infrastructure survey has been carried out by Alchemy Urban Systems (P) Ltd. with the following objectives:
(1) To assess the existing land use pattern, built-up density4 in different areas and the urban form (primarily observation based).

4 Built-up density refers to the quantum of built-up area or floor space per unit of land. This is usually measured using indices like Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR).

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(2) To gather information on facilities available for sanitation (questionnaire based). (3) To provide a basis for estimating the current population at a disaggregate (sub-ward) level. (4) To obtain a sound understanding of the nature of development in a very detailed manner and thus provide insights for anticipating future growth patterns. The city was divided into several survey blocks5 based on identifiable road boundaries and ward boundaries. Each survey block was assigned a distinct code. In the beginning a ground survey was conducted in each survey block to identify building blocks6 with homogenous use and built typology. New developments and changes were also marked on the map. After the ground survey, the surveyors marked the boundaries of homogeneous built typologies as one building block on the base map provided to them. The building blocks have been marked in such a way that they dont overlap each other and have common boundaries. Effectively the entire area of Dewas falls under one or the other building block. Once the marking was done, each building block was numbered. Once the marking of building blocks was done, the land use typology, number of floors and building condition for each building block were marked. The approximate size of typical dwelling units in the block, ground coverage and occupancy rate7 of each building block were also assessed. This information was collected through a questionnaire provided to the surveyors. Apart from this, for each building block, information regarding existing sanitation facilities was also collected. Data regarding open spaces and water bodies falling within each survey block was also collected through visual observation. All the information was transferred to the GIS database.
FIGURE 1 SURVEY BLOCKS (GREEN LINE) & LAND USE BLOCKS (RED LINE)

A summary of the land use and infrastructure survey output has been included in Section ANNEXURE: 8. Refer ANNEXURE: 2 for questionnaires for land use and infrastructure survey.

2.4 Household Survey by DMC The Dewas Municipal Corporation also carried out a household survey of nearly 24,000 households. The data available online on GoMPs website was downloaded and analyzed. The output gives a general overview of the sanitation situation in the city.
A summary of the DMC Cleanliness Survey is included in Section ANNEXURE: 6.

2.5 Slum Surveys


During the land use and infrastructure survey, a separate questionnaire was prepared and used to capture information about slums. In each slum, a focus group discussion was held to collect information that relates to the slum as a whole. All the slum settlements in DMC were covered in the survey. In addition to the reconnaissance survey and the land use and infrastructure survey, which included all the slums of Dewas, a detailed assessment of about 10 slums was conducted to substantiate our
A survey block is defined as area surrounded by major roads on all sides. A building block, for the purpose of the survey, is taken as a contiguous area with buildings having similar characteristics in terms of their height and bulk, quality of construction, and nature of use. 7 Occupancy rate is the percentage of dwelling units that are occupied.
5 6

11

understanding on access to sanitation for the urban poor, including issues such as the need for awareness generation. Slums from both inner-city wards and peripheral areas were chosen for the study. The output from these assessments gives qualitative insights concerning the sanitation situation in slums as well as indications on plausible strategies. A summary of the slum survey output has been included in Section ANNEXURE: 9.

2.6 Disaggregating Population In order to come up with sanitation strategies, it is useful to know population at a disaggregate level (sub-ward level), particularly if decentralized (neighborhood level/campus level/etc.) sanitation solutions need to be developed. Census data is available only up to ward level. Therefore, Alchemy has developed an empirical method to estimate, approximately, the population at micro level. This method is explained below.
The method developed by Alchemy uses a detailed assessment of built-up area in a city as a useful proxy to estimate the current population as well as to provide indications on trends of development and population growth. The built-up areas of a city, which comprise homes, work places, shops, schools, etc., give insights into how many people live in, work in and visit different locations. (For example, 3,000 sq. ft. of space in a high-end residential colony may house 4 people and in a slum a similar built-up area may house 50 people). The methodology rests on understanding real estate spaces and the way the city functions. (A 100,000 sq. ft. mall may attract 25,000 people and a 100,000 sq. ft. open ground may attract more than a lakh of people on a festival day.) The accuracy of this method rests on accuracy of observation and questioning on three key parameters: 1. Occupancy rate how much of the built area in a location is occupied? 2. Size of a single unit in a complex of apartments, it is necessary to know the average size of one residential unit and, in a shopping complex, the average size of one shop. 3. Utilization of space household size/jobs per shop/visitors in a day/etc. The following are the steps adopted in carrying out population disaggregation: o A ground survey of the city is conducted to assess the various land use and built typology combinations in the city. To illustrate, residential areas alone may present five or six categories HIG bungalows, HIG apartments, MIG/LIG apartments, MIG row houses, slums, village like developments, etc. o A detailed base map is prepared for the city. Then blocks, bounded by roads on all sides, are defined. A detailed land use and infrastructure survey of the city is carried out. Here trained surveyors traverse around a block and capture the land use, number of floors, and building condition in that block. Having differentiated between various land uses in the block, the surveyors now undertake household surveys or unit surveys (in the case of non-residential land use) to determine the status of infrastructure. In addition to the infrastructure status, the surveyors enquire about the level of occupancy, unit size and family size in each land use block. (In the case of non-residential uses, say a shop, questions pertain to number of visitors and jobs.) o The number of residents in an area is calculated using the built-up area8, the household size and the occupancy rate in that location or in similar locations. To illustrate, it is possible to delineate the following land use typologies9 in a high

8 Built-up area is the area of buildings obtained from the satellite image interpretation multiplied by the average number of floors in the area. 9 This is not an exhaustive list.

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income area in a large Indian city as follows and estimate the residents, jobs and visitors therein.
No 1 2 Land Use Residential Residential Category HIG bungalows HIG bungalows converted to multiple dwelling units School Garden Big shops Possible Unit Area (sq. ft.) 2,500 to 3,000 1,200 to 1,500 No. of Floors 2 3 Jobs 2 1 Residents 4 4 Visitors 2 per week 2 per week

4 5 6

Institutional Open space Commercial

6,000 NIL 650

3 2.5

50 4 3

500 300 90

o The space utilized by residents, workers and visitors in each of the above typologies would vary. This is captured in a factor that has been termed as space utilization factor (SUF) and used to determine the number of jobs, residents and visitors in the city. (Refer to ANNEXURE: 1 for details on SUF.) o Before utilizing the built-up area, standard deductions are carried out to account for walls, common spaces, stairwells, etc. o Additionally, deductions based on the occupancy rate, exclusive to the location, are also applied. Net livable area is thus derived and used for calculation of population. o The residential population is then calibrated using Census figures through an iterative process of altering the standard deductions, occupancy rate and the space utilization factor for each land use sub-category. In case Census figures are too obsolete to be used, this iterative process may not give desired results. In the case of Dewas, initial iterations generated population figures which seemed to be on the higher side. These figures were discussed with professionals who know the city well. It emerged that the occupancy rates of built-up areas were lower than assumed earlier. The occupancy rates were modified, the SUF values were re-calibrated and further iterations were carried out to bring the estimates of current population more in line with the general understanding of decadal growth trends in the city.

2.7 Assessment of Demand and Supply The assessment of demand and supply for sanitation has been carried out both for the current scenario and for projected population up to 2041. In the current scenario, this report documents the actual sanitation situation in the following ways:
1. Factual information concerning various aspects of sanitation, as emerging from the surveys mentioned in Sections 2.2 to 2.5, is summarized and presented in Sections ANNEXURE: 6 to ANNEXURE: 9. This information is then compiled with respect to the NUSP indicators and conclusions are drawn in Section 5.4. 2. The above information is used to create ward-wise and slum-wise profiles for the whole city, which is presented in Volume II, a separate document. The information from surveys is also supplemented with demand estimates for waste water management and solid waste management generated from population projections.

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3. The demand for waste water management in the current situation is estimated on the basis of 135 lpcd supply at consumer end, which is likely to be realized after the ongoing JNNURM UIDSSMT water supply augmentation project is fully implemented and commissioned. 4. The assessment of supply (available sanitation facilities) has been done on a quantitative as well as qualitative basis. For example, the approximate quantitative shortage of toilet seats in slums is considered. In addition, the known preference for individual toilet vs. community toilet, as emerging from the various surveys, is also considered. Then a judgment is made as to what can be considered the demand/supply gap. To take another example, a neighborhood may have a local sewer network leading to a septic tank. If the sewer network is broken and dysfunctional, then a judgment can be made as to whether it is possible to quantify the extent to which the existing system caters to the demand.

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CHAPTER 3. AN INTRODUCTION TO DEWAS


3.1 Location and Key Characteristics

FIGURE 2 LOCATION OF DEWAS CITY IN MADHYA PRADESH AND MAP SHOWING DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION BOUNDARY

Dewas is an ancient town situated on the Malwa Plateau in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is at a distance of 153 km. from Bhopal, the capital city, and 35 km. from Indore. Dewas had a population of 2.31 lakhs as per the Census 2001, with about 43,987 households. The population of Dewas grew at about 40% during the 1991-2001 decade. About 48% of the population (about 111,491 people) live in slums10. The total area under the jurisdiction of the Dewas Municipal Corporation is 100 sq. km., out of which about 45 sq. km. is actually developed. The city is bifurcated by the Agra Bombay highway (NH 3) and the Ratlam-Indore railway line, along a northeast, southwest axis. The Ujjain highway is an important road that runs along a northwest, southeast axis. About seven different drainage channels drain into the Kshipra River to the south of the city. The Chamunda Mataki Tekri is an important temple for the region. The major economic driver is the industries situated in the southwest part of the city. These include manufacturing and processing of textiles, chemicals, agro-produce and others. The Bank Note Press, a central government organization for printing Indian currency, is also located in Dewas.

10 In the Dewas context, declared slums include village settlements on the periphery, where slum-like conditions prevail.

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3.2 Physical Characteristics


3.2.1 Topography The town is located on the Dewas Plateau, a part of the Malwa Plateau. Apart from the Chamunda Hill located in the heart of the town, the terrain is flat. Lakander, Chhoti Kali-Sindh and Kshipra Rivers drain the Dewas Plateau. The topography of the town drains naturally in three directionsnorthwest, northeast and southwestresulting in two ridge lines, which divide the area into three different basins. The developed area of the town is situated on the southern slope of Chamunda Hill. The town thus has general drainage on the southern side.

FIGURE 3 LAND COVER AND WATER BODIES

3.2.2

Climate

The Dewas region has a moderate climate with high temperatures during summer. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 30 C to 45 C and the mean minimum from 12 C to 18 C. The hottest months are April to June and the coolest December to February. 3.2.3 Rainfall

The normal rainfall in the area is around 1,380 mm. and maximum rainfall is observed from July to August. June and October receive intermittent rains.

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3.3 Demography and Growth Patterns There are 45 electoral wards in the municipal area, which covers about 100 sq. km.
In the period from 1971 to 2001, Dewas witnessed high population growth of the municipal area due to various factors. However, the growth rate seems to have stabilized, probably due to the fact that there is no major economic driver and also the inadequacy of infrastructure. Moreover, it is in close proximity to Indore, which is the business capital of Madhya Pradesh and offers greater opportunities than Dewas. One of the more important issues, which contributes to the reduction in growth rate, is the paucity of water. However, this scenario may change, when the new water supply scheme is commissioned and proves successful. The city is growing northwest towards Ujjain and southwest towards Indore as indicated by the arrows and circles in the adjoining map.
FIGURE 4 GROWTH DIRECTIONS IN THE CITY

The city has about 2.75 lakh people today. A detailed analysis of population growth and spatial distribution of population within the city are presented in Chapter 4.

34,577

51,545

83,465

164,360

231,670

CHART 1 TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH RATE

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CHAPTER 4. POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS


4.1 Objectives of Projecting Population
In the context of the City Sanitation Plan, population estimation and projection are being carried out with the following objectives: To obtain a realistic estimate of the total current population in the city and the spatial distribution of the same through empirical methods. To take informed strategic decisions on provision of sanitation infrastructure and services for the city as a whole and for different parts of the city. In taking strategic decisions, to strive for a reasonable balance between the risks of adequacy and viability in the future.

4.2 Population Projections and the Tradeoff Between Infrastructure Adequacy and Cost The following table attempts to capture the strategic dimension of the tradeoff between infrastructure adequacy and cost. The table assumes that actual population growth is the only volatile variable and all other variables are stable.
TABLE 4 POPULATION PROJECTIONS TRADEOFF BETWEEN INFRASTRUCTURE ADEQUACY AND COST

No 1

Approach to population projection and infrastructure provision Conservative Low growth rates Low levels of infrastructure provision Low capital investment Development needs to be effectively regulated and controlled Liberal High growth rates High levels of infrastructure provision High capital investment Development can be promoted actively

Actual population growth Low growth rate (as projected)

Impact on infrastructure adequacy, cost and credibility of decision makers Infrastructure adequate Cost under control Credit for good planning High growth rate Infrastructure inadequate (higher than Ad hoc capital investments projected) O&M costs out of control Criticism for poor planning Low growth rate (lower than projected) Infrastructure has excess capacity Low off-take Cost recovery difficult Criticism for excess expenditure Infrastructure adequate Cost under control Credit for good planning Infrastructure has excess capacity Low off-take Cost recovery difficult Criticism for excess expenditure Infrastructure adequate Cost under control Credit for visionary planning

High growth rate (as projected) Low growth rate (as projected)

Conservative on population projection, liberal on infrastructure planning Low growth rates High levels of infrastructure provision High capital investment Development can be promoted actively

High growth rate (higher than projected)

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No 4

Approach to population projection and infrastructure provision Liberal on population projection, conservative on infrastructure planning High growth rates Low levels of infrastructure provision Low capital investment Development needs to be effectively regulated Liberal on population projection, phased infrastructure planning High growth rates Phased infrastructure provision in modules Controlled capital investment Development can be promoted in tandem with infrastructure provision: o Infrastructure provision can be used to encourage contiguous and compact urban development

Actual population growth Low growth rate (lower than projected) High growth rate (as projected)

Impact on infrastructure adequacy, cost and credibility of decision makers Infrastructure adequate Cost under control Infrastructure inadequate Ad hoc capital investments required for capacity augmentation O&M costs out of control Criticism for poor planning Infrastructure adequate Cost controlled through phasing: o Later phases of implementation held in abeyance Credit for good planning Infrastructure adequate Capital cost controlled through phased investment O&M costs also under control Credit for good planning

Low growth rate (lower than projected)

High growth rate (as projected)

4.3 Limitations of Demographic Data for Dewas In the post-independence period, Dewass growth rates have fluctuated widely. In 1961, Dewas municipality had a population of 34,577. The Government of Indias industrialization initiatives in backward regions resulted in a high influx of population, especially between 1971-81 (61.93%) and 1981-91 (96.93%). In the year 1965 the area of Dewas Municipality was 17.35 sq. km. and in the year 1983, when it became a municipal corporation, the jurisdiction was extended to cover 100.22 sq. km. (Source: Dewas Development Plan 2011, prepared in 2001 by the Town Planning Department.)
The National Urban Database Indicators document on Dewas city states that the area of municipal jurisdiction has increased from 90.82 sq. km. to 100.22 sq. km. between 2001 and 2004 and the total population is 231,672 as per the Census 2001. It is unclear as to when the change in area actually happened. When the 2001 Development Plan area and the current jurisdiction maps are compared, it is seen that Rajoda Village in the southeastern part of the city has been excluded and wards 44 and 45 (including Nagda Village) have been added and ward boundaries have also been redefined in the recent maps. Time series population data on the entire area under DMC is not available and inconsistent ward boundaries make it very difficult to analyze the available data in a time series.

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4.4 Population Growth in Dewas from 1961 to 2001


TABLE 5 POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS AS PER CENSUS

No. 1 2 3 4 5

Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001

Population 34,577 51,545 83,465 164,364 231,672

Growth Rate % 49 62 97 41

4.5 Projections Used in Other Studies


A few studies have been carried out for Dewas city to date that include population projections, such as land use planning (Development Plan), as well as for infrastructure planning (DPRs for water supply, sewerage and solid waste management). As evident from the table below, the projections vary widely.

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TABLE 6 POPULATION PROJECTIONS USED IN DIFFERENT STUDIES

Water Supply DPR Method 2010 2011 2020 2021 2025 2030 2036 2040 Mean of Arithmetic and Incremental Increase Methods Population 265,000 325,000 410,000

Sewerage DPR Method Graphical Method Population 605,000 785,000 -

Solid Waste DPR Method Method of calculation is not specified in the DPR Population 310,000 420,000 -

Development Plan Method Method not specified Population 400,000 -

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4.6 Estimation of Current Population (2010) The last available official population figures for Dewas are those from the Census 2001. The field surveys for the Census 2011 have been completed in Dewas and the population figures are currently being finalized. As such these figures have not been officially announced.
4.6.1 2011 population by projection As an initial exercise, the population for 2011 was projected from the Census figures for the period 1961 to 2001 using standard statistical methods mentioned in table 6. The results are tabulated below.
TABLE 7 POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR 2011 USING STANDARD METHODS

Projection Method Arithmetic Progression Geometrical Progression Incremental Increase Power (Graphical) Exponential Natural Increase (with zero net migration) Average of the above

Projected Population for 2011 280,946 368,202 306,786 241,468 395,721 271,258 310,730

4.6.2 Current population estimate from land use survey As described previously in Sections 2.3 and 2.6, a land use and infrastructure survey was carried out in Dewas as part of this study. One of the purposes of this survey is to estimate the current population at disaggregate (sub-ward) level. Initial iterations using this methodology generated population figures, which seemed to be on the higher side. These figures were discussed with professionals who know the city well. It emerged that the occupancy rates of built-up areas were lower than assumed earlier. Further iterations were carried out to bring the estimates of current population more in line with the general understanding of recent growth trends in the city. The total population for 2010 derived from this iterative process is 275,903.
TABLE 8: WARD-WISE BREAK UP OF POPULATION FROM LAND USE SURVEY

Ward No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Population 2010 from Land Use Survey 5,193 10,983 3,799 6,043 5,713 8,560 13,190 5,912 8,167 7,538 5,296 11,496 7,239 5,240 6,045 8,258 10,701 4,903 10,591

Ward No. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Population 2010 from Land Use Survey 4,229 4,570 5,286 4,604 4,818 7,075 4,435 5,111 4,796 4,245 3,687 3,046 3,959 5,223 6,467 4,036 5,679 6,003 7,833
22

20 21 22 23

5,262 5,535 6,087 4,230

43 44 45 Total

4,964 4,997 4,859 275,903

4.7 Population Projection for 2011 to 2041 Taking the population in 2010 as 275,903, the CAGR from 2001 (population 231,672) to 2010 works out to 1.9604%. Using this CAGR, the population for 2011 was projected as 281,312. The population for 2011 is calculated to bring the projections in line with the Census years.
Subsequently, the population for 2021, 2031 and 2041 was projected using the standard statistical methods as shown in the table below.
TABLE 9: POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY STATISTICAL METHODS BASED ON 2011 POPULATION DERIVED FROM LAND USE SURVEY

No. Year 1 2 3 4 2011 2021 2031 2041

Exponential Log Geometrical Incremental Power Arithmetic Method (Graphical) Increase Progression Progression Method Method Method Method 281,312 281,312 281,312 281,312 281,312 281,312 330,659 394,105 354,456 307,568 511,241 275,099 380,006 552,122 451,398 362,721 797,707 293,328 429,353 773,497 572,138 419,524 1,244,689 309,408

The above figures were reviewed and it was felt that it will be realistic to expect the growth rate in Dewas to stabilize at about 2% CAGR for the forthcoming decade (2011-2021) and witness a marginal increase to 2.25% CAGR for the next two decades (2021-2031 and 2031-2041). Opining that population growth is likely to have slowed over the past decade and with no significant new development foreseen for Dewas to trigger an acceleration in population growth in the coming decades, these assumptions appear to reflect reality. The projected population thus derived is presented in the table below.
TABLE 10 POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY CAGR METHOD BASED ON 2011 POPULATION DERIVED FROM LAND USE SURVEY

YEAR 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

CAGR 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%

Population 281,312 286,938 292,677 298,530 304,501 310,591 316,803 323,139 329,602 336,194 342,917

YEAR 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031

CAGR 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25%

Population 342,917 350,633 358,522 366,589 374,837 383,271 391,895 400,712 409,728 418,947 428,374

YEAR 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041

CAGR 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25% 2.25%

Population 428,374 438,012 447,867 457,944 468,248 478,784 489,556 500,571 511,834 523,350 535,126

In summary: Year 2011 2021 2031 2041

Population
281,312 342,917 428,374 535,126

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4.8 Ward-wise Distribution of Future Population Ward level distribution of the projected population has been carried out by varying growth rates of wards based on their projected development potential. Inner city wards are saturated and only major changes in building and zoning regulations will spur growth and development of these wards. Considering no such changes, growth rates may increase with increasing distance from the city center.
The wards of the city have been divided into four types core area, inner ring, outer ring and peripheral wards. Each of the 45 wards is assigned a growth rate based on its projected potential to grow in the coming decades. Some assumptions are made on the urban development potential of the city to decide ward-wise growth rates. Based on the growth potential of each ward, the projected population is distributed.
Dewas_waterbodies.shp Kshipra River Wards.shp Railwayroads.shp Ward 1.shp Core Inner Ring Outer Ring Periphery
11

4 3

27 26 25 22 23

28 29 2

9 10 19

21

30 24 34 33 32 31 20 35 36 37 41 40 38 39

18

17 12 16 42

43 14 13 15

44

45

Kshipra River
W S E

Considering the present development trends and the anticipated future growth, the expected growth potential for the 45 wards in the next three decades has been calibrated. The projected ward-wise growth potential table for the next three decades is given below.

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TABLE 11 WARD-WISE GROWTH POTENTIAL TABLE FOR THE NEXT THREE DECADES

Ward No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Growth Potential 2011-21 Low High Low Low Medium High High High High High Low High High Low Medium Medium High Medium High Medium Medium Medium Medium Low Medium Medium Low Low Low Low Medium

Growth Potential 2021-31 Low High Low Low High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High Low High High Medium High Medium Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low

Growth Potential 2031-41 Medium High Low Low Medium Medium Medium Low Low Low Medium Low High Medium High Low Low Medium Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
25

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Medium Medium Low Low Low Medium High Medium Medium High Low Low Low Low

Low Low Low Low Low Low High Medium Low Low Medium Low Low Low

Low Low Low Low Low Low High Medium Low Low Medium Medium Low Low

The following are map representations based on the above table.

Growth Potential 2011 to 2021

Growth Potential 2021 to 2031

Growth Potential 2031 TO 2041


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To calibrate growth rate across wards, it was first assumed that the high growth potential wards would grow 50% faster than the medium potential wards and the low potential wards half as fast. Based on the above assumption, the growth rates for the three types of wards were derived through an iterative process, such that the total population for the decadal years from 2021 to 2041 matched with the total projected population. The decadal growth, thus derived for wards with different growth potentials, is given in table 12 and the ward level population projected for the following three decades in table 13.
TABLE 12 GROWTH RATES BASED ON GROWTH POTENTIAL FOR THE NEXT THREE DECADES

Growth Potential Low Medium High

Weightage 0.5x 1.0x 1.5x x

2011-2021 10.5 21.0 31.5 21.0315

Decadal Growth Rates 2021-2031 13.7 27.5 41.2 27.4895

2031-2041 16.5 33.0 49.5 32.967

TABLE 13 PROJECTED WARD LEVEL POPULATION 2011 TO 2041 Ward No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 2011 5,295 11,198 3,873 6,161 5,825 8,728 13,449 6,028 8,327 7,686 5,400 11,721 7,381 5,343 6,164 8,420 10,911 4,999 10,799 5,365 5,644 6,206 4,313 4,312 4,660 5,390 4,694 4,912 7,214 4,522 5,211 4,890 4,328 3,759 3,106 Population 2021 5,852 14,731 4,281 6,809 7,050 11,481 17,691 7,930 10,954 10,110 5,968 15,419 9,709 5,905 7,460 10,191 14,353 6,051 14,205 6,494 6,830 7,512 5,220 4,765 5,640 6,523 5,188 5,429 7,972 4,997 6,307 5,918 5,239 4,155 3,432 2031 6,656 20,805 4,869 7,745 9,957 16,215 24,986 10,109 13,965 12,890 7,608 19,658 13,713 6,716 10,536 14,393 18,298 8,545 18,110 7,386 7,769 8,544 5,937 5,420 6,415 7,420 5,901 6,175 9,068 5,684 7,174 6,732 5,959 4,726 3,904 2041 8,850 31,094 5,672 9,022 13,240 21,561 33,223 11,776 16,267 15,014 10,116 22,898 20,494 8,930 15,746 16,765 21,315 11,363 21,095 8,604 9,050 9,952 6,916 6,314 7,472 8,643 6,874 7,193 10,563 6,621 8,357 7,842 6,941 5,505 4,548

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Ward No. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Total

2011 4,037 5,325 6,594 4,115 5,790 6,121 7,987 5,061 5,095 4,954 281,312

Population 2021 2031 4,461 5,074 6,445 7,331 8,674 12,251 4,981 6,350 7,008 7,971 8,052 9,158 8,826 11,253 5,594 6,362 5,631 6,405 5,475 6,228 342,917 428,374

2041 5,911 8,540 18,309 8,443 9,285 10,668 14,962 8,460 7,460 7,254 535,126

4.9 Limitations of Population Projection at City and Ward Levels While the CSP team has spared no effort in examining the dynamics of population at city and ward level in Dewas, it must be placed on record that population projection is not an exact science. There are serious limitations of data availability in the Indian context. Therefore, the projections made are based on many assumptions.
4.9.1 Factors that can affect city level population and its spatial distribution

Change in population in an area over time primarily consists of two components: 1. Natural change due to birth and death; the net change is total births minus total deaths. 2. Migration. The net change is total in-migration minus total out-migration. In any city, inmigration and out-migration happen simultaneously and continuously. The net migration is usually captured in the Census figures. In fast growing cities and their surrounding regions, migration phenomena can change rapidly in very short periods of time. When the population of cities is measured periodically, one of the factors that results in changes, other than the above two factors, is change in the delineation of the geographical jurisdiction for which the population is being measured. The statistical methods used for population projections serve only one purpose to capture a trend. The actual trend could be influenced by any of several factors as explained in the table below.
TABLE 14 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS

No. 1 2 3 4

Factor Fertility rates Mortality rate Change boundaries Economic development in

Impact on Population Higher the birth rate, higher the growth rate Higher the death rate, lower the growth rate Inclusion of new areas within the city boundaries usually results in a higher population for the city and vice versa Economic growth brings in-migration and vice versa

Case of Dewas Nothing exceptional anticipated in Dewas Nothing exceptional anticipated in Dewas Please see Section 4.3 on Limitations of demographic data for Dewas While there is no conclusive and reliable quantitative evidence for the relation

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No. 5

Factor Quality of life (QOL)

Impact on Population Quality of life is a resultant of many different factors. However, in the Indian context, availability of water, roads, power, education & health facilities and sanitation (in that order usually) are critical determinants of the perceived quality of life. All other factors remaining the same, when QOL improves, in-migration increases and when QOL deteriorates, in-migration decreases and out-migration increases.

Real estate market operations

Government actions

This factor is often overlooked. Largescale real estate developments such as new townships, which have the required scale to implement their own infrastructure solutions effectively, can attract new population. It can be argued that this does not put a load on municipal systems. However, experience shows that eventually the load comes on the municipal system. Illustrative examples: Changes in policies that affect location of industries for example, providing incentives for industries in small towns can increase in-migration. Investments made by government for development or even for administrative purposes for example, setting up a logistics hub can increase in-migration. Change of jurisdiction for example, delineation of a metropolitan area with a development agenda can promote in-migration.

Case of Dewas between economy, quality of life and population in Dewas, the following observations are important: During 1961-71 and 1971-81, it appears that new economic activities resulted in in-migration. During 1981-91, it appears that a significant portion of the population increase is due to inclusion of new areas within municipal boundaries. However, it may be noted that even during this period, in-migration seems to have been significant. During 1991-2001, 15% of total growth of 41% was contributed by net migration (in-migration minus outmigration). Quality of life is a critical issue in Dewas. Of the many determinants of QOL, availability of water and sanitation is one of the most important. If the water and sanitation situation should improve significantly, inmigration to Dewas can rapidly increase. In the case of Dewas, no such activity is happening within municipal boundaries. However, such developments are coming up on the Indore-Dewas road. It is quite likely that Dewas eventually will start functioning as a part of the metropolitan region of Indore, particularly if there is significant economic growth in Indore. There are no such major initiatives on the horizon for Dewas, to the best of the CSP teams knowledge.

4.9.2 Illustrative list of situations that can alter population dynamics Situation Impact Water supply and social infrastructure in Dewas People who currently stay at Indore and work in improve substantially Dewas will shift to Dewas The bus system in Indore is extended to Dewas Dewas will become a suburb of Indore. More and quality of life improves in Dewas people will live in Dewas and work in Indore Major residential townships come up along the Dewas will start being treated as an extension Indore-Dewas road, creating a critical mass of of Indore and the town itself will see population urban population growth
29

4.10 Projections of Water Demand and Sewage Generation As per recommendations of Section 2.2.8.3 of the CPHEEO Manual, ward level water demand and sewage generation has been projected considering 135 lpcd for residential and non-residential requirements. This figure includes retail, non-domestic consumption such as commercial development, but does not include non-residential bulk consumers like large-scale industries, industrial estates, large institutions, etc. It also doesn't include UFW (Unaccounted For Water). It is assumed that end of pipe consumption is 135 lpcd. Eighty percent of this quantity is taken as sewage generation. Solid waste generation is taken as 450 gm. per capita as prescribed by CPHEEO.
TABLE 15: SUMMARY OF PROJECTED CITY LEVEL INFRASTRUCTURE DEMAND

2011 Population Water Demand at Consumer End (MLD) Sewage Generation (MLD) Solid Waste Generation (Metric Tonne) 281,312 37.98 30.38 126.59

2021 342,917 46.29 37.04 154.31

2031 428,374 57.83 46.26 192.77

2041 535,126 72.24 57.79 240.81

30

TABLE 16: PROJECTED WARD LEVEL INFRASTRUCTURE DEMAND FOR 2011, 2021, 2031 AND 2041 2011 Ward No. Popln. 2011 Water Dem. (MLD) Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2021 Water Dem. (MLD) 2021 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2031 Water Dem. (MLD) 2031 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2041 Water Dem. (MLD) 2041 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

5,295 11,198 3,873 6,161 5,825 8,728 13,449 6,028 8,327 7,686 5,400 11,721 7,381 5,343 6,164 8,420 10,911 4,999

0.71 1.51 0.52 0.83 0.79 1.18 1.82 0.81 1.12 1.04 0.73 1.58 1.00 0.72 0.83 1.14 1.47 0.67

0.57 1.21 0.42 0.67 0.63 0.94 1.45 0.65 0.90 0.83 0.58 1.27 0.80 0.58 0.67 0.91 1.18 0.54

2.38 5.04 1.74 2.77 2.62 3.93 6.05 2.71 3.75 3.46 2.43 5.27 3.32 2.40 2.77 3.79 4.91 2.25

5,852 14,731 4,281 6,809 7,050 11,481 17,691 7,930 10,954 10,110 5,968 15,419 9,709 5,905 7,460 10,191 14,353 6,051

0.79 1.99 0.58 0.92 0.95 1.55 2.39 1.07 1.48 1.36 0.81 2.08 1.31 0.80 1.01 1.38 1.94 0.82

0.63 1.59 0.46 0.74 0.76 1.24 1.91 0.86 1.18 1.09 0.64 1.67 1.05 0.64 0.81 1.10 1.55 0.65

2.63 6.63 1.93 3.06 3.17 5.17 7.96 3.57 4.93 4.55 2.69 6.94 4.37 2.66 3.36 4.59 6.46 2.72

6,656 20,805 4,869 7,745 9,957 16,215 24,986 10,109 13,965 12,890 7,608 19,658 13,713 6,716 10,536 14,393 18,298 8,545

0.90 2.81 0.66 1.05 1.34 2.19 3.37 1.36 1.89 1.74 1.03 2.65 1.85 0.91 1.42 1.94 2.47 1.15

0.72 2.25 0.53 0.84 1.08 1.75 2.70 1.09 1.51 1.39 0.82 2.12 1.48 0.73 1.14 1.55 1.98 0.92

3.00 9.36 2.19 3.49 4.48 7.30 11.24 4.55 6.28 5.80 3.42 8.85 6.17 3.02 4.74 6.48 8.23 3.85

8,850 31,09 4 5,672 9,022 13,24 0 21,56 1 33,22 3 11,77 6 16,26 7 15,01 4 10,11 6 22,89 8 20,49 4 8,930 15,74 6 16,76 5 21,31 5 11,36

1.19 4.20 0.77 1.22 1.79 2.91 4.49 1.59 2.20 2.03 1.37 3.09 2.77 1.21 2.13 2.26 2.88 1.53

0.96 3.36 0.61 0.97 1.43 2.33 3.59 1.27 1.76 1.62 1.09 2.47 2.21 0.96 1.70 1.81 2.30 1.23

3.98 13.99 2.55 4.06 5.96 9.70 14.95 5.30 7.32 6.76 4.55 10.30 9.22 4.02 7.09 7.54 9.59 5.11

31

2011 Ward No. Popln. 2011 Water Dem. (MLD) Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2021 Water Dem. (MLD)

2021 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2031 Water Dem. (MLD)

2031 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2041 Water Dem. (MLD)

2041 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

10,799 5,365 5,644 6,206 4,313 4,312 4,660 5,390 4,694 4,912 7,214 4,522 5,211 4,890 4,328 3,759 3,106 4,037 5,325 6,594 4,115 5,790 6,121

1.46 0.72 0.76 0.84 0.58 0.58 0.63 0.73 0.63 0.66 0.97 0.61 0.70 0.66 0.58 0.51 0.42 0.54 0.72 0.89 0.56 0.78 0.83

1.17 0.58 0.61 0.67 0.47 0.47 0.50 0.58 0.51 0.53 0.78 0.49 0.56 0.53 0.47 0.41 0.34 0.44 0.58 0.71 0.44 0.63 0.66

4.86 2.41 2.54 2.79 1.94 1.94 2.10 2.43 2.11 2.21 3.25 2.03 2.35 2.20 1.95 1.69 1.40 1.82 2.40 2.97 1.85 2.61 2.75

14,205 6,494 6,830 7,512 5,220 4,765 5,640 6,523 5,188 5,429 7,972 4,997 6,307 5,918 5,239 4,155 3,432 4,461 6,445 8,674 4,981 7,008 8,052

1.92 0.88 0.92 1.01 0.70 0.64 0.76 0.88 0.70 0.73 1.08 0.67 0.85 0.80 0.71 0.56 0.46 0.60 0.87 1.17 0.67 0.95 1.09

1.53 0.70 0.74 0.81 0.56 0.51 0.61 0.70 0.56 0.59 0.86 0.54 0.68 0.64 0.57 0.45 0.37 0.48 0.70 0.94 0.54 0.76 0.87

6.39 2.92 3.07 3.38 2.35 2.14 2.54 2.94 2.33 2.44 3.59 2.25 2.84 2.66 2.36 1.87 1.54 2.01 2.90 3.90 2.24 3.15 3.62

18,110 7,386 7,769 8,544 5,937 5,420 6,415 7,420 5,901 6,175 9,068 5,684 7,174 6,732 5,959 4,726 3,904 5,074 7,331 12,251 6,350 7,971 9,158

2.44 1.00 1.05 1.15 0.80 0.73 0.87 1.00 0.80 0.83 1.22 0.77 0.97 0.91 0.80 0.64 0.53 0.69 0.99 1.65 0.86 1.08 1.24

1.96 0.80 0.84 0.92 0.64 0.59 0.69 0.80 0.64 0.67 0.98 0.61 0.77 0.73 0.64 0.51 0.42 0.55 0.79 1.32 0.69 0.86 0.99

8.15 3.32 3.50 3.84 2.67 2.44 2.89 3.34 2.66 2.78 4.08 2.56 3.23 3.03 2.68 2.13 1.76 2.28 3.30 5.51 2.86 3.59 4.12

3 21,09 5 8,604 9,050 9,952 6,916 6,314 7,472 8,643 6,874 7,193 10,56 3 6,621 8,357 7,842 6,941 5,505 4,548 5,911 8,540 18,30 9 8,443 9,285 10,66

2.85 1.16 1.22 1.34 0.93 0.85 1.01 1.17 0.93 0.97 1.43 0.89 1.13 1.06 0.94 0.74 0.61 0.80 1.15 2.47 1.14 1.25 1.44

2.28 0.93 0.98 1.07 0.75 0.68 0.81 0.93 0.74 0.78 1.14 0.72 0.90 0.85 0.75 0.59 0.49 0.64 0.92 1.98 0.91 1.00 1.15

9.49 3.87 4.07 4.48 3.11 2.84 3.36 3.89 3.09 3.24 4.75 2.98 3.76 3.53 3.12 2.48 2.05 2.66 3.84 8.24 3.80 4.18 4.80

32

2011 Ward No. Popln. 2011 Water Dem. (MLD) Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2021 Water Dem. (MLD)

2021 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2031 Water Dem. (MLD)

2031 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne) Popln. 2041 Water Dem. (MLD)

2041 Sewage Gen. (MLD) Solid Waste Gen. (Metric Tonne)

42 43 44 45

7,987 5,061 5,095 4,954 281,312

1.08 0.68 0.69 0.67 37.98

0.86 0.55 0.55 0.54 30.38

3.59 2.28 2.29 2.23 126.59

8,826 5,594 5,631 5,475 342,917

1.19 0.76 0.76 0.74 46.29

0.95 0.60 0.61 0.59 37.04

3.97 2.52 2.53 2.46 154.31

11,253 6,362 6,405 6,228 428,374

1.52 0.86 0.86 0.84 57.83

1.22 0.69 0.69 0.67 46.26

5.06 2.86 2.88 2.80 192.77

8 14,96 2 8,460 7,460 7,254 535,1 26

2.02 1.14 1.01 0.98 72.24

1.62 0.91 0.81 0.78 57.79

6.73 3.81 3.36 3.26 240.81

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CHAPTER 5.

SANITATION SITUATION ANALYSIS

The following section provides a summary description of the status of sanitation in Dewas, as emerging from the following surveys: 1. Dewas Cleanliness Survey, DMC, 2008 2. Reconnaissance Survey (on sanitation), USAID FIRE (D), 2010 3. Land Use and Infrastructure Survey in Non-slum Areas, Alchemy, 2010, and Land Use and Infrastructure Survey in Slum Areas, Alchemy, 2010. In addition to the above, a detailed study of 10 slums in Dewas was carried out by Alchemy to understand qualitative aspects of sanitation in slums. This is followed by reviews of the DPR for Sewerage and the DPR for Solid Waste Management. Subsequently, the observations from all the reviews are compared with the NUSP rating indicators.

5.1 Situation Assessment from the Four Surveys


5.1.1
5.1.1.1

The objective and scope of surveys


CLEANLINESS SURVEY BY DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

The Dewas Municipal Corporation conducted a household survey to assess the status of sanitation and cleanliness in the city of Dewas in 2008. The data captured included status of household sanitation, willingness to pay for construction and operation and maintenance of community toilets, status of solid waste management, etc. The compiled survey data for each ward was downloaded from www.mpurban.gov.in of the Urban Administration and Development Department from the Nagrika Sarvekshan 2008. The survey data for wards 3, 20, 26 and 39 were not available online. A total of 23,708 households have been surveyed from the entire city. (For details refer ANNEXURE: 6.)
5.1.1.2 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY BY USAID FIRE (D) IN 2010

A reconnaissance survey was carried out by USAID FIRE (D) to collect specific primary data of the sanitation situation in the city through a rapid field survey. The survey included extensive data on the following components (for details refer ANNEXURE: 7): Public Latrines in Wards and Slums Surface Drains Solid Waste Arrangements Sample Survey of Industries Sample Survey of Public Institutions (Health & Education) Testing of Quality of Water and Waste Water. Observation and interview-based surveys were carried out to capture the above-mentioned data. In addition interviews were carried out in select public offices, institutions, industries and hospitals.

34

5.1.1.3

LAND USE AND INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS ASSESSMENT BY ALCHEMY

Alchemy conducted a land use and infrastructure survey for the city of Dewas. The objective was to develop a thorough understanding of the development patterns and the status of sanitation in different parts of the city. The whole city was divided into survey blocks of approximately 0.5 to 1 sq. km. (average size). For areas with sparse development, larger blocks were delineated and for areas with denser development, smaller blocks were delineated. An observation checklist was prepared to capture land use and development related information. Two questionnaires were developed to capture infrastructure status one for slums and one for all other uses. (For details refer ANNEXURE: 8.)
5.1.1.4 DETAILED SLUM SURVEY BY ALCHEMY

A detailed study of 10 slums in Dewas was carried out to understand qualitative aspects of sanitation in slums. A questionnaire was designed to include information on civic amenities, health, infrastructure, constraints and problems for slum residents and behavior patterns with respect to health and hygiene (for details refer ANNEXURE: 9). A door-to-door sample survey was conducted, which covered 414 households. The methods for achieving the objectives of the survey included the following steps: Rapid Participatory Appraisal of the whole community including children and women Baseline surveys of selected samples to obtain an overview of demographic characteristics of the slum Focused group discussions. 5.1.2 Sanitation status as per three surveys The DMC Survey, Reconnaissance Survey, and Alchemys Land Use and Infrastructure Survey have been used to present the sanitation status of the city.
5.1.2.1 ACCESS TO WATER

The surveys reveal that 78% of the residential population (excluding slums) and 64% of nonresidential areas (excluding industries) have individual sources of water supply. It was identified that the primary source of water supply in the residential areas is from the DMC. The surveys further captured that in the residential areas 15% of households are dependent on bore wells and for 32% the primary supply comes from hand pumps. In the non-residential areas, people also substantially (52%) depend on municipal piped supply, while 42% have bore wells and 4% depend on Nagar Nigam tankers. In the slums, 53% of the population have individual sources of supply, while 27% rely on community sources alone, and the remaining 20% use both. An assessment of primary water sources reveals that 44% of the slum population rely on hand pumps, 5% on bore wells, 4% on bottled water and 47% on piped municipal supply. Augmentation of household supply is primarily through municipal tankers and community hand pumps.
5.1.2.2 ACCESS TO INDIVIDUAL TOILETS

The surveys indicate that about 89% of the households surveyed have access to household toilets and 11% do not have access to toilets. The ward-wise distribution shows that the lack of toilets is predominant in wards 1-3, 11-17 and 43-45. 35

In the non-residential areas (excluding industries) 17% of the people use free community toilets and about 2% use paid community toilets. Seventy-seven percent have individual toilets within their campuses. In the slums, only 29% of the population access individual toilets alone. Four percent have individual toilets, but also access community toilets. Open defecation is very high in the slums. It was further observed that even members of households with access to individual toilets still resort to open defecation (37%). This condition is particularly high in the slums in wards 1, 11, 43 and 44. Slums in wards 13 and 16 resort to open defecation alone.
5.1.2.3 ACCESS TO PUBLIC TOILETS

The surveys indicate that 18 of the 45 wards have public toilets. About 22% of the respondents have said that they have access to public toilet facilities (either toilets or urinals) in their neighborhood. Seventy-eight percent do not have access to public toilet facilities. Access to Public Toilets Yes No No. of Wards 18 27

Of the wards that have public toilets, three have less than five WC seats, seven have five to nine seats, six have 10 to 15 seats and two have more than 15 seats. The incidence of open defecation exists in seven wards and on a smaller scale in another 22 wards. No. of Wards 3 7 6 2 No. of WC Seats 5 5-9 10-15 15

Seventy slums do not have public toilets. The remaining 11 have them. Eight of the slums that have public toilets have five or more toilet seats. The rest have less than five. Seventeen percent of the population in slums is willing to contribute to construction of public toilets and 22% are willing to contribute to maintenance of public toilets.
5.1.2.4 WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

The surveys reveal that 32 of the 45 wards have no sewer line, 10 wards have 50% or less area sewered, one ward has 60% area sewered, and only two wards have 100% of their area sewered. No. of Wards 32 10 1 2 Area Sewered (%) 0 50 60 100
36

The surveys indicate that four out of the 13 wards with sewer lines have no treatment systems, eight have community septic tanks, and only one ward has a sewage treatment plant (ward 3-BNP area). Three out of the 13 wards with sewer lines dispose of the effluent in nearby nallas, three wards in open drains, and the disposal pattern could not be observed in seven wards. The waste water from 40% of the residential population (excluding slums) is disposed through the existing sewer networks; 25% use septic tanks of which only 1% has been cleaned in the last 5 years, and 26% of the population dispose the untreated effluent directly into open drains. In the non-residential areas (excluding industries), 51% of the waste water generated is disposed into the open drains. About 31% have septic tanks but less than 1% has been cleaned in the last five years. In the slums, 61% of the population indicated the lack of any disposal system and, hence, the waste water is left untreated in the open. Twenty-nine percent indicated that they conveyed it to the open drains. To summarize, 80% of the waste water from the slums goes directly into nallas and eventually into the river. The status of sewage disposal in the special areas surveyed is as follows: In all the education institutions surveyed, septic tanks are used to treat waste water. The treated effluent is disposed into the outside gutter or drain. Seven out of 10 hospitals surveyed have ETPs and septic tanks and the other three have only septic tanks. All of them dispose the treated effluent into the outside gutter or drain. Both the public institutions surveyed have septic tanks, one of which is damaged. The effluent in both cases is disposed into the outside gutter or drain. The surveys reveal that about 57% of the slum population is willing to pay Rs.3,000 as beneficiary contribution for construction of household toilets.
5.1.2.5 SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL

The surveys indicate that 24 out of the 45 wards have no community bins and the rest have at least one bin. At least 10 wards have more than 10 unauthorized garbage dumps; it was observed that ward 19 has as many as 36 unauthorized dumps. About 4% of the respondents dispose the solid waste in the drains, about 54% in the open, about 1% is collected by a nominated agency or scheduled collection system, and 41% of the respondents dispose their solid waste in the waste containers. The ward-wise distribution indicates that about a third of the municipal wards have waste containers accessible and the rest dont. Door-to-door collection, the preferred method, seems to be insignificant from the respondents view. In 20 wards, the garbage is collected daily and in 19 wards garbage is collected irregularly or very irregularly. Only three slums have community bins. There are many unauthorized garbage dumps in these slums. The status of solid waste disposal in the special areas surveyed is as follows: In all the education institutions solid waste is collected in bins and either burnt or buried in a pit. In two of the six institutions, the solid waste is dumped on the nearby road.

