How to Make Your Speaking Easier and More Effective

AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
Remember that the members of the audience are supposed to be the beneficiaries of your communication. • Don't make too many assumptions about your audience. But you do have to make some. • Figure out the basics. Who are these people? • demographics (age, ethnicity, gender mix, etc.). • predispositions (hopes, fears, positives/negatives, level of interest). • knowledge of/experience with subject/me. In what kind of setting will they receive this information? • large lecture hall or small seminar room or classroom. • lighting and sound issues. • time of day. • Take into account the "me, here, now." audience and ask "How does this message affect me, here, now?" • Me, here, now translates into what you as a sender have to offer your audience/receivers—what they will be able to understand, accept, support, consider important—because it matters to them. • Establish cognitive / behavioral objectives for your audience:

• Ask the audience a question • Set up a problem—and promise that they'll
have all the tools for a solution by the end of the class.

• CLOSINGS. Many speakers simply talk until the end of the time or beyond it—and say, "I see we’re out of time." Instead:

• Plan a rhythm for your speaking—plan to end with content 5 minutes early, so you can summarize, raise questions. • Set aside a time for questions—and structure that time.
PREPARATION
You probably can't cover everything you want to in a talk or speech. • Decide what is essential, what is important, and what is helpful (what would be nice).

• Cover the first; try to cover the second;
forget about the third.

• Picture yourself as a member of the

• Release a little control over the material and
rely on the textbook or a list of supplementary readings for the nonessentials.

• Set objectives.

• What do you want to have accomplished at the end of the speech? • What do you want the audience to know at the end of the speech?
• Plan a speech to cover less than the allotted period.

• What do I want my audience to know? • What do I want my audience to do
OPENINGS, AND CLOSINGS
• OPENINGS. Stay away from the predictable (Good morning. . . ., Today, I'm here to talk about . . .). Instead:

• It takes some time to get going. • Questions always take up more time than
you expect. • Divide the speech/talk into discrete segments and follow the standard speech structure.

• Begin with a provocative question,

• Divide it both in terms of time and in terms
of material. • Try for roughly equal blocks, each one on a topic.

anecdote, or current event—and how it relates to the content.

• Unlike in a piece of writing, you should tell
them what you’ll say, say it, and tell them what you’ve said

• Use metaphors, analogies, and similes.
• Observe the techniques of others.

• Speak from notes or an outline, rather than a complete text.

•Try out in your own talks techniques you
admire in others.

• It's too tempting to simply read, rather than
lecture, from a complete text. • Reading also creates a barrier between speaker and audience. • Writing up an entire speech is very time consuming. • A written speech often becomes a fossil that never gets updated.

• Like any skill, delivery is not innate, but must
be learned.

CREDIBILITY & COMMITMENT
Although speaking isn't theater, we do know that audience find concepts, knowledge, skills, and ideas most accessible and credible from someone they consider . . . well, not dull. • Think about antecedent image—perception is often stronger than reality. •Credibility is enhanced by:

DELIVERY
• Be conversational; speak naturally; be yourself (or your best self). understated, or hyper. Use those traits; don't fight against them. • Talk about the material; don't lecture about it. • (Talking is easier if you don't read verbatim.) • Vary your pacing and voice.

• That self may be formal, "laid back,"

• Your own sense of comfort and confidence
presenting material.

• Your enthusiasm and interest in teaching. • Your research and own ideas.
• Commitment is enhanced by:

sense the necessity. • Use your voice to underline and italicize the important points. • Pause before new points. • Use transitional statements to move to the next idea. • Use gestures to emphasize points.

• Gauge audience reaction, and • Repeat critical points immediately if you

• Relating your own experience, ideas, and feelings. • Taking the first person approach, not separating yourself from your subject. • Relating your "passion" for your subject. • Delivery is tied to both commitment and credibility:
An old UCLA study of effective presentations analyzed 3 elements (verbal, vocal, visual). Here's what it found was important in establishing credibility/believability:

• Consider gestures to be a mirror of your
voice. • Adjust your gestures to the size of the room. • Look at the audience. dividing it into four quadrants. • If direct eye contact makes you forget your place, try looking just over a student's head, or between two students (They won't see the difference). • Use language to create pictures.