37

In three out of the 10 hospitals surveyed solid waste is dumped nearby and collected by DMC and in one case it is put in a DMC bin and then collected by DMC. In five cases, DMC directly collects the solid waste and in one case it is either burnt or collected by DMC. In the public institutions, one recycles some waste and the rest is burnt. The other institution dumps the waste nearby, which is collected by DMC. Only 43% of the residential population and 42% of the non-residential population state a willingness to pay for door-to-door collection of solid waste. This incidence is highest in wards 24 to 30 and parts of wards 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 16 & 17. In the slums, 73% of the solid waste generated is disposed in the open. Only 2% is disposed in municipal bins. Sixteen percent of the solid waste is burnt.
5.1.2.6 BIO-MEDICAL WASTES

According to the reconnaissance survey, eight out of the 10 hospitals surveyed hand over biomedical waste to a private collector every alternate day. One hospital reported the system of daily collection. One of the hospitals did not respond to the collection query, but mentioned that their in-house incinerator is dysfunctional. The bio-medical waste collected from the other hospitals is then taken to Hoswin Incinerator Pvt. Ltd. in Indore (appointed by Pollution Control Board).
5.1.2.7 INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT & DOMESTIC WASTE WATER

The surveys captured that the waste water technology and treatment systems vary from industry to industry. Twelve industries were surveyed. Three of them have ETPs and STPs for effluent treatment. Six have only ETPs and two have no system. One of the industries has a solar evaporation plant. The Ranbaxy pharmaceutical industry has an activated sludge plant and a thermal evaporation system. Some of the byproducts are used in the plants gardens. One factory has a solar evaporation plant for treatment of effluent. No. of Industries 3 6 2 1
5.1.2.8

Treatment System Adopted ETP and STP ETP No System Solar evaporation plant
INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE

In most cases, the solid waste is sent to the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) constructed at Pithampur in Dhar District by M/s. M.P. Waste Management Facility (a group of M/s. Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd., Hyderabad) on BOOT basis. Some industries like Ranbaxy have captive incinerator plants. Steel rejects are sold to authorized recyclers.
5.1.2.9 STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

There are seven major nallas flowing through the city. All of them are stable and no flooding is reported. In all the seven nallas the course has been mentioned as natural and requires training. These drainage channels pass through 26 wards. Of the wards that have nallas, only in five are they in objectionable condition. Status of roadside surface drains is as follows:
38

Sr. No.

Category of Wards

Surface Drains Coverage as % of Road Length Built-up Coverage Construction Kutcha Coverage

1.

Wards in core area (21 to 50% 37) Wards outside core area 28% (2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43). Wards on periphery
5.1.2.10 WATER QUALITY

Rectangular in 40% masonry or stone slabs -do31%

2.

3.

14%

-do-

34%

The Reconnaissance Survey tested the quality of water and waste water samples. The TDS11 levels in the bore wells were two to three times higher than the acceptable limits and the B.Coli12 levels were 15 times higher than acceptable limits. A summary of other results is as follows: Sr. No. 1 Samples Parameters Quality of Permissible Limit Actual Results Remarks

Bore well Total hardness as 300 mg/l (5 samples) CaCO3 Dissolved solids Alkalinity 500 mg/l 200 mg/l

247 to 1,220 Ground water is mg/l brackish in test due to high TDS; 494 to 2440 two samples mg/l show biological 196 to 512 pollution mg/l

MPN count of B 10 in 100 ml Nil and 160 Coli sample 2 Waste Taste water (5 samples) Odour COD BOD MPN of B Coli Waste water flow in nallas is not fit for discharge into No offensive Disagreeable public water odour bodies in 250 mg/l 618 to 1,190 accordance with CPHEEO mg/l Standards 30 mg/l 155 to 275 mg/l 10/100ml > 1,000 Acceptable Objectionable

11The dissolved minerals in water are commonly referred to as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The TDS content of any water sample is expressed in milligrams/litre (mg/l) or in parts per million (ppm). The standard that applies to India is the BIS 10500-1991 standard. The BIS standard says that the maximum desirable TDS is 500 mg/l and the maximum permissible level in the absence of a better source of water is 2,000 mg/l. 12Balantidium coli is a parasitic species known to be pathogenic to humans and to cause dysentery-like symptoms and, in acute cases, diarrhea. Its occurrence is common where water sources may be contaminated with swine or human feces. The maximum permissible limit is 10 mg/l.

39

5.1.3

Hygiene behavior of households as per the Detailed Slum Survey

The detailed survey conducted in the 10 slums has also been used to assess hygiene behavior related issues. The following are some of findings in the surveyed slums: 21% of women do not wash hands before preparation of food. 13% of respondents did not wash hands even after defecation. Hands are not normally cleaned with soap, but mostly with soil or ash. 30% of respondents do not use chappals/footwear and do not change clothes daily. 50% of respondents reported that they dispose of their childrens excreta safely, wrapped in paper or plastic, while the rest said they throw it in nearby a nallah or drains. More than 40% of women defecate in the open and use less a than 2 litres of water for cleaning. During the menstrual cycle, women use cloth. They are not aware of sanitary napkins and those, who are aware, cannot afford them. The same cloth is used for 2-3 months and then is burnt or thrown in a garbage dump. Women did not know about UTI or other reproductive health related issues.

5.2 Short Note on Review of Project Report on Sewerage Project of Dewas


This note provides a quick review of the Detailed Project Report on Dewas Sewerage Project, prepared by Vastushilpi Projects & Consultants Pvt Ltd., Bhopal, in October 2010. 5.2.1 Existing sewerage (Ref. Chapter 2)

(a) Proposal in DPR It is stated that no sewerage exists in the city as on date. (b) Comment This is not true. Colonies developed by Dewas Development Authority have been provided partially in 13 wards with local sewer network and septic tanks in most of the cases. 5.2.2 Projection of population (Ref. Chapter 5)

(a) Projections in DPR The projected figures are: Phase 1 in year 2025 325,000 Phase 2 in year 2040 410,000. (b) Comment Latest Census figures are not yet published. However, there is a possibility that the population in year 2010 may be close to 275,000. Following projections have been done previously in chapter 4 in the Situation Analysis report of City Sanitation Plan (CSP): In year 2021 342,917 In year 2031 428,374 In year 2041 535,126. It appears that the projected population of 410,000 may be reached much before year 2040.

40

5.2.3 5.2.3.1 (a)

Design considerations
QUANTITY OF SEWAGE

Proposal in DPR (Ref. Page ii of Volume 1) Sewerage is proposed to be designed for a sewage flow of 108 LPCD (which is 80 % of water supply rate of 135 LPCD). Provision for ground water infiltration is done at 250 LPD per manhole. Accordingly. three STPs of total capacity of 53 MLD (in year 2040) are proposed.

(b)

Comment Reconnaissance Survey done for the CSP shows that the ground water is deep in Dewas. Need for a special provision of ground water infiltration needs a re-look.
5.2.3.2 PEAK FACTOR

(a)

Proposal in DPR (Ref. Page ii in Project Report) Peak factor of 2.25 is stated to be used in the design for a design population up to 50,000.

(b)

Comment The hydraulic designs appear to have been done by using a software. In the absence of an explanation about the input data and the output results, it is not possible to say how the total flow is calculated, what is meant by design capacity, whether the design capacity is for full flow condition or at 0.8 depth, and how the adequacy of the capacity is inferred. As stated in sub-section 4.4 below, since the flows adopted for each zone and sub-zone have not been explained anywhere in the report, the accuracy of the design cannot be checked. Slopes provided in some initial sections are very steep (eg., section MH-7 to MH-8 in sub-zone III-A; slope is 0.127 m/m; i.e., 12.7 in 100 and velocity is 2.08 m/sec). This results in sewers going deeper. An alternative of flatter slope and compensating for lower velocity by providing a flushing arrangement may eventually prove to be more desirable.
5.2.3.3 DEPTH OF SEWAGE FLOW IN SEWERS

(a)

Provision in DPR (Ref. page 17 of project report) In section 6 (E) on page 17, it is stated that the sewers will be designed to run not more than 80% full and the values of v/V, q/Q and d/D will be worked out.

(b)

Comment This has not been done. Hydraulic properties of actual discharge (q), actual velocity (v) and actual depth of sewage flow in the sewer (d) need to be given for each link of the sewer. 5.2.3.4
DISTRIBUTION OF SEWAGE FLOW IN ZONES AND SUB-ZONES

It is not clear, from any section in the report, how the figure for sewage flow in each zone and sub-zone has been arrived at. It is necessary to work out the population in each zone and sub-zone first, and then work out the quantity of sewage flow. There is no mention as to why 13 MLD in Zone 1 (Shajapur Road), 10 MLD in Zone 2 (Mendhaki Road) and 30 MLD in Zone 3 (Indore Road) were selected. 5.2.4 Coverage of the project
41

(a) Proposed Scope of the Project

As seen from the following map showing the project proposals, wards 1, 3(p), 4, 5(p), 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16(p), 38(p), 39(p), 40(p), 42(p), 43(p), 44 and 45 have been excluded.

06

44

SEWER ZONE-1 SEWER ZONE -2 SEWER ZONE-3 PROPOSED STP

Layout of Sewerage Scheme Superimposed on Ward Map (b) Comment Since these wards are not covered in the scope of the sewer network, it is necessary to exclude the population and equivalent sewage flow from the design of sewers and treatment plant capacity. Also, arrangements required in the areas left out from the sewerage scheme need to be stated. 5.2.5 Sewage pumping stations (a) Proposals No pumping stations appear to have been proposed in any of the three zones, though sewers are going as deep as 5.34 m, 6.24 m and 9.18 m below ground in zones 1, 2 and 3, respectively. (b) Comment Pumping of sewage is unavoidable and needs to be provided. 5.2.6 Sewage treatment plants (a) Proposals Three STPs are proposed, 13 MLD for Zone 1, 10 MLD for Zone 2 and 30 MLD for Zone 3. Sequential Batch Reactor process is proposed for all three.
42

(b) Comment There is no mention of actual design parameters used and how the sizes of the various units are arrived at. For all three STPs, an arbitrary ground level of 100.00 m. is assumed. This is not correct. It is necessary to link these levels with the ground levels adopted for the sewer network. The possibility of this being a patented process and the sophistication proposed in the plant may cause problems in O&M. The cost of the treatment process appears very high, about Rs. 95.95 lakhs per MLD. Also, the O&M cost has not been indicated, but is likely to be much higher than that for simpler systems like stabilization ponds or aerated lagoons, which appear to be more suited to Dewas. 5.2.7 Manholes (a) The tiny size of house chambers of 180 x150 mm. appears wrong. (b) The 1,500 mm. diameter circular chambers of 2.65 m. depth are proposed uniformly in sewer lines of all diameters. Diameters normally vary with the diameter of sewers and depth of manhole. Also, there is no provision for the additional depth beyond 4.25 m. in the estimate. (c) Drop manholes required in the network are not proposed. 5.2.8 Drawings

Following drawings need to be prepared: (a) Longitudinal profiles of sewer lines to show length, diameters, manholes, all invert levels, slopes, etc. (b) Drawings of manholes and other appurtenances. 5.2.9 Estimates

Following discrepancies are noted: (a) Item of excavation in soil and rock is for a lift of 1.50 m. only, though the actual depth of sewer lines is much more (in some cases more than 9 m.). (b) Strata considered for estimate is 70% soil, 20% soft rock and 10% hard rock. Actually clay soil is expected to be met for a considerable depth. (c) Estimate does not provide an item for shoring and strutting required in soil. (d) Item of bailing of water in trenches during excavation and construction of sewer lines is not provided. (e) Estimate of sewer lines provides for RCC NP2 class pipes uniformly for all diameters and for entire length. This is not safe and so not correct. Structural design of sewers and bedding needs to be done. (f) It is desirable to include the measurement sheets of individual estimates. (g) Ventilator shafts are required to be provided in the sewer line. (h) How escalation at 51% is determined is not clear.

5.3 Comments on the MSW Management Plan The DMC commissioned M/s Eco-Pro Environmental Services for preparation of a Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan (date not mentioned). Among others, the Plan proposes acquisition of equipment and development of a compost plant and a sanitary landfill site at a cost of Rs. 9.42 crore. In this regard, this section provides a summary of salient features of the proposed Plan along with a critical review in terms of appropriateness, relevance, practicability, etc., considering cumulative countrywide experience in the MSW domain.
5.3.1 Objectives of the plan

The MSW Management Plan states that it is prepared for the achievement of, among others, the following objectives:
43

To devise cost effective system for primary collection. To devise an efficient system of daily cleaning of streets and public places. To devise a system to eliminate indiscriminate disposal of garbage. To promote processing of waste for: deriving fertilizer reducing waste loads going to landfill generating income helping agriculture production. o To ensure safe disposal of waste. The objective on processing of waste appears to follow the conventional approach as enunciated in numerous policy documents of the Govt. of India. However, countrywide experience over the last two decades with numerous MSW treatment plants indicates that this objective is fraught with a number of inherent and external risk factors. o o o o 5.3.2 Baseline description

The Plan estimates 2011 and 2021 population at 3.1 lakh and 4.2 lakh, respectively. However, it does not provide the basis of calculation. These estimates are at significant variance with those adopted in the Situation Analysis report (chapter 4). The current level of generation of mixed MSW is estimated to be of the order of 60 MT/d. However, supporting calculations are not provided. Likewise, the Plan does not make an attempt to project waste quantity for future years, which would ideally be the basis for determining capacity of the collection, transport, treatment and disposal system. The estimated quantity of waste generation as per the Plan at 60 MT/d is at significant variance with that of the Situation Analysis report, which assesses it to be around 127 MT/d for the year 2011. The Plan clearly acknowledges DMCs inability to devise a system for MSW management, whether it is related to domestic, commercial, industrial or institutional sources. According to the Plan, most of the population and agencies from other sectors do not practice segregation and storage of waste at source. Further, the city has not instituted door-to-door collection service and community waste storage depots are inadequate. As a result of these factors, street sweeping is the only method of primary collection across the city. Evidently, infrastructure and systems for collection of waste are grossly inadequate, which are reflected in the form of extensive and indiscriminate disposal along streets, in drains, on open grounds, etc. The Plan arbitrarily states that the life of the existing 10 ha. dump site is 20 years. However, it does not provide supporting calculations to this effect. It is understood that the mixed waste is currently disposed in an indiscriminate and unscientific manner, which has potential to adversely affect the environment and public health. Waste characteristics that are provided in the Plan do not offer a degree of confidence. For instance, the moisture analysis data do not carry any significance, while the fractional and ultimate analysis data do not add up to 100% (instead only 91.94%), do not include the inert fraction and are without any reference to source, locations, method, period and duration of sampling, etc. On the whole, the Plan does not provide a critical problem analysis nor attempt to identify or prioritize key issues to be addressed in the short-, medium- or long-term. A set of concerns on the nature of recommendations and the measures proposed for strengthening of MSW management services are brought out in the paragraphs that follow. 44

5.3.3

Nature of the recommendations

The Plan/DPR appears to follow the stated premise of the Manual on MSW Management of the MoUD. It has adopted almost all this Manuals recommendation without any regard to the ground conditions and the cumulative experience of the last one decade from across the country. For instance, while on the one hand the level of awareness and concern of the residents of Dewas towards solid waste management in particular and public health in general appears to be extremely low, the Plan assumes that the people will agree to and comply with the guidelines for source segregation in the short-term.
5.3.3.1 SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE

With regard to segregation of domestic waste at source, the Plan appears to adopt the paradigm of saving national resources through recycling whatever can be recycled and saving cost and efforts to dispose of such waste. It assumes that residents will form the habit of sincerely segregating waste day-in-and-day-out and cooperate with the ULB. This recommendation does not appear to recognize, among others, that: (a) the general low level of education and awareness among the urban citizens; (b) sheer lack of awareness towards the environment and public health; (c) maidservant being the key player in the supply chain who typically has little education; and (d) limitations of collection and transport infrastructure/logistics, etc. The Plan assumes that civil society, NGOs and business associations will extend their support and provide inputs on a sustained basis on this issue. However, it is observed on numerous instances that without commensurate tangible benefits, such bodies lose interest in a short span of time. The Plan fails to recognize this basic trait and appears to make several vague and impracticable recommendations.
5.3.3.2 PRIMARY STORAGE AND COLLECTION

With regard to primary collection, the Plan does not specify which of the following paradigms it attempts to follow: o Bin-less city through extensive total coverage under a door-to-door collection service in all wards and all household categories. o Extensive coverage through a network of conveniently placed community waste depots across the city. o A mixed system comprising door-to-door collection in selected wards/localities and a network of conveniently placed community waste depots. Some of the other aspects to be noted are as follows: o The Plan assumes regular municipal sweepers to be engaged in primary door-todoor collection service, which is normally not the case as the latter are generally mandated (according to the job description/service rules) to carry out only street sweeping and drain cleaning. o Under the door-to-door collection service, the Plan does not specify percent of population to be covered through manually pulled cycle rickshaws versus motorized rickshaws. o For the market areas, while it proposes installation of close body containers, it does not specify their capacity, material specification, spacing, frequency of lifting, etc. o For street vendors the Plan makes a good suggestion of providing a bin or a holding bag for storage of waste.
45

o For food waste coming from marriage and community halls, the suggestion of promotion of on-site biodigesters does not appear to take into account space and logistics constraints, O&M issues, the potential of odour nuisance, etc. and is again based on arbitrary or idealistic considerations. o For dairy farm waste management, the Plan makes an appropriate recommendation of shifting/relocating farmers to the outskirts of the city. o On the whole, the Plan assumes a high degree of compliance, cooperation and participation on the part of civil society, market associations, shops and establishments, institutions, etc. without taking into account the high level of different individual perceptions, awareness, concerns and willingness, etc. 5.3.3.3
AVAILABILITY OF SWM SERVICE

The Plan appropriately recommends solid waste management service to be available on all days, including weekends and public holidays. This recommendation takes into account the threat to public health from poor waste management in urban areas and, therefore, rightly considers SWM to be an essential service. With regard to street sweepings and brush/dry leaves, etc., the Plan recommends prevention of burning of waste a practice typically adopted by municipal workers. However, it also recommends on-site composting of dry leaves, which is assumed to take place rapidly and under supervision of some authorized agency. This recommendation again appears to be idealistic and impracticable in several respects, e.g., (a) typical lack of availability of space and a committed O&M agency; and (b) extra long time taken in bio-degradation of long-fibre biomass and accordingly large holding space requirement, etc.
5.3.3.4 TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE

The Plan does not provide an analysis of the distances involved in secondary collection and transport of waste to the treatment and disposal (T&D) site, but vaguely recommends planning for effective routing of the vehicles. It does not provide for the feasibility or otherwise of a transfer station. The unrealistic nature of the recommendations is evident from the proposal of providing one vehicle for collection of hotel and restaurant waste, while there are 465 such small and medium establishments across the city (ref. 3.7.8). Under section 3.7.11, it is noted that the Plan suggests unloading at a transfer station nearby, but this element does not form a component of the proposed scheme in the latter part of the report.
5.3.3.5 ANALYSIS OF T&D OPTIONS

The Plan provides a brief overview of available treatment and disposal options, e.g., composting, vermi-composting, sanitary landfill, incineration and power generation from either pallets or biomethanation. With respect to a sanitary landfill, the Plan adopts the conventional approach of considering it as the last step where only the rejects should be allowed. This argument is based on the premise that land for waste disposal is very scarce. However, this is not necessarily true in Dewas. As per the Plan, the option of incineration is not deemed to be suitable for Indian waste due to, among others, low fuel value of MSW, high capital and operating costs, etc. On the other hand, the Plan considers the option(s) of fuel pallets and bio-methanation as successful/proven and, thereby, does not appear to recognize or be aware of several such large-scale projects, which have failed over the last one decade.
46

Finally, the Plan recommends composting of all bio-degradable waste either by aerobic microbial composting technology or by vermi-composting. It holistically suggests decentralized application of the latter technology, from the point of view of reducing cost of transportation. This recommendation does not appear to recognize the multitude of constraints typically experienced in urban areas with regard to this preposition, e.g., (a) lack of space; (b) high price of land in urban areas; (c) lack of a committed agency to take the O&M responsibility; (d) potential of odour nuisance and eventual protest and vandalism by residents in the neighborhood; (e) lack of commensurate incentives for the O&M agency, e.g. financial support from the ULB or adequate revenue from sale of compost thus produced, etc.; and (f) high vulnerability of the earthworms to climatic factors, process parameters and predators, and thereby their high mortality rate, etc. The Plans chapter 4 on T&D options does not provide an analysis of the waste generation loads with respect to the capacity of 75 MT/day determined for the treatment plant. Neither does it specify the level of rejects that would be required to be sent for land filling over the various phases/years of operation. The Plan considers an unconventional technology of composting in 3 m deep pits, rather than the conventional system of windrows on a concrete platform. Under the former system, the waste mass cannot be mixed/turned for aeration and, therefore, would essentially remain anaerobic, leading to very adverse odour nuisance potential. Further, by providing pits, rather than a concrete platform, the system does not appear to have any built-in safeguard to prevent leachate percolation into the ground. The Plan does not provide a description of the baseline setting at the proposed site for the compost plant and the SLF. Typically environmental and social issues attain critical importance in MSW projects and are required to be addressed adequately and appropriately during system design. These will comprise, among others: (a) buffer zone; (b) odour control measures; (c) leachate collection from compost platform and the landfill; (d) appropriate measured for leachate treatment; (d) bottom liner and cover layer specifications for the landfill; and (e) landfill gas collection and its safe disposal, etc. While dealing with the subject of the landfill, the Plan does not provide clear guidelines on construction specifications with respect to the boundary conditions (geological, hydrogeological and drainage) that exist at the identified site. Instead, it lists insignificant issues pertaining to, among others, approach road, drinking water and toilet facilities for workers, etc. Further, instead of providing clear calculations on land area requirements in line with the projected waste loads for different years/phases of the LSF, the Plan strangely seems to have mixed up the issue with the subject of SLF operations. The Plan is found to recommend four distinct landfills, 12 m and 8 m wide, separated by roads. Irrespective of the size of the landfill, this is a rather unconventional approach involving wastage of land, which is now allocated to the above-referred roads. Instead, the SLF must be planned and designed as a single continuous system with distinct annual phases, which are separated by temporary embankments. The Plan does not provide preliminary design calculations for the volume of leachate to be handled nor does it specify the strategy to by adopted for its treatment and disposal. Further, calculations on the requirement for daily cover material, etc. are missing. The Plan does not provide an estimate of, among others: (a) the quantity of compost that will be produced; (b) the rejects that will remain after treatment and will be required to be disposed in the SLF; and (c) the cover material that will be required on a daily basis. 47

On the subject of final closure of SLF, the Plan appears to take a rather unconventional approach by recommending a 30 cm thick layer of soil or construction waste as the covering layer. This is technically inappropriate, as rainwater can infiltrate and cause excess leachate generation as well as failure of the landfill. Ideally, an SLF must adhere to the minimum specifications laid out in the Manual on MSW Management, 2000.
5.3.3.6 PLAN SUGGESTIONS ON INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING

On the subject of institutional strengthening, the Plan does not recognize the fundamental incompatibility between the skill set and expertise of a health officer and the functional job requirements for steering solid waste management operations of a typical urban centre. The former with traditional training in clinical and public health domains is not suitable for managing operations involving: (a) planning of logistics for material movement, manpower and machinery; (b) technology; (c) commercial aspects; and (d) community participation and communication, etc. For city level administration, while the Plan suggests a SWM Department to be responsible for all solid waste management-related functions, it does not distinguish this new department from the existing Health and Sanitation Department nor does it address the previously-described incongruity solely through transferring the function to the Engineering/Public Works Department. The Plan does not provide an analysis of the existing institutional arrangements, but straight away makes recommendations on decentralization of administration. It is not clear what level of decentralization may be possible for a city with a small population base of under 300,000. The set of recommendations on ward-level administration, in terms of formation of communitybased organizations and creating awareness and forging partnerships for community participation, are very relevant and need to be implemented. However, the Plan does not appear to have carried out an evaluation of the in-house capacity of the DMC in these domains and, thereby, measures for organization strengthening are not found. The Plan appropriately recommends outsourcing a set of MSW services to the private sector/ NGOs, etc. However, it does not elaborate on this proposals financial liability on the DMC. The recommended management information system is exhaustive, idealistic and drawn straight from the Manual on MSW Management, 2000.
5.3.3.7 PUBLIC AWARENESS

The Plan attempts to promote the holistic 3R paradigm of reduce, reuse and recycle through public awareness. It lists a number of options that can be explored. However, the description appears to be drawn from the Manual on MSW Management and lacks a specific, tailored strategy for DMC to implement. The Plan does not provide an estimate of annual costs that will be required for creation of public awareness on a sustained basis. Ironically, it suggests an unrealistic and unsustainable option of availing services of local advertising and social marketing agencies free of cost or at no-profit as a public service. 5.3.4 Financial aspects

While the Plan recommends a review of existing rates of taxes and user charges vis--vis the current cost of operations, it does not provide an analysis of the two and the resultant surplus or deficit, if any. The generic set of recommendations appears to come straight from the Manual on MSW Management, 2000. 48

Finally, the Plan does not provide a financial feasibility analysis of the proposed investment, the sources of funds, contribution from user charges, etc. Interestingly, due to possible oversight, the Plan excludes an estimate of the revenue generated from sale of compost, which is OK, as this assumption is uncertain and not significant due to quality concerns. Some of the other financial issues with respect to the proposed infrastructure are as follows: o The Plan does not provide a basis for the quantity of equipment, containers and vehicles that are proposed to be procured. These estimates need to be validated, verified and, if required, revised. o The quantity of some of the equipment, etc. listed under the Requirement column in the table on page 71 of the Plan does not match with those given in the exhibit on page 71 of the Alchemy report, particularly: (a) closed auto rickshaws; and (b) wheelbarrow carts. o Operating cost estimates for primary collection of MSW, its transport, treatment and disposal in to the SLF are missing. o The cost estimate for the compost plant seems to have left out the heavy earthmoving equipment, which is invariably required for movement of waste from one section to another and from there to the SLF. o The cost estimates for leachate treatment and disposal are also not found in the Plan. o Cost estimates for closure of various phases of the SLF are missing. Likewise, the estimates for post-closure monitoring are not found.

5.4 Sanitation Situation Compiled with Respect to NUSP Indicators The Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, expects that the City Sanitation Plan should address all the indicators used in the report rating of cities 2010. The expectation is that the CSP will propose measures that will lead to an improved rating in future. To fulfill this expectation, it is necessary that Dewas citys sanitation situation be reviewed specifically against these indicators.
Earlier in this chapter, all the information, emerging from the studies carried out as part of this situation analysis exercise and those carried out earlier, has been summarized systematically. In this section, these observations and conclusions are compiled against the NUSP indicators. It may be noted that the results of all the studies used in this chapter dont necessarily agree with each other, particularly when it comes to ward level or slum level information. Therefore, the CSP consultants have exercised their judgment in drawing conclusions that can be corroborated by multiple sources or those that emerge very strongly from one source. The following table gives a city level view. The ward level and slum level views are presented in Volume II of the Situation Analysis. The table gives the list of indicators as used by the NUSP rating in rows. For each indicator, the maximum points that can be scored are given, followed by the points scored by Dewas in the rating for 2010. The next three columns give conclusions drawn from the three main surveysDMCs Cleanliness Survey 2008, USAID FIRE (D)s Reconnaissance Survey 2010 and Alchemys Land use and Infrastructure Survey 2010. The following column captures the conclusions on present sanitation status, summarized from the three surveys. In the conclusions column, the insights from the review of the DPRs for sewerage and solid waste management have also been factored in at appropriate places. The last column explains very briefly the benchmarks or parameters used by MoUD for carrying out the rating. These points have been extracted from the TOR provided by MoUD to the consultants, who carried out the rating.
49

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating

1 A

OUTPUT RELATED No open defecation subtotal

50 16 Access to individual or community toilets is within walking distance for 100% of properties in service area. 0.00 Slums/urban poor have not been covered separately. 11% of the total respondents (12% of those who have individual toilets) do not use a toilet all the time. Another 11% of the respondents do not have toilets at home. The mode by which they relieve themselves is unclear. Availability of individual toilets in slums has not been captured. Only 11 out of 81 slums have public toilets. Incidence of open defecation was seen in 7 wards and on a smaller scale in 22 wards. In the slums only 29% of the population use individual toilets exclusively. 4% have individual toilets but also access community toilets. 27% of the slum dwellers resort to open defecation. In addition, 40% of the slum dwellers who have access to toilets (individual or community) resort some time to open defecation. It may be noted that more than 50% of the slums have reported dependence on nonmunicipal sources of water. Open defecation is a major issue especially in slums. Some of the reasons for open defecation, especially where there is access to toilets could be as follows: Inadequate individual toilets are available or their usability is limited by the availability of water supply People are unaware of the health risks caused by open defecation. This is corroborated by the detailed assessments carried out by Alchemy in 10 slums Community toilets are inadequate or dysfunctional Family sizes in slums are large and individual toilets are inadequate. There is a clear case for (a) The focus is on proportion of the population in the settlement actually practicing open defecation, i.e. irrespective of whether the toilets are at household level, community level or public.

i.

Access and use of toilets by urban poor and other un-served households (including slums) individual and community sanitation facilities

50

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status ensuring that all households have individual toilets with water connection; and (b) ensuring adequate provision of public toilets even in areas where people have individual household toilets and revamp the existing community facilities to ensure serviceability. Awareness generation about health risks related to open defecation has to be given high priority.

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating

ii.

Access and use of toilets for floating and institutional populations adequate public sanitation facilities

0.97

Survey does not cover floating and institutional population.

Survey does not cover floating and institutional population.

19% of the people in non-residential areas use public toilets. 4% defecate in the open. The remaining 77 % use individual toilets. The following points are noteworthy with respect to specific locations of public toilets: In Mata Ki Tekri during festivals mobile toilets are installed but the numbers are insufficient. While there is limited access to public toilets at the Bus Station

Separate strategies are required for public toilets: During festivals at the temple (Mata Ki Tekri ) and such other large scale public events. For regular use in locations with high floating populations such as the Dewas Main Market, Railway Station.

No. of working public toilets (functional and working) especially in high through-put areas such as: a) Main Bus Station b) Main Railway Station c) Main Market area d) Main Business District.

51

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating

and Railway Station, the Main Market has a severe problem. iii. No open defecation visible 4 2.00 Worst affected wards with respect to open defecation are 1, 11, 13, 14, 24, 42. Worst affected wards with respect to open defecation are 1, 13, 14, 24, 25, 26, 35. Worst affected wards with respect to open defecation are 1, 5, 11, 14, 15, 27, 42, 43, 44. Open defecation is observed in nearly 31% of the total no. of wards in Dewas, which is a grave situation. Steps are required towards (a) ensuring that all households have access to individual toilets with water supply; (b) supplementary provision of newer efficient community toilets in the worst affected wards; (c) overhaul of existing dysfunctional public/private toilets; (d) conduct of public awareness programs discouraging open defecation; and (e) encourage communitybased sanitation programs. Policy and regulatory framework measures need to be implemented to ensure the use of personnel protection equipment by sanitary workers. Public awareness campaigns and training sessions are needed to educate sanitary workers on the health and occupational hazards of dealing with sewage. Drawings of locations of Open defecation observed especially near and around railway line alignments.

iv.

Eliminate manual scavenging and provide personnel protection equipment to sanitary workers

4.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

Organized manual scavenging has not been observed. DMC does not have proper equipment for de-sludging septic tanks and for clearing choked sewer lines.

Manual scavenging is any contact with human excreta for purpose of manual cleaning or disposal, even if this is not being loaded on the head.

Proportion of

2.00

76% of the

11 wards are

25% of sewage in

Collection efficiency of

52

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey partially sewered and 2 are 100% sewered. 8 wards have access to community septic tanks.

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status existing sewer lines are difficult to obtain. The sewerage DPR states incorrectly that there is no existing sewerage system. A techno-economic design has to be proposed to integrate the existing sewer lines with the proposed sewerage system. If existing sewer lines are defunct, innovative rehabilitation technologies should be investigated to achieve cost efficiency. Only one (1) ward is serviced by a treatment facility and safe disposal mechanism accounting for a mere 1.4% of the total sewage generated in the service area. Strategies are needed that integrate decentralized and centralized treatment systems to cover the entire city in a sustainable manner.

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating sewerage network (100% benchmark value) does not include on-site arrangements that safely confine, treat or dispose of fecal matter. In the CSP exercise, account must be taken of what happens to the total quantum of human excreta, i.e. not just confined to/collected by the existing sewerage system. 100% of samples collected at sewage treatment plant outlets need to pass the quality test as laid down by Govt. of India agencies for secondary treatment.

total human excreta generation that is safely collected (6 points for 100%)

respondents who have toilets in the house use individual toilets with/without water and with/without septic tank.

residential areas and 31% in nonresidential areas reach septic tanks. 40% of the residential waste water and 7% of the non-residential waste water is collected in a sewer.

Proportion of total black waste water generation that is treated and safely disposed off (6 points for 100%)

0.00

Not covered as part of survey.

1 ward has a sewerage treatment plant (BNP). 4 wards have community septic tanks and 4 wards have other septic tanks. In 4 wards absence of systems is reported and in 31 other wards no system is reported. Actual quantity of black water treated not reported.

Systems of sewage disposal have been captured. 25% of sewage in residential areas and 31% in non-residential areas reach septic tanks. Ward 3 (BNP) has a sewerage treatment system and treats roughly 1.4% of the citys sewage. Actual quantity of black water treated not reported. Not covered as part of survey as a separate component.

Proportion of total grey waste water generation that is treated

0.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Not included in the survey as a separate component.

On-site reclamation and re-use of grey water may be integrated in the waste water system to ensure better

The proportion of the waste water that is treated in a treatment facility and then

53

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status practices and sustainability of the systems.

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating disposed into the environment after meeting secondary treatment standards. 20% re-use and recycling.

and safely disposed of (3 points for 100%) E Proportion of treated waste water that is recycled and reused for nonpotable applications 3 0.00 Not covered as part of survey. Some industries reuse treated water from their own campuses. Nil. All effluent (treated and untreated) eventually reaches nallas.

Incentive-based approach may be considered. Awareness programs may be devised to educate the residents on the benefits of recycle and reuse of waste water and advocate the 3R principle (reduce, recycle, reuse). There is a distinct possibility of locating an STP in the southwest part of the city and supplying treated waste water to the large industrial area located there. Feasibility to be examined.

Proportion of total storm water and drainage that is efficiently and safely managed (3 points for 100%)

3.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Surface drains as % of road length is on average 28% to 30% in the wards (built drains). Efficiency of existing storm water drains is difficult to assess.

Not covered as part of survey. Major water logging not reported during infrastructure survey.

Dewas has a network of natural drains that can be effectively used. Storm water drains need to be laid along the streets and connected to the natural drainage system.

Storm water drainage network coverage benchmark 100% computed as total length of primary, secondary and tertiary drains (covered, trained and pucca) as a proportion of total length of road network (more than 3.5 m wide). Outcome of storm water drainage measured by number of instances of water logging/flooding

54

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating reported across the city in a year.

Proportion of total solid waste generation that is regularly collected (4 points for 100%)

0.75

41% of the respondents dispose of solid waste in municipal bins and 1% have door-to-door collection. Indiscriminate dumping of solid waste is reported in wards 1, 4, 9, 10, 11, 15, 19 to 24, 28 to 30, 32, 36, 43 to 45.

24 out of 45 wards have no community bins and solid waste is cleared daily in only 20 wards. Unauthorized garbage dumps are most prevalent in wards 7, 17, 19, 20, 29.

13% of solid waste from residential areas is disposed in municipal bins and another 7% is collected through door-to-door collection. The percentages are 10% and 2% in nonresidential areas, respectively. Most poorly served wards are 6, 7, 9, 17, 19, 20, 29, 31, 42.

Nearly 50% of the wards are poorly serviced with respect to solid waste, which is a very low level of service. Community Involvement has to be encouraged to achieve successful implementation of the collection system. Low-income groups can be involved in the collection, and women groups can be created and involved in the program at the community level. Awareness campaigns are required to advise people on the adverse health and socio-economic impact of unscientific waste management practices. Domestic waste is dumped at the landfill site in Shankargadh. No treatment is done. The system proposed in the DPR for SWM has inadequacies that need to be rectified before implementation. Policy reforms and extensive planning has to be implemented to achieve a sustainable system.

Benchmark 100% of waste generated (excluding waste processed or recycled at generation point) is collected by ULB or its authorized service providers (monthly tonnage calculated).

Proportion of total solid waste generation that is treated and safely disposed of (4 points for 100%)

0.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

100% of waste collected by ULB or its authorized service providers and disposed at landfills designed, built, operated and maintained as per standards laid down by GoI agencies (including treatment of leachate).

City wastes cause no adverse

0.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

Solid waste is indiscriminately dumped and eventually

55

No

Indicators

Points*

Score Given to Dewas

DMC Survey

Reconnaissance Survey

Alchemys Survey

Conclusions on Present Sanitation Status reaches nallas and the river. The existing dump site is on the periphery of the city, which still retains a rural character. The dump site causes considerable pollution in the surrounding area.

MoUD Benchmark or Parameter for Rating

impacts on surrounding areas outside city limits (5 points for 100%)

TOTAL 2 A PROCESSRELATED** M&E systems are in place to track incidences of open defecation All sewerage systems in the city are working properly and there is no exfiltration (not applicable for cities without sewerage systems) 30 4

12.72

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

DMC has no systems in place for monitoring open defecation. The possibility of creating M&E systems involving the community may be explored.

Monthly collection of data on OD practices from each ward.

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Of the 13 partially sewered wards, slightly more than half appear not to be polluting the surrounding area nor nearby bore wells and are in OK condition, although some do not have septic tanks.

Cesspools have been observed in many places.

Field observation indicate that existing sewer lines in DDA colonies are broken in a number of places, releasing sewage into open drains. In some such locations, cesspools form creating risk of contamination in drinking water lines.

56

Septage/sludge is regularly cleaned, safely transported and disposed after treatment, from on-site systems in the city (maximum 10 marks for cities without sewerage systems) Underground and surface drainage systems are functioning and are well maintained

6.00

Not covered as part of survey.

Not covered as part of survey.

Less than 1% of the people in residential areas with septic tanks had them cleaned in the last 5 years.

No septage management systems in place; community participation is poor. Calls for policy reforms to encourage and mandate people to ensure best management practices.

2.00

Willingness to pay for sanitation in less than 25% of HHs.

In none of the 13 partially sewered wards is there a monthly sewerage charge.

Willingness to pay for toilets and sewerage systems is less than 30%.

Currently there is no system in place for effective cost recovery. At present the willingness to pay is quite low. A combined approach of improving service provision and raising awareness on the need to charge for the service is required.

100% cost recovery and 100% collection efficiency for sewerage charges.

57

Solid waste management (collection and treatment) systems are efficient (and are in conformity with the MSW Rules, 2003)

1.17

Majority of HHs dispose of waste in open with less disposing in municipal waste containers; most report waste clearance once or twice a day; willingness-to-pay for garbage removal not part of survey.

Ward-wise mix of HH or Municipal Corporation collection with irregular clearance; many wards full of scattered plastic bags, paper or other garbage.

Bulk of solid waste disposed in open and municipal bins with partial clearance by Municipal Corporation; minimal door-todoor collection; higher proportion of disposal in open and less clearance by Municipal Corporation in slums; willingnessto-pay for garbage removal is close to 45%.

High percentage of HHs dispose of waste in open with less disposing in municipal bins; clearance by Municipal Corporation varies, but generally irregular; waste is nuisance in most wards; no sanitary landfill. Currently there is no system in place for effective cost recovery. At present the willingness to pay is quite low. A combined approach of improving service provision and raising awareness on the need to charge for the service is required.

100% for daily doorstep collection; 100% segregated wastes on arrival at disposal/treatment facilities; 80% recycling of wastes; and 100% operational cost recovery.

58

There is clear institutional responsibility assigned; and there are documented operational systems in practice for b)/c) to e) above Sanctions for deviance on part of polluters and institutions is clearly laid out and followed in practice TOTAL

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

While a basic organizational structure exists, there are large gaps in terms of system design and standard operating procedures. There is very little documentation for the workflow.

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

There is no strong system for punitive measures for violation of norms.

9.17 20 7 4.9 Not covered in survey. Ground water is brackish in test due to high TDS; two samples show biological pollution. Waste water flow in nallas is not fit for discharge in public water bodies. Water quality tests carried out near industrial areas show high pollutant level. Not covered in survey. Drinking water quality not routinely tested. Use potable water quality standards set out by GoI agencies.

3 A

OUTCOME RELATED Improved quality of drinking water in city compared to baseline Improved water quality in water bodies in and around city compared to baseline

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Observations during field visits indicate that all water bodies, including natural drains and ponds, are neglected and polluted.

Strategies need to be formulated for preventing the pollution of natural drainage systems and for reviving polluted drains by integrating them into a planned storm water drainage system (which do not carry sewage).

Use water body quality standards set out by GoI agencies.

59

Reduction in water-borne disease incidence amongst city population compared to baseline TOTAL GRAND TOTAL

0.00

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

Not covered in survey.

Time series morbidity data is not readily available. One of the first steps required is to put in place a system for collecting location-specific morbidity data from hospitals and clinics.

Incidence of diarrhoeal diseases reported for the city over the last three years.

4.90 26.78

60

CHAPTER 6.

INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY & FINANCE

6.1 City Governance The Dewas Municipal Corporation (DMC) is in charge of municipal functions and provision of municipal services in the city, including water supply, sanitation, street lighting, solid waste management, etc. The functioning of Dewas Municipal Corporation is governed by the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1956, and amendments made thereafter. The DMC functions under the Mayor in Council system with an elected body headed by the Mayor. The executive wing of the DMC, headed by the Municipal Commissioner, looks after the day-to-day functioning of the Corporation. 6.2 Existing Institutional Structure Dewas Municipal Corporation has nine departments, out of which the departments responsible for providing sanitation services are the Health and Sanitation Department and Public Works Department.
The Health and Sanitation Department, headed by the Health Officer, looks after solid waste management and sanitation issues, such as collecting and disposing of solid waste, sweeping streets and cleaning public toilets. It also operates and maintains the necessary sanitation equipment. The Public Works Department is responsible for providing infrastructure and services for collection of waste water and treatment and is headed by an Executive Engineer/City Engineer. The following organogram has been drawn based on discussions with the Salary Department of DMC and subsequent verification from each department.

61

ORGANOGRAM

Commissioner

Deputy Commissioner

PWD Department

Health and Sanitation Department

Fire Department

Revenue Department

Property Tax Department

Accounts Department

Light Department

Public Relation Department

Office Superintendent

Executive Engineer Health Officer

Fire Officer

Revenue Officer

Revenue Officer

Account Officer

Assistant Engineer Public Relation Officer

Office Superintendent

Assistant Engineer Sanitary Inspector

Karmachari / Driver

Revenue Inspector

Revenue Inspector

Accountant Inspector

Jemadaar

Sub Engineer Darogah / Sanitary Supervisor Time Keeper

Revenue Sub Inspector

Revenue Sub Inspector

Upper Division clerk (UDC)

Clerk Lineman

Mohari Jemadaar

Mohari

Lower Division Clerk (LDC)

Wireman

Labour

Labour / Sweeper

62

6.3 Allocation of Roles and Responsibilities


The Health and Sanitation Department is headed by the Health Officer. A Health/Sanitary Inspector is appointed under the Health Officer, who looks after the day-to-day functioning of the department. The Inspector also goes on inspection rounds. The Health and Sanitation Department has 196 permanent posts of Safai Karmacharis, including 45 ward supervisors and four special supervisors for areas like Bus Stand, Mata Ki Tekdi, Graveyard, and one for overall solid waste management. There are three Safai Karmacharis for septic tanks.

The Public Works Department is responsible for providing infrastructure and services for collection of waste water and treatment and is headed by an Executive Engineer/ City Engineer under whom an Assistant Engineer takes care of day-to-day responsibilities. The Health and Sanitation Department has 31 labourers.

63

6.4 Capacity Assessment


6.4.1 Human resource & office infrastructure The human resource requirements have been drawn based on suggestions from the City Engineer. These may vary once the technology options as well as the implementation and management strategies are finalized in the CSP. Health and Sanitation Department No. Organization/ Department Human Resources Required Position 1 2 Sanitation Sanitation Qualification MBBS Sanctioned Posts 1 5 Filled Posts 1 3 Vacant Posts 2

Health Officer

Sanitary/Health 12th + Diploma in Inspector Sanitation Inspection Derogah/ Sanitary Supervisors


8th Pass

Sanitation

7 5 Permanent Permanent 45 Incharge (sweepers) 3 3 196 158 Permanent Permanent 442 Daily Wagers

4 5 6 7

Sanitation Sanitation Sanitation Sanitation

Jemadaar Cleaning Workers Bhistis Cleaners

5th Pass 5th Pass 5th Pass 5th Pass

Public Works Department No. Organization/ Department Position 1 2 3 PWD PWD PWD Human Resources Required Qualification BE. Civil Engineering BE. Civil Engineering Diploma in Civil Engineering 12th Pass 5th Pass Sanctioned Posts 4 3 7 Filled Posts 2 3 7 Vacant Posts 2 -

Executive Engineering
Assistant Engineering

Sub Engineer

4 5

PWD PWD

Time Keeper Labourers

2 31

2 28

64

6.4.2 Sanitation service equipment Available and required infrastructure is described based on discussions with the City Engineer and pertain to current systems and functions in sanitation service provision. These will change based on the proposals of the CSP. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Organization/ Department Item Required Nos. Available Nos. 90 400 2 6 3 2 1 6 20 600 250 Lump sum Lump Sum 500/yr. 600/yr. 2,000/yr. 600 Lump sum Lump Sum 0 0 Few 0 90 400 1 6 3 1 1 6 20 360 0

Health and Sanitation Waste bins 4.0 cu. mt. capacity Health and Sanitation Waste bins 1.5 cu. mt. capacity Health and Sanitation J.C.B. machine Health and Sanitation Eicher/Mazda/Tata truck 709/dumper Health and Sanitation Dumper placer truck Health and Sanitation Gully vacuum emptier Health and Sanitation Doser equipment (Hitachi mini) Health and Sanitation Tractor with hydraulic trolley (covered) Health and Sanitation Closed auto rickshaw Health and Sanitation Barrow wheel cart Health and Sanitation Containerized hand cart Health and Sanitation Belcha, tagari, brooms, etc. Health and Sanitation Miscellaneous Belcha Tagari Brooms Mask, gloves, long shoes, fluorescent jackets

6.5 Brief Assessment of Municipal Finances


6.5.1 Dewas Municipal Corporation: Receipts Dewas Municipal Corporations (DMC) total annual receipts have increased appreciably over the last four years from Rs.13.57 crs. in 2004-05 to Rs.38.38 crs. in 2009-10, achieving a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23.12%. This growth is a mix of a CAGR of 17.8% in DMCs Own-source Receipts and over a 30% CAGR in Grants & Assigned Receipts.

65

DMC : Total Receipts


60.00 50.00 in Rs. Crs. 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 13.60 14.90 27.60 27.70 38.40 54.30

DMCs total receipts comprise Own-source Receipts of about Rs.8.4 crs., accounting for about 22% of total receipts in 2009-10; Compensation received from the State Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) accounted for about 28.2% of total receipts in 2009-10. The balance of about 49.8% of total receipts is accounted for by Grants and Assigned Receipts from GoMP and GoI.

DMC's Own Source Revenue

Grants & Assigned Receipts

Compensation from GoMP

6.5.1.1

OWN-SOURCE RECEIPTS

While DMCs Own-source Receipts accounted for 22% of the Corporations total receipts in 200910, this figure has increased from 16.2% (Rs.4.5 crs.) in 2004-05 to 21.8% in 2006-07 to 25.5% in 2007-08, and then dropped to 15.8% in 2008-09.

66

Own Source Receipt


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8.6 7.06 6.03 4.5 4.9

8.4

Rs. Crs.

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

6.5.1.1.1 PROPERTY TAX

Property Tax Receipts have shown significant buoyancy in Dewas till 2008-09 reaching a total receipt of Rs.5.53 crs., but deceased significantly in 2009-10 to only Rs.3.81 crs. Between 2004-05 and 2006-07, Property Tax Receipts witnessed a CAGR of 25.13%, and between 2004-05 and 2008-09, Property Tax witnessed a CAGR of 25.90%. However, if one takes the entire six-year period under analysis between 2004-05 and 2009-10, then DMCs actual Property Tax collections witnessed a CAGR of only 11.55%.
DMC's Property Tax Receipt
6 5.5 5 4.5 4 Rs. Crs. 3.5 3 2 1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2.2 3.1 3.8

This growth in Property Tax Receipts between 2004-05 and 2008-09 has been attributed to the following steps taken by DMC: A complete survey of all properties and vacant plots in Dewas, undertaken in 2006-07, resulted in an increase in Property Tax Demand from 27,800 properties to about 48,000 registered properties in 2007-08. These 48,000 properties include residential, commercial and industrial properties. Further, this figure also includes properties in slums, which are registered with DMC, even though they may be exempt from paying property tax, but may be paying the Consolidated Tax (street lighting, fire & street sweeping). Significantly, aggressive collection drives for both arrears in 2007-08 and 2008-09, as well as current demand, including offering concessions for early payment (in the months of April &
67

May of the current financial year). This may also have resulted in reduced collection from arrears in 2009-10. Resolving the dispute with industries in Dewas regarding payment and rate of Property Tax from industrial units. An increase in the Education Cess component of Property Tax from 0.5% of Assessable Rateable Value (ARV) to 2% of ARV. The Property Tax Department of DMC has divided the town into four zones for purposes of Property Tax assessment and collection. For each property in each zone, DMC has a pre-specified rate, based on its location and nature of property, i.e., vacant plot, residential or commercial building. These rates have not been revised since 1997 (other than the increase in the Education Cess component, as mentioned above). DMC believes that it now covers close to 95% of the total properties within the ambit of DMC. Therefore, future growth in Property Tax collections could come from the following: Increase in collection efficiencyCollections against current demand is equal to about 60-65%. Improvement in this efficiency could result in greater receipt of Property Tax. In 2008-09, 52% of total Property Tax Receipts were from collection against arrears (while only 48% of total receipt was from collection against current demand), down from 60% in 2006-07. Increase in ARVs As the real estate values in the town grow, so will the ARV. However, in light of the current depressed state of the real estate market, growth in Property Tax Receipts, due to this reason, may have to wait for some time. Growth in assessed properties Dewass proximity to Indore and the growth of Indore towards Dewas bodes well for property development in Dewas (towards Indore). However, as mentioned above, the real estate market would need to witness some buoyancy for this growth to become effective and reflect in higher Property Tax demand for DMC. In summary, Property Tax accounted for close to 65% of DMCs Own-source Revenues (in 200708 and 2008-09, although it decreased to about 45% in 2009-10). Further increase in Property Tax demand and collections from a sheer increase in the number of assessed properties is likely to be limited, as also collections from arrears, as has been witnessed in 2009-10. Therefore, the focus on efficiency of operations and collections of the Property Tax becomes an inevitable priority for the Corporation.
6.5.1.1.2 WATER TAX & CONNECTION CHARGES

Receipts from Water Tax and Connection Charges increased between 2004-05 and 2006-07, and decreased over the succeeding three years, between 2007-08 and 2009-10. In fact, total receipts in 2009-10 of Rs.70 lakhs are lower than total receipts in 2004-05 of Rs.1.06 crs. Receipts from current demand of Water Tax & Connection Charges have, in fact, grown, though modestly, between 2004-05 and 2009-10, whereas the recent decease in overall receipts has largely been attributed to a reduction in receipts from arrears of Water Tax and Connection Charges.

68

Water Tax & Connection Charges 120 100 Rs. Lakhs 80 60 40 20 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 111 94.8 83.6 70.1

106

107

DMC has about 25,000 water connections and charges a water tax of Rs.50 per month per household. At 100% collection, this should result in receipts of Rs.1.50 crs. However, against this, the collection against current demand in 2007-08 was only Rs.64 lakhs. That figure further decreased to Rs.52.5 lakhs in 2009-10. In 2009-10, only Rs.12.2 lakhs came in as collections against arrears and the balance Rs.5.4 lakhs was received in 2009-10 against new Connection Charges, adding up to the total receipt of Rs.70.1 lakhs in 2009-10, from Water Tax & Connection Charges, as shown in the table above. Given the current poor situation of water supply, DMC has no locus-standi to introduce user charges for water. However, DMC proposes to increase Water Tax to Rs.200 per household per month after the completion of the Kshipra Water project, enabling the Corporation to provide at least 70 lpcd. This increased water tax has been committed by DMC to HUDCO, as part of the Rs.20 crs. loan agreement with HUDCO. Moreover, once DMC begins to provide water supply from the Kshipra project, the Corporation should also be able to increase the total number of connections to 50,000 (i.e., this would result in about 100% of the households being connected, as per current population estimates). DMC proposes to charge connection charges of Rs.3,000 per residential connection and Rs.5,000 per commercial connection. In case DMC is successful in both the above initiatives, i.e., in increasing Water Tax to Rs.200 per month per connection and taking total connections to 50,000, then this would result in total demand for Water Tax going up to Rs.12 crs. per annum. Once DMC supplies 70 lpcd or more on a sustained basis, its ability to collect Water Tax would also improve significantly, say to 75-80%. This would imply a Water Tax receipt of about Rs.10 crs., against a total demand of Rs.12 crs. DMC also plans to install meters on all its connections and charge Water Tax based on consumption. It proposes to charge Water Tax at Rs.13-14 per kl. and supply about 15 kl. per household per month. Fifteen kl. per household per month implies a 100 lpcd supply (assuming an average household size of 5 members). This would also result in a monthly tax of about Rs.200 per connection. Of course, an increase in Water Tax collection to say, Rs.10 crs. per annum, up from the current (2009-10) total annual collection of Rs.65 lakhs (without Connection Charges), would also be accompanied with higher operations and maintenance (O&M) expenses of the new water supply project. The current estimate of this O&M expense is about Rs.5 crs. per annum. Assuming all of the above comes into effect, the incremental net surplus to the DMC financials because of Water Tax could be about Rs.5 crs. per annum.
69

6.5.1.1.3 RENTALS FROM DMC PROPERTIES

Rentals from DMC Properties have seen a substantial increase over the last two years of 2008-09 and 2009-10. Rentals from DMC Properties increased from Rs.16.65 lakhs in 2007-08, accounting for 0.6% of DMCs total receipts, to Rs.94.23 lakhs in 2009-10, accounting for 2.45% of DMCs total receipts. For the period under consideration, i.e., between 2004-05 and 2009-10, Rentals from DMC Properties witnessed a CAGR of 31.24%.
6.5.1.2 RECEIPTS FROM GOVT. OF MADHYA PRADESH

Receipts from GoMP largely comprise compensation to DMC against abolition of DMCs erstwhile sources of revenue. These include: Octroi receipts of Rs.7.7 crs. in 2009-10, representing a CAGR of 22.9% over the 2004-10 period. Passenger Tax receipts of Rs.2.02 crs. in 2009-10, with a CAGR of 19.18% over the last six-year period. Stamp Duty receipts of Rs.1.02 crs. in 2009-10, with a CAGR of about 21.88% between 2004 and 2010. The above three sources of receipts accounted for 28.2% of DMCs total receipts in 2009-10, down from 37.8% in 2006-07, but up from 23.55% in 2006-07. Receipts from GoMP witnessed a CAGR of over 22% between 2004-05 and 2009-10, compared to a CAGR of only 13.43% in DMCs Own-source Receipts in the same period (thereby, DMCs Own-source & compensation from GoMP together witnessed a CAGR of about 17.8%).
6.5.1.3 GRANTS & ASSIGNED RECEIPTS

Grants & Assigned Receipts accounted for almost 50% of DMCs total receipts in 2009-10. However, the corresponding figure in 2004-05 was 37.4%. It remained at the same level in 2005-06 and then went up to 40.26% in 2006-07. It increased to its highest level in 2008-09 of 59.6%, driven by a Rs.13.1 crs. grant from UIDSSMT. So, while DMCs total receipts have increased at a healthy rate of 23.12% (CAGR between 2004-05 and 2009-10), Grants & Assigned Receipts have increased at a significantly higher rate, i.e, at a CAGR of 30.4%. However, if one were to look at the period between 2004-05 and 2008-09, then Grants & Assigned Receipts witnessed a CAGR of a phenomenal 58.92%. The decease in 2009-10 brought the six-year CAGR down to a more reasonable 30.4%.
Grants & Assigned Receipts 35 32.4 30 25 Rs. Crs. 20 15 10 5 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 5.07 5.57 11.1 14.1 19.1

70

Grants & Assigned Receipts comprise the following three broad areas: Receipts from State Finance Commissions. Receipts from GoMP mix of consolidated grants and project or utilization specific grants. Grants from Govt. of India for specific projects (under specific programs), like IHSDP or UIDSSMT. The huge increase in Grants & Assigned Receipts in 2006-07 and 2007-08 was largely due to a significant increase in receipts from State Finance Commissions General and the 12th Finance Commission, whereas the increase in 2008-09 was due to the UIDSSMT grant. 6.5.2 Dewas Municipal Corporation: Expenditure The total expenditure of DMC in 2009-10 was Rs.41.19 crs., up from Rs.12.18 crs. in 2004-05. Total expenditure has grown steadily over this six-year period. It increased by 25.1% in 2005-06 over 2004-05; by 38.3% in 2006-07; by 31.9% in 2007-08 over 2006-07; by 54.81% in 2008-09 over 2007-08; and decreased by 4.24% in 2009-10 over 2008-09, resulting in a CAGR of 27.6%.
DMC : Total Expenditure
50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 43.01

41.19

Rs. Crs.

27.78 21.06 12.18 15.23

27.6% (CAGR)

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

DMCs increase in total expenditure is largely driven by an increase in capital expenditure (capex) between 2004-05 and 2009-10. The total expenditure less capex, i.e., the expenditure on operations of DMC increased from Rs.9.49 crs. in 2004-05 to Rs.15.2 crs. in 2007-08, and then jumped to Rs.25.29 crs. in 2008-09 and finally to Rs.28.85 crs. in 2009-10, i.e., a CAGR of only 24.90%, compared to a CAGR of 35.68% in capex in the same period. Therefore, it appears that DMC controlled its operational expenditure and oriented incremental receipts towards capex between 2004-05 and 2007-08 (though, of course, in this period DMCs receipts from Grants and Assigned Receipts with a pre-specified capex usage also increased substantially). However, the operational expenditure increased substantially in 2008-09 by 66% over 2007-08, probably due to a relaxation of the previous tight control. Though, this year also saw the highest capex, funded by a significant increase in Grants & Assigned Receipts (UIDSSMT grant). Non-capex expenditure accounted for a total of about 61.75% of total expenditure (in 200910), down from 65.14% in 2006-07. Wages & Salaries accounted for 26.77% of total expenditure and Repair & Maintenance accounted for another 14.6% of total expenditure.

71

6.5.3

Dewas Municipal Corporation: Surplus/Deficit

DMCs total annual surplus/deficit over the last four years has fluctuated widely. DMC had a surplus of Rs.1.39 crs. in 2004-05, a deficit of Rs.0.34 crs. in 2005-06, a surplus of Rs.6.49 crs. in 2006-07, back to a deficit of Rs.0.06 crs. in 2007-08, to a surplus of Rs.11.30 crs. in 2008-09, and finally a deficit of Rs.2.80 crs. in 2009-10.

DMC : Total Surplus / deficit DMC: Total Surplus/Deficit


1400.00 1200.00 1000.00 800.00 Rs. Lacs 600.00 400.00 200.00 0.00 -200.00 -400.00 2004-05 139.00 -33.64 2005-06 2006-07 -5.62 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 -280.12 648.60 1130.86

This fluctuation in DMCs overall financial position has largely been affected by its capex for the year. If one examines the funds available for capex, i.e., Operating Surplus/Deficit, defined as the difference between DMCs total income less Grants Received for Capital Projects and DMCs total expenditure less Capital Expenditure, plus the Grants Received for Capital Projects, one finds it showing a CAGR of 18.54% between 2004-05 and 2009-10, thereby enabling DMC to undertake significant capital expenditure for projects (as depicted below).
DMC :Funds Funds availablefor forCapex Capex DMC: Available
35.00 30.00 25.00 Rs. Crs. 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 4.07 3.57 12.05 12.53 9.53 29.02

The capex incurred by DMC has increased significantly from Rs.2.68 crs. in 2004-05 to Rs.12.33 crs. in 2009-10, resulting in a CAGR of 35.7%.

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DMC - Capital Expenditure


20.00 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

Rs. Crs.

CAGR 35.7%

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Therefore, as can be seen from the two graphs above, DMC has undertaken a total capital expenditure of about Rs.54.80 crs. between 2004-05 and 2009-10, against total funds of Rs.70.77 crs. being available for Capital Expenditure in this period. However, DMCs growing capex has largely been funded by Grants & Assigned Receipts from Govt. of India and GoMP and is not funded from surplus generated from its Own-source Receipts or from receipts from GoMP that are compensation against erstwhile revenue sources of DMC, viz., Octroi, Passenger Tax or Stamp Duty, i.e., capex has not been funded from its Operating Surplus, which has been negative in five of the six years under review, as depicted below. In fact, some of DMCs Operating Deficit has been funded from Grants & Assigned Receipts.
DMC : Operating Surplus
200.00 0.00 -200.00 Rs. Lacs -400.00 -600.00 -800.00 -1000.00 -1200.00 -959.09 2004-05 -100.00 2005-06 -200.40 2006-07 2007-08 -160.72 2008-09 -334.07 2009-10 95.64

Therefore, unless DMCs Own-source and GoMP compensation receipts are bolstered significantly, capex would continue to be dependent on Grants Received. 6.5.4 DMC financial issues/concerns The key issues/concerns with respect to the current financial position of DMC are as follows: DMCs Own-source Revenue was only Rs.8.44 crs. in 2009-10, accounting for just about 22% of its total receipts. This implies that all revenue augmentation efforts of DMC would only impact areas that currently comprise 22% of its total receipts. Therefore, DMC needs to undertake significant efforts to not only enhance the current sources of Own-source Revenue, but also explore other areas, as yet untapped, of revenues.
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Further, within its Own-source Revenue, receipts from Property Tax account for about 65%, if you ignore 2009-10. The current coverage of Property Tax is about 48,000 households, which is almost 100% coverage. Therefore, the scope for increasing Property Tax is limited to increasing the number of properties, which, given the current real estate scenario, seems bleak for at least the next couple of years. Further, increasing the ARV of the currently assessed properties would also probably witness limited buoyancy given the national real estate market scenario. Therefore, enhancing Own-source Revenue significantly would require highly innovative thoughts. Though to a certain extent, there is a potential to enhance Property Tax collections by improving collections against current demand from the current levels of 60-65%. Significant increase in Own-source Revenue from Water Tax is a strong possibility, given the enhanced availability of water in the city after the Kshipra and other water projects are completed. Though some of this increase in Water Tax collections will come from increasing the number of connections, the anticipated increase in Water Tax collections, however, will largely be dependent on enhancing tariff from the current level of Rs.50 per household per month to Rs.200 per month. This would be a critical measure to significantly enhance DMCs Own-source Revenue. Dewas has a significant floating population, wherein people work in the industries of Dewas, but live in Indore (less than a 45-minute drive), thereby gaining from economic activity in Dewas, but not contributing to the infrastructure development of the city. Thus, the possibility of identifying innovative sources of revenue that would generate significant receipts for DMC and be buoyant over a sustained period of time appears to be rather limited. DMCs Operating Surplus, i.e., total Own-source & compensation from GoMP against abolition of Octroi & Passenger Tax and Stamp Duty, less Operating Expenditure, i.e., total expenditure less capex, is negative (or in deficit) in five of the six years under review. Moreover, it would be negative or in deficit if one were to consider the cumulative value of the Operating Surplus. Therefore, DMC funds its entire capex from Grants & Assigned Receipts from Finance Commissions, GoMP or Govt. of India schemes, i.e., all development work in Dewas has been restricted to the quantum of Grants & Assigned Receipts it can secure. An 1986 Order of GoMP prohibiting any further recruitment of staff in municipal corporations of M.P. has resulted in quite a few key positions in revenue generating departments being vacant within DMC (DMC is unable to replace retired staff). So, the staff support available to devise and implement improved systems/mechanisms, as well as new sources of revenue, would be a challenge.

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CHAPTER 7. STRATEGY AND APPROACH TOWARDS DEVELOPING A CITY SANITATION PLAN


7.1 Introduction
Implementing a City Sanitation Plan (CSP) is a challenging task that will require significant planning, initiative, innovation, prioritization, customization and leadership. Although the DMC will be primarily responsible for implementing the CSP, it will require the concerted efforts of many stakeholders to achieve this goal. Partnership arrangements with relevant government agencies, the private sector, civil society and citizens/households will need to be established and institutionalized for successful implementation of the CSP. The study of the sanitation situation in Dewas and the projection of demand for various sanitation services will define the level of deficiency in respect of sanitation in Dewas. The National Urban Policy, Integrated Urban Sanitation Programme of GoMP, and the National Rating and Award Scheme for Sanitation for Indian Cities, instituted by Government of India, provide a good framework for defining the steps to be taken for preparing the City Sanitation Plan and its implementation. A broad strategy of preparing the City Sanitation Plan for Dewas and its implementation is discussed in the following sections, with reference to the following issues: Concept of developing vision and short-term action plan. Deficiency analysis leading to identification of stress areas across the city in respect of various emerging sanitation issues. Approach to consideration and evaluation of various options. Approach to identifying specific projects and their detailing. Implementation plan. The guidance provided by the GoI sanitation rating system is useful in defining the specific steps to be followed in preparing and implementing the City Sanitation Plan for Dewas, as shown below.
TABLE 17 GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF CITY SANITATION PLAN FROM NATIONAL RATING SCHEME FOR SANITATION

Sr. No. 1

Indicators in National Rating Scheme for Guidelines for City Sanitation Plan Sanitation Output-related Proposals to provide safe access to household sanitation and cover entire population by toilets Proposals for safe disposal of waste water, storm water and solid waste Proposal to meet the national standards for safe disposal of liquid and solid wastes Issues to be addressed in preparing the implementation plan Implementation plan to propose monitoring systems

2 3

Process-related Outcome-related

7.2 Approach to Project Design


7.2.1 Time horizon It is expected that the required sanitation infrastructure will be created in stages to meet CSP goals in the short- and long-term. The time horizon needs to be defined with some clarity for the purpose of planning and design of the various components of the City Sanitation Plan. Some
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components like the sewer network need to be sized for a long time horizon, since frequent expansion of the works is not possible and will not be cost effective. On the other hand, facilities like toilets, roadside drains, and solid waste collection and transport works need to be designed only for an immediate future. They can be augmented suitably as and when the demand develops. For this purpose, the following time horizons are suggested for different phases of developing the sanitation plan: (a) Immediate action: - Year 2011 to 2013 (b) Short-term: - Year 2014 to 2021 (c) Medium-term: - Year 2022 to 2031 (d) Long-term: - Year 2032 to 2041

7.3 Approach to Provide Safe Access to Sanitation


7.3.1 Eradication of open defecation The Dewas Cleanliness Survey shows that about 11% of households do not have private toilets. Open defecation is common in many wards and slums. Some slum households are reported to resort to open defecation, even though they have their own private toilets. The problem has two facets. Non-availability of household toilets forces some households to follow the practice of defecation in open. There are also ingrained behavioral patterns, mainly due to lack of knowledge and information about the adverse impact of this practice on the public health and cleanliness of the city. The CSP, therefore, needs to adopt a two-pronged approach of: (i) coverage of the entire population by providing sanitary toilets; and (ii) creating awareness and imparting appropriate health education to follow hygienic practices and protect the public health and environment. 7.3.2 Options for toilets Two options are available. One option is to encourage the people to construct their own private toilets. The second option is to provide public toilets, particularly in areas like slums, where affordability of private toilets may be an issue. The other problem is the floating population in certain wards, which have significant commercial or industrial activity or, like in ward 24, a large number of pilgrims visiting the Mataji Temple. The approach in selecting the appropriate toilet design needs to address the following issues: Suitability and preference of the beneficiary population. Availability of space within the household for a private toilet and public space for community toilet. Affordability of the user households. Ease of operation and maintenance. Institutional adequacy for O&M of public toilets. Sustainability of the system. 7.4 Approach to Disposal of Household Waste Water Possible options

7.4.1

Depending on the availability of space for disposal of waste water within the household premises, the following options may be explored: On-site disposal through septic tanks and soakage pits or two pit latrines, with other waste water also connected to pits. Effluent of septic tanks connected to a local small-bore sewerage network, with secondary treatment provided to the waste water collected in the system. Regular sewer network, in which the toilet water and other waste water from the households will be collected, with full primary and secondary treatment provided at the terminal end.
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Combination of these three options is possible in different parts of the city, depending on the feasibility. 7.4.2 Evaluation of options

The feasibility of adopting any of the above options depends on the availability of space within the households, density of population allowing for disposal within the vicinity of the respective areas, geological condition for on-site soakage, possibility of contamination of the ground water, acceptability of local population, capital and operating costs, and long-term sustainability. Choice of the mix of these different options will have to be made for each locality, based on these parameters.

7.5 Approach to Waste Water Disposal at Community Level


7.5.1 Options Waste water collected from the households for off-site disposal can be handled in three ways: Local decentralized systems. Centralized system (one or more for the city, depending on the configuration). Combination of the two. 7.5.2 Evaluation of options Major considerations will be based on the citys existing land use (whether isolated development or core area), density of population, feasibility of finding a suitable local piece of land for treatment and disposal, acceptability to the beneficiary population, and the cost (both capital and operating). Some constraints (like the railway line passing through the city) will affect the layout of the systems. Dewas presents a good opportunity to employ both local decentralized and centralized sewerage systems.

7.6 Approach to Waste Water Treatment and Reuse


7.6.1 Standards of treatment

The degree of treatment depends on the method of disposal of treated sewage. The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986, prescribe the following general standards for discharge of effluents, in respect of suspended solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and pH.
TABLE 18 EFFLUENT STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC SEWAGE

Sr. No.

Parameter

Standards Inland Surface Water Public Sewers 600 5.5-9 350 Land for Irrigation 200 5.5-9 100

1 2 3

Suspended solids (mg/l) PH value Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5 days at 20o C) 7.6.2 Options for treatment

100 5.5-9 30

The method and degree of treatment depend on the final disposal of the effluent. The normal, widely used sewage treatment method includes pre-treatment for removal of floating and settleable in-organic solids, followed by primary treatment to remove settleable in-organic and organic solids, and secondary biological treatment. A number of options are available for secondary biological treatment. The degree of treatment, which determines the quality of final effluent, depends on the choice of appropriate design parameters. Some of the commonly adopted treatment processes include:
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Aerobic processes, such as: o o o o o o Activated sludge process and its modifications. Waste stabilization ponds. Aerated lagoons. Trickling filter. Rotating biological contactor. Sequential batch reactor (SBR).

Anaerobic processes, such as up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, followed by some aerobic polishing process. Anaerobic digester for stabilization of sludge followed by some drying process. 7.6.3 Evaluation Selection of a suitable treatment process needs to be done by evaluating the possible options on the basis of parameters like efficiency of treatment, energy requirement, land requirement, capital and operating costs, and use of treated effluent. 7.6.4 Reuse of treated effluent There is a good possibility of using the treated effluent for irrigating the citys agricultural lands. The present source of irrigation for lands around Dewas is deep tube wells. Water needs to be pumped through a lift of 150 to 180 meters. Use of treated sewage for irrigation is a very attractive alternative. Another likely use is for some operations in the industrial areas. One water supply scheme, with Narmada River water as its source, has recently been constructed and commissioned for industries as a PPP project. Source of raw water is about 135 km. away. This water is obviously very expensive. While the treated effluent offers a good alternative, some more treatment in the form of physico-chemical tertiary treatment is necessary to make the effluent safe for use in the industrial areas.

7.7 Approach to Storm Water Disposal


7.7.1 Current situation

The citys seven well-defined natural streams are able to dispose of storm water without causing major problem of flooding. The problem is more at the local level, since coverage of the city with built-up drains is very poor. Many of the roads either do not have any drains or have only katcha drains. Stagnation of waste water in the drains is a common feature. Indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in the surface drains aggravates the situation. Hence, improvement of secondary and tertiary roadside drains assumes importance in the strategy of improving city sanitation.
7.7.2 Options for storm water disposal

One option is to provide roadside surface drains, similar to the existing built-up drains, based on scientific layout and design. Providing a combined sewer network, which caters for both waste water and storm water, is another option. The size of drains is decided after considering important meteorological parameters like intensity, duration and return period of rainfall. The City Sanitation Plan needs to incorporate solutions to storm water drainage to avoid flooding and stagnation of offensive waste water. The options and sizing of drains need to be evaluated by considering the parameters of efficiency, suitability and cost.

7.8 Approach to Collection, Disposal and Treatment of Solid Waste


It is proposed that DMC adopt an integrated approach for total solid waste management from primary collection to its ultimate disposal, including all the intermediate steps. The CSP will look into both the technical and institutional aspects of appropriate and feasible options for different components of the supply chain from primary collection to the ultimate disposal in a sanitary landfill. DMC will develop an appropriate system for providing full and uniform coverage of the entire city population across all categories of settlements and income groups. The aim is to enable DMC to move toward providing 100% coverage under door-to-door collection service and achieve safe disposal. Broad feasible solutions will be proposed in respect of the following:
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Primary storage Primary collection and secondary storage: o Door-to-door collection service. o Community waste depots. o Collection from non-domestic sources. Street sweeping and drain cleaning. Secondary collection and transport service delivery options. Waste treatment. Waste disposal. For the purpose of solid waste management, the following time horizons will be explored: o Immediate-action: 0-6 months o Short-term: 1-2 years o Medium-term: 3-5 years o Long-term: > 5 years. The most visible components of primary collection, secondary storage and transport will be implemented in the short- to medium-term, whereas a sanitary landfill will be implemented in the medium-term and the component of treatment could be taken up towards the latter part of the medium-term or long-term. Municipal solid waste management operations will essentially involve 3M management of material, machinery and manpower. In the overall scheme, manpower plays a very critical role because the bulk of the municipal workers at the lower rung are characterized by low levels of education, awareness, skills, etc. These aspects will be addressed as a part of the Dewas CSPs institutional strengthening and capacity building component, as follows: Aligning MSW management with the citys Engineering Department. Capacity building in public relations and community management. Local bylaws for MSW management. Capacity building of councilors and officials. Participatory monitoring. Customized manual on MSW management. Customized MIS for MSW Management.

7.9 Strategy of Implementation of Sanitation Plan


The following aspects will be detailed as part of the implementation plan of the City Sanitation Plan. 7.9.1 Institutional arrangements

The guidelines prepared for the Integrated Urban Sanitation Program (IUSP) by the Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, Urban Administration and Development Department (UADD), recommend formation of committees at the state and city level for facilitating the implementation of CSP. Under these guidelines, a city-level sanitation committee is to be formed for facilitating effective implementation of the CSP. This committee is empowered to bring together various actors in the implementation of the CSP, which will be critical to achieving the vision of an open defecation free city. The sanitation committee is envisaged as an advisory and policy level body, which is supported by a technical committee called the city sanitation cell (CSC), which comprises a group of dedicated technical professionals (specializing in city human excreta and liquid waste management). The Commissioner, DMC, will appoint a suitable officer as the nodal officer for this cell. The CSC will be responsible for managing all technical aspects of implementing the CSP.

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7.9.2 Mapping key stakeholders for CSP implementation in Dewas DMC will engage and forge partnerships with a broad range of stakeholders. These stakeholder partnerships will be crucial to address issues/constraints at the local level and to bring about greater synergy in action. Stakeholders Program/CSP implementing agencies/committees Civil society Households/citizens Elected representatives Private sector 7.9.3 Dewas Municipal Corporation officials and staff City-level sanitation committee City sanitation cell Civil society organizations Non-Governmental Organizations Disaggregated by economic status and current sanitation practices Councillors, local member of Legislative Assembly Industries and their associations

Strategic communications with the staff of the DMC

Being the primary implementers of the City Sanitation Plan, the staff of the DMC will be made fully aware of the plan and the various strategies essential for effective implementation. Further, since the staff is also DMCs primary interface with the citys households/citizens, they can also play a strategic role in generating awareness. 7.9.4 Approach for community awareness and participation

In order to ensure smooth implementation of the CSP it will be critical to engage with the citys citizens/households through a targeted communication program. The primary aim of the communication program would be to create awareness on the need for improved city sanitation (including household level sanitation facilities and mechanisms for safe disposal of waste water), along with enhancing awareness on linkages of sanitation with health, economic productivity and environment. The initial target audience for a community awareness program would be the following segments of the urban population in Dewas: Households currently practicing open defecation. Households that currently lack individual/private toilets and are using public/community toilets. Households that are currently disposing their waste water in open drains. Households that have septic tanks as a waste water disposal mechanism. 7.9.5. Institutionalizing community-government interactions DMC will need to institutionalize a platform for advocacy and participatory governance to achieve the objectives of the CSP. Successful models for community-local government interaction such as the Bhagidari-Sanjha Prayas in Delhi, which has been replicated in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, or Janagraha in Bangalore, will be reviewed for replication. Community representatives of various organized groups will meet on a periodic basis to discuss key implementation concerns with follow-up action by the concerned department. A senior officer in DMC will head the Bhagidari for DMC cell in DMC and ensure compliance and follow-up action on demands raised in various meetings with the support of the city sanitation cell.

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7.9.6

Community participation at city scale

Mobilization of citizens at the local level and subsequent activity-planning will be necessary, including significant discussion regarding revision and finalization of key recommendations of the City Sanitation Plan and their subsequent implementation, as well as operational management of issues that come up during project implementation. The community structures created under the Swaran Jyanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) could be utilized to plan and implement community level interventions.

7.10 Financing the City Sanitation Plan


The City Sanitation Plan will require considerable financial resources and a prioritized multi-year capital investment plan. Resources for CSP will be generated from funds earmarked for water and sanitation development within municipal and state government budgets, but will not be limited to these resources alone. Funding for CSP implementation will include funds from the 13th Finance Commission and other center and state schemes for sanitation improvement. In addition to funding of the capital expenses for implementation of the CSP, a regular source of financial resources would also be required to fund the operations & maintenance (O&M) of the various facilities that will be created. In addition to DMCs budgetary resources, it will be necessary to explore the possibility of levying user charges for some of the proposed services, at least to cover annual O&M expenditure, if not also to fund capital replacement.

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CHAPTER 8. WASTE WATER SYSTEMS


This chapter deals with the disposal of human excreta, liquid waste and storm water. 8.1

Sanitation Components

The Dewas CSP needs to include a comprehensive plan for the following: Safe disposal of human excreta and liquid waste at household level. Safe disposal of human excreta and liquid waste at public sanitary conveniences. Safe collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of liquid waste from individual communities (like wards and slums) and the city. Safe disposal of storm water drainage from communities and city. Safe collection, transport, treatment and disposal of solid waste. Safe collection, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes.

Management of Human Excreta 8.2 Existing Coverage by Toilets


8.2.1 Household toilets The Dewas Cleanliness Survey, 2008, conducted by Dewas Municipal Corporation, covered 23,708 households. Out of these, 89% (21,098) of households had individual toilets, either with septic tanks, pits, temporary disposal arrangements or directly discharging in roadside drains. This survey did not distinguish between households in slums versus other areas in the wards. The rapid land use survey done by Alchemy shows that 95% of households in non-slum areas and about 33% of households in slums have individual toilets. 8.2.2 Public toilets

Public toilets exist in 20 wards. Twenty-five public toilets (with 99 seats) are free use toilets, 14 of them being located in 11 slums. Six toilets (with 87 seats) are pay and use toilets, located in 6 core area wards. DMCs Cleanliness Survey shows that about 22% of households have access to public toilets. 8.2.3 Open defecation

The Dewas Cleanliness Survey shows that about 9% of households surveyed resort to open defecation. The incidence is highest in wards 1, 3, 11-16, 24 and 42. The reconnaissance survey done by FIRE (D) through Acute Consulting Services shows that open defecation is seen in 7 wards on a large scale and in another 22 wards to a lesser extent. The rapid land use survey of Alchemy shows that non-slum areas in 3 wards (7, 22 and 45) and slums in wards 1, 11, 13, 16, 43 and 44 show an incidence of open defecation. Four of these slums are in peripheral wards, while slums in wards 13 and 16 are close to industrial areas. Interestingly, some slum households that have individual toilets also resort to open defecation. Open defecation is thus a major challenge and is not only on account of non-availability of a toilet facility within the household or nearby, but also due to habits and attitude of the residents.
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8.3 Estimation of Demand for New Household Toilets


8.3.1 Households with no toilets

The 2008 Dewas Cleanliness Survey covered 23,708 households. The total number of households in year 2008 was about 48,000. Average population increase between 2001 and 2011 has been estimated at 1.9604% per annum and projected at 2% per annum between 2011 and 2021. It is reasonable to estimate the number of households in year 2011 and thereafter with the same logic and growth rate. As stated above, 11% of households do not have individual toilets. Thus, the number of households, which lack access to household toilets, is estimated as under.
TABLE 19 ESTIMATE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH NO TOILETS

Year 2008 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 8.3.2

Growth Rate

Households 48,000 50,878 51,896 52,934 53,993 55,073

1.96% 2% 2% 2% 2% Options

Households Lacking Toilets % Number 11 5,280 11 5,597 11 5,709 11 5,823 11 5,939 11 6,058

A toilet facility can be provided in one of four possible ways: Individual household toilets, Shared toilets for more than one household (say, 2 to 5 households), Public toilets, or Community toilets.

Relative advantages of each are analyzed below.

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TABLE 20 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOILETS

Sr. No. 1 2

Parameters Feasibility of construction Cost

Options of Toilets Individual Depends on availability of land Depends on the design, but more for comparable design By individual Maximum, affordable Maximum Individual household Maximum if

3 4 5 6 7

Cost sharing Acceptability Sense of ownership O&M Sustainability

Public or Community Possibility of land with one of the Depends on beneficiaries is better availability of public plot Less than individual toilet Least per seat, but may increase with a dedicated water supply Shared by beneficiaries Individual household not burdened Acceptable, if individual toilet May be preferred, not affordable as no burden of cost Less Does not exist

Shared

8 9

Desirability Suitability

Depends on will, capacity and Needs separate cooperation of beneficiaries organization Depends on will, capacity and Depends on cooperation of beneficiaries capacity of organization (better, if pay and use type) Most desirable, if Next choice, if affordability is an Least desirable affordable issue Most suitable Suitable in low-income Should be adopted households (like slums) only when no other option available

8.3.3

Choice

It is desirable to choose an alternative, which is affordable, sustainable and likely to be most used and well maintained. It is recommended to provide individual toilets to most of the households. Where individual households cannot afford, have no suitable land for construction, and are willing to share a facility, shared toilets should be promoted. Surveys also reveal that, in a few cases, households with individual toilets may be defecating in the open. A considerable effort of creating awareness and change in attitude is called for. 8.3.4 Estimate of quantity

The total number of households lacking in household toilets is estimated at 5,597, or say 6,000, in year 2011. Most of these households may be from slums. The number of new household toilets is, thus, estimated as 6,000.

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8.4

Sanitation Arrangements for Floating Population


8.4.1 Need

Dewas is the district headquarters. Chamunda Mata Temple attracts many pilgrims, making it a city of religious significance. Industrial activity in the southern part and the Bank Note Press in the north, coupled with a substantial commercial activity in the core wards of the city, attract a large number of visitors and floating population. A survey of the citys wards was again done, and results shown in the map below to understand the non-domestic commercial and industrial activity centers, which need public conveniences for maintaining sanitation in these wards.

Major Land Use Attracting Floating Population 8.4.2 Estimate of public toilets for floating population

The results of the survey are used to estimate the requirement of public toilets in select wards, as below. The number of seats is estimated at an average 100 users per seat assuming that, in some of these establishments, toilets will be available for the floating population.

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TABLE 21 ESTIMATE OF PUBLIC TOILETS

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4

Activity

Ward(s) No(s) 24 32 33 to 36 2, 17 to 26, 29 to 31

Mataji Temple Bus Stand Market Place Commercial shops along arterial roads like A.B. Road, Ujjain Road, Station Road, etc. Industrial activity in parts 8.4.3

Floating Population per Day Approximately 20,000

No. of Seats Required 200

Seats of Existing Facility 12 public toilets in wards 12, 15, 20, 23, 25, 31, 32 and 42 Total seats - 86

Additional Seats Required 114

4, 12, 15, 26, 42

Estimate of community toilets in slums

Open defecation is commonly seen in slums in four peripheral wards 1, 11, 43 and 44, and two wards 13 and 16, which are close to the industrial area. Coverage of households with individual toilets is much less in slums than in non-slum areas. Except in 2 slums, public toilets have not been provided in the slums in these wards. While the emphasis should be to promote household toilets in all areas, including slums, there may be some slum households in these six wards, which may not wish to have their own private toilets. Reasons may be that either they cannot afford one or they find open defecation not as embarrassing as they would have, if their slums were located in the developed parts of the city. It may perhaps be prudent to make some alternative provision for such households. It is proposed to construct public conveniences for, say, about 10% of the population in these slums, to ensure that the practice of open defecation is not encouraged. In other slums, a few households may also not find enough space to construct their own private latrine or may not be able to afford one. A token provision of community toilets for 5% of the population in these slums is also proposed. Efforts to create awareness and motivation should be pursued simultaneously to also achieve full coverage of the slum households with individual toilets. Requirement of community toilets, as an interim measure, is estimated at 1 seat per 50 population, as below.
TABLE 22 REQUIREMENT OF COMMUNITY TOILETS IN SLUMS

Sr. Name of Slum No.

Ward No.

1 2

Slums with Open Defecation Bilawali 1 Jetpura 1

Population Population Estimate of Seats of Public of Slum for Toilets Community Toilets Required Existing Balance Required At 10%

2,080 2,276

208 228

4 5

4 5
86

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Mendhaki Nandanagar Amona Gaon Shantinagar Bawadiya Idukhan Colony Chuna Khadan Balgad Navi Abadi Pal Nagar Anvatpura Nagda (P)Rajivnagar Total for Slums with Open Defecation Other Slums Total for Slums All

11 11 13 13 16 16 43 43 44 44

2,600 260 5,400 3,900 6,639 390 1,680 1,820 4,680 390 32,115

260 26 540 390 664 39 168 182 468 39 3,212

5 1 11 8 13 1 3 4 9 1 65

5 3 8

5 11 8 13 1 4 9 1 61

79,376 111,491

3,969 (at 5 79 %) 7,181 144

53 61

26 87

Disposal of Waste Water

8.5 Options for Disposal of Waste Water at Household Level


Domestic waste water generated at the household level, including the waste from toilets, can be disposed of either on-site or off-site or a combination of both. Possible options are: Fully on-site disposal (septic tanks or soak pits), Local sewer network (small-bore sewerage or decentralized waste water treatment systems), Centralized or decentralized full-scale sewerage systems, or Combined systems. 8.5.1 Fully on-site sanitation system description

Fully on-site sanitation arrangements will involve on-plot treatment and disposal of all domestic waste water. This is achieved by using on-plot sanitation technologies -- septic tank and soak pits - to receive and treat the entire waste water flow from the household. However, it is recommended that the septage (sludge from septic tanks) is removed and transferred to another location for further treatment and final disposal. Under this option the following arrangements are made.

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8.5.1.1 SANITATION ARRANGEMENTS AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL

(a) Septic tank with soak pits In this option, all discharge of domestic waste water resulting from bathing, washing, cooking, cleaning and usage of toilets is treated in the septic tank. The septic tank effluent is disposed in dispersion trenches or soak pits. Septage is periodically cleared and taken away to a common treatment facility. (b) Twin soak pits (leach pits) Wastewater from the latrine is discharged into a soak pit in this option. Waste water from domestic use, such as domestic waste water from bathing, washing, cooking, cleaning, etc. is also disposed into another soak pit. For an uninterrupted and proper functioning, it is recommended to use a set of two pits. (See three sketches of household level disposal arrangements on following page.) (c) Improvements in existing household disposal facilities Existing household sanitation arrangements, which do not have proper disposal, can be improved by:

Construction of soak pits for existing toilets having only septic tanks, and Providing a septic tank with soak pits for latrines, which do not have a proper disposal arrangement.

(d) Public toilets Similar to household toilets, community/public toilets may also be provided with a septic tankbased on-site system with a soak pit or soakage trenches (for effluent disposal). (e) Septage management It will be necessary to set up an efficient septage collection system, operated by either the Municipal Corporation or a private agency. Appropriate regulation and monitoring mechanisms, in respect of septic tanks and septage handling and disposal, need to introduced (see section in Ch. 9 on Septage Management System).