• Verbal (words you say): 7%. • Vocal (how you sound when you say them):
38%. • Visual (how you look when you say them): 55%. • Your energy and intensity will move your audience—and help you (them) reach your objectives.

• Try to cover all parts of the room by

BUILDING INTERACTION
• Learning takes place best in an active, not a passive environment.

• Interaction is a continuous way to

• Address your answer to the whole

understood. • Share the responsibility of learning more equitably and appropriately. • How to build interaction?

• Assess the me, here, now. • Determine whether or not your content is

audience. • Ask whether you have answered the question. • Be diplomatic when people raise tangential, overly•complicated questions, or persistently ask questions just to be asking. or to contact you. • If a someone is simply confused, say, "Let me go over this point a bit more slowly."

relatively easy, accessible ones. • Work to get everyone involved, even in large groups. ☛ Ask the audience to consider issues with the person sitting next to them/jot down ideas, questions, concerns. ☛ Discuss as a larger group. • Move yourself!

• Have questions prepared—begin with

• Ask them to stop by after the presentation

GETTING FEEDBACK
• Get regular feedback.

• Ask the audience to spend the last five

• Don’t scurry back and forth, but don’t get
locked into one position.

minutes of class writing down the most important thing they learned that day or one question they have as a result of the talk. • Or ask them to write down questions they still have. • Use eye contact as a tool for continuous feedback.

HANDLING QUESTIONS
• Explicitly request and encourage questions.

• If you notice people with questioning looks,

• The audience will see that you have a

genuine interest in what they're thinking.

stop what you're doing and ask if you need to clarify. • If you get no response, go ahead and clarify.

• Be aware of how your behavior and comments can set the tone for questioning.

• A negative response (e.g., "We've already

covered that") discourages further questions and may make the audience think you don't really want questions.

• Make sure everyone hears the question.

• Repeat it if necessary. • But don't make a habit of simply repeating

every question. • Ask the audience if they heard the question; then ask the person to repeat. • Clarify questions.

Tollefson/Peterson UC Berkeley, 2000

• Say, "Do you mean that . . . ," or "I'm sorry, I
don't understand the question," rather than "Your question isn't clear."

• Answer questions as directly as possible.

I M P R O V I N G

C O M M U N I C A T I O N S

S K I L L S

Effective Speaking and Presentation
Selling Ideas, Gathering Support, Motivating Audiences
C A R O LY N J . L E E

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ffective communication skills are essential for program managers — most of their activities involve the selling of ideas, gathering of support, or motivation of the program office staff and contractors, and often include speaking opportunities with the Department of Defense (DoD), other Services, or Congress and its staffers. Certainly, public speaking is entirely in the realm of possibility for today’s program managers in carrying out their day-to-day activities and responsibilities. To be effective, program managers must be masters of the three skill areas that most affect delivery and acceptance of ideas: audio, visual, and the feelings of both the speaker and the audience.1 Given today’s business environment of accelerated time management and minimal opportunities for actual contact, delivery of information in the most effective and efficient means possible helps to ensure the correct message is delivered, understood, and appropriate feedback obtained. Additionally, it minimizes confusion and wasted effort due to misinterpretation of the data when both parties are succinct and are able to feed back the message transmitted.

tems Management College (DSMC). When properly administered and acted upon, PROFILOR allows students to focus and target some of their learning on those activities that can have enormous benefit back in the workplace. Revealingly, my PROFILOR results indicated that effective speaking was an area for personal improvement judged by my peers as well as my supervisor.2 This deficiency in my professional bearing is a hindrance to my career and a detriment to any acquisition effort that I may encounter in my future career. The PROFILOR suggested two primary areas upon which to focus my efforts in correcting this shortfall: • Speaking with enthusiasm and expressiveness. • Speaking effectively in front of a group. In the time allotted for the Program Management and Leadership curriculum of the Advanced Program Management Course, I worked to improve those areas by employing materials available in DSMC’s Learning Resource Center (LRC), outside reading, suggested “practicing” techniques during class exercises, and while teaching a graduate-level college course part-time.