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OUT LET PENSTOCK OUT LET


SOAK PIT SCUM BOARD

BAFFLE W.C. PAN INLET CHAMBER

SEPTIC TANK
SOAK PIT

SECTION

PLAN TYPICAL SKETCH OF LATRINE CONNECTED TO SEPTIC TANK

PIT

PIT

PIT
W.C. PAN

SECTION PLAN TYPICAL SKETCH OF TWO PIT LATRINE

MANHOLE

ROAD SEWER LINE

W.C. PAN

MANHOLE

SECTION PLAN

TYPICAL SKETCH OF LATRINE CONNECTED TO SEWER

Typical Arrangements of Household Latrine and Disposal Works 8.5.2 Small-bore sewerage system description

In a small-bore sewerage system, all internal waste water, including the toilet usage water, is diverted to an on-plot septic tank. Households constructing new individual sanitation facilities should be encouraged to construct septic tanks/interception chambers. Some households could continue to use pit latrines. Only their other household waste water (gray water) may be connected to sewers. The septage (sludge from septic tanks) is removed for further treatment and final disposal. A small diameter sewer pipe (< 200 mm) is laid at a flatter gradient to carry the effluent from the septic tanks. Since the sewer pipes do not carry solids, the flatter gradient and smaller
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diameter are sufficient. The flatter gradient also allows laying of sewer lines at shallower depths, resulting in some cost reduction. Under this option, the following household/public sanitation and waste water treatment and disposal arrangements will be possible: (a) Household sanitation The following arrangements are feasible: Septic tank is connected to small-bore sewerage network: all domestic waste water is partially treated in the septic tank and the effluent is disposed into the small-bore sewerage network for further treatment and final disposal. Septage is periodically cleared and taken away to a common treatment facility. Twin pit latrine waste water is disposed into soak pits. Other domestic waste water (resulting from bathing, washing, cooking, cleaning, etc.) is also disposed into soak pits. A minimum of two pits will be necessary to ensure proper, uninterrupted functioning of the system. (b) Public toilets In the case of public sanitary conveniences, a septic tank-based on-site system is constructed. The septic tank effluent is disposed into a small-bore sewerage network for further treatment and final disposal. (c) Disposal of septage It will be necessary to set up an efficient septage collection system, operated by either the Municipal Corporation or a private agency. Appropriate regulation and monitoring mechanisms, in respect of septic tanks and septage handling and disposal, need to be introduced. (d) Conveyance of septic tank effluent The septic tank effluent is disposed into a network of small-bore sewer pipes for centralized or decentralized treatment and final disposal. (e) Treatment of waste water Effluent from the septic tanks is partially treated, but still is not safe for discharge into public water bodies. Prior to final disposal, the collected waste water should be adequately treated to meet effluent discharge standards. 8.5.3 Centralized or decentralized sewerage system description

This alternative includes a proposal for a regular sewerage network (either a local simplified network or an elaborate citywide network) to collect the waste water from the households. The network is normally laid through most of the town. Waste water is collected at different locations in the decentralized systems and is treated before final disposal or reuse. In a centralized system(s), the waste water is collected at a central location(s) for treatment and final disposal or reuse (like land irrigation).
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Whether a series of decentralized systems is feasible depends on land availability. Otherwise, a centralized treatment plant for the whole (or major) part of the city may be proposed. A detailed topographical and land availability survey will be necessary to determine the feasibility and required number of decentralized waste water treatment plants. In the area covered with a sewerage network, efforts should be made to connect all households to the sewerage network. Even in this alternative, there is a possibility that a few households will still be served by on-site sanitation systems mainly pit latrines. Under this option, the following household/public sanitation and waste water treatment and disposal arrangements will be possible: (a) Household sanitation arrangement The entire domestic waste water discharge of a household is disposed into the sewerage network, or The entire domestic waste water (including bathing, washing, kitchen and latrine) of those households, who chose not to connect to the sewer network, is disposed directly into household soak pits. A minimum of two pits will be necessary to ensure proper, uninterrupted functioning of the system. (b) Public sanitary conveniences Public sanitary conveniences will be directly connected to the nearest sewer line of the network. 8.5.4 Combined system description

Under this option, a combination of all options is promoted, assuming that all households have access to improved sanitation facilities and human excreta and community liquid wastes are treated and safely disposed. The combination includes both on-site sanitation arrangements (septic tanks with soak pits and twin pit latrines, as described in section 8.5.1) and off-site sanitation systems (small-bore sewerage systems or regular sewerage with centralized or decentralized wastewater treatment systems, as described in sections 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 above). Under this option, the following arrangements are envisaged for household/public sanitation and waste water treatment and disposal arrangements. (a) Household sanitation. The following options are available: Septic tank with soak pits receives the entire household waste water discharge resulting from bathing, washing, cooking, cleaning and latrine usage, etc. and provides a partial treatment. The septic tank effluent is disposed either into the small-bore sewer network or into a soak pit. Septage is periodically cleared and taken away to a common treatment facility. Sewerage network receives all the household waste water and conveys it to the centralized or decentralized treatment plant(s). Some households continue to use twin soak pits for all domestic waste water (including bathing, washing, kitchen and latrine). A minimum of two pits will be necessary to ensure proper, uninterrupted functioning of the system. In areas where a sewer network of some sort is provided, this option may not be encouraged.
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(b) Public conveniences In the case of public sanitary conveniences, waste water discharge is disposed into the sewerage network for further treatment and final disposal, in areas where some sewer network is provided. In areas, which will not have a sewer network nearby, the waste water is discharged into a septic tank with soak pits. (c) Disposal of septage

For households served by an on-site sanitation system, i.e., septic tanks, it is necessary to set up an efficient septage collection system that can be operated by the Municipal Corporation or a private agency. Appropriate regulation and monitoring mechanisms need to be set up to ensure that septic tanks are properly built, that septage is cleared regularly, and safely treated and disposed. The septage can be treated at a separate septage treatment facility, in the form of sludge drying beds of sand filters for dewatering/sun drying. (d) Waste water conveyance and treatment Domestic waste water, disposed into the sewerage network, is transported to the waste water treatment site(s) for treatment and final disposal. Treatment will meet the disposal standards. 8.5.5 Evaluation of options of waste water disposal Four options for disposal of domestic waste water, discussed above, are evaluated on various parameters for the purpose of recommending options for different areas of Dewas city.
TABLE 23 EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL OPTIONS

Sr. No.

Parameters

Waste Water Disposal Systems On-site Disposal (A) Local Small-bore System (B) Low Easy fast Sewerage (C) Combined System (D) High Easier than (C)

1 2

Public Least investment Ease of Can be implementation achieved faster; depends on user response Ease of O&M Easy, as user responsible

Highest

and Most difficult

Use of existing Maximum household facility

Easy, as less complex, but multiple schemes Maximum

Most difficult and expensive

Easier than (C)

Septic More use tanks will than in (C) be


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Septage management Land availability

Separate system required Problem in core city and developed area

7 8

Impact on ground water Willingness to connect and pay

Maximum Not applicable, as it is own initiative

Suitability

Suitable in small isolated areas; not suitable in large urban places, like Dewas as standalone solution

redundant Separate Not for system household required septage Problem in Land for core city pumping stations and developed and treatment area plant Less than Least (A) Less More, as household does not need a septic tank Suitable in Suitable in core and isolated developed and peripheral areas areas, but not suitable for integration in central sewerage

Required to some extent Choice as per land availability feasible

Much less Depends on type of disposal

Suitable depending on land use

8.6 Integration of Existing Sewerage Facilities in Dewas


Some areas in Dewas city have been developed by the Dewas Development Authority (DDA). DDA has also provided the infrastructure for water supply, sewerage (with local treatment plants in the form of septic tanks), internal roads and drains. The feasibility of utilization of the sewerage systems in these areas and their integration in the proposals of the City Sanitation Plan need to be studied. 8.6.1 Existing sewerage

The DDA-developed sewerage systems consist of local sewer networks, connected to septic tanks in most cases. Details collected in the reconnaissance survey are summarized below.

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TABLE 24 EXISTING SEWERAGE INFRASTRUCTURE

Sr. No.

Wards with Sewerage (No.)

Coverage (%)

Treatment

Disposal of Effluent

Condition

1. 2.

2 3

50% 100%

3. 4. 5. 6.

6 8 9 10

10% 60% 30% 30%

Community tank Sewerage treatment plant Community tank Community tank Community tank Community tank

septic Effluent not seen Effluent not seen septic Effluent not seen septic Effluent not seen septic Effluent not seen septic In open drains

Sewers Good

Septic Tanks Good

Good

Good

Good Good Good

Good Good Good

Not good, but Good usable

7.

12

20%

Community septic In open Not good, but Good tank drains usable Community septic Effluent tank in Dhancha not seen Bhavan; no septic tank in Sun City Not good, but Top slab of usable septic tank collapsed; no flow seen in Dhancha Bhavan and no septic tank in Sun City Sewer line on -both sides of road, good Sewer line on -both sides of road, good Sewer line on -both sides of road, good

16

10%

17

20%

No treatment

To nalla

10

18

100%

No treatment

To nalla

11

19

35%

No treatment

To nalla

94

12

20

20%

13

42

10%

To gutter Good in Chamund a Complex; in Panshilna gar and Mahavirn agar no effluent seen Community septic Effluent Good tank not seen No treatment in Chamunda Complex; only septic tank in Mahavirnagar

Good

Good

8.6.2

Approach to utilization of existing sewerage facilities

The existing sewerage networks in the above-mentioned wards in Dewas city are currently in use. The capacity and current status are not known. One view is that, since a new sewerage project is being planned for the city, it may be desirable to discard the existing network and plan a new one. At the same time, it is known that the network is in use and serving households in carrying away waste water to the disposal site. Rather than discarding the network straight way, it may be prudent to use it for some more time (say, up to year 2021) before it is discarded and a new network is planned for this area in the medium-term (year 2022-31). Disposal of waste water conveyed through the existing sewer network is done in community septic tanks fully in 9 wards and partly in one ward, and in a sewage treatment plant in one ward. In 2 wards, raw sewage is discharged in nallas. The performance of the septic tanks is not known. Also, the effluent of the septic tanks is still offensive, unless it is treated further. Since the quantity of the effluent from each septic tank is large, it cannot be handled by soakage pits for a long time. The effluent will eventually percolate to the surface and create unsanitary conditions. It will, therefore, be desirable to provide a suitable secondary treatment to the effluent, using a suitable technology (like DEWATS). In three wards, where the raw sewage is discharged into open drains, it will be necessary to introduce suitable small capacity treatment plants (like DEWATS). The approach recommended for those areas that have a sewer network will be to: (a) continue to use the existing network up to year 2021, (b) provide secondary treatment to the septic tank effluent in 10 wards (9 fully and 1 partly), (c) provide new small sewage treatment plants in three wards (2 fully and 1 partly), and (d) connect the network to the new city network, if feasible, as an alternative to the local treatment facility. 8.6.3 Coverage of existing sewerage and demand for new sewerage in these wards

The population covered by the existing sewer network in each of these 13 wards and the balance population to be provided with a new network are shown in Annexure 10 and are summarized in the following table.

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TABLE 25 COVERAGE AND NEW DEMAND FOR SEWERAGE IN WARDS PARTIALLY SEWERED

Sr. Wards No. (Nos.)

Classification of Population

2, 3, 6, 8, Total 9, 10, 12, Sewered 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 42 Balance 8.7

Present Projected Population Coverage 2011 2021 2031 106,042 135,026 176,586 10% to 34,785 34,785 34,785 100%

2041 218,386 34,785

71,257

100,241

141,801

183,601

Decentralized and Centralized Waste Water Disposal Systems

The study of the existing land use in Dewas city shows that some core areas of the city are densely populated. These areas are best suited to centralized disposal systems. There are many DDA areas, however, which are contiguous to the core city, but still can be dealt with separately. There are many wards in the outer ring and the periphery of the town, which are sparsely populated in the form of isolated settlements. Solutions to these different types of development can be sitespecific and different. Possible options are discussed below. 8.7.1 Decentralized systems

Decentralized systems are feasible and desirable in areas that are isolated and have space to accommodate small multiple waste water treatment plants and disposal systems. Since these systems are localized small systems, they will be economical and simpler for operation and maintenance. It may be also possible to form local committees or co-operative societies, which may take up the O&M of these plants. A substantial community mobilization effort, of course, will be necessary. If this is not feasible and achievable, the alternative is to outsource the O&M to a private party. A third alternative is for the Municipal Corporation to take over this responsibility. 8.7.2 Centralized systems

In areas like the core city wards, density of population is high, open plots are not likely to be available, and people may not accept multiple treatment and disposal systems within the vicinity. Hence, localized dispersed systems may not be feasible. A centralized system, which collects the waste water from a large city area through a sewer network and conveys it to a central, largesize treatment plant and disposal system, may become imperative. Such a system will be more expensive than the decentralized systems for the same area, but may be better for unitary control over its O&M. The responsibility will be taken over by Municipal Corporation and participation of the beneficiary population will be limited. 8.7.3 Choice of decentralized and centralized systems

The choice between decentralized vs. centralized systems mainly depends on feasibility in terms of availability of land for decentralized systems, their acceptability to the people and cost (both

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capital and O&M). A quick survey1 of all the wards and slums was done to determine the feasibility of these two alternatives. Data collected in this survey is documented in Annexures 11 and 12. The choice of centralized and decentralized systems is made on the basis of the above considerations in each of the wards. Dewass wards are divided into three categories, namely (a) wards where decentralized systems are feasible and desirable, (b) wards where decentralized systems are feasible, but due to their nearness to the likely central sewer network, it will be economical to connect them to the centralized system, and (c) wards which will need a centralized system, since decentralized systems are not feasible. Ward 3, which is fully occupied by Bank Note Press and has its own system, is not included in the analysis. Details are shown in the map and table below and described in Annexure 13 and are summarized below.

A quick land use survey was again undertaken, with the specific purpose of collecting information required for identifying areas suitable for decentralized and centralized disposal systems and other information required for proposals of public toilets, probable ground strata and water table.

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Recommended Decentralized and Centralized Systems


TABLE 26 PROPOSAL OF DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED WASTE WATER SYSTEMS

Wards

Population 2011 2021

2031

2041

Waste Water Flow (MLD) 2011 2021 2031

2041

Decentralized Systems Group A: 51,689 wards 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 14(P), 43 to 45 Total 51,689 Decentralized

60,110

75,167

99,996

5.582

6.492

8.118

10.800

60,110

75,167

99,996

5.582

6.492

8.118

10.800

Centralized Systems Group B: wards 143,208 182,494 6 to 10, 12, 13, 14(P), 15 to 20, 38 to 42. Group C: 82,523 96,033 wards 21 to 37 Total 225,731 278,527 Centralized

239,103

302,718

15.466

19.709

25.823

32.694

109,233

127,244

8.912

10.372

11.797

13.742

348,336

429,962

24.378

30.081

37.620

46.436 98

8.7.4

Options for decentralized systems

Two options for localized decentralized waste water disposal systems are possible: (a) Small-bore sewerage networks (described in section 8.5.2 above), and (b) Regular sewerage system network (envisaged in 8.5.3 above). In the first option of small-bore sewerage system, it is expected that all the households have their toilets connected to either twin soakage pits or septic tanks/interception chambers. Only the effluent from the septic tanks is collected in the sewer network for further secondary treatment. In the second option, the raw sewage is collected in the sewer network and full (primary and secondary) treatment is imparted to the sewage. In the areas covered by such a decentralized system, all the households may not have constructed their own toilets. Eventually when they decide to install toilets, they may be reluctant to go in for septic tanks and may prefer to connect their toilets and other waste water directly to the nearest sewer line. Some existing households may not have constructed septic tanks and may be currently discharging the toilet waste directly into open drains. In such situations, a small-bore sewerage system will not work. The situation described above may prevail in all the wards and slums in Dewas, where a decentralized system may be feasible. Regular decentralized sewerage systems, with full sewage treatment, are therefore recommended. 8.8 Decentralized Waste Water Treatment Systems (DEWATS) Decentralized waste water treatment systems (DEWATS) technology has been developed and promoted by BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association). The system provides treatment for waste water from both domestic and industrial sources, especially from small and isolated areas. The capacity ranges from 1 to 500 cum per day. It works without electrical energy, guarantees permanent and continuous operation, with occasional fluctuation in effluent quality, and is best suited where skilled and responsible operation and maintenance cannot be guaranteed. 8.8.1 Treatment systems

DEWATS is based on four treatment systems: Sedimentation and primary treatment in sedimentation ponds, septic tanks or imhoff tanks(septic tanks being more familiar in cities like Dewas). Secondary anaerobic treatment in fixed bed filters or baffled septic tanks (baffled reactors). Secondary and tertiary aerobic/anaerobic treatment in constructed wetlands (subsurface flow filters). Secondary and tertiary aerobic/anaerobic treatment in ponds.

Combination of primary treatment (a) with any of the other systems at (b), (c) or (d) is done in accordance with the quality of the waste water influent and desired effluent quality.

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8.8.2

Quality of treatment

Septic tanks result in a treatment quality of about 25-50%, anaerobic filters and baffled septic tanks about 70-90%, and a constructed wetland and pond system about 70-95%. 8.9 Centralized Treatment Systems 8.9.1 Basic unit operations

Sewage treatment plants have, basically, three stages of treatment: Pre-treatment for removal of large floating, suspended and settleable inorganic solids in screens and grit removal chambers. Primary treatment for removal of organic and inorganic settleable solids. Secondary biological treatment for conversion of organic matter into settleable bio-floc and stable inorganic matter (like in aerobic processes) or into methane gas, carbon dioxide and stable organic residue (as in anaerobic processes). 8.9.2 Commonly used options

Some of the more commonly used options in each of the above basic unit operations are listed below. Sr. No. 1 Unit Operations Screening Treatment Devices Bar racks and screens of various descriptions, with manual or mechanical cleaning options Grit removal Grit chamber, detritor Primary sedimentation Primary sedimentation tank, rectangular or circular, with sludge removal by hydrostatic means or mechanical devices (a) Aerobic biological suspended growth (i) Activated sludge process and its Process modifications, (ii) Waste stabilization ponds, (iii) Aerated lagoons (b) Aerobic biological attached growth (i) Trickling filter, (ii) Rotating biological Process contactor Anaerobic biological growth process (i) Anaerobic filter, (ii) Fluid bed submerged media anaerobic reactor, (iii) Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, (iv) Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic stabilization of organic Anaerobic digester sludges Evaluation of options

2 3

8.9.3

Suitability of a particular option for a sewage treatment plant will have to be evaluated on the basis of the following parameters:
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o o o o o o o 8.9.4

Efficiency of treatment Capital cost Cost of operation and maintenance Ease of operation and maintenance Location and acceptability Availability of suitable land Feasibility of reuse of treated effluent. Choice for Dewas

The total area of Dewas is about 100 sq. km. About 45% of the area has been partially or fully developed. The rest of the area is largely dedicated to agricultural. The general slope of the major part of the city is towards the southwest. The sewer network of the major part of the city will drain in this direction, except for a small part in the north, which will drain towards the northwest. There is ample open land in both these directions. Land availability for sewage treatment plants, thus, may not be a significant problem. The choice of a treatment system will largely depend on capital and operating costs, operating ease, and possibility of reuse. Dewas suffers from nonavailability of surface water in the vicinity. Most of the agriculture depends on ground water, which is required to be pumped through a lift of 100 to 150 m. Thus, if the sewage treatment plant effluent can be treated to a level suitable for land irrigation, there is likely to be good demand for this effluent. In this case, the treatment level also can be lower, but sufficient for the standards for land application. Another possible reuse is for industrial application, like for cooling water. However, a dedicated water supply system has already been implemented under PPP for the industrial area in Dewas. The use of sewage treatment plant effluent for this purpose appears less feasible, at least as of now. Also the degree of treatment will be higher in this alternative. The most likely use will be for agricultural land irrigation. Stabilization ponds or aerated lagoons offer better alternatives than those other options outlined in the preceding table, due to less energy requirement and easier O&M. They do require a larger piece of land compared to an activated sludge process plant. This may not be a problem in Dewas. Hence, the most feasible options appear to be either a facultative stabilization pond or an aerated lagoon. The final choice of the process will be done at the time of preparing Detailed Project Reports. In decentralized systems, DEWATS technology perhaps will be the best option. Secondary treatment options in the DEWATS will be done for each area according to the site conditions and final disposal options.

8.10 Layout of Decentralized Waste Water Disposal Systems


8.10.1 Time horizon for design

The waste water system in each decentralized waste water system will consist of a local sewer network and a treatment plant. As these areas develop and vacant lands around them become occupied, the sewer network will need to be extended. The local treatment plants will also need to be augmented. However, as the vacant lands in between these isolated areas start developing, the concept of decentralized waste water treatment plants may or may not find favor with the local population, as also the Municipal Corporation. Some of the decentralized systems may be discarded and these areas may be connected to the centralized sewerage system. Decentralized systems, therefore, need to be designed to be flexible for accommodating either of the above two
101

development possibilities. The time horizon for design of the decentralized systems is accordingly recommended, as follows: Local sewer network to be designed for a flow estimated in year 2041, so that it can be smoothly dovetailed into the central sewer network, as and when it becomes necessary. Sewage treatment plants to be designed for a flow estimated in year 2021, so that later they can be upgraded for higher capacity, or may be discarded and the sewer network connected to the central network, for eventual treatment in the central sewage treatment plant. As far as possible, the layout of the system needs to be designed so there will be no need for pumping the sewage at any place. There will, however, be a few places where pumping cannot be avoided. 8.10.2 Broad features of decentralized waste water systems The broad features of decentralized systems are given in Annexure 14. A summary appears below.
TABLE 27 SUMMARY OF DECENTRALIZED SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

Length of Sewer Decentralized Sewage Treatment Plants Network (km.) Number Capacity (MLD) Group A Wards 1, 73 9 or more Total about 6.49 in 2, 4, 5, 11, 14(P), 43 multiple plants to 45

Ward Nos.

8.11 Layout of Centralized Waste Water Disposal Systems


8.11.1 Time horizon for design Each centralized waste water system will consist of a local sewer network, conveyance system (pumping stations and pumping mains), and one or more treatment plants depending on the geographical configuration and availability of suitable pieces of land. Final disposal of treated effluent, either for reuse or for discharge into a public stream, will also be considered. The time horizon for design of the centralized systems is recommended, as below: Sewer network to be designed for a flow estimated in year 2041. Sewage treatment plants to be designed for a flow estimated in year 2031. These will be augmented to accommodate increased flows in year 2031 onwards. If some of the areas, where decentralized systems are currently proposed, develop to such an extent that they need to be connected to the central network after year 2021, the treatment plants will need to be augmented before year 2031. 8.11.2 Broad features of centralized waste water systems Broad features of centralized systems are given in Annexure 14. A summary of the project components and conceptual layout of the system appear below.

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Conceptual Layout of Centralized Sewerage System


TABLE 28 SUMMARY OF CENTRALIZED SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

Centralized Sewage Treatment Plants Number Capacity (MLD) pumping Possibly 2 Total about 38 6 to 10, 203 km. for Intermediate 12, 13, lateral and stations, as needed, and terminal pumping stations 14(P), 15 branch sewers; to 42. 15 km. for main at each treatment plant and intercepting sewers Disposal of Storm Water

Ward Nos.

Length of Sewer Pumping Stations Network (km.)

8.12 Existing Situation


8.12.1 Climate and rainfall The Dewas region has a moderate climate with high temperatures during summer. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 30 C to 45 C and the mean minimum from 12 C to 18 C. The hottest months are April to June and the coolest ones are December to February. The normal rainfall in the area is around 1,380 mm. Maximum rainfall is observed from July to September. June and October receive intermittent rains. 103

8.12.2 Natural drains There are seven natural drains in the city, which traverse the wards as noted in Table 29. These drains appear to be largely stable in character, without any visible signs of erosion of banks or changes in the watercourse.
TABLE 29 - NATURAL DRAINS IN DEWAS

Sr.No. 1 2 3

Nalla Nalla passing through Bilawali Nalla passing across Ujjain Road

5 6 7

Ward Nos. Ward 1 Wards 29, 27, 7, boundary of 4-5, 6-7, 9-11, 10, 11 and outside of municipal limit Nalla passing across AB Road Through boundary of wards 42-39, 40, 41, near Apex Hospital boundary of wards 17-18, 19-12, 11-14 to outside of municipal limit Nalla passing across AB Road Through wards 42, 17, 12 and 14 and northside of Vikasnagar towards the west Bawadiya Nalla passing across Flows through wards 43, 15, 12, meeting nalla AB Road No. 4 near railway line Nalla passing through and on Ward 15, boundary of wards 12-13, meeting northside of Amona nalla No. 7 Nagdhamm Nadi Flows through wards 45, 44, 15, 13 and 14 8.12.3 Secondary and tertiary drains

Built-up drains exist along a few roads. These are constructed with stone masonry or stone slabs. They carry domestic waste water. Coverage is very small. The reconnaissance survey shows that only about 77.30 km. of roads, out of a total length of 273 km., or about 28%, have built-up drains (Ref Annexure 15). These drains need repairs. Stagnation of waste water is seen at many places due to dumping of solid waste and poor coverage. 8.12.4 Flooding While local stagnation of water is seen at many places, the problem of major flooding is not reported. The primary drains are effective in disposal of storm water efficiently.

8.13

Improvements in Storm Water Drainage System

8.13.1 Roadside drains. As stated above, the present coverage is very poor. New drains need to be constructed along about 195.70 km. of roads, in addition to some repairs to the existing drains. 8.13.2 Primary drains Primary natural drains are largely stable and in good shape. Only some sections, which flow through thickly populated wards and along AB Road, may need some lining to ensure that overflowing and resultant damage are avoided. The approximate length needing streamlining and construction may be about 10 km.
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8.13.3 Design approach Storm water disposal can be taken care of through either a combined sewer system, which provides common collection and disposal of domestic waste water (sewage) and storm water, or a separate system, in which storm water will be disposed through a separate collection, conveyance and disposal system. Looking to the rainfall pattern, with rainy days mainly in the period June to October and with other months largely dry, a combined system will prove to be expensive, besides being grossly under-utilized in dry months. The separate storm water disposal system is likely to be the preferred option. The tertiary and secondary drains, which will discharge into the primary drains, may be in the form of surface drains, with appropriate size and shape and constructed in locally available material or pre-cast sections. The design of the storm water drains should be done by using appropriate meteorological and hydraulic parameters. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supplies data on rainfall pattern, from which it is possible to develop the relationship between the return period, duration of rainfall and intensity of rainfall, and develop charts useful for design of tertiary, secondary and primary drains. IMD also publishes monograms, which provide charts of rainfall intensity and duration for different return periods for the entire country. Suitable design parameters can be generated by using these charts. Natural drains, which are the primary drains in storm water drainage system, are likely to be adequate for accommodating the storm water generated in Dewas city. But they will need some improvements like training, removal of blockages due to vegetation, lining in certain critical locations, etc. The resultant design needs to identify the improvements, based on field observations. Disposal of Waste Water from Industries and Institutions

8.14 Waste Water from Industries


8.14.1 Industries in Dewas Major industrial activity in Dewas is concentrated in wards 3 (Bank Note Press) and 15. Some industries are scattered in wards 4, 12, 13, 26 and 42. They comprise engineering, pharmaceutical or other chemical industries. 8.14.2 Water supply and waste water disposal The major industries have their own water sources and waste water collection and treatment plants. Only small, scattered industries, which may be generating small quantities of waste water, will discharge to a municipal sewer. Good control and monitoring by the State Pollution Control Board is necessary to ensure that the waste water being discharged to the municipal drains is safe as per the standards.

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8.15 Waste Water from Other Public Institutions


Other public institutions include educational institutions, hospitals and other institutions like offices, police quarters, agriculture produce markets, etc. The liquid waste generated in these institutions is currently being treated in septic tanks and the effluent disposed in nearby drains. When a new sewerage network is created (both in centralized and decentralized systems), the waste water from these institutions will be discharged into these networks, as the quality of the waste water is acceptable for discharge into a municipal sewer.

8.16 Impact on Environment


Ground water is an important drinking water source in Dewas. Deep tube wells, up to a depth of 150-180 m., are drilled both in individual houses and public institutions. A deep cover of black cotton soil or yellow soil exists for a depth of 10-20 m. in most parts of the town. (Ref Annexure 11.) The impact on ground water quality from waste water flowing along the surface is not likely to be significant, except in areas near to the natural drains, which may result in direct seepage of waste water to the lower aquifers through the outer wall of the tube wells. Eradication of open defecation and safe collection and conveyance of waste water through the sewerage systems will ensure that the waste water does not find direct entry to and contaminate the ground water sources. Indicative Project Proposals

8.17 Project Components and Costs


8.17.1 Proposals for investment Based on the above discussion, an indicative list of the sanitation components and their broad investment costs are presented below.
TABLE 30 SANITATION COMPONENTS

Sr. No. 1

Component

Unit

Quantity

Rate (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.)

Toilets (a) Household toilets No. connected to sewerage (b) Public/community toilet No. seats Total of Toilets Decentralized Sewerage Systems (a) Sewer network km. (b) Decentralized treatment MLD Plants (c) Pumping stations, where Lump-sum required Total of Decentralized Systems

6,000 114+87=201

10,000 50,000

60,000,000 10,050,000 70,050,000

73 10.8

1,500,000 3,000,000

109,500,000 32,400,000 5,000,000 146,900,000


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Central Sewerage Systems (a) Sewer network (b) Main and intercepting sewers (c) Pumping system (d) Sewage treatment plants Total of Central Sewerage Systems

km. km. Lump-sum MLD

203 15

2,500,000 5,000,000

507,500,000 75,000,000 100,000,000 190,000,000 872,500,000

38

5,000,000

Storm Water Disposal System (a) Secondary and tertiary km. roadside drains (b) Improvement to primary km. drains Total of Storm Water Disposal System Repairs and Upgrading of Existing Sanitation Facilities (a) Public toilets Lump-sum (b) Existing sewer network Lump-sum (c) Existing built-up drains Lump-sum Total of Repairs and Upgrading Total Cost Estimated Investment

195.70 10

1,500,000 5,000,000

293,550,000 50,000,000 343,550,000

2,000,000 10,000,000 30,000,000 42,000,000

1,475,000,000

8.17.2 Operation and maintenance A broad estimate of the cost of operation and maintenance of the (public) sanitation systems appears below.
TABLE 31 BROAD ESTIMATE OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS

Sr. No.

Component

Quantity/ Capital (Rs.)

O&M Cost per Annum Cost Unit Rate (Rs.) 10,000 Amount (Rs.) 2,010,000 2,010,000

Toilets (b) Public/community toilet 201 seats seats Total of Toilets 2 Decentralized Sewerage Systems (a) Sewer network Rs.109,500,000

Seat

4,380,000
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(b) Decentralized Rs.32,400,000 treatment plants (c) Pumping stations, where Rs.5,000,000 required Total of Decentralized Systems 3 Central Sewerage Systems (a) Sewer network (b) Main and intercepting sewers (c) Pumping system (d) Sewage treatment plants Total of Central Sewerage Systems

10

3,240,000

10

500,000 8,120,000

Rs.507,500,000 Rs.75,000,000 Rs.100,000,000 Rs.190,000,000

% % % %

4 4 10 10

20,300,000 3,000,000 10,000,000 19,000,000 52,300,000

Storm Water Disposal System (a) Secondary and tertiary Rs.293,550,000 roadside drains (b) Improvement to Rs.50,000,000 primary drains Total of Storm Water Disposal System Repairs and Upgrading of Existing Sanitation Facilities (a) Public toilets Rs.2,000,000 (b) Existing sewer network Rs.10,000,000 (c) Existing built-up drains Rs.30,000,000 Total of Repairs and Upgrading Total Estimated O&M Cost per Annum O&M Cost as % of Capital Cost

% %

3 3

8,806,500 1,500,000

10,306,500

% % %

20 10 10

400,000 1,000,000 3,000,000 4,400,000

77,136,500 5.33 %

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CHAPTER 9. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


This chapter provides a quick review of background documents, validates findings from the Dewas CSP Situation Analysis, analyzes appropriate and relevant options for integrated MSW management, and develops a broad implementation plan and approximate cost estimates. Background and Introduction This initial section validates the baseline assessment available in the background documents, with the idea of expanding the understanding of the baseline. The section then identifies key issues, constraints and opportunities for implementation of a robust municipal solid waste management plan. Finally, the section summarizes a set of observations on relevant issues.

9.1

Floating Population

On a typical day, the floating population in Dewas is estimated to be around 20,000. However, as a local pilgrimage center, Dewas holds two major annual festivals, which stretch over nine days. As a result of these events, the city experiences spikes in the floating population to almost 250,000 per day, which is almost 85-90% of the estimated permanent resident population for the year 2010/2011.

9.2

Un-served and Underserved Areas

Ward 3 comprises almost entirely the Bank Note Press estate, including its residential colony, with a population of about 3,500. DMC does not provide any of the municipal services to this area. Door-to-door collection of solid waste is arranged by the Press administration. However, the collected waste is finally disposed of at the common DMC dump site. There are about 13 rural/semi-urban settlements in the outer ring and peripheral areas of the city. These are essentially rural habitations, which are characterized by a mix of temporary and permanent housing units. Waste, in these areas, is normally disposed in the open or in a loosely designated community waste depots.

9.3

Quantity of Solid Waste

9.3.1 Waste estimates A reliable estimate of the daily waste load is not available as no actual measurements have been carried out in recent years. However, as per the following available information on vehicle trips to the dump site, a present estimate of collection is of the order of 75 MT/d.
TABLE 32: MSW TRIP LOADS TO THE DUMP SITE

Vehicle/Equipment Numbers Trucks Tractor trolley - DMC - BNP 3 1 1

Trips/d 3 2 2

Trip Loads/d 9 2 2

Load/Trip (MT) 1 1 1

Aggregate (MT/d) 9 2 2
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3-wheeler 1 8 4-wheeler 6 2 Containers 16 1.5 TOTAL DAILY AVERAGE COLLECTION

8 12 24

0.5 0.75 2

4 9 48 75

Assuming a collection efficiency of 60%, average generation in the city is estimated to be of the order of 125 Mt/d. This represents an average unit generation of about 450 gm/capita/d. 9.3.2 Peak loads

Considering a floating population of the order of 250,000 during the two annual events and a corresponding unit waste generation at 300 gm/person/d, the spike load is around 75 MT/d. During such periods DMCs waste management system would be required to handle total daily waste of the order of around 200 MT/d in the initial years. 9.3.3 Sources of bulk generation

There are three vegetable markets and one meat and fish market in Dewas. Waste from these markets is collected at designated community waste depots (CWD), where it is stored in 4.5 cum containers. In absence of a designated slaughterhouse, waste from dispersed, unauthorized slaughtering activity is also disposed of at the same CWDs. Depending on the load, containers are lifted more than once a day. There are number of small and medium size restaurants/eateries spread over the city. Community/marriage halls, temples, etc. are the other bulk sources of biodegradable waste. There are no dairy farms in the city and thus cattle manure does not join the MSW stream. Average aggregate waste loads from bulk sources, which is predominantly biodegradable in nature, is estimated to be of the order of 25-30 MT/d.

9.4

Waste Characteristics

Waste segregation does not take place at any stage of its generation and collection. As a result, it is the mixed waste, including road sweepings and drain sludge, which reaches the dump site. DMC has not carried out representative sampling of waste and thus it does not have any reliable data on waste quality. However, a visual inspection reveals that it is characterized by a relatively high fraction of plastic packaging material, dust, silt, sand, sludge from drains, etc.

9.5

Available Equipment

A validated list of equipment and vehicles available with the DMC is provided in the table below. It is noted that except for the primary collection vehicles (3- and 4-wheelers) almost all the vehicles have lived their useful economic life and are worn out. The metal containers used for secondary storage at the CWDs are in poor condition due to lack of maintenance and corrosion, etc. It is also noted that DMC has supplied handcarts to its workers for collection of street sweepings, drain silt and scattered waste from informal community disposal points. However, these carts are of low height, which makes them ergonomically difficult to use. Secondly, as they do not have containers, unloading of waste involves multiple handling thereby reducing efficiency of operations.
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TABLE 33: EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE WITH DMC FOR MSW MANAGEMENT

Equipment Number Metal containers, 4.5 16 cum capacity Excavator cum loader 1 Trucks Dumper placers Tractors with trolley 3-wheeler primary collection vehicle 4-wheeler primary collection vehicle Wheel barrows 3 2 1 1 8

Remarks Over 10 years old, mostly in worn out condition A tractor retrofitted with front-end loading and back hoe arrangements; about 5 years old Between 7-10 years old; all open Over 10 years old, worn out but still in operation Same as above; open trolley 3 years old; hydraulic tipping; 0.9 MT (1.8 cum) capacity About 1 year old; 4 are covered and 3 uncovered; volume of covered and uncovered vehicles is about 2 and 5 cum, respectively Reasonable condition

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9.6

Primary Collection in Residential Areas

DMC has commenced motorized primary door-to-door collection in selected areas, by deploying one 3-wheeler and eight 4-wheeler vehicles. The vehicles are equipped with sirens and each is manned by a single driver, without an assistant. The vehicles are operated between 7 am to 2 pm. On average, one vehicle is able to cover about 800 households per shift. The residents are required to bring out the waste and place it in the vehicle on their own. A visit to two such localities, viz., Madhuban Colony and Housing Board Colony (Ward 17), shows that the general level of cleanliness was found to be quite high. The residents are found to be comfortable with this arrangement and have been fairly cooperative. It is noted that in the DMC area, the manually drawn cycle rickshaw, as the mode for primary door-to-door collection, is not a favored option. DMC has not been able to introduce user charges in the serviced areas, but the household surveys carried out as part of the Situation Analysis indicate residents would be prepared to pay between Rs.10-20 p.m. Due to a severe shortage of infrastructure, DMC is unable to provide a desirable and uniform level of service in all residential areas. For instance, while Dewas has 48,000 households and motorized collection at 800 hhs./shift, it currently has only nine primary collection vehicles, while its fleet requirement is 60. Similarly, while the number of CWDs is reported to be around 130, DMC has only 16 metal containers of 4.5 cum capacity.

9.7

Primary Collection in Commercial Areas

Primary collection in commercial areas is a major challenge due to a variety of factors, like lack of awareness, the timings of street cleaning by municipal workers and not matching with shop openings. Further, many shops and establishments generate putrescible waste throughout the day and in large quantity. Municipal workers have a tendency to collect only about a quarter of the waste generated in their handcarts, while the balance is either disposed into street drains or burnt (mostly the packaging waste).

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9.8 Secondary Storage


Secondary storage at the community waste depots, among others, is the most critical and objectionable feature of the MSW management system in the DMC area. The metal containers are woefully inadequate in numbers and capacity. Against the 130 designated areas for CWDs, DMC owns only 16 metal containers, which are also over 10 years old and worn out. As a result, waste at most of the CWDs is stored on open ground. It is also noted that location of CWDs is a contentious issue due to resistance of the community in the vicinity.

9.9 Waste Lifting


Waste lifting is severely constrained due to the limited number of trucks, trolleys, dumper placer vehicles, and front-end loaders. With only one front-end loader serving a large number of CWDs, there is significant capacity constraint in planning logistics in terms of coordinating movement of the trucks. While in market areas, the containers are lifted twice a day, there are several areas on the outskirts which are served only once a week. DMC does not provide a separate service for lifting of dead animals. Instead, this responsibility is also entrusted to the Health and Sanitation Department.

9.10 Institutional Issues


9.10.1 Organizational strength

DMC has around 660 workers involved in the MSW management service. Out of these, about 75% are on daily wage and the rest are permanent.
TABLE 34: STRENGTH OF MSW WORKFORCE AT DMC

Worker Category Street sweeping Drain cleaning Lifting of waste Drivers Total

Number 300 300 30 30 660

The DMC MSW workforce confronts many issues related to discipline, absenteeism, work practices, cooperation with the community, occupation health and safety, etc. The workers do not receive any training or orientation on good/effective and safe working practices, customer service, etc. A number of critical positions in DMC are presently vacant. For instance, the key positions related to SWM function, viz., health officer, assistant health officer and 2 sanitary inspectors are vacant. In addition DMC is managing without an accounts officer, an accountant, a revenue officer and revenue inspectors. 9.10.2 Functional incompatibility

Currently DMCs MSW management operations are managed by a Sanitary Inspector who is working as in-charge Health Officer. Lack of formal training hinders adequate planning for logistics and treatment and disposal arrangements. Similarly, in the absence of a qualified 112

workshop supervisor, the Fire Officer is given the responsibility of workshop operations. Several initiatives are seen to be on an ad hoc basis. For instance, the latest initiative to use proprietary bio-chemicals for rapid biodegradation of waste at the dump site is characterized by lack of critical appraisal and proper system design. Similarly, procurement of vehicles of different makes does not offer comfort for streamlining maintenance and procurement of spare parts. 9.10.3 Lack of community engagement

DMC also suffers from limited capacity for community engagement. The Public Relations Officer is primarily involved in press relations. In the absence of a social worker, DMC is unable to proactively engage with the community for its organization, mobilization and its participation in service delivery, etc., and establish a constructive working relationship with the citys industries. 9.10.4 Split responsibility

Solid waste operations are split among three separate departments, viz., Health & Sanitation, PWD and the Workshop. Weak coordination among the three can at times create various challenges. In the absence of single-point responsibility, issues are often left unaddressed and lapses cannot be attributed to a particular official. 9.10.5 Lack of monitoring system

The SWM system does not appear to be geared to meet the emerging challenges. For instance, DMC is characterized by a total absence of an MIS on SWM and formal review of the SWM system at the highest level of the Commissioner takes place only once in 1 or 2 months. Regular reporting on critical system parameters is not practiced and as a result monitoring is weak. 9.10.6 Interaction with civil society Dewas appears to have a fairly well developed civil society structure, consisting of several market associations, associations of senior citizens, retired officers; social organizations such as Rotary and Lions; religion-based bodies, trusts associated with temples, e.g., Chamunda Sewa Sangh, Shiv Shakti Sewa Mandal; separate societies of different communities, etc. However, it appears that DMC has not been able to establish a dialogue with the civil society organizations from the point of view of improving, among others, MSW management-related services. Technical and Service Delivery Options for MSW Management This section defines the overriding paradigm for effective and sustainable citywide municipal solid waste management in Dewas and then identifies a set of appropriate and feasible technical options for different components of the supply chain from primary collection to ultimate disposal in a sanitary landfill.

9.11

The Overriding Paradigm

DMC proposes to adopt an integrated approach for total solid waste management from primary collection to its ultimate disposal, including all the intermediate steps. Protection of the environment and the public health is the overriding paradigm for formulation of the plan. In this respect, DMC will strive to collect on a daily basis, among other fractions, the putrefying waste, which endangers
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public heath and will evolve an appropriate strategy for other fractions of the MSW. DMC will develop an appropriate system for providing full and uniform coverage of the city population across all categories of settlements and income groups. In order to achieve higher collection efficiency and thereby ensure improved aesthetics across the city, DMC will make all necessary and appropriate efforts to introduce a mix of door-to-door collection in residential areas and install containers (community waste storage depots) at convenient spacing in commercial, institutional and industrial areas. Over time DMC will aspire to gradually achieve bin-free status for the city by introducing fully-motorized primary collection in all residential and commercial areas alike. With regard to treatment, DMC recognizes the multitude of inherent and external challenges involved in possibly adding value to mixed MSW and would therefore not pursue such options, which are technology and capital intensive. However, it will aspire to and work towards the objective of reducing the volume of waste that is otherwise destined for disposal into a sanitary landfill site.

9.12

Service Levels

The aim of the sanitation plan is to enable DMC to move toward providing 100% coverage with door-to-door collection and achieving safe disposal. This ultimate level of service depends on, among others, availability of manpower (trained, motivated and committed), fleet of collection and transport vehicles, secondary storage containers, treatment and disposal facilities, and the resources for sustained operation and maintenance. In this regard, a set of indicators for level of service under different categories are provided in Table 35 below, wherein the primary stage refers to citywide service for waste collection from households, community bins and street sweeping. The secondary stage refers to transport of waste to the treatment and disposal site. Tertiary stage relates to treatment and disposal arrangements. Accordingly, DMC is required to mobilize resources such that the desired level of service is gradually attained over a period of about 4-5 years. For the subsequent years, DMC should develop service levels based on its own experience of the initial years and sustain them over the entire duration of the plan.
TABLE 35: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICE LEVELS IN DEWAS

Stages and Indicators

Level of Service (LoS)/ Unit 2010 15% 15%

Year

Remarks

A. Primary stage Area under DTDC service 70% Area served through 60% motorized primary doorto-door collection Area served through 30% containers (4.5 cum) at community waste depots Area served through 10%

2011 2012 2014 30% 50% 70% 20% 40% 60%

85%

70%

50%

30%

10%

10%

10%

Aim of full coverage Successfully demonstrated; favored mode with growing coverage Finally only bulk generation sources, markets and slums will be served by CWD Municipal workers
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Stages and Indicators

Level of Service (LoS)/ Unit

Year

Remarks

manual DTDC service

operating handcarts for street sweepings do not provide DTDC service 5 per 1,000 hhs.

No. of cycle rickshaws in 5 per 0 use for primary collection 1,000 hhs. No. of vehicles in use for 1 per 0.15 motorized primary door- 800 to-door collection service hhs. No. of containers (4.5 2.5 per 0.4 cum capacity) at CWDs 1,000 hhs.

1 per 800 hhs.

2.5 per 1,000 hhs.

Lifting of waste from 1/d CWDs

0.141

0.5

0.75

Area under daily road sweeping service No. of handcarts in use for collection of street sweepings

100%

50%

70% 2

100% 3

100% 4

4-wheelers with raised body, also suitable for transport to the landfill Metallic containers in lowincome settlements, commercial areas, bulk sources, etc. Service varies over a wide range; aim to lift at all CWDs at least once a day All designated roads DMC to evolve appropriate service levels in line with the MSW manual As per the requirements of MSW Rules, 2000 Depending on distance to SLF, consider 4-5 trips/day

2-4/ NA km. of road

B. Secondary stage Covered containers 100% Transporting vehicles 100% which are covered Combined waste 125% transport capacity C. Tertiary stage Daily waste load 100% collection from all sources Waste receiving 25% treatment Safe disposal in SLF 100% Waste released into 0% open environment D. Cost recovery Households paying user 70% charges

0 0 50%

75% 50% 70%

100% 100% 80%

100% 100% 100%

60% 0% 0 100 % 0%

70% 5% 0 95%

85% 15% 0 85%

100% 25% 75% 0 Including home composting SLF should be ready in 3 years

20%

30%

50%

@ Rs.10-20 p.m.
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Stages and Indicators

Level of Service (LoS)/ Unit

Year

Remarks

E. Customer service Complaints per year NA Complaint turnaround 24 hrs. 48 24 time F. Efficiency Staff per MT of waste NA 13 collected Operating cost per MT NA NA of waste collected NOTES: NA: not available; SLF: sanitary landfill.

12

12

DMC to document DMC to document and monitor DMC to document, optimize and monitor DMC to document and monitor

9.13

Projected Waste Quantities

In order to achieve and maintain the desired level of service, DMC will take into account expected growth in population, number of households, geographical area and the quantity of solid waste. From this point of view, projections are presented in Table 36 below to offer guidance in planning for the infrastructure/assets and services (unit waste loads at 0.45 kg/cap/d). As per these projections for the base year 2011, the average quantity of MSW is estimated to be 127 MT/day, which is projected to increase to about 154 MT/day in 2021. The peak loads presented in the last column correspond to spikes in floating population twice in a year during the Navratri festivals and for which the proposed system must have adequate buffer capacity to absorb the shocks.
TABLE 36: PROJECTED POPULATION AND WASTE LOADS FOR THE DMC AREA

No. of Households 2011 281,312 56,262 2012 2 286,938 57,388 2013 2 292,677 58,535 2014 2 298,530 59,706 2015 2 304,501 60,900 2021 2 342,917 68,583 2026 2.25 383,271 76,654 2031 2.25 428,374 85,675 2036 2.25 478,784 95,757 2041 2.25 535,126 107,025 Source: Adapted from CSP Situation Analysis Report.

Year

Population CAGR, %

Population

MSW (MT/d) 127 129 132 134 137 154 172 193 215 241

Peak Load (MT/d) 202 204 207 209 212 229 247 268 290 316

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9.14

Integrated Solid Waste Management System

The contours of an integrated municipal solid waste management system are presented in the sections that follow. The proposed system covers the entire supply chain of waste material from primary storage to ultimate disposal, interfaced with different sources of generation and the corresponding stakeholders. The system has been developed keeping in consideration the current technical capacity of DMC, its experience from recent initiatives at the city level, experience from across the country, and the ease with which DMC can aspire to achieve higher service levels over a reasonable period of time. 9.14.1 Primary storage

With around 50% of Dewass population residing in slum-like settlements, the community as a whole is characterized by a rather low level of awareness, and perhaps concern and education, especially towards the environment, aesthetics and public health. It is also recognized that civil society involvement in planning and delivery of municipal services is low. There are few reliable/committed NGOs in the city, which are working in the area of urban development, environmental conservation in general, or solid waste management in particular. Capacity constraints and limitations of the DMC in community mobilization and awareness creation are also well recognized It is proposed that, to start with, DMC will encourage residents and other categories of waste generators to at least store the waste at source in a single bin and, in return, will offer a reliable collection service. (It is noteworthy that DMC has achieved considerable success in recent months on these lines in selected areas where it has introduced motorized primary collection service.) In due course DMC will take up a sustained public awareness campaign and thereby attempt to motivate residents to take up source segregation. However, segregation at the level of households, commercial establishments and institutions is extremely difficult to introduce and sustain over time and space (all the way to the landfill/treatment plant). (a) Home composting In order to address, to a certain extent, the issue of organic food waste, DMC will proactively promote the practice of Home Composting among willing households. It will distribute robust composting bins at partial or full subsidy depending on available resources. As a result of this interesting and simple initiative, scaled-up Home Composting across the DMC area has the potential to achieve compliance with the MSW Rules, 2000, to a considerable extent. (b) Options for service delivery The options available with DMC for service delivery for promotion of Home Composting are to: Create internal capacity by training its Public Relations Officer or employing an experienced and dedicated social worker (with Master of Social Work qualifications) for awareness creation, community organization, promotion and responding to queries of interested residents. Identify and outsource the activity to a committed, local NGO. Contract a private service provider (PSP), who may also be retained for providing the rest of the integrated solid waste management services.
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The Home Composting cell will be part of the awareness creation section of the MSW management team. Among others, DMC can set up a compost help line to respond to queries, stock an adequate number of composting bins, and support the development of publicity material. 9.14.2 Primary collection and secondary storage

Primary collection of waste from domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional sources and its secondary storage (temporary storage) at community waste depots (CWDs) across Dewas city will require different strategies depending on the layout of respective areas, relative locations of waste generators, average quantities of waste expected from each generator in a particular category, etc. The proposed strategy comprises a mix of motorized primary collection, manual collection through handcarts and individual disposal at community waste depots. The salient features of the system are as follows: (a) Door-to-door collection service The system for door-to-door collection service will comprise the following: 70% of Dewass households will be covered by motorized primary collection service at 1 vehicle per every 800 hhs. This service will be provided primarily in the category I, II and IV localities. Category III and V localities can also be covered provided they are accessible by small collection vehicles. 30% of the households (especially in category III and V localities) will continue to be served through either a combination of handcarts and CWDs (community waste depots) or CWD alone. The service level will be at 1 handcart/200 households and 2.5 containers (of 4.5 cum each) for every 1,000 households. The fleet of motorized vehicles and containers will have 20% stand-by capacity. For the initial four years the fleet will be augmented annually to achieve the desired service levels within a defined period. Subsequently, capacity will be increased once every five years in line with population growth for maintaining the above-specified service levels. (b) Community waste depots (CWDs) The use of CWDs will continue to be part of the MSW system, though at a reduced level. It will comprise the following: Category III and V localities, which are covered under door-to-door collection by handcarts, will also be complemented by a system of community waste depots where closed metallic containers (of 4.5 cum capacity) shall be placed at a spacing of 500 m. This will ensure that a resident/municipal worker will not have to walk more than 250 m., if she/he wants to dispose of waste at a CWD. The aggregate storage capacity at all the CWD locations will be 2.5 containers (of 4.5 cum capacity)/1,000 households, which includes 100% standby. All areas covered under motorized primary collection will also have closed containers, but at a higher spacing of 1,000 m. With increasing efficiency of primary collection, DMC can decide to reduce the number of containers in such areas, gradually moving towards bin-free status.

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Arrangements at all CWDs At all CWD locations, proper access for vehicles will be provided and the containers shall be placed on specially constructed concrete platforms. All unsightly fixed cement concrete structures, which have been constructed as receptacles for MSW, will be removed. (c) Collection from non-domestic sources

The system for collection of waste from a wide range of non-domestic sources, including bulk generators, will comprise the following: Waste from hotels, restaurants, marriage halls, community halls, etc. will be lifted daily by deploying a set of separate motorized primary collection vehicles in commercial areas. In mixed land use areas, the same vehicles, which serve households, will also cover commercial establishments. All waste generators in commercial and industrial areas will be served through a combination of door-to-door collection, as well as conveniently placed closed containers. All sources characterized by bulk generation of putrefying waste, e.g., vegetable, fruit and flower markets, meat and fish market, temples, gurudwara, etc. will be provided 4.5 cum containers at convenient locations. The number of containers will be determined for each such location, which should be adequate for the estimated peak waste volumes/loads and with 100% standby capacity. Frequency of lifting of these containers will be at least once a day, which may be increased depending on the quantity of waste generated at respective nodes. From all industries - large and small alike, non-industrial (non-process) waste will be collected through door-to-door service by deploying a separate set of motorized vehicles. In addition, after consultation with the respective industries, at least one closed container will be placed in each unit/establishment. (d) Replacements Due to expected wear, tear and corrosion, timely replacement is a major feature of a good SWM system. Under the plan for DMC: All equipment and containers to be deployed for primary collection/secondary storage shall be completely replaced once every five years. All vehicles deployed for motorized primary collection shall be replaced once every seven years. (e) Service delivery The relevant options for service delivery for primary collection are as follows: Motorized primary collection system Option I: Procurement of vehicles by DMC and operation by its own drivers. DMC bears all costs of operations, maintenance and repairs.

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Option II: Procurement by DMC and leasing out of the entire fleet to three or four private service providers (PSPs at 8-10 wards each): o All operating costs as well as the total cost of minor repairs not exceeding an agreed amount (e.g., Rs.1,000 p.m.) will be borne by the PSPs. DMC will be responsible for all major repairs exceeding this amount. o The PSPs will be paid a fee (expenses + profit) in return for all the services, including all opex, repairs, etc. They will be monitored for the number of trips, manpower deployed, time inputs and the quantity of solid waste lifted daily. Option III: PSPs (3-4 at 8-10 wards each) invest in vehicle procurement and take care of all opex for motorized primary collection system: o DMC assures contracts to PSPs for a minimum period of 3-5 years. o Each PSP takes care of routine operating costs, e.g., fuel, manpower, repairs, maintenance, etc. o PSP also pays for all major operating costs, e.g., major component replacement, change of tires, insurance, registration, etc. o If the vehicles are deployed for a full 8-hour shift, they can be used for different categories of sources, e.g., residential, commercial, etc. o If the vehicles are deployed only for 4 hours, primarily in morning hours to serve residential areas, then the PSPs can be allowed to supplement their income by taking up other transport work in the market. o The PSPs will be paid a fee (expenses + profit) in return for all the services, including all opex, repairs, etc. They will be monitored for the number of trips, manpower deployed, time inputs and the quantity of solid waste lifted daily. Although Option III appears promising, under the given circumstances, however, that prevail at Dewas/DMC, Option I is found to be more feasible. Option II and III face the challenges of contract management, with the potential of lack of transparency and monitoring, lack of accountability, poor service delivery, diversion of available resources, etc. Manual primary collection DMC procures cycle rickshaws and gives them on annual lease to self help groups (SHG). For the reasons cited above, local contractors shall not be engaged for this service. DMC allocates/appoints SHGs for specific, contiguous localities/wards for door-to-door collection service. Each SHG will have a designated leader for supervision and monitoring. Each SHG member will operate one cycle rickshaw and cover about 200 households/day. The collected waste will be disposed of in the nearest CWD, where a container will be installed. Cycle rickshaw pullers are to be paid at least as per the prevailing minimum wages, say between Rs.2,000-2,500 p.m. The respective contractors/SHG leaders are to be paid an agreed monthly supervision fee or a percentage of total payment due to the rickshaw pullers. Strict supervision and monitoring of the waste collector and contractors/SHG leaders is required to be done by DMCs sanitary inspectors and daroga.

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9.14.3

Street sweeping and drain sweeping

Street sweeping and drain cleaning activities will continue to be carried out by the regular workers of the DMC as per the established beats for the existing hierarchy of roads and drains. They will be required to dispose of the collected waste (through a handcart) into the nearest containers, which will be placed along roadsides at the designated CWDs. In order to improve service levels, various measures for personnel management are required to be taken: First and foremost, the municipal workers must be motivated and inspired by the department head to give better service2. A degree of discipline is required to be ensured. The Municipal Corporation workers need to be offered appropriate incentives in the form of uniforms, personal protective equipment, annual rewards and recognition, etc. Monitoring and supervision by SI and daroga is essential for higher performance. DMC should also consider community participation in monitoring of this service and seek feedback from the affected community on a regular (weekly/monthly) basis.

9.15

Secondary Collection and Transport


Features

9.15.1

The salient features of the proposed system will be as follows: Waste collected by cycle rickshaws and handcarts will be disposed into the closed containers to be installed at the designated CWDs. The containers will be lifted at least once a day by a dumper placer vehicle and transported to the transfer station/disposal site. Depending on distance to the landfill site, waste from areas which are served through motorized primary collection system can be transported either: o Directly to disposal site, or o It can be transferred into containers installed at strategic locations. These locations will represent informal transfer points. Likewise, the containers to be installed in areas covered by motorized primary collection service will also be lifted and transported by the dumper placer vehicles to the transfer station/disposal site. However, in this case, the frequency of lifting can be reduced, depending on waste loads, to either once in two days or twice a week. At all commercial and institutional areas and all bulk generation locations the containers will be lifted by the dumper placer vehicles in line with the expected waste loads. Accordingly, the frequency of lifting in such areas will have to be kept at more than once a day and ideally twice a day. The mode of secondary transport will depend on the distance of the transfer station/treatment and disposal facility and economics of vehicle movement. 9.15.2 Transfer station and long haul

Dewas has a vast geographical spread of around 100 sq. km. However, most of the population appears to be residing in the core and the inner ring areas, while the outskirts are characterized
2

For instance, in Suryapet, Andhra Pradesh, the Municipal Commissioner organized yoga camps for the citys sanitation workers, which included, among others, rehabilitation programs to help overcome the problem of alcoholism.

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by empty spaces and distant rural settlements (now merged within DMC limits). Depending on the location of the treatment and disposal facility, the plan must consider/evaluate the option of providing a transfer station which will help economize the cost of long haul and improve efficiency of operations. If DMC goes ahead with a local SLF at the existing dump site, which is about 7 km. from the core area, a formal transfer station may not be necessary. On the other hand, if DMC is successful in partnering with a regional facility (either with Indore or Ujjain), as suggested in a subsequent section on waste disposal, a transfer station would be indispensable. This aspect will be further elaborated after covering the options for treatment and disposal of MSW. In that respect, depending on waste loads and distances involved, DMC will be required to deploy an adequate number of vehicles for long haul. This will comprise either compactor vehicles with 12-14 MT payload capacity or covered vehicles without compactor but with large storage volume in the range of 14-19 cum. (a) Service delivery options for secondary transport The options available for DMC for secondary transport are as follows: Option I: For secondary transport from CWDs to a transfer station/local SLF, DMC can continue with the present system of in-house arrangements. However, this is evidently an inefficient system because of the characteristic inherent risks and capacity constraints. Option II: According to the number of municipal zones (say 3 each with 15 wards), engage a group of local transport contractors for lifting of containers and transporting the waste to the transfer station or the local SLF, as follows: o DMC should not entrust responsibility for the entire city to a single contractor as this carries the risk of operations coming to a standstill in the event of differences between the two agencies. o This option carries the risk of the contract getting usurped by local politicians and municipal corporators themselves and the subsequent issues of under-performance. DMC must avoid this situation. Option III: DMC could facilitate a group of SHGs with a mix of skilled and unskilled workers (ideally drawn from families of existing municipal workers) to come forward and take the role of transport contractors. DMC should guarantee a contract for at least 3 years and facilitate capital/loan for procurement of the required number of dumper placer vehicles. o This option with potential to create micro-entrepreneurs from among the underprivileged stakeholders offers several socio-economic benefits and is found to be more sustainable. (b) Options for long haul For the long haul component involving transport to a regional disposal facility, DMC must engage a large competent contractor. The available options are:
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Option I: DMC procures the long haul vehicles and gives on lease to a contractor. The latter is responsible for all operating costs covering fuel, manpower and minor repairs and maintenance. DMC will be responsible for major repairs, replacement of components, insurance, vehicle registration, etc. Option II: DMC asks PSP to make the required capital investment and in return guarantees a contract for a minimum period of 7 years.

9.16

Waste Treatment

Dewas is characterized by almost 50% population residing in low income/rural-like settlements. As a corollary, there appears to be a fairly high level of poverty. Lower income levels and the socioeconomic profile of a contributing population have a direct correlation with the quality of domestic solid waste in terms of its organic, recyclable and combustible contents. This aspect in turn puts a number of limitations on the options that could be considered for treatment of the mixed MSW. (a) The challenge of feedstock composition Besides food and yard waste (the major compostable fractions), typically urban mixed MSW, when it arrives at the treatment plant site, is characterized by a high level of contamination due to the presence of, but not limited to, the following categories of wastes: House and road sweepings: dust, silt, sand, stones/debris, etc. Drain sludge: silt, sand, stones, etc. Small metallic matter: staples and metal pins, rejected blades, razors, etc. Glass and crockery: broken glass bottles, tube lights, bulbs, other glass objects, crockery, spoons, knives, etc. Plastics and rubber: plethora of products made of high density, low density and linear-low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, ABS, styrofoam; multi-layer metalcoated packaging films, etc.; tires, tubes, toys, etc. Heavy metals: diverse chemicals used in domestic, commercial, institutional sectors, batteries, etc. Rags/cloth, leather and paper Ceramics and terracotta: tea cups, tea pots, kulhars, other earthen wares/pots, etc. Sharps, needles, bandages used at domestic level Human excreta: baby nappies, excreta from children and sick persons; sanitary napkins, etc. Discarded medicines: antibiotics, etc. E-waste: all type of discarded electronic equipment Household chemicals used for cleaning, washing, disinfecting, etc. Cattle waste, dead animals, slaughterhouse waste Combustion residues: ash, sand and fine earth from poor households and small restaurants, eateries, etc., which use coal and fire wood as fuel Construction debris and demolition waste Hospital waste Industrial waste.

In this context, it is extremely challenging, if not impossible, to ensure that the above categories of waste do not mix with the compostable fraction (biodegradable) produced on a day-to-day basis. Moreover, it is recognized that the composition of the mixed waste keeps changing from day-to123

day, according to the season, etc. Because of such extreme diversity and variability, it is extremely difficult to carry out manual or mechanical separation of biodegradable fraction from the rest of the mixed waste with a degree of reliability in terms of potential contaminants. Further, the inert fractions and the rotting organic fraction adversely affect the processing equipment and machinery at a MSW treatment plant. For instance, the former causes severe wear and tear while the latter causes corrosion. These two factors lead to frequent breakdown of the equipment and eventually entail replacement (regular capex) in a much shorter span of time compared to a typical industrial plant. From the point of an end user of compost, e.g., a farmer, the contaminants present in the form of inerts, glass, dust, metal sharps, pathogens, heavy metals, antibiotics, etc. undermine the final quality of compost and make it unsuitable for application on food crops. As a result, compost derived from mixed MSW processing plants either gets low realization or low off-take, undermining its profitability and sustainability. Lastly, it is recognized that the objective of treating mixed municipal solid waste is to reduce its volume and thereby minimize the land requirement for eventual disposal into a sanitary landfill. Mixed MSW, as described in the preceding section, is not equivalent to a reliable quality industrial feedstock and, therefore, whatever method used for its treatment does not lead to value addition in the final product (e.g., compost, biogas, etc.) to such an extent that the investment (both in terms of the capex and opex) can pay for itself. This is evident by the closure of numerous MSW treatment plants across the country during the last 2-3 decades, which can be attributed to not just financial, but a variety of inherent and external systemic factors. In view of the above considerations, it is determined that for a small ULB like Dewas a typical mechanized conventional compost plant would not be a viable proposition either under municipal administration or under a public-private-partnership arrangement. (b) Selective treatment With the objective of reducing waste loads destined for eventual safe disposal, the following multi-dimensional strategy is proposed for the DMC: Centralized composting Only the predominantly biodegradable waste from vegetable markets, meat and fish markets, hotels and restaurants, and other bulk generators such as temples, marriage halls, etc. will be composted. Total quantity of this type of waste is not expected to be more than 30 MT/day; it can be processed at a simple composting facility without involving any major plant and equipment, except for material movement and final screening. As a result, the capital and operating expenditures involved in setting up and running such a facility will be quite low, limiting the potential liability for the DMC. In this context, it must also be noted that the option of decentralized waste treatment, although it sounds appealing, is not recommended for a variety of reasons, e.g: Problem of land availability and increasing cost of land. Concerns on effective operation and maintenance of smaller facilities.
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Issue of land use. Concerns on potential odor nuisance, and Resistance from community. Home Composting: an ultimate decentralized format Home composting represents an ultimate decentralized format for waste treatment. Salient features of the proposed system are as follows: The practice of Home Composting will be promoted among the willing households in lowdensity high-income habitations in the city, in plotted development areas as well as among the rural households on the outskirts of the city. This represents the ultimate decentralization format and transfers the responsibility for proper O&M of the micro-operation to the concerned individual household. Because of the small waste quantities involved at the individual household level, a composting bin has the least nuisance potential and represents one of the most effective tools in integrated waste management operations. DMC will offer appropriate incentive(s) (e.g., one-time rebate in property tax, free or subsidized availability of composting bin, etc.) to the willing households for undertaking the practice of Home Composting. Households in rural habitations on the outskirts of the city will also be encouraged to take up composting of cattle manure by providing appropriate incentive(s) for construction of small NADEP reactors in their backyards, common land, etc. Recycling centre Adopting the 3R paradigm and creating some livelihood generation opportunities will involve the following: DMC will facilitate creation of a recycling centre for potentially reusable and recyclable waste, e.g., paper, plastic, rubber, demolition waste, etc. This centre will also collect, stock and safely dispose of hazardous waste generated in households, shops and establishments, institutions, etc. (c) Service delivery

A set of relevant service delivery options are available for DMC in the area of waste treatment. Composting facility The options for O&M of the composting facility are as follows: Option I: DMC sets up and runs the composting facility on its own. However, it may face difficulties in terms of finding suitable persons among its own low-rung workers, training them, and marketing of the finished compost. As a result, this option is not found to be very suitable. Option II: Engaging a self help group facilitated by DMC and a local NGO to take care of the composting facility as well as to market the compost. Members of the SHG will essentially comprise a mix of semi-skilled and unskilled BPL workers, rag pickers, etc., with a predominance of women, while their leader will be a skilled worker
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Option III: Engaging a local petty contractor to take care of operation of the plant and marketing of finished compost. DMC must evolve an appropriate financial arrangement such that the operator is reimbursed all operating costs and has incentive to sustain operations. Home composting For distribution of composting bins and social marketing of the practice of Home Composting among the residents of Dewas, DMC can explore the following options: Engage an external agency (NGO) or appoint a social worker to mobilize existing CBOs (community based organization) and create new ones, e.g., resident welfare associations at each locality level, etc. The agency will be responsible for anchoring a sustained campaign on awareness creation and mobilizing community participation for, among others, municipal solid waste management, sanitation and other civic services. The agency will inform the public about all the initiatives that DMC will be taking to address the problem of MSW and the ways and means through which it will solicit their cooperation. The agency will carry out social marketing of municipal solid waste management services using the practice of Home Composting/Composting Bins as a carrier of broader messages. It will encourage households to adopt this practice through locally improvised containers or it will distribute Composting Bins of appropriate design and make on behalf of the DMC. The agency will also promote NADEP reactors (above ground honeycomb brick chamber) in rural areas for safe stocking and treatment of cattle waste (along with organic domestic waste) into compost. Recycling centre Operation of the recycling centre will be handed over to a self help group of women/rag pickers, which brings a mix of semi-skilled and unskilled workers. The workers will be trained in sorting of different grades of plastics and packaging material, etc. For regular off-take of the sorted material, the centre will establish channels with potential end users among industrial recyclers/reprocessors. (d) Financing of waste minimization efforts Salient features of the financing arrangements are as follows: DMC will commit to bear all operating costs under annual contracts/MoUs to be entered into with all the service providers in its endeavor to minimize waste loads through different routes. All revenue from sale proceeds of compost will be credited into DMCs account. To this effect the PSP and the DMC will develop a foolproof system of advance payment into a designated bank account. DMC will provide either full or partial subsidy towards the cost of the Composting Bins and the NADEP reactors (for cattle waste treatment among rural households). DMC will facilitate creation of the recycling centre in terms of land, building construction, essential services, etc., and bear all costs of operation.

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9.17

Waste Disposal

DMC gives highest priority to safeguarding public health and therefore until such time when the treatment operations are commissioned, it will dispose of all mixed MSW into a sanitary landfill site (SLF). The SLF will serve as the bedrock for the entire city waste management system and will offer correspondingly appropriate capacity and life span for long-term safe disposal of the waste under all circumstances and seasons. However, DMC will simultaneously implement all the other necessary measures at the city and community levels for minimizing waste loads destined to the SLF. By adopting this strategy, DMC, over time, will aspire to comply with the MSW Rules, 2000, in terms of organic fraction disposed in the SLF. (a) Options For the development of a robust disposal facility, a set of options available with DMC are as follows: Option I: Construct a sanitary landfill at the existing dump site at Patwari Hamal (survey nr. 1258-1259), which is currently used for open disposal. It is understood that the site is owned by the DMC and therefore this option may represent one of the readily implementable ones. However, considering the current small scale of operation, limited capacity and skill set available within DMC on SLF operation and monitoring, etc., this would be an expensive and challenging option. o It must be noted that while the DMC claims the site measures 10 hectares, the area available for construction of the SLF may be significantly less. This is because a part of the site falls on a hill, which is currently being mined for construction material. o There will be issues of removal of the existing waste deposits, diversion of surface runoff from the surrounding hilly terrain, etc. o A tarred approach road over 500 m. will be necessary and must be appropriately included in the cost estimates. Option II: Partner with either the Indore or Ujjain Municipal Corporation, each of which is located within a distance of 30-35 km., to jointly develop a regional facility or utilize their existing infrastructure facilities against payment of appropriate tipping fees. (b) Service delivery Sanitary landfill operation and management (SLOM) involves, on a sustained basis, waste reception, inspection, movement, compaction to a desirable density, provision of daily and intermediate soil covers, cell closures, leachate management (collection, treatment and disposal), landfill gas management (collection and disposal venting or flaring), runoff control, trash/litter control, maintenance of green belt, routine environmental monitoring of surface and ground water and ambient air quality, etc. These are specialized operations and it is recognized that in a small ULB like DMC the required capacity and capability is typically not available. In view of this, and should the DMC decide to go for a local SLF at its existing dump site, it is recommended that it should engage a qualified and experienced agency, which can deliver the above-mentioned services satisfactorily.

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In this respect, in order to offer economies of scale, DMC could also consider the option of combining the secondary transport component, as well as operation of a compost facility, with the SLOM, and offer a larger scope of work to a bigger and more competent contractor. System Components This section quantifies the equipment, vehicles and other infrastructure requirements for effective and satisfactory implementation of the integrated municipal solid waste management plan. Overall infrastructure requirements are developed in line with the service levels defined in the previous Section 9.12.

9.18 Primary Collection


The paragraphs of this section describe the components for primary collection, which encompass storage and composting at source and the collection system. 9.18.1 Primary storage

Taking the concept of polluter pays, the plan envisages residents, shops and establishments, etc. to procure and install storage bins at their premises on their own. The capacity of such bins may be 15 liters for domestic use and 100 liters for commercial use, etc. 9.18.2 Home composting

In order to minimize domestic biodegradable waste loads entering the municipal waste stream, it is proposed to promote home composting through social marketing. Starting with a modest level of 0.25% of households opting for this practice in the fist year, it is expected to rise to 1% per annum towards the end of the plan. 9.18.3 Primary collection

This is one of the most challenging components of an effective MSW management system. Vehicles and cycle rickshaws are to be deployed in line with the specified service levels, keeping in view the geographical, topographical and other systemic bottlenecks, if any. It is recommended that only four-wheel vehicles be deployed (as procured recently), which will facilitate transport all the way to the local SLF. In the case of cycle rickshaws, it is recommended to use containerized carts so that it is easier for the worker to unload into a container and thereby avoid multiple handling of waste. (a) Stand by capacity While ideally a standby capacity of 20-30% of the actual fleet requirement is advised, the numbers provided in Table 37 are exclusive of that. DMC can take a decision on this aspect, depending on resource availability.

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(b) Replacement All vehicles and cycle rickshaws will require replacement approximately every seven years. For instance, all procurements made in 2011 will have to be replaced on or about year 2018, and then again in year 2025, 2032 and 2039, respectively. Those procured in 2012 will require replacement in 2019, 2026, and so on. Plastic containers of cycle rickshaws are to be replaced once every year. Accordingly, provision of financial resources must be made in the municipal budget.

9.19

Secondary Storage

All areas, which are not served by primary door-to-door collection service and those where manual service through cycle rickshaws is provided, will require secondary storage. In addition, all commercial areas will also require such storage due to the random generation pattern. To this effect, metallic containers of 4.5 cum capacity with 100% standby are proposed to be installed as receptacles at all the CWDs. As per the service levels defined earlier, the estimated number of containers in different years is provided in Table 38. As per the criteria of gross waste volumes at 0.45 kg/capita/day the requirement in the first year works out to 90 containers. However, it will be noted that 90 containers correspond to only 45 CWDs, while DMC already has about 130 designated CWDs. Therefore, the numbers presented in Table 37 serve only as guidance. DMC will have to make additional provision for: Adequately serving the commercial areas (say 25% extra). Maintaining a norm of spacing at 500 m. between two CWDs (2 containers at each CWD) in un-served areas or localities served by cycle rickshaws. Providing back-up support in areas served by motorized primary collection at 1 CWD (2 containers)/1,000 m. Aligning with the existing authorized/designated 130 CWDs across the city. In this regard it will be noted, from the third row from the top in Table 38, that the number of containers from the point of view of gross waste volumes declines in the subsequent years. This is a comfort factor, which is attributed to increasing coverage through motorized primary collection service. Nonetheless, to meet the secondary storage demand corresponding to the existing number of designated CWDs, the present requirement is determined to be 260 containers. Thus, it is proposed to stagger the procurement over three years, i.e., 123, 77 and 60, respectively. In due course containers from residential areas, which achieve full door-to-door collection coverage, can be shifted to new residential areas and under-served commercial areas to maintain or augment service levels. (a) Shock loads DMC would need to keep a reserve of containers to cater to the shock loads around the temple during the two festival seasons. Considering 75 MT/d of additional loads during such periods and about 2-3 lifts per day for each container, about 16 containers are required to be kept at the specified site. However, considering a fairly large number of containers being proposed for the city, it is recommended that DMC draw from the existing stock to meet its temporary shock load requirements.

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(b) Preventing littering In commercial areas, the problem of littering is acute due to the large number of footfalls of floating population, as well as local residents out on shopping. To address this problem, DMC will install 100-liter containers/bins of plastic at convenient spacing, say every 100 m. In each of the first and second years, about 250 such bins will be installed in all major commercial areas, transit points, etc. Additional bins can be installed in the third year depending on local assessment. (c) Replacements

Metal containers are subjected to heavy wear and tear and are generally found to require replacement every 5th/6th year. Accordingly, DMC is required to make appropriate budgetary provision. However, the cost can be minimized by ensuring good maintenance, e.g., washing almost every alternate day, anti-corrosion painting once in 6-12 months, etc. On the other hand, the plastic bins proposed for prevention of littering would require frequent replacement, say once after every 3rd year.

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TABLE 37: REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIMARY COLLECTION AND HOME COMPOSTING

2010 Home composting (% hhs./annum) Households opting for home composting Number of home composting kits to be procured/ supplied in the year Area under motorized door-to-door collection service Total number of households No. of hhs. served by door-to-door collection service No. of vehicles required (@ 1 per 800 hhs.) Number of vehicles to be procured in the year Area under manual door-to-door collection service No. of hhs. served by cycle rickshaws No. of cycle rickshaws required (@ 1 per 200 hhs.) Number of rickshaws to be procured in the year 0%

2011 0.25% 141 141

2012 0.50% 287 287 40% 57,388 22,955 29 15 10% 5,739 29 1

2014 0.50% 299 299 60% 59,706 35,824 45 16 10% 5,971 30 1

2015 0.75% 457 457 60% 60,900 36,540 46 1 10% 6,090 30 0

2021 1% 686 686 70% 68,583 48,008 60 14 10% 6,858 34 4

2026 1% 767 767 70% 76,654 53,658 67 7 10% 7,665 38 4

2031 1% 857 857 80% 85,675 68,540 86 19 15% 12,851 64 26

2036 1% 958 958

2041 1% 1,070 1,070

15%

Existing 9

20% 56,262 11,252 14 5 10% 5,626 28 28

80% 80% 95,757 107,025 76,605 85,620 96 107 10 11 20% 19,151 96 32 20% 21,405 107 11

NA NA

Note: 1. Home composting kits to be supplied by DMC to willing households at subsidized rates. 2. Vehicle numbers do not include replacements, which will be due after every 7 years. Adequate provision should/will be made in cost estimates.

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TABLE 38: METAL CONTAINER (4.5 CUM CAPACITY) REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY STORAGE AT CWDs

2010 Area served through containers (4.5 cum) at CWDs No. of hhs. served by containers (i/c those by cycle rickshaws) No. of containers required (@ 2.5/1,000 hhs.) No. of containers for commercial areas No. of containers to absorb shock loads during festival season Number of containers to be procured in the year 85%

2011 80% 45,010 90 17 16 123

2012 60% 34,433 86

2014 40% 23,882 60

2015 40% 24,360 61

2021 30% 20,575 51

2026 30% 22,996 57

2031 20% 17,135 43

2036 20% 19,151 48

2041 20% 21,405 54

77

60

Notes: 1. Existing 16 containers are excluded as they are worn out. 2. The numbers do not include replacements, which will be due after every 7 years. Adequate provision should/will be made in cost estimates.

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9.20

Secondary Transport

This component involves lifting of waste from CWDs, litter bins, etc. and transporting it to the treatment and disposal facility. In view of trying to minimize unduly long distances to the T&D facility, DMC resorts to direct transport through small four-wheelers, which are deployed for primary collection. Thus, a part of the waste, which gets collected through the latter system, will not be required to be handled separately. In line with the above proposal for installation of 4.5 cum containers at CWDs, the secondary transport system will comprise a fleet of 40 dumper placer vehicles, which can lift one container at a time. The strength of the fleet is determined as shown in Table 39 below, and corresponds to the initial year 2011 when about 130 CWD locations (residential and commercial areas) exist. The above assessment is based on the existing number of CWD locations and is independent of the shock loads experienced during the festival seasons. DMC can manage the shock loads with the help of the standby vehicles and by: (a) increasing the number of lifts at specific CWDs near the temple; and (b) reducing the frequency at some of the remotely located under-loaded CWDs. For the subsequent years, as the motorized primary collection coverage is expected to increase, the requirements for dumper placer vehicles will decrease. (One option is to stagger the initial procurement over 2-3 years.) In view of this, procurement of dumper placer vehicles in subsequent years is not proposed. DMC can assess additional requirements, if any, depending on population growth and geographical expansion of the city.
TABLE 39: DUMPER PLACER FLEET REQUIREMENTS IN YEAR 2011

Assumptions Lifting of containers at CWDs: - Locations with once a day service - Locations with twice a day service Average working hours/d Average time per vehicle trip to the T&D facility Number of possible trips/vehicle/d System requirements Existing number of CWDs Required number of container lifts/d Number of 4.5 cum container lifts/vehicle Required number of vehicle trips/d Required number of vehicles to operate daily Standby vehicles Total required size of the dumper placer fleet (a) Replacements

Quantity 75% 25% 7.5 1.5 5 130 163 1 163 33 20% 40

However, due to wear and tear of the vehicles DMC will have to replace the fleet after about 7 years and provision for this is made in the cost estimates.

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(b) Workshop DMC already has a small workshop at the Corporation office complex. In view of the proposed procurement of a large number of vehicles for primary collection, secondary transport and other components, it is recommended that the existing facility be upgraded. Except for engine overhaul, the workshop should be able to take care of routine repairs and maintenance. Among others, it must also be provided with a vehicle washing facility, i.e., a ramp, a floor mounted high pressure water jet pump, a waste water holding tank and treatment plant, etc.

9.21

Treatment Plant

In line with the paradigms defined above, it is proposed to treat waste only from the bulk generation sources, e.g., vegetable markets, hotels and restaurants, meat and fish market/slaughter house, marriage/community halls, etc. Waste from such sources is predominantly characterized as biodegradable and the aggregate quantity of waste is estimated to be of the order of 30 MT/d. (a) Location From the point of views of logistics, integration with SLF, availability of land, separation from any habitation, etc., it is proposed that the treatment plant be located near the existing dump site. (b) Technology It is proposed to adopt the least risky treatment option of composting of MSW. The plan will be based on an innovative and improved variation of the conventional windrow technology called static aerated pile composting. It comprises aeration of windrows through compressed air, which is supplied from below through perforated pipes. This technology variant offers the following advantages: Accelerated composting in 2-3 weeks as compared to 4-5 weeks in conventional windrows system. Reduced footprint. Doing away with the need for frequent turning of waste piles. Superior process control enabling optimum supply of air and thus economy in operations. Odor control as a result of adequate aeration and provision of bio-filter on the outlet. (c) Equipment requirements

The plant will require the following equipment: A weigh bridge (common with the SLF). Compressor/vacuum blower: 1 + 1 standby. One trommel screen each for 25 mm. and 16 mm. A vibratory screen of 4 mm. Conveyor belts. A weighing machine for small bags. Other ancillary equipment, e.g.:
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o Small excavator cum loader, bagging machine, etc. o Process monitoring instruments, e.g., probes for pH, CO2 and temperature measurement. (d) Area and other infrastructure requirement The system requirements are as follows: Compost platform: 60 m. x 40 m. = 2,400 sq. m. Covered platform: 300 sq. m. Machine shed (with MS structure cover): 300 sq. m. Control room including compressor area: 30 sq. m. Curing shed: 150 sq. m. Compost storage room: 400 sq. m. Leachate holding/treatment tank: 25 sq. m. Office: 30 sq. m. Open space: 100 sq. m.

The total area requirement of the plant will be less than 3,700 sq. m.

9.22

Sanitary Landfill

While DMC can explore the possibility of a regional facility with either Indore or Ujjain Municipal Corporations, the present plan proposes an option of a local sanitary landfill site as a more practical and acceptable method in line with existing practices. A robust SLF will serve as the ultimate repository of mixed waste and plant rejects, if any, which can withstand all shock loads and seasonal fluctuations, etc. (a) Location The SLF will be constructed on the same site where currently DMC practices open dumping of MSW. Although DMC claims the dump site has an area of 10 ha., it appears that the readily utilizable area may be less, as a part of the area is on the slope of a hill, which is currently being mined for building material (stone, aggregate, murram, etc.). Further, due to accumulation of waste over the last few years, a part of the valley area is blocked. DMC would have to clear the area of this accumulated waste and then construct the SLF. The accumulated waste can be screened (at the proposed compost plant) to recover fines as compost/covering material and the overs/rejects can be filled back into the SLF. (b) The bottom liner system of the SLF It is noted that the soil at the site comprises gravely red murrum, which prima facie has higher permeability. However, the water table is reported to be as low as 150 m. below ground level and thus groundwater contamination is not an immediate issue. Nonetheless, due to the pervious topsoil layer, appropriate and adequate measures for prevention of leachate percolation would need to be included in the SLF design. To this effect the bottom of the SLF will comprise: A clay liner of 500 mm. A HDPE liner of 1.5 mm. thickness
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A soil protective layer of 200 mm. A layer of drainage media of 300 mm. (c) Area of the SLF

Assuming a 30-year operating life and 30 m. height of the sanitary landfill, the area required for the filling operations is about 8.1 ha. The height of 30 m. is only tentative due to limited area availability, as it is recognized to be rather high and DMC may find it difficult to fill to such an extent. Area computation also considers diversion of about 30 MT/d of organic waste from bulk sources for composting. Preliminary calculations are presented below.
TABLE 40: PRELIMINARY SLF CAPACITY CALCULATIONS

Parameter Waste load in 2011 Life Waste load in 2041 Waste diversion for treatment Total waste generation Total volume of waste Volume of daily cover Volume of liner and cover First estimate of SLF volume Height of the SLF Area required for filling Active life of the SLF Duration of one phase Number of phases Volume of one phase Plan area of one phase Number of daily cells Plan area of one cell

Unit MT/d Years MT/d MT/d MT Cum Cum Cum Cum m. Sq. m. Years Years No. Cum Sq. m. No. Sq. m.

Quantity 127 30 241 30 1,686,300 1,983,882 198,388 247,985 2,430,256 30 81,009 30 1 30 81,009 2,700 365 111

In addition to the above estimate, the facility will require sufficient area for construction of dikes, infrastructure, and, of course, the compost plant as described in the preceding section. This can be assumed to be about 10-15% of the total filling area, i.e., 12,000 sq. m. Thus, the total area requirement is of the order of 93,000 sq. m., or 9.3 ha. (d) Landfill infrastructure Construction of the landfill area and capping of the filled up portion is a continuous process, which is generally carried out on an annual/biannual basis. However, other infrastructure components, as relevant, will need to be created at the outset. Key components and features are listed as follows: Site fencing: Weighbridges: Administration office: Site control office All around the landfill site One weighbridge of 20-30 (computerized) 10 m. x 10 m. building Porta cabin of 3 m. x 5 m.

MT

capacity

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Access road: Arterial road: Parking area:

Waste inspection and facility: Equipment workshop and garage: Floor mounted high pressure water jet pump: Temporary holding area: Surface water drain: Leachate holding tank: Leachate treatment pond: Surface water holding tank: Landfill gas disposal: Cost Estimates

7 m. wide road from the highway to the weighbridge and up to the parking area 3.5 m. road along the periphery of the SLF (can be constructed in phases) For all secondary transport vehicles as well as SFL vehicles sampling Being a small city, this is not required 15 m. x 20 m. 1 Excavated portion of half phase Along the arterial road 10 m. x 7.7 m. x 2.5 m. 15 m. x 10 m. x 2.5 m. 30 m. x 10 m. x 2.5 m. Passive venting

This section provides approximate cost estimates for the equipment, vehicles and other infrastructure requirements of the integrated MSW management plan presented in the preceding section.

9.23

Capital Investment

Broad cost estimates for capital expenditure are prepared for the key components described in the preceding sections. These are based on the prevailing rates of equipment and unit rates of construction. Table 41 presents cost estimates for equipment and vehicles required for primary collection and transport of waste. Table 42 presents estimates for a 30 MT/d capacity compost plant, which is based on static aerated pile technology. Table 43 presents estimates for a local sanitary landfill site. In all the three estimates, the time horizon is five years, which corresponds to major investments, whereas the subsequent years over the plan time horizon until 2040 will primarily involve incremental procurements or replacements. A summary of investments under different phases of the plan is presented in Table 44. Net present values of capex (considering a discount rate of 10%) for the total plan time horizon and for different phases/periods are as follows: Plan Period For the first 5 years of the plan For the 25-year period from the 6th to the 30th year Total plan over 30 years Net Present Value (2011) Rs. Crore 11.86 10.27 22.13

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TABLE 41: EQUIPMENT FOR PRIMARY COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT OF MSW

Component

Rate (Rs.) 2011 1 2012 2 3

Year 2013 2014 4 2015 5

Total (Rs.)

A. Primary storage 1. Home compost bins/kits - Incremental req. - Costs of kits Total A B. Primary collection 1. Litter bins in commercial areas (70 lit.) - Incremental req. - Costs bins 2. Motorized tippers - Incremental req. Costs of 411,650 5 2,058,250 15 6,174,750 8 3,293,200 8 3,293,200 1 411,650 15,231,050
138

141 1,000 141,000 141,000

287 287,000 287,000

287 287,000 287,000

299 299,000 299,000

457 457,000 457,000 1,471,000 1,471,000

250 1,500 375,000

250 375,000

50 75,000

263 393,750

263 393,750 1,612,500

Component tippers 3. Containerized cycle rickshaws - Incremental req. - Costs ricks. Cost of container replacement Sub-total (3) Total B

Rate (Rs.) 2011 2012

Year 2013 2014 2015

Total (Rs.)

28 7,898 528 221,154 -

1 7,898 14,780

15,308

1 7,898 15,308

15,836

221,154 2,654,404

22,678 6,572,428

15,308 3,383,508

23,206 3,710,156

15,836 821,236

298,181 17,141,732

C. Secondary storage at CWDs 1. Metal containers (4.5 cum) - Incremental req. Cost containers of 40,698 20,000 123 5,005,854 1,230,000 77 3,133,746 770,000 30 1,220,940 300,000 30 1,220,940 300,000 10,581,480 2,600,000

Concrete platforms for placement of

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Component containers Total C

Rate (Rs.) 2011 6,235,854 2012 3,903,746

Year 2013 1,520,940 2014 1,520,940 2015

Total (Rs.)

13,181,480

D. Secondary transport 1. Dumper placer vehicles - Incremental req. - Costs Total D Grand Total Collection & Transport 882,543 30 26,476,286 26,476,286 35,507,544 10 8,825,429 8,825,429 19,588,603 5,191,448 5,530,096 1,278,236 35,301,715 35,301,715 67,095,927

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TABLE 42: COST ESTIMATES FOR COMPOST PLANT

Sr. No. 1 2 3

Component Site clearance development Boundary wall Static aerated pile compost plant including post processing, admin. building, paved yard, parking, internal roads, weigh bridge, bore well, etc. Plantation ETP Security room Laboratory Gates Total and land

Unit

Quantity Rate (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.) 500,000

LS RM 258 1,500

387,105

20,500,000 LS LS LS LS LS 500,000 500,000 150,000 250,000 100,000 22,887,105

4 5 6 7 8

Notes: 1. Plant capacity is 30 MT/d and the feedstock will comprise organic waste from bulk sources. 2. Plant does not include sorting/separation section. 3. Plant is based on static aerated pile technology with a bio-filter for odor control.
TABLE 43: COST ESTIMATES FOR SANITARY LANDFILL

Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Component Site clearance development Site office and utilities Staff quarters Weigh bridge Guard room, utilities Approach road Internal roads

Unit and LS LS LS LS LS m. LS

Quantity

Rate (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.) 1,500,000 400,000 500,000

1 400 3 x 0.27 2 x 0.27 6,100 3,497,978 2,070,914

740,216 200,000 2,440,000 1,500,000 2,833,362 1,118,294 22,910,621

Landfill including leachate ha. collection tank (3 phases) Landfill closure (2 phases) ha. Tippers, compactors, LS bulldozers and other earth moving equipments. Leachate treatment plant Fire fighting engine LS Nos.

11 12

1,500,000 Nil
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13 14 15

Chain link/rigid around the landfill

fencing RM LS

1295

720

932,926 750,000 2,000,000

Landscaping and plantation

Other miscellaneous water LS supply, lighting, communication, first aid, laboratory, demarcation, sign boards, etc. Monitoring wells Sub-total Nos. 5 20,000

16

100,000 39,425,419

Notes:

1. Construction of SLF is assumed to take place in annual phases @ 0.27 ha./annum and the investment is assumed to be spread over the entire life of 30 years. 2. Accordingly, capping of the filled phase will be in the following year and the investment will be spread over the entire life of the SLF. Annual capping cost is estimated to be Rs.5.6 lakh. 3. The above estimate corresponds to only the first five years of the plan period.

TABLE 44: SUMMARY OF CAPEX FOR MSW MANAGEMENT IN DEWAS

Component

Years Primary collection and transport Workshop Treatment Sanitary landfill Institutional strengthening and capacity building Feasibility studies Miscellaneous 5 Total 5 Note: Values in Rs. lakh.

Immediate Action < 0.5

Shortterm 0.5 - 2 551 26

Mediumterm 3-5 120 229 394

Long-term 6-10 652 13 313 11-15 504 50 75 16-30 1,784 25 100 940

Total

3,611 64 379 1,722 13

13

21 5 616

5 748

978

629

21 15 2,849 5,825

9.24 Operation and Maintenance Cost


The O&M costs will gradually build up as the service levels increase during the first five years of the project. This will be on account of the increase in the number of vehicles, manpower, etc. A maximum expenditure on running the system will occur around the 4th/5th year, when all components are commissioned and working at full capacity utilization. The estimates provided in Table 45 below correspond to that situation and have been derived on a pro-rata basis from estimates for full-scale operation in other cities of similar size. It will be noted that the combined cost of primary collection, street sweeping and secondary transport account for around 80% of the total opex. For the subsequent years, a pro-rata estimate can be worked out corresponding to
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the quantity of waste generated. It must be noted that the estimate for the compost plant considers a much lower and fixed quantity of waste corresponding to its capacity of 30 MT/d.
TABLE 45: APPROXIMATE ESTIMATES OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF THE MSW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DEWAS

Sr. No. A B C D E F G H I J

Project Component Primary collection Street sweeping and drain cleaning Transport to the T&D facility Treatment Sanitary landfill site Project management establishment Public relations and awareness generation Environmental monitoring Project Engineer Uniforms and PPE GRAND TOTAL

Amount (Rs. lakh/annum) 230 214 162 21 57 16 20 5 2 38 764

% of Total 30.1% 28.0% 21.1% 2.7% 7.5% 2.0% 2.7% 0.7% 0.3% 4.9% 100.0%

Notes:

1. Cost of transfer station and long haul are not considered as feasibility of those components is yet to be assessed. 2. Cost of street sweeping and drain cleaning is derived by considering about 60% of the existing sweeper force (660) being deployed for the task with an average monthly salary of Rs.4,500. 3. Public relations and awareness generation is a continuous activity and is accounted accordingly. 4. Cost of Project Engineer corresponds to part-time monitoring inputs for operation of SLF and treatment plant.

Septage Management System This section looks at the broad issues pertaining to septage, i.e., current system of collection, transport, treatment and safe disposal. An analysis of septage characteristics is provided, which links up with a set of conventional options for treatment and safe disposal.

9.25 Current Practices


It is recognized that a part of the population of Dewas would continue to use septic tanks as the on-site sanitation solution. The community toilet complexes, public latrines and latrines in institutional and commercial areas, which are not connected to sewerage network, but are served by septic tanks, are among the bulk producers of septage. Besides these, there is a very large number of septic tanks on private properties in areas which are not served by any sewerage network. The system of community septic tanks connected to decentralized simplified sewerage will also generate significant loads of septage. While DMC offers a septage emptying service, it does not have the necessary infrastructure for safe treatment and disposal. In absence of a regulatory system, typically municipal/private tankers dispose of this noxious matter into surface drains/nallas, low lying areas, water bodies, agriculture fields, etc. Evidently the aggregate
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volume of septage from all septic tanks dispersed across the city represents a major risk to the environment and public health. In addition, there are issues related to availability of safe and appropriate equipment, training of service providers, occupational health and safety of workers, safety during transport, role of private service providers, if any, etc.

9.26 Septage Management System


The system for citywide septage collection from all septic tanks connected either to private, public, community latrines or to decentralized simplified sewerage systems, etc. can be organized around a group of service providers with vacuum tankers with appropriate regulations. When implemented effectively, this solution will help in ensuring safe collection, transport, treatment and disposal of septage, thereby improving sanitary conditions across the city. 9.26.1 Treatment and safe disposal of septage

Treatment and disposal of septage is the most neglected area in the sanitation cycle. There is a need to regulate the current indiscriminate practice on the following lines: The Municipal Corporation will designate a safe location for treatment and disposal of septage and will arrange to create/construct and operate such treatment facilities and disposal works as may be deemed appropriate and suitable under the given circumstances. The service provider(s)/operator(s) will be required to deliver/dispose of septage only at such designated sites. Disposal at any other sites/locations such as in open drains, water bodies, on low lying areas, waste lands, at community waste depots, etc. pose a serious threat to the environment and public health and will be considered unlawful and the operator will be liable to punishment under the provisions of the municipal bylaws. 9.26.2 User charges

In order to sustain operations and provide incentive to private service provider(s) the system must provide for levy of user charges at appropriate stages: Each owner/occupier will be obligated to pay towards the cost of emptying, transport, treatment and safe disposal of septage removed from his/her property so that the noxious matter is rendered inoffensive. The Municipal Corporation will determine and specify the user charge as may be deemed suitable from time to time. 9.26.3 Options for septage treatment The following table provides feasible technology options for septage treatment.
TABLE 46: OPTIONS FOR SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

Method Land application

Advantages Simple and economical Recycles organic matter nutrients into the land Low energy use

Disadvantages Need for a holding facility during and monsoon/severe winter Need for relatively large and remote land areas
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Co-treatment at Optimizes capex and opex costs existing WWTPs Most plants are capable of handling some septage Centralizes waste treatment operations Co-disposal with Offers proper blending of moisture, solid wastes nutrients and micro-organisms in composting or landfill methane generation Optimizes investments in plants and equipment and the operating costs Treatment at Provides regional solution to independent septage management septage treatment plants

Potential for plant upset, if septage addition is not properly controlled Increased residuals handling and disposal requirements Possible contamination groundwater of

High capex and opex costs Requires high skill levels operations

for

Source: Guide to Septage Treatment and Disposal, USEPA, September 1994. 9.26.4 Septage disposal options

Once treated or stabilized, septage should be safely disposed of by one of the following methods: Land application as a soil amendment. Burial in a landfill, or Further treatment and reduction or incineration.

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CHAPTER 10. BROAD STAGES OF IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


10.1 Time Horizon for Implementing City Sanitation Plan
This chapter summarizes the recommendations made in the previous two chapters and the institutional and financial support required to implement the City Sanitation Plan. The chapter focuses on the following strategic technical interventions for successful implementation of the CSP: Safe access to sanitation services Safe collection, disposal and treatment of household liquid waste Safe disposal of storm water drainage Safe collection, transport, treatment and disposal of solid waste. In view of limited resources, it is also prudent to prioritize interventions in terms of the required financial resources. Evidently, high-priority interventions, requiring low or minimal capital investment, are recommended to be taken up in the shortterm, while interventions requiring higher capital investment and O&M costs should be taken up in a later, phased manner. This approach is used to also define appropriate time horizons for various components of the City Sanitation Plan, as shown below: (a) Some components, like the sewer network, need to be designed and sized for a long time horizon, since periodic duplication of the works is not possible at short intervals. However, the network of branch sewers and laterals to be designed during the initial stage will cover only the existing road network. As and when new roads develop, this network will have to be extended in stages. Possibly the main sewers and intercepting sewers may be designed and constructed to accommodate even the future flows from areas, which are developed in stages during the 30-year horizon period. (b) On the other hand, facilities like toilets, roadside drains, solid waste collection, and transport works can and should be designed to take care of the present population and incremental population during the initial construction period. Some components, like the pumping stations and treatment plants, can be developed in modular fashion in stages as the demand develops. (c) The following time horizon is accordingly suggested for implementation of the City Sanitation Plan. Plan Immediate Action Plan Plan Period Years 2011-13 Goals (a) Cover entire population with toilets, eradicate open defecation, (b) Initiate 146

Short-term Plan

Years 2014-21

Medium-term Plan

Years 2022-31

Long-term Plan

Years 2032-41

actions on waste water disposal systems and storm water disposal system, (c) Initiate actions on solid waste collection and transport and construction of compost plant and sanitary landfill. (a) Complete works of waste water and storm water disposal systems initiated in immediate action plan, (b) Extend network for incremental population, (c) Add toilets for incremental population, (d) Complete actions of solid waste collection and transport and construction of works of compost plant and sanitary landfill initiated in immediate action plan, plus initial annual phases and capping of sanitary landfill. (a) Extend network for incremental population, (b) Connect decentralized waste water systems to centralized system, as necessary, (c) Add toilets for incremental population, (d) Annual incremental procurement and replacements for solid waste collection and transport and compost plant, and annual phases and capping of sanitary landfill. (a) Add sewage treatment plants for year 2041 demand, (b) Extend network for incremental population, (c) Connect remaining decentralized waste water systems to centralized system, as necessary, (d) Add toilets for incremental population, (e) Annual incremental procurement and replacements for solid waste collection and transport and compost plant, and annual phases and capping of sanitary landfill.

10.2 Phasing of Capital Investment Plan


CSP implementation will require substantial financial resources and planning for resource generation. Besides infrastructure costs, DMC will need resources for operation and management, community mobilization and capacity building. Broad estimates of financial requirements for implementing the above activities on a citywide basis are made below. All costs are as per 2010 rates for these tasks. Resources for CSP implementation will be generated from funds earmarked for water and sanitation development within municipal and state government budgets, but will not be limited to these resources alone. The funding for CSP implementation will include funds from the 13th Finance Commission and other center and state schemes for sanitation improvement. In addition to funding of the capital expenses for implementation of the CSP, financial resources
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would also be required, regularly, to fund the operation & maintenance (O&M) of the various facilities. In addition to DMCs budgetary resources, it is also proposed to explore the possibility of levying user charges for some of the services, at least to cover annual O&M expenditure, if not also to fund capital replacement. A conceptual investment plan, based on the strategy detailed above, is prepared, with details appearing in Annexure 16 and summary given below.
TABLE 47 SUMMARY OF PROPOSALS OF PHASED IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Sr. Item No. A 1 2 3

Investment (in Rs.) for Implementation of Dewas CSP Immediate Short-term Plan Medium-term Long-term Plan Action Plan (2014-21) Plan (2022(2032-41) (2011-13) 2031) 6,800,000 2,250,000 215,900,000 9,400,000 3,000,000 79,500,000 11,750,000 4,000,000 42,000,000

4 5 6

Capital Cost Household toilets 60,000,000 Public/community toilets 10,050,000 Decentralized sewerage systems Centralized sewerage system Storm water 293,550,000 disposal system Repairs and up- 42,000,000 gradation of existing sanitation works Sub-total of A.1 405,600,000 to 6 Solid waste management (a) Primary 55,100,000 collection and transport (b) Workshop 2,600,000 (c) Treatment (d) Sanitary landfill (e) Institutional 1,300,000 strengthening and capacity building (f) Miscellaneous 3,100,000 Sub-total of A.7 62,100,000 Total investment 467,700,000 cost (A) (Items 1 to 7 above) Average O&M

1,000,000,000 140,000,000 -

280,000,000 174,500,000 -

222,500,000 206,000,000 -

1,364,950,000

546,400,000

486,250,000

77,200,000

139,600,000

89,200,000

1,300,000 22,900,000 70,700,000 -

1,250,000 10,000,000 54,500,000 -

1,250,000 5,000,000 47,000,000 -

500,000 172,100,000 1,537,550,000

205,350,000 751,750,000

142,450,000 628,700,000

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Cost Toilets and waste water disposal (items A.1 to 6 above) at 5.33% of capital cost Solid waste management Total O&M Cost for Sanitation

72,751,835 29,123,120 25,917,125 (72,555,957+ (21,618,480 + (57,994,397 + 21,618,480 0.5x72,751,835) 0.5x29,123,120) 0.5x25,917,125) = = = 85,514,519 57,994,397 72,555,957 76,400,000 98,018,480 86,041,680 144,036,077 104,087,360 176,643,317 130,025,160 215,539,679

21,618,480

Note: 1. Costs are estimated at current price level. 2. SWM O&M costs are escalated as per increase in population to be served. 3. O&M costs are average annual costs in median years for different plan periods (namely in year 2012 for immediate action plan, in year 2017 for short-term plan, in year 2026 for medium-term plan, and in year 2036 for long-term plan).

10.3 Financial Plan for Implementation of City Sanitation Plan


This section of the report outlines the annual capital expenditure (capex) required, as well as funds required for operations and maintenance of all aspects of the CSP and the sources for funding both. From the above section (Section 10.2), assuming that capital expenses in each one of the years, in each phase of project implementation, would be equal, and applying an annual inflation factor of 5% for all capital expenditure (from 2012-13 onwards), the following picture emerges for annual capital expenditure for implementation of the CSP. (Please note that while the following table outlines just a few select years, the attached Annexure 17 Dewas CSP CAPEX has the detailed break-up of the capex and also the yearly figures.) (all figures in Rs. lakh) 2023-24 2026-27 980.45 1,135.00

Capital Expenditure Toilets, Waste Water, & Storm Water MSW MSW Replacement Total

2011-12 1,014.00

2014-15 1,173.83

2017-18 2,613.09

2020-21 3,024.98

310.5 1,324.50

286.71 1,460.54

262.12 75.96 2,951.17

303.44 83.46 3,411.88

225.92 187.93 1,394.30

394.86 436.00 1,965.85

Discussions in Bhopal with State officials suggest that Government of India (GoI) and Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) are both open to financially support implementation of city sanitation plans. Currently, the Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS), under the Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA), GoI, supports the construction of individual toilets for economically weaker sections of society. The Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) or the newly created Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) supports development of
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integrated housing and other related urban infrastructure for the poor. Capex for waste water disposal and MSW, within Dewass low-income settlements, could be financially supported under the IHSDP/RAY schemes of GoI. However, it is expected that since GoI has supported the development of City Sanitation Plans, under the aegis of the National Urban Sanitation Project, they would evolve a program to financially support implementation of these plans as well. It is envisaged that the scheme would be similar to UIDSSMT, wherein a city like Dewas would receive up to 70% of its total approved capital expenditure (capex) for implementation of its CSP from the GoI scheme and another 20% from GoMP. Thus, Dewas Municipal Corporation would need to finance the balance 10% of the total capex. The financial model for the Dewas CSP has been developed using this assumption, i.e., that Dewas Municipal Corporation would need to fund 10% of the total capex envisaged in the CSP. In addition to the capex, operation & maintenance (O&M) expenses to be incurred annually for the various elements of the CSP are also quite significant. The following table outlines the O&M expenditure required, including a 7% annual inflation for O&M expenses, and the incremental expenditure that would be required to be made by the Dewas Municipal Corporation (DMC), i.e., in addition to the expenditure that DMC is incurring currently, which has also been assumed to increase at 7% per annum from the current levels. (Please note that while the following table outlines just a few years, the attached Annexure 18 Dewas CSP O&M has the yearly figures.) (all figures in Rs. lakh) O&M 2011-12 2014-15 2017-18 2020-21 2023-24 2026-27 Expenditure 54.05 249.25 675.38 1,168.68 1,458.99 1,644.08 Toilets, Waste Water & Storm Water MSW 764.00 867.52 920.62 976.96 1,036.76 1,102.92 DMCs 301.11 368.87 451.88 553.58 678.15 830.77 Expenses Incremental 516.94 747.90 1,144.11 1,592.07 1,817.60 1,916.23 O&M Expenses As can be appreciated from the above table, O&M expenditure for waste water disposal and MSW would be a significant burden on DMCs finances. To assess the status of DMCs affordability for: (a) funding the capital expenditure for implementing the CSP; and (b) for its O&M, projections of DMCs financials were undertaken. The same is outlined in the attached Anexure 19 Dewas Municipal Corporation Financial Projections. These financial projections have been based on: (a) financial performance of DMC over the previous six years for which actual financial statements are available, i.e., for the period between 2004-05 and 2009-10; (b) discussions with officials of DMC (for eg., Water Tax and Connection Charges have been based on the fact that the UIDSSMT-funded water supply scheme would be completed in 2011-12, following which, over two years, DMC would increase Water Tax from the current levels to Rs.200 per household per month; and (c) discussions with GoMP officials regarding the assessment of financial support that DMC would receive from the 13th Finance Commission and other State Govt. schemes.
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Based on the above capital expenditure, incremental O&M expenditure, and financial projections of DMC, the following picture emerges (please see attached Annexure 20 Dewas City Sanitation Plan Financial Model for full details. (all figures in Rs. lakh) DMCs 2011-12 2014-15 2017-18 2020-21 2023-24 2026-27 Financials Projections DMCs total 5,319.93 6,496.98 8,623.72 11,055.60 14,194.89 17,080.27 receipts* DMCs 3,675.39 4,994.72 6,650.82 8,773.88 10,948.02 14,178.00 operating expenses** 1,644.53 1,502.26 1,972.90 2,281.72 3,246.88 2,902.27 DMC funds available for capex and incremental. O&M Incremental 516.94 747.90 1,144.11 1,592.07 1,817.60 1,916.23 O&M expenditure required DMCs 132.45 146.05 295.12 341.19 139.43 196.59 contribution to capex Funds 995.15 608.31 533.67 348.46 1,289.84 789.45 Available for other Capex * Note: ** Note: This excludes any scheme-specific receipts of DMC, which would go towards implementing the specific scheme. This includes outflows on interest payments and debt repayment (of the current outstanding loan of Rs.21 crore from HUDCO).

As can be seen from the above table, if DMC were to fund 10% of the total capex required and the O&M for all aspects of waste water disposal and MSW, then the total funds available for any other capital expenditure decreases to an average of about Rs.5.27 crore per annum, in the next 10 years, i.e., between 2011-12 and 2020-21. This includes grants from the 13th Finance Commission to DMC. Discussions with GoMP officials reveal that DMC is likely to receive a total of about Rs.20 crore from the 13th Finance Commission, i.e., about Rs.4 crore per annum The average capital expenditure of Rs.5.27 crore per annum between 2011-12 and 2020-21 does not compare favorably to the average annual capital expenditure incurred by DMC of Rs.10.82 crore over the last six years, i.e., between 2004-05 and 2009-10, or an annual average expenditure of Rs.16.82 crore over the last three years, i.e, in the period 2007-08 to 2009-10. The comparison is even worse if one were to build in the factor of inflation in capital expenditure. It is evident that DMC would need to introduce and charge user fees for waste water disposal and MSW services that it would provide, as outlined in the CSP. Globally, user charges for waste water disposal services are normally based on water charges, i.e., a certain percentage of the
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water charge. This percentage has typically varied between 50-80% of user water charges. It is proposed that DMC levy a 50% waste water disposal surcharge to the user water charges. However, it is proposed that user charges for waste water disposal be levied with effect from 2013-14, i.e., after Dewass citizens have witnessed a significant improvement in waste water disposal services. As regards MSW services, it is proposed that DMC levy a monthly user fee of Rs.30 per household. This fee could vary for users belonging to various economic slabs. For the purposes of the financial model, it has been assumed that the total user charges collected against MSW services would be equivalent to 60% of the users paying Rs.30 per month. Again, it is proposed that these user fees be levied with effect from 2012-13, after clear improvement in services would be evident to Dewass citizens. With the above indicated user charges, DMC would generate about Rs.13.5 crore per annum, on average, over the next ten years, i.e., between 2011-12 and 2020-21, increasing to Rs.32.5 crore over the following ten years, i.e., between 2021-22 and 2030-31, for undertaking other capital expenditure programs. This amount is in line with DMCs average annual capital expenditure of Rs.10.82 over the previoius six years, and is therefore likely to be acceptable to the Corporation. Strategy for Implementation of City Sanitation Plan The following multi-pronged strategy is laid out for implementation of the Dewas City Sanitation Plan over the 30-year time horizon.

10.4 Implementation of Toilets


Components Household toilets Toilets for Safe Access to Sanitation Approach Interventions Individual toilets connected New toilets by constructing to sewerage, where balance number of household possible, or individual or and shared toilets for current residential and floating community septic tanks population existing Where individual toilets are Improve/upgrade not possible, small group toilets with water services and latrines/shared latrines (1 network connections new toilets for for 5-10 households) will be Add incremental population during provided short-, medium- and long-term plans as population grows Public toilets at commercial New toilets with water and network market places (1 seat for services 100 HHs) and places of connections existing pilgrimages connected to Improve/upgrade sewerage, where possible, toilets with water services and or individual or community network connection septic tanks Who is Responsible Individual household DMC can provide incentives through central/state government schemes Self-help groups can be formed to access microfinance

Public toilets

DMC through own sources or through PPP with private sector/ industries/association of shopkeepers, etc.

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Community toilets

At minimum, one community latrine (1 seat for 50 persons), in each slum for those HHs with space issues or who cant afford a individual or shared latrine, will be provided with adequate water supply, power and O&M plans

Construct new toilets with water services and network connections Improve/upgrade existing toilets with water services and network connections

DMC with community groups (SHGs, O&M groups,) in each settlement discussing problems and identifying solutions

10.5 Safe Collection, Disposal and Treatment of Liquid Waste Disposal of Household Waste Water Components Approach Interventions All the waste water will be On-site disposal through septic Collection, treatment and collected, treated and tanks and soakage pits or two disposal of disposed as per the norms pit latrines, with other HH waste laid down for safe waste water also connected to pits household Effluent of septic tanks connected water disposal waste water to a local small-bore sewerage network, with secondary treatment provided to the waste water collected in the system Regular sewer network, in which the toilet water and other HH waste water will be collected, with full primary and secondary treatment provided at the terminal end Combination of centralized and/or decentralized treatment and final disposal in different parts of the city, depending on the feasibility

Who is Responsible DMC with support from community groups (SHGs, O&M groups wherever community-level collection mechanisms are envisaged

10.6 Safe Disposal of Storm Water Drainage and Waste Water from Industries and Institutions
Disposal of Industrial and Institutional Waste Water Components Approach Interventions Collection and Covered or open drains Separate storm water disposal disposal of (suitable for easy system storm water cleaning), integrated into Start implementation of the work of roadside drains and citys primary drains improvements to the primary drains in the immediate action plan (years 2011-13) with completion in the initial years of short-term plan Upgrade existing drains Who is Responsible DMC with community level advocacy support for maintaining roadside drains in slums

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Disposal of waste water from Industries and Institutions

Industries and institutions dispose their waste water as per prescribed standards and integrate with city sewers/drains

Improvements in primary drains Construction of new roadside drains Weekly cleaning of drains, where open, to prevent choking Augment the network, in stages, to cover incremental development of areas in future years, in short-, medium- and long-term plans Monitoring to ensure waste water being discharged in the municipal drains as per the standards of State Pollution Control Board Linking public institutions and educational institutions to centralized or decentralized sewerage network

DMC with support from industries and institutions to ensure they meet the disposal norms for waste water, prescribed by Pollution Control Board

10.7 Implementation Strategy for SWM Components Primary storage waste Who is Responsible Encourage residents and Store waste at source in a single Residents of Dewas of waste generators to store bin Local NGOs waste properly Promote home composting DMC Improve door-to-door collection services Encourage use of community waste depots Strengthen collection from nondomestic sources Timely replacement of equipment and containers Improved service delivery Strengthen street sweeping and drain cleaning Primary collection can be transported either directly to disposal site or transferred into containers installed at strategic locations depending on location of landfill site Evaluate option of transfer station depending upon the location of treatment and disposal facility DMC with support from residents, industries and institutions Collection, Transport, Treatment and Disposal of MSW Approach Interventions

Primary collection and secondary storage

Mixed strategy for primary collection of waste from domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional sources comprising motorized primary collection, manual collection through handcarts and individual disposal at community waste depots to collect waste Strengthen collection and Secondary transport, treatment and collection, disposal of waste with transport, priority to treatment and highest disposal of safeguard public health solid waste

DMC

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Multi-dimensional strategy comprising centralized composting, home composting, and recycling center Sanitary landfill till treatment operations are commissioned Institutional Arrangements and Partnerships 10.8 Formation of Sanitation Committees With commencement of the activity to formulate the Dewas CSP, the Corporation took the decision that the small, technical advisory group, already constituted for the preparation of the City Development Plan (CDP) for Dewas under JNNURM, would also serve as the implementation vehicle for the City Sanitation Plan. This advisory group, comprising the District Collector, the Dewas mayor and commissioner, the citys Chief Engineer, and the local head of the Madhya Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (MPUSP) project, provided excellent oversight and feedback at key stages in the development of the CSP. As the draft of the CSP nears completion, the DMC will retain its leadership role as the principal agency responsible for communicating and implementing the recommendations of the City Sanitation Plan. Further, partnerships with a wider range of key stakeholders will be essential for DMC to reach its goal of Total Sanitation, which would address all aspects of city sanitation, including the critical first step of an open defecationfree city. This expanded list of stakeholder partnerships will need to include non-government agencies, private sector representatives, civil society groups, etc. for successful and sustainable Total Sanitation. The city sanitation committee/cell structure recommended by the Government of Madhya Pradesh Integrated Urban Sanitation Program (IUSP) provides an excellent vehicle for expanding the involvement of DMC staff and the community at-large in carrying out the implementation of the CSP. 10.8.1 City level sanitation committee The guidelines prepared for the implementation of the Integrated Urban Sanitation Program (IUSP) by the Urban Administration and Development Department (UADD), Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP), recommend setting up of committees at the state and city level for facilitating the implementation of CSP. Under these guidelines, a city level sanitation committee is to be formed for facilitating effective implementation of the CSP. The committee will be empowered to bring together various local actors in the implementation of the CSP, which will be critical to achieving the vision of an open defecation-free city. IUSP guidelines have proposed the following composition for the city level sanitation committee: Mayor/President of the ULB Members of MIC/PIC Women ward member nominated by mayor/president Representative of business associations Representative of sanitary workers association NGO representatives Officers from various departments associated with sanitation Subject expert(s) with permission from the Chairperson Commissioner/CMO of the ULB Chairperson Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary

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10.8.2 City sanitation cell The above-described sanitation committee is envisaged as an advisory and policy level body. The IUSP Guidelines call for it to be supported by a technical body called the city sanitation cell (CSC) comprising a set of dedicated technical professionals (specialized in city human excreta and liquid waste management). The Commissioner, DMC, will appoint a suitable officer as the nodal officer for this cell. The CSC will be responsible on a day-to-day basis for overseeing and managing all technical issues. IUSP recommends the following composition for the city sanitation cell: Commissioner/CMO of the ULB Assistant Engineer/Sub-engineer Health Officer/Sanitary Inspector Sanitation worker Chief of sanitary workers association Chief Technical Officer Technical Officer Social Organizer Social Expert

10.9 Strategy for Communication and Participation


10.9.1 Strategic communication with the staff of DMC

Being the primary implementers of the City Sanitation Plan, the staff of the DMC must be fully aware of the plan and the various proposed strategies essential for effective implementation. Further, since they are also DMCs primary interface with the citys households/citizens, they will play a strategic role in generating awareness among these individuals. Recognizing its own limitations, DMC should take advantage of the strengths for community mobilization available with some of the citys leading private sector and civil society stakeholders. It must solicit their views and participation in the initial steps of anchoring a campaign on the issues of environmental sanitation, MSW management, public health, aesthetics and quality of life, etc. 10.9.2 Community awareness and participation Successful implementation of the Dewas CSP will require significant inputs in the areas of public relations and community management. It requires community organization, mobilization and regular communication to ensure constructive participation of different stakeholders. In this respect, DMC does not have adequate capacity, especially with regard to MSW activities. It is, therefore, recommended that DMC engage a qualified and experienced social worker (with a masters degree in social work) with good communication skills to be able to commence a sustained campaign on effective solid waste management across the city. The services of the social worker can also be utilized for engaging the community on a range of other issues. Community organization along the above lines will help DMC in mobilizing for awareness creation and soliciting the communitys participation in the new initiatives. Regular communication through these channels will help in building bridges with the community and increase confidence on both sides. The following table suggests potential tools to address current sanitation practices and the desired behavior changes.

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Target Audience

Current Practices

Desired Behavior/ Practices Discontinue open defecation Use individual toilets where they exist Use community toilets Contribute towards O&M costs of facilities Encourage safe hygiene practices Construct and use individual toilets Encourage safe hygiene practices Shifting to on-site management of waste water such as septic tanks, etc. Encourage safe hygiene practices Regular cleaning of septic tanks Readiness to shift to a community/decentralized waste water management system Readiness to shift to a sewered system Readiness to pay for O & M costs of the system Encourage safe hygiene practices

Slum/low income Defecation in the open HHs Not using individual toilets even where they exist Not using public/ community toilets

Slum/low income Using public/community HHs/city toilets population Households Disposing untreated currently waste water in open disposing waste drains water in open drains Households that have septic tanks as a waste water disposal mechanism Septic tanks not regularly cleaned/de-sludged resulting in waste overflowing into open drains

Potential Communication Tools Behavior change communication (BCC) program to motivate households to adopt safe sanitation practices Possible tools: Inter-personal communication Community meetings and FGDs with womens groups, children, youth Information materials Folk media dramas/skits in communities

10.9.3 Institutionalizing community-government interaction To build community awareness and participation DMC will need to introduce and institutionalize a platform for voice and participatory governance. Successful models for community-local government interaction such as the Bhagidari-Sanjha Prayas in Delhi, which has been replicated in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, or Janagraha in Bangalore, will be reviewed for replication. The members of DMCs city sanitation cell will meet periodically with representatives of various community groups to discuss key implementation concerns with follow-up action by the concerned department. A senior officer in DMC will head the Dewas Bhagidari to ensure compliance and follow-up action on demands raised in various meetings with the support of the city sanitation cell. DMC will, however, need to expand its community mobilization processes in a phased manner. The purpose will be to strengthen and empower communities, especially women, to engage with local government agencies and participate in planning and implementing sanitation interventions. Consideration should also be given to involving the communities in the process of community contracting, community oversight and O&M. DMC should explore contracting a local development
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NGO(s) to facilitate the processes for community mobilization, planning and implementation in support of successful Dewas CSP implementation. 10.9.4 Community participation at city scale Implementation of the CSP would require mobilization of citizens at the local level and subsequent activity planning, including significant number of discussions regarding finalization of implementation plans and their revisions, as well as operational management of issues that come up during project implementation. The community structures created under the Swaran Jyanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) could be utilized to plan and implement community level interventions. After strengthening the civil society structure and in order to ensure a high-level of transparency and, thereby, cooperation, DMC must adopt a system of organizing regular consultations with the stakeholders on issues of, among others, environmental sanitation, MSW management, public health and hygiene, etc. The feedback received from the community during these consultative meetings will help in optimizing resources and improving service levels. 10.9.5 Communication with stakeholders In order to achieve the first goal of the CSP, which is to eradicate the practice of open defecation, a communication program must be organized to address the current practices and behavior of the affected target audience through an appropriate communication/awareness building campaign. The primary aim of this focused communication program should be to create awareness on the need for improved sanitation (including household level sanitation facilities and mechanisms for safe disposal of waste), along with enhancing awareness on linkages of sanitation with health, economic productivity and environment. 10.9.6 Management information system From the point of view of the municipal commissioner and city engineer, a comprehensive and scalable MIS shall be developed which will provide daily, weekly and monthly status of sanitary service delivery and asset condition. The MIS will cover, among others, ward level data and will also have a link with the asset management register. Depending on the ease of operation and resources available for data generation, collation and compilation, the system shall be customized to derive reports on critical aspects and service levels defined earlier. Such regular reports shall enable the municipal commissioner to take appropriate decisions and make measurable improvements over a defined time span. However, in view of the limited capacity at DMC, to start with, only a basic management information system (MIS) may be feasible and that should focus on key management and operational aspects. Accordingly, DMC must develop appropriate data entry forms, record system and log books and train its officials and personnel in relevant functions. 10.9.7 Training of corporators and officials There is a felt need for DMC to take up orientation programs for the benefit of the municipal elected corporators, as well as the officials from all departments, on the following subjects: Effective management of the various sanitation components. Benefits of good systems and risks of mismanagement. Responsibilities of various stakeholders.
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In this respect, DMC should also either organize study tours to those cities where good work has been carried out in the recent past e.g., Surat, New Bombay, Suryapet, Namakkal, etc. or invite concerned officials to Dewas for sharing their experiences. 10.9.8 Participatory monitoring In order to complement the strengths of the implementing and monitoring departments, DMC must introduce a system of monitoring and inspection by officials from other departments on a rotation basis in different wards of the city. This will ensure higher visibility in the public, and higher transparency, accountability and familiarity with essential services among ULB officials at all levels. As a result of improved feedback generated through this initiative, DMC will be able to improve service levels across the city at least cost. DMC must also work with the community in evolving a participatory monitoring system for waste management services, e.g., in market areas, residential colonies, etc. Representatives of CBOs should be regularly invited for consultation and feedback. Way Forward

10.10 Journey So Far


A number of steps, as follows, have been completed since initiation of the City Sanitation Plan for Dewas city: Baseline household sanitation survey, done by DMC, Sanitation Survey (2008). Detailed reconnaissance survey of wards and slums completed by FIRE (D). Initial discussions with the officers of Government of Madhya Pradesh and Dewas Municipal Corporation. Preparation of Situation Analysis Report as a first step of City Sanitation Plan.

10.11 Next Steps


This report is the first draft of the City Sanitation Plan. It needs to be taken forward in the following logical steps: Presentation of the Situational Analysis Report and Draft City Sanitation Plan to the corporators and officers of Dewas Municipal Corporation. Consultation and presentation of the Situation Analysis Report and Draft City Sanitation Plan to a wider range of key stakeholders, including non-governmental agencies, private sector representatives, civil society groups, etc. Based on these discussions and the comments received, the proposals of the City Sanitation Plan should be finalized. City level sanitation committee and city sanitation cell shall be formed. Final selection of citywide sanitation options shall be made. Detailed Project Reports of the initial individual sanitation components shall be prepared and required sanctions shall be obtained. In conjunction with DPR preparation, financial resources shall be identified and mobilized. Strategy for implementation of individual components shall be finalized and bidding process shall be initiated.
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Training workshops for corporators, officers and staff shall be organized to detail out the CSP planning and implementation process. Gaps in rules/legislation shall be identified and appropriate rules shall be drafted and approved. Institutional setup shall be put in place and operationalized to ensure sustainable sanitation service delivery. Monitoring and evaluation systems shall be put in place. Physical components shall be implemented in phases.

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ANNEXURE: 1. THE APPROACH & METHODOLOGY


This chapter includes the overall approach and methodology for carrying out the assignment.

PART: 1.

Key Aspects of the Approach

SECTION 1. Achieving 100% sanitation The goal of the exercise is to achieve 100% sanitation in the project city. The following are the indicators of 100% sanitation in a city: Primary Indicators as mandated by National Urban Sanitation Policy: o Every citizen has access to a toilet & the city is Open Defecation Free o All the sewage generated is collected, treated and disposed of safely. Secondary Indicators Secondary indicators are optional and are not mandated by the NUSP. However, for an holistic approach to sanitation in a city, it is important that the following indicators are also addressed in city sanitation planning: o All the solid waste generated is collected, treated and disposed of safely o All water bodies and drains are preserved and kept clean o All the storm water drains are kept clean. Every aspect of the process and infrastructure provision must integrate community participation and must be inclusive. In addition, water and waste water management must be carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner, recycling and reusing the byproducts as far as possible. SECTION 2. Building local institutions and community participation The creation of a city sanitation committee and preparation of city sanitation plan are seen as the key services. The city sanitation committee is the institutional structure that will promote the vision of Total Sanitation for the project city. It shall ensure the successful implementation of a 100% sanitation campaign, as well as oversee the plan and project formulation, implementation and operations. SECTION 3. Centralized and decentralized approaches Most local governments prioritize centralized collection and treatment systems for managing domestic waste water and municipal solid waste. However, as rapid population growth in urban areas exceeds the supply of sanitation services, it has become increasingly evident that such conventional treatment systems are not necessarily the most appropriate solutions at a given point in time for tackling waste water and sewage in developing countries. The selection of correct technology is one of the key challenges for reaching 100% sanitation access. A certain level and coverage of water and waste water infrastructure already exists in the cities of the country. In that case, it is the goal of the planners and engineers to optimize existing infrastructure and reduce redundancy, but maintain flexibility with user satisfaction as the primary goal. It is important that a holistic technical approach, which incorporates centralized and decentralized systems, is chosen. A mix of options (including conventional and non-conventional solutions) needs to be examined to address sanitation issues as a whole at a citywide level. The planning approach
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has to define the project-specific social, cultural, economic, health and environmental priorities, which will influence technology selection and system design. Technologies that promote recycle and reuse of treated waste water should be given due consideration.

PART: 2. Steps in the Methodology Each of the key services has been broken down into a series of executable tasks as follows. These tasks are not linear and many of the activities will happen in parallel and in an iterative manner.
SECTION 4. First consultation meeting The first consultation meeting was conducted in Dewas with the city stakeholders and FIRE (D) representatives. In this meeting, the objective scope and methodology of City Sanitation Plan preparation was explained to the city sanitation committee. This meeting proved useful in getting a preliminary understanding of the city and the work that has already been carried out with FIRE (D) assistance. SECTION 5. Preparation of base map A detailed base map has been prepared on GIS platform for the city of Dewas. The following layers and attributes have been incorporated. No. 1 Data/Feature Source and available

All natural and manmade features, including Existing maps building footprints, roads, water bodies and satellite data drainages, etc. All administrative boundaries Corporation, census wards, villages, etc. Municipal Existing maps

The following layers of information have been incorporated from the reconnaissance survey conducted by FIRE (D): Data on slums:
o o o o o Type and number of public latrines Arrangement of collection of waste (whether in a septic tank or in the sewer network) and the map of sewer network Arrangement of water supply, and treatment and disposal of waste Method of cleaning and maintenance Condition of the works, including nuisance such as odour, accumulation of waste water, overflowing of septic tanks, etc.

Field survey of surface drains Field survey of solid waste arrangements Sample survey of industries Sample survey of public institutions (health & education). In addition, ward level data generated from the reconnaissance survey have been attached to the ward polygons.

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SECTION 6. Review of available data Some of the data provided by FIRE (D) has been reviewed in later sections of this report. The data received from FIRE (D) include: Notes on City Sanitation Plan, which suggest a structure for the City Sanitation Plan Household information on sanitation carried out by Dewas Municipal Corporation Reconnaissance survey of all wards, slums, and a sample of industries and public institutions to collect information on the actual ground situation Digital geo-referenced topographical maps of nine priority slums Designs for the extension of the water supply facility and other infrastructure in these nine slums Project reports for 4 pilot slums. SECTION 7. Secondary data collection Other available secondary data has been collected on: Demographics Water supplysource, quantity and quality of water supplied Sanitation sewerage infrastructure, public toilets, solid waste management. This data has been mapped and used for analysis of the service delivery levels. Data on municipal finances Annual budgets of the last five years and income and expenditure statements (capital and revenue) have been collected from the Municipal Corporation. SECTION 8. Field surveys and consultations Additional field surveys and informal consultations have been conducted to strengthen the information provided by USAID FIRE (D) and ULB in the following areas: Primary and secondary sources of water Disaggregated water demand Access to sewerage infrastructure and toilets in slums Disaggregated sewerage infrastructure demand Typology of development. The following has been the methodology to capture the data: The city is divided into blocks. These blocks have roads on all sides. The blocks are bigger in the case of peripheral areas, where there is less development, and smaller in central areas of the city, where development intensity is higher. A land use survey is conducted in each of these blocks and the blocks are divided into parcels based on the land use typology. To illustrate: high-end bungalows and MIG flats are differentiated as regards water demand and, therefore, sewage generation is likely to be different. A questionnaire survey is used in each unique land use typology block to capture data on typical size of a dwelling unit, typical size of a family, predominant water sources, secondary water sources, quality perceptions, mode of sewage disposal, mode of solid waste disposal, 163

etc. In addition, questions are asked in select slums on individual toilets, public toilet seats, their usability, hygiene behavior, etc. A survey on willingness-to-pay for access to a sewerage system. SECTION 9. Assessing demand/supply gap & stress levels in a disaggregate manner All the relevant data collected have been integrated on a GIS platform. The data generated through the field surveys have been added as attributes to the base map (as prepared for the whole city). Based on this data the population is distributed at the level of a block. This is controlled using census population figures projected for 2010. This data is then used to disaggregate water demand, sewage generation and solid waste generation. With a few exceptions, the city at present does not have a sewerage system. The BNP area has its own sewerage and treatment systems. A few colonies, developed by the Dewas Development Authority, have sewer lines. There is almost no door-to-door collection of solid waste and informal dump sites can be seen all over the city. Therefore, the demand/supply gap alone will not present a good picture of the gravity of the situation. A stress analysis was then be carried out using additional indicators, such as population density, land use, availability of sewage disposal and solid waste management systems, etc. To illustrate, a high-density slum pocket with no access to toilets, sewerage or solid waste management would present a greater sanitation problem than some other type of residential area. Similarly, a hospital with no sanitation systems would pose a greater threat than a high-end residential area. SECTION 10. Conduct 2nd consultation After the assessment of demand/supply situation and the situation analysis, a consultation shall be organised with the city sanitation committee. The findings of the assessment shall be presented and feedback elicited. SECTION 11. Assessing technology options Based on the situation analysis an internal workshop will be organized to discuss possible strategies and approaches for solving the observed sanitation issues. Here technology options will be discussed and decided upon by. Based on this discussion, schematic designs will be prepared. The technological options identified will be verified for their feasibility based on the Corporations municipal finances and availability of funds. SECTION 12. Strategies and project formulation Strategies and solutions shall be prepared for all the un-served areas in the city. In addition, a strategy to address the sanitation needs of future population growth shall also be formulated through project solutions as well as recommendations to policy and legislation. The strategies shall focus on strengthening existing systems rather than simply proposing unsustainable capital expenditure. Special emphasis shall be given to address issues pertaining to livelihood linkages of the urban poor with the sanitation sector, user charges, etc. to develop strategies that are financially self-sustaining. SECTION 13. Draft City Sanitation Plan Based on the situation analysis, strategy formulation and technology selection, a draft City Sanitation Plan shall be prepared for Dewas. This shall include schematic designs, broad cost estimates and an implementation strategy. The draft plan will also include recommendations to the legislative framework and a broad assessment of training and capacity building needs.
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SECTION 14. Conduct 3rd consultation The draft CSP, implementation plan and various other recommendations shall be presented to the city sanitation committee and other stakeholders identified by the client. SECTION 15. Final City Sanitation Plan The relevant suggestions and recommendations received through the consultation shall be incorporated in finalising the CSP.

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ANNEXURE: 2. ALCHEMY LAND QUESTIONNAIRE

USE

AND

INFRASTRUCTURE

SURVEY

No. of Floors

If community hall/auditorium, then capacity

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167

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ANNEXURE: 3. LAND USE CODES & SPACE UTILIZATION FACTORS


No Land Use Sub-category Code SUF Jobs SUF Res SUF Vis Average Size (sq. m.) Unit No. of Jobs No. Residents of No. of Visitors

1 2 3 4 5 6

HIG Residential bungalows)

(Posh RA RB RC RD

0.003 0.006 0.044 0.010 0.000 0.000

0.013 0.024 0.050 0.045 0.056 0.149

0.000 0.000 0.222 0.000 0.000 0.000

300 170 90 100 90 37

1 1 4 1 0 0

4 4 4.5 4.5 5 5.5 20 0 0 0

Residential Apartment (HIG) Residential + Commercial Row Houses

MIG Residential (tenements/ RE duplex) LIG Residential RF (tenements/apartments or peripheral settlements) Slums Commercial (malls/big shops) Commercial (small shops) Markets Slaughter House Auditorium/Cinemas/Commun RG CA CB CC CD CE

7 8 9 10 11 12

0.000 0.032 0.100 0.050

0.375 0.000 0.000 0.000

0.000 0.120 1.000 0.125

16 250 20 400

0 8 2 20

6 0 0 0 30 20 50

0.010

0.000

0.200

1000

10

0
169

200

No

Land Use Sub-category

Code

SUF Jobs

SUF Res

SUF Vis

Average Size (sq. m.)

Unit No. of Jobs

No. Residents

of No. of Visitors

ity Halls 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Hotels/Guesthouses/Hostels Hospitals/Clinics School School + Residential College College Facilities Offices Religious Heritage Defense Large-scale Industries Small-scale Industries Household Industries CF NA NB NC ND +Residential NE NF NG NH NI IA IB IC 0.000 0.000 0.029 0.000 0.000 0.149 0.000 0.000 0.029 1165 80 35 1 5.2 1 0.010 0.018 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.200 929 500 9 9 0 0 5 100 0.005 0.000 0.080 2500 12 0 200 0.014 0.002 0.007 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.100 0.017 0.200 500 3000 1000 7 7 7 0 0 50 50 200

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ANNEXURE: 4. ASSUMPTIONS WATER CONSUMPTION FOR VARIOUS LAND USE CATEGORIES


Land Use Sub-category HIG Residential (posh bungalows) Residential Apartment (HIG) Residential + Commercial Row Houses MIG Residential (tenements/duplex) LIG Residential (tenements/apartments) Slums Commercial (malls/big shops) Commercial (small shops) Markets Auditorium/Cinemas/Community Halls Hotels/Guesthouses/Hostels Hospitals/Clinics Schools School + Residential Facilities College College + Residential Facilities Offices Religious Large-scale Industries Small-scale Industries Household Industries Ra Rb Rc Rd Re Rf Rg Ca Cb Cc Ce Cf Na Nb Nc Nd Ne Nf Ng Ia Ib Ic 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 Jobs 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 4 5 10 2 Residents 110 90 50 50 40 25 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Visitors 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.5 1 1 90 90 2

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ANNEXURE: 5. ASSUMPTIONS SOLID WASTE PER CAPITA FOR VARIOUS LAND USE CATEGORIES
Land Use Sub-category HIG Residential (posh bungalows) Residential Apartment (HIG) Residential + Commercial Row houses MIG Residential (tenements/duplex) LIG Residential (tenements/apartments) Slums Commercial (malls/big shops) Commercial (small shops) Markets Auditorium/Cinemas/Community Halls Hotels/Guesthouses/Hostels Hospitals/Clinics Schools School + Residential Facilities College College + Residential Facilities Offices Religious Ra Rb Rc Rd Re Rf Rg Ca Cb Cc Ce Cf Na Nb Nc Nd Ne Nf Ng Jobs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 30 200 100 150 150 100 100 100 100 100 0 Residents 350 300 250 250 200 200 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 0 Visitors 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 75 0 80 250 100 100 100 100 100 0 0

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ANNEXURE: 6. DEWAS CLEANLINESS SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY DMC IN 2008


Features of the Survey The Dewas Municipal Corporation conducted a household survey to assess the status of sanitation and cleanliness in the city of Dewas in 2008. Survey Data The Nagrika Sarvekshan 2008 survey data for each ward, which was compiled by the GoMP Urban Administration and Development Department, was downloaded from www.mpurban.gov.in. The survey data for wards 3, 20, 26 and 39 was not available online. The data for the rest of the wards was downloaded, translated and then analyzed. A summary of the analysis is presented in the following sections. A total of 23,708 households has been surveyed from the entire city. From the data available online, it is not apparent whether a stratified random sample was used or not. A summary of questions asked and the responses received is given below. Where relevant, the CSP consultants have added remarks concerning the survey design and outputs.
TABLE 48: SUMMARY OF QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES IN DEWAS CLEANLINESS SURVEY, 2008

Q. No. 1

Question Responses Count Is there toilet facility available in Yes 21,098 the house? No 2,610 TOTAL 23,708 REMARKS: The survey data available online does not differentiate between slum HHs and non-slum HHs. Therefore, it is not clear to what extent even non-slum HHs have toilets. 2 If Yes, then please describe the In the drain 469 type of service. Individual toilet with water/without 15,944 water/with septic tank Kutcha toilet 150 Open defecation 2,135 Paid toilet 1,053 Pit toilet 1,309 Public toilet 38 TOTAL 21,098 REMARKS: The response options to this question are not mutually exclusive. For example, an individual toilet can also be a pit toilet or a kutcha toilet. The response options also include open defecation, which is not a service, as well as public toilet and paid toilet, which are not in the house. 3 If No, what type of toilet facility do Community 154 you want? Individual 2,077 Nothing 379 TOTAL 2,610 REMARKS: All the respondents who said open defecation in response to previous question (no. 2) are, by design, left out of this question (no. 3). This means that even though 10% of the sample said that they have a toilet facility called open defecation, the survey does not ask them what sort of toilet they would like to have. 4 Are there community toilets and No 18,388 urinals in your locality? Yes TOTAL 5,320 23,708 173

Q. No. Question Responses Count REMARKS: Here also the question and response would have been more relevant if segregated by slum and non-slum. 5 If not, are you willing to contribute No 19,721 to construction of such facilities? Yes TOTAL Will you contribute to O & M of No these facilities? Yes TOTAL Where do you dispose of solid In the drains waste? In the open Nominated agency/scheduled collection Waste container TOTAL How far is the place where SW is 100-200 dumped? 200-500 50-100 5001,000 Less than 50 No response TOTAL Is there a designated place for No disposing of garbage? Yes TOTAL How often is garbage collected by Any time the ULB? Not picked up Once in a day Once in two days Twice in a day No response TOTAL Do you have domestic animals? No Yes TOTAL Where do you dispose animal No response waste? In the open Other Outside city Use at home 3,987 23,708 18,453 5,255 23,708 1,103 12,723 184 9,698 23,708 2,326 2,920 8,806 1,385 8,270 1 23,708 15,740 7,968 23,708 5,566 1,506 6,177 3,532 6,926 1 23,708 22,296 1,412 23,708 22,296 885 25 227 275 174

10

11

12

Q. No.

Question

Responses TOTAL

Count 23,708

Sanitation status of the city as per DMC survey


ACCESS TO SANITATION

Household level sanitation About 89% of the households surveyed have access to household toilets and 11% do not. Of the total respondents, only 9% resort to open defecation, 4% use paid public toilets and less than 1% use free public toilets. About 2% defecate in drains, 1% use kutcha toilets and 6% use pit toilets. About 67% use individual toilets. The ward-wise distribution shows that the lack of toilets is mainly in wards 1, 2, 4, 11-17 and 43-45.
Type of toilet

The ward-wise distribution of type of service shows that open defecation is highest in wards 1, 3, 11-16, 24, 42 and 44.

175

Type of toilet preferred Of the respondents who do not have household toilets, about 80% want individual household toilets, 6% would rather use community toilets and 14% do not want any toilets. The ward-wise response to this question shows that in wards where the lack of toilets in the house and where open defecation is the highest, individual toilets are preferred.

176

Access to public toilets About 22% of the respondents said that they have access to public toilet facilities (either toilets or urinals) in their neighborhood. Thus, approximately 78% do not have access to public toilet facilities. While asked if they were willing to contribute to construction of public toilets, only 17% said yes and the rest declined. When asked whether they are willing to contribute to maintenance of public toilets, 22% said yes and the rest declined.

The ward-wise distribution above shows that the lack of public toilets is a problem practically across the city. The ward-wise distribution of willingness to contribute to construction of public toilets, as well as to their operation and maintenance, shown in the bar charts below, reveals that respondents in wards 16, 17 and 42 have much higher willingness to pay than those in other wards, which are some of the citys wards with the highest incidence of lack of toilets in the house and open defecation.

177

WASTE WATER DISPOSAL AND TREATMENT

No questions were asked pertaining to the nature of treatment or disposal of waste water.

178

SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL

Collection and disposal system About 4% of the respondents dispose of solid waste in the nearby drains, about 54% in the open, about 1% hand it over to a nominated agency or scheduled collection system, and 41% of the respondents dispose of their solid waste in waste containers. The ward-wise response indicates that about a third of the Corporations wards seem to have waste containers accessible and the rest dont. Door-to-door collection, the preferred method, seems to be insignificant from the respondents view.

179

Access to dustbins About 35% of the respondents said that the dustbin is at a distance of less than 50 feet and 37% responded that it is at a distance of 50 to 100 feet. About 10%, 12% and 6%, respectively, of the respondents said that it is at a distance of 100-200 feet, 200-500 feet and 500-1000 feet.

The ward-wise distribution of distance from dustbin corroborates the picture emerging in the previous question. About a third of the wards have dustbins within easy reach and the rest dont.

180

Designated location for solid waste disposal 66% of the households responded that there is no designated place for solid waste disposal.

The ward-wise distribution for this response is a bit difficult to corroborate with the picture from the previous question. For example, comparing the results for wards 17 and 38 for the last two questions, the respondents say that the waste container is located at a distance of less than 50 feet, while the same respondents say that there is no designated location for solid waste disposal.

181

Frequency of collection by Corporation 29% of the respondents said that the Municipal Corporation collects waste from their locality twice in a day, 15% said once in two days, and 26% said once in a day. About 24% of the respondents said that there was no fixed time and about 6% said that solid waste was not collected at all. The ward-wise distribution of garbage collection frequency corroborates the picture emerging from the questions on where people throw solid waste and distance to dustbin. For example, wards 17 and 18 seem to have the best service levels from all three questions.

DISPOSAL OF CATTLE WASTE

About 6% of the respondents said that they have domestic animals. Out of the 6% who have domestic animals, 19% of them use the animal waste at home and the rest either dispose of it in the open or outside the city. From the ward-wise distribution, it emerges that this is an issue only in a few wards 1, 11, 12, 44 and 45, which are mostly peripheral wards.

182

183

ANNEXURE: 7. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY ON SANITATION CARRIED OUT BY USAID FIRE (D) IN 2010
Features of the Survey USAID FIRE (D) carried out a rapid field reconnaissance survey to collect specific primary data on the sanitation situation in the city. The survey included extensive data on the following components.
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Component Methodology* Observation and questionnaire surveys Observation surveys Observation surveys Individual interviews with 5 sample industries

Public latrines in wards and slums Surface drains Solid waste arrangement Sample survey of industries

Sample survey of public institutions (health & Individual interviews with 5 sample institutions education) Testing of quality of water and waste water
From actual samples collected different places in the city in

*Methodology as given in the ToR for the reconnaissance survey.

Survey Data The survey data is provided in the form of reports, including a summary report and reports of individual components. In addition AutoCAD drawings have been provided with locations of slums, public toilets and urinals, sewage cesspools, community septic tanks and sewered areas. The base map used for the drawings also includes ward boundaries, some road networks, and other physical features. For the purpose of preparation of this summary, key tables used in the reconnaissance survey summary report have been analyzed. In some cases, detailed reports have been used to substantiate an assessment.

184

Sanitation status of Dewas as per reconnaissance survey


ACCESS TO TOILETS

As access to household toilets was studied in the DMC survey, this was not addressed in the reconnaissance survey. Access to public toilets, however, was assessed both at ward level and in the slums. Wards 18 of the 45 wards have public toilets. Of the wards that have public toilets, 3 have less than 5 WC seats, 7 have 5 to 9 seats, 6 have 10 to 15 seats, and 2 have more than 15 seats. The incidence of open defecation exists mainly in 7 wards and in another 22 wards on a smaller scale.
Incidence of open defecation

Incidence of open defecation

185

Slums 70 slums do not have public toilets. The remaining 11 have them. 8 of the slums that have public toilets have 5 or more toilet seats. The rest have less than 5 toilet seats.

Incidences of open defecation in slums are not included in the study


COLLECTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE WATER

Access to water Access to water has not been dealt with as part of the reconnaissance survey.

186

Waste water collection, treatment and disposal Wards 32 wards have no sewer line, 10 wards have 50% or less area sewered, 1 ward has 60% area sewered, and only 2 wards have 100% of their area sewered. Of the wards, which have sewer lines, 4 have no treatment systems, 8 have community septic tanks, and only 1 ward has a sewage treatment plant (ward 3, BNP area). 3 wards dispose of their effluent in a nearby nalla, 3 wards in an open drain, and in 7 wards the disposal is not seen.

Treatment of effluent

Disposal of effluent

187

Slums Availability of sewer lines is not discussed in the slum surveys, since sewerage has not been introduced in the slums so far. An attempt has been made to capture the conditions of septic tanks where public toilets exist. In most cases the surveyors could not make out the condition. In some cases the septic tanks were found to be damaged. Only one is labeled as functional (Choprda Kshetra slum). Other use categories In all the educational institutions surveyed, septic tanks are used to treat waste water. The treated effluent is disposed of in the outside gutter or drain. Seven out of 10 hospitals surveyed have ETPs and septic tanks and the other 3 have only septic tanks. All of them dispose of the treated effluent in outside gutter or drain. Both the public institutions surveyed have septic tanks, one of which is damaged. The effluent in both cases is disposed of in the outside gutter or drain. Solid waste management
COLLECTION, DISPOSAL

Wards 24 wards have no community bins and the rest have at least one bin. At least 10 wards have more than 10 unauthorized garbage dumps. One ward (19) has as high as 36 unauthorized dumps. In 20 wards, the garbage is collected daily and in 19 wards garbage is collected irregularly or very irregularly.

188

No. of unauthorized garbage dumps in the ward

Frequency of clearance of garbage

Frequency of clearance

189

Slums Only 3 slums have community bins. There are many unauthorized garbage dumps in these slums. Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Category Slums in core area Outside core area Slums on periphery Community Bins Unauthorized (No.) Dumps (No.) -14 1 30 2 25 Frequency Clearance Daily Alternate/days Irregular of

Other use categories In all the educational institutions, solid waste is collected in bins and either burned or buried in pits. In 2 of the 6 institutions, the solid waste is dumped on the nearby road. In 3 out of the 10 hospitals surveyed, solid waste is dumped nearby and is collected by DMC. In one case, it is put in a DMC bin and then collected by DMC. In 5 cases, DMC directly collects the solid waste and in one case it is either burnt or collected by DMC In the public institutions, one of them recycles some waste and the rest is burnt. The other institution dumps it nearby and this is collected by DMC Bio-medical wastes Eight out of the 10 hospitals surveyed hand over bio-medical waste to a private collector every alternate day and, in one, the collection is made daily. One of the hospitals did not respond to the question on collection, but mentioned that their in-house incinerator is dysfunctional. The biomedical waste collected from the other hospitals is then taken to Hoswin Incinerator Pvt. Ltd. in Indore (appointed by Pollution Control Board). Industrial wastes
INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT & DOMESTIC WASTE WATER

The technology and treatment systems vary from industry to industry. Twelve industries were surveyed. Two of them have ETPs and STPs for effluent treatment. Six have only ETPs and 2 have no systems. Ranbaxy, a pharmaceutical company, has an activated sludge plant and a thermal evaporation system. Some of the byproducts are used in the plants gardens. One factory has a solar evaporation plant for treatment of effluent.
SOLID WASTE

In most cases the solid waste is sent to the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) constructed at Pithampur in Dhar district by M/s. M.P. Waste Management Facility (a group company of M/s. Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd., Hyderabad) on a BOOT basis. Some industries like Ranbaxy have captive incinerator plants. Steel rejects are sold to authorized recyclers.

190

Storm water management Wards Natural Drains There are 7 major nallas flowing through the city. All of them are stable and no flooding is experienced. In all the 7 nallas, the course has been mentioned as natural and requires training. These drainage channels pass through 26 wards. Of the wards that have nallas, only in 5 are they in objectionable condition.

Present condition of drain

Roadside surface drains Sr. Category of Wards No. 1. 2. 3. Surface Drains Coverage as % of Road Length Built-up Kutcha Coverage Construction Coverage Wards in core area (21 to 37) 50% Rectangular in masonry 40% or stone slabs -do31% Wards outside core area (2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 28% 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43) Wards on periphery 14% -do34% Surface Drains Built-up Average Construction Coverage 20% Rectangular in masonry or stone slabs or kerb of roadside concrete 10% -do11% -do-

Slums Sr. Category of Slums No. 1. 2. 3. Slums in core area Slums outside core area Slums on periphery

Kutcha Average coverage 15% 10% 13%

Water quality Five samples of water and waste water were tested. The TDS1 levels in the bore wells were 2 to 3 times higher than the acceptable limits and the B.Coli2 levels were 15 times higher than acceptable limits. A summary of other results are as follows. Sr. Samples No.
1Dissolved

Parameters of Quality

Permissible Limit

Actual Results

Remarks

minerals in water are commonly referred to as total dissolved solids (TDS). The TDS content of water is expressed in milligrams/litre (mg/l) or in parts per million (ppm). The standard that applies to India is BIS 10500-1991 standard. The BIS standard says that the maximum desirable TDS is 500 mg/l and the maximum permissible level in the absence of a better source of water is 2,000 mg/l. 2Balantidium coli is a parasitic species known to be pathogenic to humans and is known to cause dysentery like symptoms and in acute cases diarrhea. Its occurrence is common where water sources may be contaminated with swine or human faces. The maximum permissible limit is 10 mg/l.

191

Bore well (5 samples)

Total hardness as CaCO3 Dissolved solids Alkalinity MPN count of B Coli Taste Odour COD BOD MPN of B Coli

300 mg/l 500 mg/l 200 mg/l 10 in 100 ml sample Acceptable No offensive odour 250 mg/l 30 mg/l 10/100ml

247 to 1,220 mg/l 494 to 2440 mg/l 196 to 512 mg/l Nil and 160 Objectionable Disagreeable 618 to 1,190 mg/l 155 to 275 mg/l > 1,000

Ground water is brackish in tests due to high TDS; two samples show biological pollution Waste water flow in nallas is not fit for discharge in public water bodies

Waste water (5 samples)

192

ANNEXURE: 8. LAND USE AND INFRASTRUCTURE SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY ALCHEMY IN 2010
Alchemy conducted a land use and infrastructure survey in the city. The objective was to have a thorough understanding of the development patterns and the status of sanitation in different parts of the city. Sampling method A stratified proportionate systematic random sampling method was used for this survey. The details are as follows. Stratification The stratification is carried out on a map. This is done by identifying homogenous blocks of development at a sub-ward level. This serves the following purposes: A homogenous pocket of development will usually have consistent socio-economic characteristics and, therefore, demand characteristics. For example, a housing layout with spacious individual houses will have upper middle class families that consume relatively high amounts of water and generate high amounts of solid waste per capita. In comparison, a slum pocket will have lower-income families that consume less amounts of water and generate low amounts of solid waste. But the problems of sanitation will be more intense in lower-income settlements because of the higher population density. The physical characteristics of the development, such as space availability, will be consistent and, therefore, conceptualizing sanitation solutions is easier. The stratification is carried out for the entire municipal area and, therefore, the coverage of the survey is practically 100%. This includes non-residential3 pockets or areas with the exception of the large industrial estates and the BNP area. Proportion The delineation of blocks is done in such a way that larger homogenous blocks are identified in areas with lower population density and smaller blocks are delineated in denser areas. While this is done on the basis of visual observation and a preliminary understanding of the city, it has proven to be effective in ensuring that the samples are proportionate. Since each block is homogenous in composition, the extrapolation of data derived from one sample in a block to the block as a whole is reliable. Representativeness In the process of choosing a household at a block level for the questionnaire survey, no particular method of random selection has been used, but care has been taken in the training of surveyors to ensure that there are no conscious biases. In the case of slums, the interview take place with a group of people (Focus Group Discussion) to reduce the possibility of misinformation or lack of understanding. Statistical validity
3 The term non-residential refers to uses such as office buildings, shopping complexes, schools, hospitals, etc. If there is an isolated shop in a residential pocket, it is not identified as non-residential. However, if there is a row of shops or a large school or hospital, it is treated as a separate land use block. Such land use blocks also have their requirements of water supply, toilets and sewerage disposal, though varying quite widely in quantities. For example, a clinic or a hotel would require more quantity than say, a grocery shop or an office. The survey attempts to capture the extent to which such areas are served. Please refer ANNEXURE 3. This gives details of the land use classification that has been used. As can be seen, there are a large number of non-residential categories. The survey attempts to capture the number of people who use these buildings.

193

The statistical usefulness of the survey comes from the manner in which each homogenous block has been delineated. The parameters being examined in the survey are most likely to be similar in a homogenous block. Therefore, one questionnaire in each homogenous block yields results that are useful. The method of delineation of land use blocks is described in Section Error! Reference source not found.. Please refer to following section on Survey data for sample size information. Features of the survey The following groundwork was carried out: Preparation of detailed base map A detailed base map of the city was prepared from satellite imagery and AutoCAD maps of Dewas provided by FIRE (D). The scale and coordinate systems of the satellite data were used to ensure accuracy of map measurements. Detailed notes on preparation of the base map and layers of information included are provided in Section Error! Reference source not found. Delineation of survey blocks The whole city was divided into survey blocks of approximately 0.5 to 1 sq. km. (average size). Where development was sparse, larger blocks were delineated and where development was denser, smaller blocks were delineated. The land use and infrastructure surveys were conducted in and around each survey block. Preparation of observation checklists and infrastructure questionnaires An observation checklist was prepared to capture land use and development related information. Two questionnaires were developed to capture infrastructure status one for slums and one for all other uses. In the latter, questions vary based on the use category. Questions were asked in the nonresidential areas of the city also. Hence it was not just a household survey. It was a broader city level survey. One questionnaire was filled for each land use type in a survey block. The data captured in the land use and infrastructure survey and the methodology used are given below. No. 1 2 3 Information Detailed land use, number of floors, building condition Methodology Through field observations

Open land and water bodies condition and whether Through field observations used or not4 Water Access to water community/individual sources Predominant and secondary sources of water Questionnaire survey

4 5

Access to toilets and willingness to pay for household Questionnaire survey toilets in slums Waste water management (in non-slum areas) Access to toilets Willingness to pay for sewerage connection Existing treatment systems Effluent disposal Willingness to pay for O & M Questionnaire survey

4 Open, undeveloped land is separated out as independent land use blocks. For example, there are vast tracts of such land in the urban periphery of Dewas. Public open spaces within the city are also treated as separate land use blocks. In such cases, the survey has examined the condition of the open space.

194

No. 6

Information Solid waste management (non-slum areas) Existing system for collection and disposal Willingness to pay for door-to-door collection

Methodology Questionnaire survey

Survey data Land use blocks are delineated based on homogeneity of land use, built typology and socioeconomic category in each survey block. One questionnaire was filled out by interviewing a typical sample for each survey block. The outputs of the survey were then extrapolated to the entire land use block. In other words, it is assumed that characteristics of infrastructure service provision will be uniform across a land use block. The data was entered and attached to the spatial database on GIS. The survey outputs were then assessed based on the calibrated population of that land use block. Details on calibration of population are provided in Section Error! Reference source not found.. The numbers of sample questionnaires filled out in each ward are as follows. Where similar land use sub-categories were found, only one questionnaire was filled out. Ward No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 5 3 6 9 6 11 1 1 5 1 18 15 11 17 17 3 14 17 1 10 5 3 4 4 4 6 4 1 7 15 11 20 13 2 4 2 5 2 1 2 1 5 4 4 1 5 6 3 3 1 5 1 3 4 1 10 Non-residential Residential Slums 1 1 1 Open Spaces Grand Total 1 29 1 23 13 13 22 21 25 22 2 29 3 6 7 2 26 19 22 30 30
195

Ward No. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Grand Total

Non-residential 11 1 13 5 9 2 3 11 1 5 9 8 6 3 4 3 9 3 2 5 4 4

Residential 22 11 4 4 6 10 11 13 2 7 11 22 8 15 10 6 7 8 8 6 7

Slums 1 1 1 1 2

Open Spaces 5

Grand Total 39 13 18 9

1 1 6 3

17 15 20 27 9 13 20 30

3 1

3 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 4 2 3 2

17 20 16 13 23 15 13 15 13 6 3 1 61 731

222

372

76

Limitations of the approach Some variation in characteristics or infrastructure service levels within a land use block could have been omitted, since only one questionnaire was filled out for each land use sub-category. The land use sub-categorization is limited to what is observed while moving around a survey block. Some use categories inside the survey block may have been excluded. For instance, a small school building in the middle of a survey block may not have been captured in the survey.

196

Sanitation status of the city as per Alchemys survey The assessment of sanitation status has been segregated for residential areas (excluding slums), non-residential areas (excluding industrial areas5) and slums. A summary is presented below.
ACCESS TO WATER

In this section, the survey summary captures information at two levels for the two categories of residential and non-residential. At the first level, the summary shows whether the water source is individual or community level. At the second level, the summary shows the distribution of primary sources and secondary sources for individual water supply. Access to water in non-slum areas Seventy-eight percent of the residential population and 64% of non-residential areas have individual sources of water supply. Of those who have individual sources, 46% have municipal supply, 15% are dependent on bore wells, and 32% on hand pumps. In the non-residential areas, 52% depend on municipal supply, 42% have borewells and 4% depend on Nagar Nigam (DMC) tankers. Residential
Sources of water supply residential

Non-residential
Sources of water supply non-residential

Source of supply

Primary individual sources of water supply residential

Primary individual sources of water supply non-residential

People in residential areas augment water supply through secondary sources. Bore wells and private tankers are the main sources of secondary supply at 32% and 41%, respectively, in

As water supply and sanitation service provision is not part of the DMCs responsibilities, it has been removed from the assessment.
5

Predominant source

197

residential areas. In non-residential areas, it is private and Nagar Nigam (DMC) tankers at 54% and 25%, respectively.
Secondary sources of water supply residential Secondary sources of water supply non-residential

The ward-wise distribution reveals that dependence on (and by inference, reliability of) municipal supply varies widely across wards.

Secondary source

Sources of water supply residential

Primary individual sources of water supply residential

NOTE: Detailed information is also available ward-wise for sources of secondary supply (individual), sources of primary supply (community) and sources of secondary supply (community). As the numbers are insignificant they have not been included here.

198

Access to water in slums


Sources of water supply slums

In the slums, 53% of the population have individual sources of supply. Of those who have individual supply, 44% rely on hand pumps and 47% on municipal supply. Augmentation of supply through secondary sources is primarily through municipal tankers and community hand pumps.

Primary individual sources of water supply - slums

Common sources of water supply - slums

Sources of water supply - slums

199

Primary individual sources of water supply - slums

The slum population in wards 12, 42 and 43 relies largely on community sources of water supply, which is both municipal piped supply through community taps and community hand pumps.

200

ACCESS TO TOILETS

Access to toilets in non-slum areas Ninety-five percent of the residential population (excluding slums) have access to individual toilets. About 4% of the homes that have individual toilets still have some members who resort to open defecation. About 1% of the population resort to open defecation and have no access to toilets. In the non-residential areas 17% of the people use free community toilets and about 2% use paid community toilets. Seventy-seven percent have individual toilets within their premises. Residential
Access to sanitation - residential

Non-residential
Access to sanitation nonresidential

Access for sanitation - residential

Open defecation is seen primarily in wards 7, 22 and 45 in the non-slum residential areas.

201

Access to toilets in slums

Access to sanitation - slums

In the slums, 29% of the population have access to individual toilets. Four percent have individual toilets, but also access community toilets. Open defecation is very high in the slums, where even households having individual toilets have some members resorting to open defecation (37%). This condition is particularly high in the slums in wards 1, 11, 43 and 44, which are peripheral wards with rural character. Slums in wards 13 and 16 resort to open defecation as the only means of relieving themselves. These slums are close to industrial areas.

Access for sanitation - slums

202

WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

Waste water management in non-slum areas The waste water from 40%6 of the residential population in non-slum areas is disposed of through existing sewer networks. Twenty-five percent use septic tanks of which only 1% was cleaned in the last 5 years. Twenty-six percent of the people dispose of untreated effluent into open drains. In the non-residential areas, 51% of the waste water generated is disposed of in open drains. About 31% have septic tanks, but less than 1% was cleaned in the last 5 years. Residential
Sewage disposal mechanism residential

Non-residential
Sewage disposal mechanism non-residential

Cleaning of septic tank

Cleaning of septic tank

Since slums account for a significant portion of the population, the percentage will be much lower when considered as a proportion of the total residential population in the city (about 20-25% currently).
6

203

Sewage disposal mechanism - residential

Sixty percent of the residential population and 53% of the non-residential respondents are not willing to pay for a sewer connection even if the DMC promises a new centralized sewerage system. Residential
Willingness to pay Rs. 8,000 for sewer connection

Non-residential
Willingness to pay Rs. 8,000 for sewer connection

Willingness to pay Rs. 8,000 for sewer connection

Thirty-nine percent of the residential population and 43% of the non-residential respondents are willing to pay O & M charges of Rs.50 a month.

204

Residential

Non-residential

The willingness to pay seems to be higher in the inner city areas than in the peripheral areas. Waste water management in slums In the slums, 61% of the population said that there was no system and the waste water is left untreated in the open and another 29% disposed of it in the open drains. So, in all, 80% of the waste water from the slums goes directly into nallas and eventually into the river. According to Alchemys survey, about 57% of the slum population is willing to pay Rs.3,000 as beneficiary contribution for construction of household toilets.

205

Sewage disposal mechanism slums

Willingness to pay Rs. 3,000 for the construction of individual toilets

Sewage disposal mechanism - slums

Willingness to pay Rs. 3,000 for the construction of individual toilets

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid waste management in non-slum areas In the residential areas, 40% of the solid waste generated is disposed of in the open and only 7% of the waste is collected through door-to-door collection. In the non-residential areas, 43% of the solid waste is burnt.

206

Residential
Solid waste disposal mechanism residential

Non-residential
Solid waste disposal mechanism non-residential

Solid waste disposal mechanism - residential

Willingness to pay for door-to-door collection Only 43% of the residential population and 42% of the non-residential population are willing to pay for door-to-door collection of solid waste. This willingness is highest in wards 24 to 30 and parts of wards 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 16 and 17.

207

Residential
Willingness to pay Rs.50 per month for solid waste door-todoor collection

Non-residential
Willingness to pay Rs.50 per month for solid waste door-todoor collection

Willingness to pay Rs.50 per month for solid waste door-to-door collection

208

Solid waste management in slums


Solid waste disposal mechanism - slums

In the slums, 73% of the solid waste generated is disposed of in the open. Only 2% is disposed of in municipal bins. Sixteen percent of the solid waste is burnt.

Solid waste disposal mechanism - slums

209

ANNEXURE: 9. DETAILED SURVEY IN 10 SLUMS OF THE CITY BY ALCHEMY


Features of the survey A detailed study of 10 slums in Dewas was carried out to understand qualitative aspects of sanitation in slums. A questionnaire was designed to include information on civic amenities, health, infrastructure, constraints and problems for slum residents and behavior patterns with respect to health and hygiene. A door-to-door sample survey was conducted, which covered 414 households. The methods for achieving the objectives of the survey included the following steps: Rapid Participatory Appraisal of the whole community, including children and women. Baseline survey of selected samples to obtain an overview of demographic characteristics of the slum. Focused group discussions.

210

The following slums were part of the study.


Sr. No. Name of Slum Ward No. Population Location (outskirts or inner city or peri-urban) Outskirts Outskirts Outskirts Inner city slum with kutcha houses Inner city slum with pucca houses Inner city slum with pucca and kutcha houses Inner city slum with pucca houses Inner city slum with kutcha houses Inner city slum with pucca houses Small inner city slum with pucca houses 95 148 No. of HH as per Reconnaissance Sample of HH for HH Particulars surveys (15% and 20% of total HH) 60 50 78 42 18 28 49 29 48 12 Inner city 7 slums Surveyed households 226 Total households surveyed 414 Outskirts 3 slums surveyed; 188 households

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Mendaki Birakhedi Indranagar Jetpura Indranagar Colony Radhagunj No. 4 Ambedkar Nagar Shantipura Basti Todi Mohalla Berugad, Vishnu Galli Kati Ghati

11 14 1 26 30 27 41 41 40 40

2,000 1,900 1,750 1,100 470 950

400 380 350 220 94

2,000 740 1,100 475

211

Survey data The analysis of the survey data provided quantitative as well as qualitative information on sanitation issues in the slums. A summary of findings is presented in the following section. Sanitation status in the slums ACCESS TO WATER The main source of water supply to the slum communities is bore wells (44%), followed by taps (24%) and tankers (24%). Few households draw water from hand pumps or tube wells. Frequency of water supply to slums is found as follows: o Daily o Alternate days o Weekly o Irregular 54% 21% 11% 14%

Forty percent of households have reported that they purchase water from private owners or from Nagar Nigam (DMC). Ninety percent of households have reported that the quality and color of supplied water are satisfactory, whereas 10% reported that water is turbid, yellowish and contains suspended particles. ACCESS TO TOILETS The surveyed population showed that 51% of households have individual toilets, out of which 93% are connected to septic tanks. Ninety-two percent of households reported that they have individual toilets, which they have constructed with their own money. For households at Indira Nagar Birakhedi, DMC has provided toilet seats and septic tank for an individual toilet, for which people were expected to build the superstructure. A few households are yet to construct the superstructure as they cannot afford to do so. Open defecation on average is around 44%, which is alarming. About 50% of the households use the open or fields for defecation, while 20% go outside the settlement, on near streets or near railway tracks. Although the children and male population do not report a particular time for defecation, women folk generally go for defecation early in the morning before sunrise. The women have reported that they feel unsafe and insecure while defecating in the open. Only about 12% of households use community toilets. About 59% of the households are ready to pay Rs.1,000/per year for usage of these toilets, while the rest want this facility free. The majority of households showed willingness to construct individual toilets and 58% are willing to pay up to Rs.2,000-Rs.3,000 as beneficiary contribution. WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT The survey showed that 51% of households have individual toilets, out of which 93% are connected to septic tanks. Sixty-two percent of the toilets have been constructed after 2000, but have never been de-sludged. The de-sludging of septic tanks, where done, was carried out by hiring sanitary workers of DMC at about Rs.400-Rs.500 per toilet.

212

About 24% of households do not have even temporary bathrooms and use a room in their house for bathing. The waste water from bathing and kitchen is connected to outside drains, if available, or is disposed of in the streets, thus polluting the surrounding areas. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste collection and disposal is as follows: o Roadside o Open grounds o Dustbins or dump yards of DMC o Daily o Alternate days o Once in week o Dont know 49% 16% 31%. 15% 5% 11% 69%

The frequency of garbage collection from community bins or dump yards is as follows:

The interior of most slum communities are kept clean, but the periphery often has garbage heaps. Efforts are seen by community households to keep their lanes and internal roads clean. In communities like Todi Mohalla, an unused well, at the entrance of the community, is used as a garbage dump. The concern for maintenance of individual household facilities is higher than that for upkeep of public infrastructure. HYGIENE BEHAVIOR OF HOUSEHOLDS The following are some of the health and hygiene related issues observed in the surveyed slums: o 21% of women do not wash their hands before preparation of food. o 13% of respondents did not wash hands even after defecation. Hands are cleaned, often not with soaps but mostly with soil or ash. o 30% of respondents do not use chappals/footwear and do not change clothes daily. o 50% of respondents reported that they dispose of their childrens excreta safely, wrapped in paper or plastic, while the rest said they throw it in a nearby nalla or drain. o More than 40% of women defecate in the open and use less than 2 liters of water for cleaning. o During the menstrual cycle, the women normally use cloth. They are not aware of sanitary napkins and those who are cannot afford them. The same cloth is used for 2-3 months and then is burnt or thrown in a garbage dump. Women did not know about UTI or other reproductive health related problems.

213

ANNEXURE: 10. COVERAGE AND NEW DEMAND OF SEWERAGE IN WARDS PARTIALLY SEWERED
Sr. No. 1 Ward Classification of Present Population Coverage Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance Total Sewered Balance 2011 11,198 5,599 5,599 3,873 3,873 0 8,728 873 7,855 6,028 3,617 2,411 8,327 2,498 5,829 7,686 2,306 5,380 11,721 2,344 9,377 8,420 842 7,578 10,911 2,182 8,729 4,999 4,999 0 10,799 3,780 7,019 5,365 1,073 4,292 7,987 799 7,188 106,042 34,785 71,257 Projected Population 2021 14,731 5,599 9,132 4,281 3,873 408 11,481 873 10,608 7,930 3,617 4,313 10,954 2,498 8,456 10,110 2,306 7,804 15,419 2,344 13,075 10,191 842 9,349 14,353 2,182 12,171 6,051 4,999 1,052 14,205 3,780 10,425 6,494 1,073 5,421 8,826 799 8,027 135,026 34,785 100,241 2031 20,805 5,599 15,206 4,869 3,873 996 16,215 873 15,342 10,109 3,617 6,492 13,965 2,498 11,467 12,980 2,306 10,674 19,658 2,344 17,314 14,393 842 13,551 18,298 2,182 16,116 8,545 4,999 3,546 18,110 3,780 14,330 7,386 1,073 6,313 11,253 799 10,454 176,586 34,785 141,801 2041 31,094 5,599 25,495 5,672 3,873 1,799 21,561 873 20,688 11,776 3,617 8,159 16,267 2,498 13,769 15,014 2,306 12,708 22,898 2,344 20,554 16,765 842 15,923 21,315 2,182 19,133 11,363 4,999 6,364 21,095 3,780 17,315 8,604 1,073 7,531 14,962 799 14,163 218,386 34,785 183,601

50

100

10

60

30

10

30

12

20

16

10

17

20

10

18

100

11

19

35

12

20

20

13

42

10

Total Number

214

ANNEXURE: 11. RESULTS OF SURVEY OF WARDS FOR DEFINING OPTIONS OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
Ward No. 1 2 Location Land Use Extent of Development 30% developed in Bilawali and Jetpura 80% developed 40% occupied, 40% plot layout and 20% agricultural Fully occupied 30% developed in four slums 20% developed in Nausarabad and Arjun Nagar 85% developed Land for On-site Disposal Available in 30% houses Available in 60% houses and plots Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Decentralized, as two isolated slums Decentralized, as community septic tanks already exist BNPs own treatment plant Decentralized, as four isolated slums Decentralized, as two isolated slums Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing Land for Decentralized Treatment Available on nalla bank Available in open spaces of layouts Ground Strata Ground Water Table 80 to 180 m. 180 m.

Periphery Outer ring

Residential and part agricultural Residential, part agricultural and commercial along AB Road Industrial (Bank Note Press) Residential, part industrial and part agricultural Residential and part agricultural Residential and part agricultural

Soil up to 24 m. Soil up to 20 m.

3 4 5 6

Inner ring Outer ring Outer ring Inner ring

Not applicable Available in 40% houses Not available Available in 30% of houses

Not applicable Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank

Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 6 m.

140 m. 130 m. 130 m. 160 m.

Inner ring

Residential and part agricultural

90% developed

Available in 50% of houses

Available on nalla bank

Soil up to 9 m.

150 m.

215

Ward No. 8

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development 95% developed

Land for On-site Disposal Available in 50% of houses

Inner ring

Residential and part agricultural

Inner ring

Residential and part agricultural

60% developed

Available in 50% of houses

10

Inner ring

Residential and part agricultural

70% developed

Available in 60% of houses

11 12

Outer ring Outer ring

Residential and part agricultural Residential and part industrial

20% developed in two slums 30% residential

Available in 20% of houses Available in 60% of houses

13

Outer ring

Residential, part agricultural

30 % residential in two slums, Amona and ShantinagarAmona

Not available

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing, partly sewered Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing, partly sewered Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing, partly sewered Decentralized, as two isolated slums Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage, fast developing, partly sewered Desirable to connect to centralized sewerage

Land for Decentralized Treatment Available on nalla h bank

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 150 m.

Soil up to 9 m.

Available on nalla bank and open fields

Soil up to 9 m.

160 m.

Available on nalla bank and open fields

Soil up to 6 m.

150 m.

Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank

Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 18 m.

160 m. 130 m.

Available on nalla bank

Soil up to 18 m.

130 m.

216

Ward No. 14

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development 10% residential in five slums

Land for On-site Disposal Not available

Periphery

Residential, part agricultural

15

Outer ring

Residential, part agricultural and part industrial Residential.

10% residential in two slums Bawadiya(p) and Rasulpur 70% occupied, 30% plots 60% occupied, 40% plots Fully occupied

Available in 10% of houses

16

Inner ring

Available in 40% of houses Available in 40% of houses Available in 80% of houses

17

Inner ring

Residential and commercial along AB Road Residential and commercial along AB Road

18

Inner ring

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Decentralized for Binjana Gaon and Indiranagar Birakhedi; desirable to connect three slums to centralized sewerage Desirable to connect two slums to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage, already sewered

Land for Decentralized Treatment Available on nalla bank and open fields

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 100 m.

Soil up to 20 m.

Available on nalla bank.

Soil up to 20 m.

100 m.

Not available

Soil up to 18 m.

140 m.

Not available

Soil up to 15 m.

150 m.

Not available

Soil up to 15 m.

150 m.

217

Ward No. 19

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development 90% occupied, 10% plots

Land for On-site Disposal Available in 80% of houses

Inner ring

Residential and commercial along AB Road Residential and commercial along AB Road Residential and commercial in Moti Bungalow area Residential and commercial along Ujjain Road Residential and commercial along Ujjain Road, Station Road and AB Road Residential, commercial along AB Road and Mataji Temple Residential, commercial along Station Road

20

Core area

Fully occupied

Available in 80% of houses

21

Inner ring

Fully occupied

Not available

22

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

23

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage, already partly sewered Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage, already partly sewered Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage

Land for Decentralized Treatment Available along nalla

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 150 m.

Soil up to 12 m.

Not available

Soil up to 20 m.

180 m.

Not available

Soil up to 20 m.

180 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

200 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

200 m.

24

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 13 m.

150 m.

25

Core area

80% residential

Available in 20% of houses.

Not available

Soil up to 13 m.

150 m.

218

Ward No. 26

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development Fully occupied

Land for On-site Disposal Available in 20% of houses

Inner ring

27

Inner ring

Residential, commercial along Station Road and Industrial Area (Gajara Gears) Residential

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage

Land for Decentralized Treatment Not available

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 160 m.

Soil up to 18 m.

Fully occupied

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

160 m.

28

Inner ring

Residential

Fully occupied

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 18 m.

180 m.

29

Inner ring

30

Core area

31

Core area

Residential, commercial along AB Road and Police Parade Ground Residential, commercial along AB Road and Police Quarters Residential and commercial along AB Road Residential and substantially commercial, Bus Stand

Fully occupied

Available in 20% of houses

Not available

Soil up to 18 m.

180 m.

Fully occupied (three slums) Fully occupied

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

160 m.

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 18 m.

210 m.

32

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

Not available

Soil up to 18 m.

210 m.

219

Ward No. 33

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development Fully occupied

Land for On-site Disposal Not available

Core area

Residential and substantially commercial Residential and substantially commercial Residential and substantially commercial Residential and substantially commercial Residential

34

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

35

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

36

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

37

Core area

Fully occupied

Not available

38

Outer ring

Residential and part agricultural Residential and part agricultural

10% occupied (four slums) 20% occupied (six slums)

Not available

39

Outer ring

Not available

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Will have to be connected to centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage

Land for Decentralized Treatment Not available

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 120 m.

Soil up to 12 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

120 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

120 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m.

120 m.

Not available

Soil up to 12 m

120 m.

Available along nalla Available along nalla

Soil up to 10 m.

160 m.

Soil up to 12 m.

150 m.

220

Ward No. 40

Location

Land Use

Extent of Development 60% occupied (six slums) 60% occupied (five slums) 25% occupied; Balgadh area and three slums 30% occupied and two slums 10% occupied 10% occupied

Land for On-site Disposal Not available

Core area

Residential and part agricultural Residential and part agricultural Residential part agricultural and part industrial Residential part agricultural and part industrial Residential and agricultural Residential and agricultural

41

Core area

Not available

42

Outer ring

Available in 20% of houses Not available Not available Not available

43 44 45

Outer ring Periphery Periphery

Choice of Centralized/ Decentralized Systems Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Desirable to connect to nearby centralized sewerage Decentralized, as two isolated slums Decentralized. Decentralized

Land for Decentralized Treatment Available along nalla and open fields Available along nalla and open fields Available along nalla and open fields Available along nalla and open fields Available along nalla and open fields Available along nalla and open fields

Ground Strata

Ground Water Table 150 m.

Soil up to 12 m.

Soil up to 10 m.

180 m.

Soil up to 19 m.

170 m.

Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 12 m. Soil up to 12 m

157 m. 157 m. 157 m.

221

ANNEXURE: 12. RESULTS OF SURVEY OF SLUMS FOR OPTIONS FOR WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Name of Slum Bilwali Brahamankheda Jetpura Sant Ravidas Nagar Pandit Dindayal Nagar Kalukhedi Naushrabad Colony Itava Ward No. 1 4 1 2 4 4 5 6 6 8 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 17 17 16 21 22 22 27 23 21 21 27 26 30 30 38 21 30 Location Periphery Outer ring Periphery Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Outer ring Outer ring Periphery Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Periphery Periphery Periphery Outer ring Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Core area Core area Inner ring Core area Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Inner ring Core area Core area Outer ring Inner ring Core area Land for On-site Disposal Available in 30%mm of houses Available in 40% of houses Available in 30% of houses. Available in 20% of houses. Not available Available in 40% of houses Not available Available in 20% of houses Not available Available in 20% of houses. Available in 30% of houses Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Available in 30% of houses Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Land for Decentralized Treatment Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank Available in open spaces of layouts Available on nalla bank and open fields Available in open fields Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank and open fields Available in open fields Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank and open fields Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Not available Available on nallah bank Not available Not available Not available Available on nalla bank Available on nalla bank Not available Not available Not available Not available Available in open land Not available Available in open fields Not available Not available

Pandit Dindayal Nagar Zuggi 10 Rajiv Nagar Zuggi Basti 11 Mendki 12 Nanda Nagar 13 Birakhedi Indiranagar 14 Sarvodaye Nagar 15 Shankar Nagar 16 Harijan Mohalla, Vikas Nagar 17 Shanti Nagar, Amona 18 Amona 19 Sanjay Nagar 20 Binjana Gaon 21 Binjana Bhatta 22 Rasulpur 23 Bawdiya 24 Kabitwale Baba Basti 25 Navdurga Nagar 26 Idukhan Colony 27 Yaasin Basti 28 Sadashiv Nagar Gali No. 2 29 Sadashiv Nagar Gali No. 3 30 Ambedkar Nagar Basti 31 Nai Aabadi 32 Pashuhaat Basti 33 Jabran Colony 34 Gajanand Colony 35 Indra Nagar Colony 36 Ariena Chetra Bagri Mohallah 37 Sant Vinobha Bhave Nagar 38 Balaai Mohallah 39 Someshvar Mandir Ke Samip Basti 40 Radhaganj Gali No. 4

222

Sr. No. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Name of Slum Jabran Colony Bihari Ganj Mataji Road Bhawani Sagar Sutaar Bakhal Gali No. 1 Sutaar Bakhal Gali No. 2 Uslaampura Mithi Kundi Gali Kshetra Bhagatsingh Goyaa Hanuman Baakhal Mirza Baakhal Mosinpura Vaarsi Nagar

Ward No. 24 24 24 31 34 33 34 34 34 35 36 37 38 38 38 37 39 39 40 39 39 39 39 40 40 41 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 14 45

Location Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Core area Outer ring Outer ring Core area Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Core area Core area Core area Periphery Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Core area Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Outer ring Periphery Periphery Periphery

Land for On-site Disposal Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Available in 20% of houses Not available Available in 20% of houses

Land for Decentralized Treatment Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Available on nalla bank and open fields Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Available in open land Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Available in open land Available in open land Available in open land Available in open land Available in open land Available in open field along nalla Available in open field along nalla Available in open field along nalla

54 Revabaag 55 Revabaag Nevri Road Basti 56 Pathaan Kuwan 57 Choprda Kshetra 58 Bherguard 59 Muktimaargh Gali No. 3 60 Jaibharat Nagar 61 Vishnu Gali 62 Ganga Bawrdi 63 Maheshwari Gali 64 Khari Bawrdi 65 Muktimargh & Mali Mohallah 66 Todi Mohallah 67 Parmanand Colony Mukti Margh 68 Momintola, Vishnu Gali 69 Kati Ghazi 70 Malhar Road Todi 71 Shantipura Basti 72 Joshipura 73 Shantipura Nai Colony 74 Shankargardh Malhaar Road Basti 75 Labour Colony 76 Shankar Gardh 77 Chuna Khadaan 78 Balgardh, Nai Aabadi 79 Palnagar, Anvatpura 80 Rajiv Nagar 81 Nagda

223

ANNEXURE: 13. PROPOSAL OF DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED WASTE WATER SYSTEMS


Population 2011 2021 2031 2041 A. Wards Suitable for Decentralized Systems 5,295 5,852 6,656 8,850 1 11,198 14,731 20,805 31,094 2 6,161 6,809 7,745 9,022 4 5,825 7,050 9,957 13,240 5 5,400 5,968 7,608 10,116 11 2,700 3,000 3,400 4,500 14(P) 5,061 5,594 6,362 8,460 43 5,095 5,631 6,406 7,460 44 4,954 5,475 6,228 7,254 45 51,689 60,110 75,167 99,996 Total of A B. Wards Suitable for Decentralized Systems, but Near to Proposed Central Sewer Network 8,708 11,481 16,215 21,561 6 13,449 17,691 24,986 33,223 7 6,028 7,930 10,109 11,776 8 8,327 10,954 13,965 16,267 9 7,686 10,110 12,890 15,014 10 11,721 15,419 19,658 22,898 12 7,381 9,709 13,713 20,494 13 2,643 2,905 3,316 4,930 14(P) 6,164 7,460 10,536 15,746 15 8,420 10,191 14,393 16,765 16 10,911 14,353 18,298 21,315 17 4,999 6,051 8,545 11,363 18 10,799 14,205 18,110 21,095 19 5,365 6,494 7,386 8,604 20 6,594 8,674 12,251 18,309 38 4,115 4,981 6,350 8,443 39 5,790 7,008 7,971 9,285 40 6,121 8,052 9,158 10,668 41 7,987 8,826 11,253 14,962 42 143,208 182,494 239,103 302,718 Total of B C. Wards Suitable for Centralized System 5,644 6,830 7,769 9,052 21 6,206 7,512 8,544 9,952 22 4,313 5,220 5,937 6,916 23 4,312 4,765 5,420 6,314 24 4,660 5,640 6,415 7,472 25 5,390 6,523 7,420 8,643 26 4,694 5,188 5,901 6,874 27 4,912 5,429 6,175 7,193 28 7,214 7,972 9,068 10,563 29 4,522 4,997 5,684 6,621 30 5,211 6,307 7,174 8,357 31 4,890 5,918 6,732 7,842 32 Wards Waste Water Flow (MLD) 2011 2021 2031 2041
0.572 1.209 0.665 0.629 0.583 0.292 0.547 0.550 0.535 5.582 0.632 1.591 0.735 0.761 0.645 0.324 0.604 0.608 0.591 6.492 0.719 2.247 0.836 1.075 0.822 0.367 0.687 0.692 0.673 8.118 0.956 3.358 0.974 1.430 1.093 0.486 0.914 0.806 0.783 10.800

0.940 1.452 0.651 0.899 0.830 1.266 0.797 0.285 0.666 0.909 1.178 0.540 1.166 0.579 0.712 0.444 0.625 0.661 0.863 15.466

1.240 1.911 0.856 1.183 1.092 1.665 1.049 0.314 0.806 1.101 1.550 0.654 1.534 0.701 0.937 0.538 0.757 0.870 0.953 19.709

1.751 2.698 1.092 1.508 1.392 2.123 1.481 0.358 1.138 1.554 1.976 0.923 1.956 0.798 1.323 0.686 0.861 0.989 1.215 25.823

2.329 3.588 1.272 1.757 1.622 2.473 2.213 0.532 1.701 1.811 2.302 1.227 2.278 0.929 1.977 0.912 1.003 1.152 1.616 32.694

0.610 0.670 0.466 0.466 0.503 0.582 0.507 0.530 0.779 0.488 0.563 0.528

0.738 0.811 0.564 0.515 0.609 0.704 0.560 0.586 0.861 0.540 0.681 0.639

0.839 0.923 0.641 0.585 0.693 0.801 0.637 0.667 0.979 0.614 0.775 0.727

0.978 1.075 0.747 0.682 0.807 0.933 0.742 0.777 1.141 0.715 0.903 0.847

224

Wards 2011 33 34 35 36 37 Total Of C Total A+B+C


4,328 3,759 3,106 4,037 5,325 82,523 277,420

Population 2021 2031


5,239 4,155 3,432 4,461 6,445 96,033 338,637 5,959 4,726 3,904 5,074 7,331 109,233 423,503

2041
6,941 5,505 4,548 5,911 8,540 127,244 529,958

Waste Water Flow (MLD) 2011 2021 2031 2041


0.467 0.406 0.335 0.436 0.575 8.912 29.961 0.566 0.449 0.371 0.482 0.696 10.372 36.573 0.644 0.510 0.422 0.548 0.792 11.797 45.738 0.750 0.595 0.491 0.638 0.922 13.742 57.235

225

ANNEXURE: 14. BROAD DETAILS OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED)
A Decentralized Systems in A Group Wards (Ref. Annexure 13) Sr. No. Ward No. Approx. Length of Sewer Network (km.) 6 10 13 6 6 4 9 9 10 73 Sewage Treatment Proposal 2021 Population 5,852 14,731 6,809 7,050 5,968 3,000 5,594 5,631 5,475 60,110 Sewage Flow at 108 LPCD 0.632 1.591 0.735 0.761 0.645 0.324 0.604 0.608 0.591 6.492 STP Capacity (MLD) 0.65 1.60 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.33 0.60 0.60 0.60 6.53

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 (2 slums) 2 (1 slum) 4 (4 slums) 5 (1 slum) 11 (2 slums) 14(P) (2 slums) 43 (2 slums) 44 (2 slums) 45 (1 slum) Total of A

B Centralized Systems in B Group Wards (where decentralized systems are also Feasible, but centralized systems are economical due to nearness to sewers of central layout) (Ref. Annexure 13) Sr. No. Ward No. Approx. Length of Sewer Network (km.) 8 9 5 3 4 14 5 5 11 6 10 4 7 6 7 10 8 9 8 137 Sewage Treatment Proposal 2031 Population 16,215 24,986 10,109 13,965 12,890 19,658 13,713 3,316 10,536 14,393 18,298 8,545 18,110 7,386 12,251 6,350 7,971 9,158 11,253 239,103 Sewage Flow at 108 LPCD 1.751 2.698 1.092 1.508 1.392 2.123 1.481 0.358 1.138 1.554 1.976 0.923 1.956 0.798 1.323 0.686 0.861 0.989 1.215 25.823 STP Capacity (MLD)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

6 (2 slums) 7 8 (1 slum) 9 10 12 (3 slums) 13 (2 slums) 14(P) (3 slums) 15 (2 slums) 16 (2 slums) 17 (2 slums) 18 19 20 38 (4 slums) 39 (7 slums) 40 (5 slums) 41 (5 slums) 42 (3 slums) Total of B

26.000

226

C Centralized Systems in C Group Wards (where decentralized systems are not feasible and only centralized systems are required) (Ref. Annexure 13) Sr. No. Ward No. Approx. Length of Sewer Network (km.) 6 4 2 4 2 4 2 3 7 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 5 66 276 Sewage Treatment Proposal 2031 Population 7,769 8,544 5,937 5,420 6,415 7,420 5,901 6,175 9,068 5,684 7,174 6,732 5.959 4,726 3,904 5,074 7,331 109,233 348,336 Sewage Flow at 108 LPCD 0.839 0.923 0.641 0.585 0.693 0.801 0.637 0.667 0.979 0.614 0.775 0.727 0.644 0.510 0.422 0.548 0.792 11.797 37.620 STP Capacity (MLD)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

21 (3 slums) 22 23 (1 slum) 24 (3 slums) 25 26 (1 slum) 27 (2 slums) 28 29 30 (3 slums) 31 (1 slum) 32 33 (1 slum) 34 (4 slums) 35 (1 slum) 36 (1 slum) 37 (2 slums) Total of C Total of Group B and C

12.000 38.000

Note Ward 3, which accommodates only Bank Note Press, is not included in any of

these three groups, as it has its own system.

227

ANNEXURE: 15. PROJECTION OF DEMAND OF ROADSIDE DRAINS


Ward No. Approx. Length of Roads (km.) Existing Drains Coverage (%) 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Total 6 10 13 6 8 9 5 3 4 6 14 5 9 11 6 10 4 7 6 6 4 2 4 2 4 2 3 7 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 7 10 8 9 8 9 9 10 273 25 35 20 0 10 10 40 20 20 0 0 0 0 10 10 30 0 30 50 60 30 40 40 40 20 0 20 30 0 80 90 80 90 80 80 80 80 50 80 70 0 0 0 0 Approx. Length (km.) 1.50 3.50 2.60 0 0.80 0.90 2 0.60 0.80 0 0 0 0 1.10 0.60 3 0 2.10 3 3.60 1.20 0.80 1.60 0.80 0.80 0 0.60 2.10 0 2.40 3.60 3.20 3.60 2.40 2.40 2.40 5.60 5 6.40 6.30 0 0 0 0 77.30 Additional Drains Required (km.) 4.50 6.50 10.40 6 7.20 8.10 3 2.40 3.20 6 14 5 9 9.90 5.40 7 4 4.90 3 2.40 2.80 1.20 2.40 1.20 3.20 2 2.40 4.90 3 0.60 0.40 0.80 0.40 0.60 0.60 0.60 1.40 5 1.60 2.70 8 9 9 10 195.70

228

ANNEXURE: 16. PHASED IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


Sr. No. 1 2 3 Item Population Incremental population Household toilets (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (No.) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) 4 Public toilets (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (Seats) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) 5 Decentralized sewerage (a) Sewer network (i) Strategy Make up for the current deficiency 3,000 30,000,000 Immediate Action Plan (Year 2011-14) 281,312 in 2011 Short Term Plan (2015-21) 342,917 in 2021 61,605 Add for incremental population 680 6,800,000 Medium Term Plan (20222031) 428,374 in 2031 85,457 Add for incremental population 940 9,400,000 Long Term Plan (2032-41) 535,126 in 2041 106,752 Add for incremental population 1,175 11,750,000

Make up for the current deficiency 240 12,000,000

Add for incremental population 45 2,250,000

Add for incremental population 60 3,000,000

Add for incremental population 80 4,000,000

(ii) Quantity (km.) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (b) Decentralized treatment plants (i) Strategy

Add for current road network plus additional development 73 + 16 133,500,000

Add for incremental development 21 31,500,000

Add for incremental development 28 42,000,000

Add for 2021 population

(ii) Quantity (MLD) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (c) Pumping stations (i) Strategy

10.80 32,400,000 Add for 2021 population Lump-sum

Add for incremental population up to year 2041 or connect to central system 6 18,000,000 Add for incremental population up to year 2041 Lump-sum

(ii) Quantity

229

Sr. No.

Item (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) Total investment cost for decentralized systems

Immediate Action Plan (Year 2011-14) -

Short Term Plan (2015-21) 50,000,000 215,900,000

Medium Term Plan (20222031) 30,000,000 79,500,000

Long Term Plan (2032-41) 42,000,000

Centralized sewerage (a) Sewer network (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (km.) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (b) Main and intercepting sewers (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (km.) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (c) Pumping system (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (d) Treatment plants (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (MLD) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) Total investment cost for centralized sewerage systems

Add for current plus incremental road length 203 + 45 620,000,000

Add for incremental road length 62 155,000,000

Add for incremental road length 77 192,500,000

Add for current plus incremental population 15 + 3 90,000,000 Add for year 2031 population Lump-sum 100,000,000 Add for year 2031 population 38 190,000,000 1000,000,000

Add for incremental population 5 25,000,000 Add for year 2041 population Lump-sum 50,000,000 Add for year 2041 population 10 50,000,000 280,000,000

Add for incremental population 6 30,000,000 -

222,500,000

Storm water disposal (a) Secondary and tertiary drains (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (km.)

Make up for the current deficiency 195.70

Add for incremental areas 60

Add for incremental areas 83

Add for incremental areas 104

230

Sr. No.

Item (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (b) Primary drains (i) Strategy (ii) Quantity (km.) (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) Total investment cost for storm water disposal

Immediate Action Plan (Year 2011-14) 293,550,000

Short Term Plan (2015-21) 90,000,000

Medium Term Plan (20222031) 124,500,000

Long Term Plan (2032-41) 156,000,000

Make up for the current deficiency 10 50,000,000 293,550,000 140,000,000

Add for incremental areas 10 50,000,000 174,500,000

Add for incremental areas 10 50,000,000 206,000,000

Repairs and upgradation of existing sanitation works (a) Public toilets (i) Strategy Make up for the current deficiency Lump-sum 2,000,000 If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required

(ii) Quantity (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (b) Existing sewer network (i) Strategy

Make up for the current deficiency Lump-sum 10,000,000

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required

(ii) Quantity (iii) Investment cost (Rs.) (c) Existing built-up drains (i) Strategy

Make up for the current deficiency Lump-sum 30,000,000

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required -

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required -

If O&M improves, no capital investment will be required -

(ii) Quantity (iii) Investment cost (Rs.)

231

Sr. No.

Item Total investment cost for repairs and upgrading Total investment cost for sanitation works (Rs.) (3 to 8)

Immediate Action Plan (Year 2011-14) 42,000,000

Short Term Plan (2015-21) -

Medium Term Plan (20222031) -

Long Term Plan (2032-41) -

377,550,000

1,364,950,000

546,400,000

486,250,000

232

ANNEXURE: 17. DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN - CAPEX


Dewas City Sanitation Plan
(all figures in Rs. lacs)
2011-12 1 Capex Inflation (Annual) 5% 2012-13 2 2013-14 3 2014-15 4 2015-16 5 2016-17 6 2017-18 7 2018-19 8 2019-20 9 2020-21 10 2021-22 11 2022-23 12 2023-24 13 2024-25 14 2025-26 15 2026-27 16 2027-28 17 2028-29 18 2029-30 19 2030-31 20

Capital Investment - Waste Water Disposal


Household Toilets Public Toilets Decentralized Sewerage System Centralized Sewerage System Storm Water Disposal System Repairs & Upgradation of Existing Sanitation System Total Capex - Waste Water Disposal 150.00 25.13 157.50 26.38 165.38 27.70 173.64 29.09 11.81 3.91 374.90 1736.44 243.10 12.40 4.10 393.64 1823.26 255.26 13.02 4.31 413.32 1914.42 268.02 13.67 4.52 433.99 2010.14 281.42 14.35 4.75 455.69 2110.65 295.49 15.07 4.99 478.47 2216.18 310.27 15.82 5.24 502.40 2326.99 325.78 15.31 5.13 135.97 478.90 298.45 16.08 5.39 142.77 502.84 313.38 16.88 5.66 149.91 527.98 329.05 17.73 5.94 157.40 554.38 345.50 18.61 6.24 165.27 582.10 362.77 19.54 6.55 173.54 611.20 380.91 20.52 6.88 182.22 641.77 399.96 21.54 7.22 191.33 673.85 419.96 22.62 7.58 200.89 707.55 440.95

733.88 105.00 1014.00

770.57 110.25 1064.70

809.10 115.76 1117.94

849.55 121.55 1173.83

2370.15

2488.66

2613.09

2743.75

2880.93

3024.98

3176.23

933.76

980.45

1029.47

1080.95

1135.00

1191.75

1251.33

1313.90

1379.59

33964.46

Capital Investment - Solid Waste Management


Primary Collection & Transport Workshop Treatment Sanitary Landfill Institutional Strengthening & Capacity building Feasibility Studies Miscellaneous Total Capex - Solid Waste Management Solid Waste Management - Replacement Home Compost Bins/Kits Litter Bins in Commercial Areas Motorized Tippers Containerized Cycle Rickshaws Containers at Community Waste Depots Dumper Placer Vehicles Total Replacement Cost - Solid Waste Management 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.80 4.79 3.85 5.03 4.04 1.06 28.96 3.11 44.10 372.88 454.14 4.42 5.82 91.23 0.34 18.04 130.46 250.31 7.09 6.11 51.09 0.23 18.94 4.59 12.22 53.64 0.37 9.82 12.83 7.05 0.27 85.62 10.31 2.69 36.96 3.97 134.00 11.28 14.86 116.44 0.43 77.14 18.10 15.60 105.95 3.34 43.12 524.68 710.79 8.06 21.44 196.83 0.71 25.38 183.57 436.00 17.23 22.51 80.88 0.51 18.09 4.73 122.65 4.34 114.74 19.79 26.08 158.52 0.71 256.71 31.76 27.38 52.00 3.97 146.49 275.50 13.00 289.28 13.65 44.10 84.16 144.80 6.50 10.50 5.00 310.50 6.50 10.50 5.00 324.93 273.05 286.71 301.04 249.64 262.12 275.23 288.99 303.44 204.91 215.16 225.92 237.21 249.08 394.86 414.60 435.33 457.10 479.95 6189.77 46.31 88.37 152.03 48.62 92.78 159.64 166.43 3.32 79.90 174.75 3.48 83.89 183.49 3.66 88.08 192.66 3.84 92.49 202.29 4.03 97.11 164.19 16.29 24.43 172.40 17.10 25.66 181.02 17.96 26.94 190.07 18.86 28.28 199.58 19.80 29.70 247.25 3.46 13.86 130.28 259.62 3.64 14.55 136.79 272.60 3.82 15.28 143.63 286.23 4.01 16.04 150.81 300.54 4.21 16.85 158.36

67.09

6.59

75.96

83.46

70.82

115.58

187.93

220.14

121.12

264.54

461.80

261.60

3720.79

Total Capex

1324.50

1389.63

1390.99

1460.54

2671.19

2744.88

2951.17

3473.12

3420.23

3411.88

3451.97

1264.51

1394.30

1486.83

2040.81

1965.85

1727.47

1951.21

2232.80

2121.14

43875.02

Financing Plan
Govt of India Govt of Madhya Pradesh Capex to be Financed by Dewas Municipal Corp. 70% 20% 10% 927.15 264.90 132.45 972.74 277.93 138.96 973.69 278.20 139.10 1022.38 292.11 146.05 1869.83 534.24 267.12 1921.42 548.98 274.49 2065.82 590.23 295.12 2431.18 694.62 347.31 2394.16 684.05 342.02 2388.32 682.38 341.19 2416.38 690.39 345.20 885.16 252.90 126.45 976.01 278.86 139.43 1040.78 297.37 148.68 1428.57 408.16 204.08 1376.10 393.17 196.59 1209.23 345.49 172.75 1365.85 390.24 195.12 1562.96 446.56 223.28 1484.80 424.23 212.11 30712.51 8775.00 4387.50

ANNEXURE: 18. DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN - O&M


Dewas City Sanitation Plan
(all figures in Rs. lacs)
2011-12 1 O&M Inflation (Annual) Waste Water Disposal - O&M Exp. Municipal Solid Waste - O&M Exp. Total O&M Exp. Exp. Currently Being Incurred by DMC on MSW 7% 5.33% 2% 54.05 764.00 818.05 301.11 118.55 833.83 952.38 322.19 182.31 850.51 1032.81 344.74 249.25 867.52 1116.77 368.87 384.42 884.87 1269.29 394.69 526.35 902.56 1428.92 422.32 675.38 920.62 1596.00 451.88 831.86 939.03 1770.89 483.51 996.16 957.81 1953.97 517.36 1168.68 976.96 2145.64 553.58 1349.82 996.50 2346.33 592.33 1403.08 1016.43 2419.51 633.79 1458.99 1036.76 2495.76 678.15 1517.71 1057.50 2575.20 725.63 1579.35 1078.65 2658.00 776.42 1644.08 1102.92 2747.00 830.77 1712.05 1127.73 2839.78 888.92 1783.41 1153.11 2936.52 951.15 1858.35 1179.05 3037.40 1017.73 1937.03 1205.58 3142.61 1088.97 2012-13 2 2013-14 3 2014-15 4 2015-16 5 2016-17 6 2017-18 7 2018-19 8 2019-20 9 2020-21 10 2021-22 11 2022-23 12 2023-24 13 2024-25 14 2025-26 15 2026-27 16 2027-28 17 2028-29 18 2029-30 19 2030-31 20

Total Incremental O&M Exp.

516.94

630.19

688.07

747.90

874.60

1006.60

1144.11

1287.37

1436.61

1592.07

1754.00

1785.72

1817.60

1849.58

1881.58

1916.23

1950.86

1985.37

2019.67

2053.64

ANNEXURE: 19. DEWAS CITY SANITATION PLAN - FINANCIAL MODEL


Dewas City Sanitation Plan
(all figures in Rs. lacs)
2011-12 1 DMC Total Receipts (without scheme specific receipts) DMC - Operating Exp. (incl. Interest & Debt Repayment) DMC - Funds Available for Capex & Incremental O&M Exp. Incremental O&M Exp. Required User Charges for Waste Water User Charges for MSW 50% 30 60% 10% 2% of water charges Rs. per month per hhd of a total of 50,000 hhds incr. every 3rd year population increase p.a. 1127.60 132.45 108.00 5319.93 2012-13 2 5205.93 2013-14 3 5810.93 2014-15 4 6496.98 2015-16 5 7078.35 2016-17 6 7918.54 2017-18 7 8623.72 2018-19 8 9400.71 2019-20 9 10257.07 2020-21 10 11055.60 2021-22 11 12223.81 2022-23 12 13167.97 2023-24 13 14194.89 2024-25 14 15312.03 2025-26 15 16527.53 2026-27 16 17080.27 2027-28 17 18519.94 2028-29 18 20087.13 2029-30 19 21793.43 2030-31 20 23651.46

3675.39 1644.53

4020.60 1185.33

4477.20 1333.73

4994.72 1502.26

5489.02 1589.33

6039.01 1879.53

6650.82 1972.90

7331.25 2069.45

8087.85 2169.22

8773.88 2281.72

9214.73 3009.09

10044.05 3123.92

10948.02 3246.88

11933.34 3378.70

13007.34 3520.19

14178.00 2902.27

15454.02 3065.92

16844.88 3242.25

18360.92 3432.51

20013.40 3638.06

516.94

630.19

688.07 572.05 110.16

747.90 657.86 123.60

874.60 756.54 126.07

1006.60 824.63 141.45

1144.11 898.84 144.28

1287.37 979.74 161.88

1436.61 1067.92 165.12

1592.07 1164.03 185.27

1754.00 1257.15 188.97

1785.72 1357.72 212.03

1817.60 1466.34 216.27

1849.58 1583.65 242.65

1881.58 1710.34 247.50

1916.23 1847.17 277.70

1950.86 1994.94 283.25

1985.37 2154.54 317.81

2019.67 2326.90 324.17

2053.64 2513.05 363.71

DMC Funds Available for Capex Waste Water & MSW Capex - DMC's Contribution

663.13 138.96

1327.87 139.10

1535.82 146.05

1597.34 267.12

1839.01 274.49

1871.91 295.12

1923.70 347.31

1965.65 342.02

2038.95 341.19

2701.21 345.20

2907.94 126.45

3111.88 139.43

3355.42 148.68

3596.46 204.08

3110.90 196.59

3393.25 172.75

3729.23 195.12

4063.90 223.28

4461.18 212.11

Funds Available with DMC for other Capex

995.15

524.17

1188.77

1389.77

1330.23

1564.53

1576.79

1576.39

1623.62

1697.76

2356.01

2781.49

2972.45

3206.74

3392.38

2914.32

3220.51

3534.11

3840.62

4249.07

Annexure: 20. DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION - FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS


DEWAS MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
(all figures in Rs.'000) 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 % of Total 2006-07
22048.8 7841 9294.9 4912.9 10646.1 5138.1 4222.6 1285.4 27785.8 8417.2 10 32.4 30815.4 16800 10514.2 3501.2 9482.8 2470.7 5623.9 1388.2 31353.3 8510.8 35.4 34524.4 20751 10987 2786.4 11109.1 3298.4 5842.1 1968.6 84700.1 14155 413.7 45465.6 19861.1 16405.6 9198.9 10743.6 3562.5 6405.8 775.3 44022 13330 61.2 41.4 55398.3 28878.8 21342.1 5177.4 8360.7 1633.4 5904.1 823.2 103831.3 18252.7 125 248.5 2029.4 1363.1 2090 730.9 8.1 777.7 465.8 11389 6470.8 38082.9 14521.2 23561.7 7009.4 1219.7 5251.8 537.9 77812.9 20240.5 266.4 937.5 3414.4 12.53%

% of Total 2009-10
9.92%

CAGR (%)

2010 - 2015 CAGR (%)

2016 - 2020 CAGR (%)

2021 - 2031 CAGR (%)

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

2022-23

2023-24

2024-25

2025-26

2026-27

2027-28

2028-29

2029-30

2030-31

Receipts
Property Tax Arrears Collection Collection against Current Demand Consolidated (Street lighting, Fire & Street Sweeping) Tax Water Tax & Connection Charges Arrears Collection Collection against Current Demand New Conection Fees Octroi - Received from State Gov't. Passenger Tax - received from State Govt. Auditorium Exhibition Tax Advertisement Tax City Development Tax Education Tax "Samekit" Tax Market Fees Fixed Land Rental Warrant Fees "Kanji House" (Cattle House) Receipt Building Approval Fees Development Charges Stamp Duty - Received from State Gov't. Rentals from DMC Properties (incl. shops) Fees from Permission for Sale of Fertilizers, etc. Registration Fees Shop License Fees Computer Bill Services Charge Other License Fees Fees for Providing Certified Copies of Documents Royalty Contractor License Fees Right of Occupation Rental Auction Fees of Waste Water Fees & User Charges Grant against Penal Charges within DMC Area Interest Income Tax on Sale of Construction Material Miscellaneous

Receipts
11.55% Property Tax Arrears Collection Collection against Current Demand Consolidated (Street Lighting, Fire & Street Sweeping) Tax -8.02% Water Tax & Connection Charges Arrears Collection Collection against Current Demand New Conection Fees 22.87% Octroi - Received from State Gov't. 19.18% Passenger Tax - Received from State Gov't. Auditorium Exhibition Tax Advertisement Tax City Development Tax Education Tax "Samekit" Tax Market Fees Fixed Land Rental Warrant Fees "Kanji House" (Cattle House) Receipt Building Approval Fees Development Charges 21.88% Stamp Duty - Received from State Govt. 31.24% Rentals from DMC Properties (incl. shops) Fees from permission for sale of fertilizers, etc. Registration Fees Shop License Fees Computer Bill Services Charge Other License Fees Fees for Providing Certified Copies of Documents Royalty Contractor License Fees Right of Occupation Rental Auction Fees of Waste Water Fees & User Charges Grant against Penal Charges within DMC Area Interest Income Tax on Sale of Construction Material Miscellaneous 17.79% Total Own Source Receipts & Receipts from State Gov't. 13.43% Total Own source Receipt 11% 9% 8% 42272.0 46921.9 52083.4 57812.5 64171.9 69947.4 76242.6 83104.5 90583.9 98736.4 106635.3 115166.2 124379.5 134329.8 145076.2 156682.3 169216.9 182754.2 197374.6 213164.5 230217.7

4.03%

1.83%

15%

9%

8%

8060.8

34269.9

114410.4

131572.0

151307.8

164925.5

179768.8

195948.0

213583.3

232805.8

251430.2

271544.7

293268.2

316729.7

342068.1

369433.5

398988.2

430907.2

465379.8

502610.2

542819.0

30.74% 5.14%

20.27% 5.27%

15% 15% 11% 11% 11%

12% 12% 9% 9% 9%

10% 10% 8% 8% 8%

89484.8 23276.6 295.7 1040.6 3790.0

102907.6 26768.1 328.2 1155.1 4206.9

118343.7 30783.3 364.3 1282.2 4669.6

136095.2 35400.8 404.4 1423.2 5183.3

156509.5 40710.9 448.9 1579.7 5753.5

175290.7 45596.2 489.3 1721.9 6271.3

196325.6 51067.7 533.3 1876.9 6835.7

219884.6 57195.8 581.3 2045.8 7450.9

246270.8 64059.4 633.7 2229.9 8121.5

275823.3 71746.5 690.7 2430.6 8852.4

303405.6 78921.1 745.9 2625.1 9560.6

333746.2 86813.2 805.6 2835.1 10325.5

367120.8 95494.6 870.1 3061.9 11151.5

403832.9 105044.0 939.7 3306.8 12043.6

444216.1 115548.4 1014.8 3571.4 13007.1

488637.8 127103.3 1096.0 3857.1 14047.7

537501.5 139813.6 1183.7 4165.7 15171.5

591251.7 153794.9 1278.4 4498.9 16385.2

650376.9 169174.4 1380.7 4858.8 17696.0

715414.5 186091.9 1491.1 5247.5 19111.7

786956.0 204701.1 1610.4 5667.3 20640.6

1401.2 516.8 0.015 4.7 748 3438.2 3789 2420.4 266 368.24 87.7 370.7 4.9 17.5 57.3

1766.5 496.8 0.01 3.2 466.5 1171 4550.3 1761 427.5 363.9 75.2 65.4 246.3 6.1 1.5

1696.1 806.2 0.2 1.8 723.2 860.3 5368.5 1991.25 553.5 395.2 89.8 647 7.8

2089 420.4 29.9 0.3 851 817.1 7942.5 1665.2 768.1 476.7 129.4 1440.3 12.7

1191.1 10189.9 9422.8

1.95% 0.72%

2.65% 2.45%

11% 15% 11%

9% 12% 9%

8% 10% 8%

1322.1 11718.4 10459.3

1467.6 13476.1 11609.8

1629.0 15497.6 12886.9

1808.2 17822.2 14304.5

2007.1 20495.5 15878.0

2187.7 22955.0 17307.0

2384.6 25709.6 18864.6

2599.2 28794.7 20562.4

2833.1 32250.1 22413.0

3088.1 36120.1 24430.2

3335.2 39732.1 26384.6

3602.0 43705.4 28495.4

3890.2 48075.9 30775.0

4201.4 52883.5 33237.0

4537.5 58171.8 35896.0

4900.5 63989.0 38767.7

5292.5 70387.9 41869.1

5715.9 77426.7 45218.6

6173.2 85169.4 48836.1

6667.0 93686.3 52743.0

7200.4 103054.9 56962.5

1330.1 49.4 852.9 7.7 1244.3

875.3 38

1226.7 20499.9

11% 5% 11% 22.92%

9% 3% 9% 10.04%

8% 2% 8% 8.97%

22754.9 2866.8 926.7 218268.8

25257.9 3010.2 1028.7 272408.0

28036.3 3160.7 1141.8 384289.1

31120.3 3318.7 1267.4 437532.7

34543.5 3484.6 1406.9 498297.8

37652.4 3589.2 1533.5 549467.0

41041.2 3696.8 1671.5 606018.9

44734.9 3807.8 1821.9 668531.9

48761.0 3922.0 1985.9 737647.5

53149.5 4039.6 2164.6 814077.9

57401.5 4120.4 2337.8 886635.6

61993.6 4202.8 2524.8 965760.4

66953.1 4286.9 2726.8 1052054.3

72309.3 4372.6 2944.9 1146175.3

78094.0 4460.1 3180.5 1248842.1

84341.6 4549.3 3435.0 1360840.6

91088.9 4640.3 3709.8 1483029.5

98376.0 4733.1 4006.6 1616347.5

106246.1 4827.7 4327.1 1761820.8

114745.8 4924.3 4673.3 1920571.2

123925.4 5022.8 5047.1 2093825.3

119 547.9 468.7 1371

315.6 15.6 1277.5

1037.1 286.3 97.7 4235.9

44 2224.6 60.8 2076.8

1583 2926.9

2730.3 834.9

Total Own Source Receipts & Receipts from State Govt. Total Own source Receipt Grant & Assigned Receipt
State Finance Commission - General 12th Finance Commission Madhya Pradesh Local Area Development Fund Grant from State Govt. Consolidated Facility for Specific Plan Water Scarcity Mid-day Meal From Surcharge Road Repair & Maintenance MP/MLA Fund IHSDP Public Support Scheme National Information System Stadium Construction/Development U.R.I.F. UIDSSMT Others

84937.56 44945.555

93245.61 48831.21

164575.45 60351.85

135939.3 70644.8

219535.6 86062.6

192632.9 84389.6

59.74% 21.91%

50.18% 21.98%

Grant & Assigned Receipt


28194.7 16852.3 50554 11339.8 69847 13894.4 86534.7 2339.1 9823.7 69861.7 1890 47134.8 250 5317.9 8446.1 3850 14555.3 180 4000 4997.5 2497.5 5543.1 6117.8 300 6879.5 2.25% 1.59% 6.12% 18.35% 2.56% 18.20% State Finance Commission - General 12th Finance Commission Madhya Pradesh Local Area Development Fund Grant from State Gov't. 27.33% Consolidated Facility for Specific Plan -100.00% Water Scarcity Mid-day Meal From Surcharge -26.97% Road Repair & Maintenance MP/MLA Fund IHSDP Public Support Scheme National Information System Stadium Construction/Development U.R.I.F. UIDSSMT Others 30.39% Total Grant & Assigned Receipt 23.12% Total Receipt 80000.0 5% 9% 3% 8% 2% 6% 1984.5 51376.9 40000.0 2083.7 56000.9 40000.0 2187.9 61040.9 40000.0 2297.3 66534.6 40000.0 2412.2 72522.7 40000.0 2484.5 78324.6 60000.0 2559.1 84590.5 60000.0 2635.8 91357.8 60000.0 2714.9 98666.4 60000.0 2796.4 106559.7 60000.0 2852.3 112953.3 90000.0 2909.3 119730.5 90000.0 2967.5 126914.3 90000.0 3026.9 134529.1 90000.0 3087.4 142600.9 90000.0 3149.2 151157.0 13000.0 3212.1 160226.4 13000.0 3276.4 169840.0 13000.0 3341.9 180030.3 13000.0 3408.8 190832.2 13000.0 3476.9 202282.1

14083.5 1999

21689.3 1917.1

27223.8 4500 1489.4 6206.9 1600

33335.4 3605.4

9.88%

12.28%

29453.7 3916.9 5200

11530.2

2500

131332.5 57134.4

35000 8688.4

5%

3%

2%

Total Grant & Assigned Receipt

50736.2

55718

110926.4

141332.8

323654.4

191239

40.26%

49.82%

130000.0 30000.0 293361.4

130000.0 31500.0 259584.6

33075.0 136303.8

34728.8 143560.7

36465.2 151400.1

37559.1 158368.2

38685.9 185835.5

39846.5 193840.1

41041.9 202423.2

42273.1 211629.2

43118.6 218924.2

43981.0 256620.8

44860.6 264742.4

45757.8 273313.8

46673.0 282361.3

47606.4 291912.5

48558.6 224997.1

49529.7 235646.1

50520.3 246892.6

51530.7 258771.7

52561.3 271320.4

Total Receipt

135673.76

148963.61

275501.85

277272.10

543190.00

383871.90

511630.2

531992.6

520593.0

581093.4

649697.9

707835.2

791854.4

862372.0

940070.7

1025707.1

1105559.7

1222381.2

1316796.7

1419489.1

1531203.4

1652753.2

1708026.6

1851993.6

2008713.4

2179342.9

2365145.7

Expenditure
General Administration
Exp. for Corporators & Officers Office Expenses & Ssalaries for Officers Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Treasury Dep't. Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Octroi & Border tax Dep't. Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Other Taxes Dep't. Wages & Salaries, incl. Bonus, Training, Leave Encashment, etc. Pension Uniform, etc. Miscellaneous Administrative Exp. Petrol/Diesel for Vehicles & Vehicle Maintenance Vehicle Hiring Charges Electricity Charges Rental Charges Election Exp. Stationary Exp. Water Charges Repair & Maintenance Charges Exp. on Maintenance of Office Equipment Computerisation & e-Governance-related Exp. Benefit Offered to Employee Family on His/Her Death Cost of Collection of Taxes, Fees, incl. Bill Distribution Fire Brigade Street Lighting 14479.10 1432.80 3609.50 4312.80 1947.10 533.70 16743.30 1273.80 3490.10 4740.00 2181.30 608.20 29394.40 1417.20 3395.30 4035.10 2315.40 693.20 11529.60 96.60 2711.00 1255.40 46.30 22348.20 3290.40 3484.40 6103.30 2505.40 644.80 184214.80 2523.70 254318.40 65.14% 61.75%

Expenditure
32.72% General Administration Exp. for Corporators & Officers Office Expenses & Salaries for Officers Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Treasury Dep't. Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Octroi & Border Tax Dep't. Office Expenses & Salaries for Staff of Other Taxes Dep't. Wages & Salaries, incl. Bonus, Training, Leave Encashment, etc. Pension Uniform, etc. Miscellaneous Administrative Exp Petrol/Diesel for Vehicles & Vehicle Maintenance Vehicle Hiring Charges Electricity Charges Rental Charges Election Exp. Stationary Exp. Water Charges Repair & Maintenance Charges Exp. on Maintenance of Office Equipment Computerisation & e-Governance-related Exp. Benefit Offered to Employee Family on His/Her Death Cost of Collection of Taxes, Fees, incl. Bill Distribution Fire Brigade Street Lighting 13% 11% 9% 287379.8 324739.2 360460.5 407320.3 460272.0 510901.9 567101.1 629482.2 698725.3 775585.1 845387.7 921472.6 1004405.1 1094801.6 1193333.7 1300733.8 1417799.8 1545401.8 1684488.0 1836091.9 2001340.1

85158.20 21235.10 111.40 3427.20 1248.50 103.00

110252.10 392.40 57908.20

26.77% 0.10%

751.00 725.30

10.30 1866.80 1780.20

5079.40 261.70 30389.60 6293.60

127.00 636.40

2.30 427.50

687.50

528.40

1850.20 31685.00

778.80 2524.70 22043.60 60156.90

14.61%

341.20 62.30 3832.90 4812.20

264.00 98.80 5569.40 5869.40

362.80 597.70 22.40 228.90 3801.20 6759.70

30.50 674.00 196.90 5300.40 8280.10

2479.00

Public Health & Facilities


Water Supply 28775.94 General Admin. 17006.00 Electricity 632.30 Alum Bleaching 1164.40 Repair & Maintenance 5943.60 Maintenance of Narmada Line & Payment to Indore MC 4029.64 Capex 5615.62 New Works - Water Shortage 4272.10 Kshipra "Arvadhan" Scheme 60.60 Rajanal Water Supply Scheme 1282.92 Construction of Water Tank at Labour Colony & Sump-well at 5 Locations Sanitation General Admin. Others Public Health General Admin. - Toilets Street Sweeping/Cleaning & Drain Cleaning Solid Waste Management Construction of New Drains Market & Abattoir General Admin. Construction of Markets & Commercial Shops Kanji House & Community Centre - Construction & Repair Tree Plantation, Public Parks, Open Grounds, etc. Development of Road Crossings Construction of Tree-guards, etc. Community Welfare Works Mayor's Fund Veterninary Exp. Public Works General Admin. Construction & Repair of Buildings & Mayor/Officer's Residences Road - Construction & Repair, incl. Concretization Other - Works & Repair (Shopping Complexes, Markets, Chamu Others - Development Works from MP/MLA Funds Development & Improvement of Slums Land Acquisition Repair of Road by Metalizing (non-concrete) Miscellaneous Construction (Street Lighting, Graveyards, etc.) Singhasth Scheme UIDSSMT Scheme 12th Finance Commission Developments IHSDP Scheme Mid-day Meal Public Education Interest Paid Debt Repayment Miscellaneous 6933.39 5669.82 1263.57 19282.84 1540.88 19108.96 1610.47 310.26 310.26 39734.32 17043.60 1891.10 714.80 17121.60 2963.22 15177.71 13541.21 736.40 900.10 59436.83 24707.30 15545.10 1158.90 7904.70 10120.83 16443.25 14195.10 448.10 1004.80 795.25 6702.55 6138.86 563.69 30837.71 4607.25 22456.32 3774.14 543.60 378.65 164.95 101.43 941.24 486.94 601.53 0.48 46101.50 31328.40 2369.30 2374.60 8203.50 1825.70 80413.96 13421.00 37460.80 28699.50 832.66 7065.33 6772.18 293.15 34865.65 3604.04 26317.34 1147.95 3796.32 925.47 623.42 302.05 113.01 1213.88 153.57 1471.86 542.81 0.48 0.00 0.00

Public Health & Facilities


Water Supply General Admin. Electricity Alum Bleaching Repair & Maintenance Maintenance of Narmada Line & Payment to Indore MC Capex New Works - Water Shortage Kshipra "Arvadhan" Scheme Rajanal Water Supply Scheme Construction of Water Tank at Labour Colony & Sump-well at 5 Locations Sanitation General Admin. Others Public Health General Admin. - Toilets Street Sweeping/Cleaning & Drain Cleaning Solid Waste Management Construction of New Drains Market & Abattoir General Admin. Construction of Markets & Commercial Shops Kanji House & Community Centre - Construction & Repair Tree Plantation, Public Parks, Open Grounds, etc. Development of Road Crossings Construction of Tree-guards, etc. Community Welfare Works Mayor's Fund Veterninary Exp. Public Works General Admin. Construction & Repair of Buildings & Mayor/Officer's Residences Road - Construction & Repair, incl. Concretization Other - Works & repair (Shopping Complexes, Markets, Chamunda Hill, etc.) Others - Development Works from MP/MLA Funds Development & Improvement of Slums Land Acquisition Repair of Road by Metalizing (non-concrete) Miscellaneous Construction (Street Lighting, Graveyards, etc.) Singhasth Scheme UIDSSMT Scheme 12th Finance Commission Developments IHSDP Scheme Mid-day Meal Public Education Interest Paid Debt Repayment Miscellaneous 27.60% Total Expenditure

9350.00 9350.00

12325.80 12325.80

6731.35 5719.11 1012.24 22260.31 1651.60 14507.95 3123.29 329.03 329.03

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00 11.26%

0.00

0.00

150.70 924.52 59.77 673.25 48.50 0.48

432.36 1215.32 543.29 215.31 517.60 41.50 0.44

5921.34 790.10 16533.70 2472.57 132.58

6605.36 903.73 18158.37 5008.26

7992.38 560.85 24784.53 8854.88

8989.52 2667.38 32090.60 6185.80

18846.60 36045.60

22580.60 30500.00 4769.50

0.27% 11.77% 4.20%

5.48% 7.40% 1.16%

100.00 2074.05 4510.50 36.12 700.94 10.83 1389.72 43.87 5545.37 321.77 7132.37 131764.80 75746.70 2.63% 18.39%

649.20 6244.35 6493.70

273.46

49.16

128.02

81.00 2650.40

12%

22800.00 20000.00

21600.00 20000.00

20400.00 20000.00

19200.00 20000.00

18000.00 20000.00

16800.00 20000.00

15600.00 20000.00

14400.00 20000.00

13200.00 20000.00

12000.00 20000.00

3065.79

4084.70

6678.40

4675.97

49881.40

20.00

Total Expenditure Surplus/Deficit


Total Expenditure less Capex Funds Available for Capex Capex Operating Surplus

121773.56 13900.20
89876.59 45797.17 31896.98 -4939.03

152327.83 -3364.22
104806.90 44156.71 47520.93 -11561.29

210639.16 64862.69
145642.38 129859.47 64996.78 18933.07

277834.18 -562.08
139955.40 137316.71 137878.79 -4016.10

430103.20 113086.80
209155.50 334034.50 220947.70 10380.10

411884.10 -28012.20
265951.50 117920.40 145932.60 -73318.60

287379.79

367539.16

402060.47

447720.33

499471.98

548901.90

603901.10

665082.23

733125.27

808785.05

877387.70

921472.60

1004405.13

1094801.59

1193333.74

1300733.77

1417799.81

1545401.80

1684487.96

1836091.87

2001340.14

Surplus/Deficit
24.23% Total Expenditure less Capex 20.82% Funds Available for Capex 35.54% Capex Operating Surplus 224250.4 164453.4 118532.5 133373.0 150225.9 158933.3 187953.3 197289.8 206945.5 216922.1 228172.0 300908.6 312391.6 324687.5 337869.7 352019.4 290226.8 306591.8 324225.5 343251.0 363805.6