there continually, as obvious as a cigar butt in the punchbowl.”3 Dr J. Mitchell Perry, a consultant for effective communications, states that if our voice is an instrument, then language is the music.4 Accordingly, we must practice with our voice just as we would any musical instrument, and then master the language we put through that instrument. While most of us consider ourselves articulate and comfortable with our mother tongue, it is readily apparent that in professional speaking the rules change somewhat and we are judged as an authority based on our use of language.5 Tone, Inflection, Volume, Pace The first thing an audience will notice when the speaker begins is the tone and inflection of the speaker’s voice. While most people understand that a monotone dialogue is disastrous to a message, few of us consciously vary the volume and pace of our speech to preclude such a delivery. However, in a formal setting the importance of voice is amplified and every aspect placed under scrutiny either intentionally or unintentionally. By increasing and decreasing volume on important words, speeding up or slowing down the tempo of our conversation, and effective use of pausing, a speaker can force the audience to adjust their listening skills to match the new pace, thus preventing listeners from becoming too comfortable with what’s happening and from going into automatic listening mode. An added advantage is that it requires the listeners to remain more attentive, which, in turn, improves the

PROFILOR Assessment Reveals Strengths, Weaknesses
PROFILOR is a teaching tool that affords students the opportunity to receive 360degree feedback from supervisors and peers on 24 critical skills required of program managers. It is administered to all students attending the Advanced Program Management Course, Defense Sys-

Speaking and the Use of Language
According to Broadcaster Earl Nighttengale, “When a person doesn’t know how to use the language, he or she will be forever barred from entering the sizeable and enjoyable world of privilege … Poor speech cannot be hidden away. It’s

Lee is a career communications-computer specialist assigned as technical advisor to the Office of the Air Force Deputy Assistant Secretary (Contracting) staff. She is currently participating in the Defense Leadership and Management Program. 32 P M : J A N U A RY - F E B R U A RY 2 0 01

chances that they’ll actually hear and understand what is being said. The Message What is being said is equally important as how it’s being said. Several authors suggested reading as the best way to broaden one’s vocabulary and to become comfortable with a variety of words. Another suggestion was to read aloud not only to synchronize the brain and the tongue, but also to become comfortable saying the new words as well as understanding what they mean. A broader vocabulary obviously does not mean attempting to astound the audience with verbiage

and verbosity, but an articulate and eloquent speaker commands more respect than one who appears to be stuck in middle-school English class. Fillers Most of us have phrases or words with which we are comfortable and use without realizing how distracting they can be to our message. Most of us easily recognize the “you know” and “umm” space fillers, but other words such as “always” and “never” may evoke subconscious negative responses and torpedo the idea we are trying to convey. Other phrases such as “why don’t you,” which implies someone isn’t doing something correctly now and requires action on their part, and “to be hon-

est,” which implies the speaker hasn’t been honest up to this point, can evoke the same reaction. By becoming more aware of what is being said and changing to words that engender support and understanding or deflect hostility, effective speakers will make the audience feel more responsive and eager to listen to their message rather than retreating while they form a defensive response.

Image
Although I’ve concentrated on the speaking skills in the first part of the article, due to its immediate relevancy to my PROFILOR assessment, a speaker’s physical appearance — audience’s first impression — is of equal importance. While some aspects of our appearance such as skin color, gender, and height cannot be changed, we can make the most of the first impression — overall image and projection of that image.6 Physical appearance such as clothing selection, hair, and even the appearance of our hands affects how we, and thereby the authority of our message, are perceived. The type of clothing must be appropriate to the setting and the audience,

When a person doesn’t know how to use the language, he or she will be forever barred from entering the sizeable and enjoyable world of privilege … Poor speech cannot be hidden away. It’s there continually, as obvious as a cigar butt in the punchbowl.
—Earl Nightingale
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fit appropriately, and demonstrate awareness of basic grooming requirements (neat, clean, and in good repair). These elements are obvious. To address a congressional staff, one’s dress should be conservative and professional in keeping with the institution. Conversely, if addressing a student research group on a field day to a museum, the attire should reflect the more casual aspect of the environment. Often program managers will be required to engage an audience with which they are unfamiliar. A little research is required to make the most of the image projected. Speakers should inquire as to what is considered normal dress for the audience, especially in today’s environment of business casual. By dressing inappropriately, speakers can inadvertently “advertise” that they are not “one of them” (intended audience) or are obviously out of touch with who and what the audience is as an organization. Doing so immediately establishes a negative image the moment such speakers appear on stage.

to analyze their own behavior and study, integrate, and internalize new skills commensurate with their rising level of responsibility and authority. Especially helpful to me was the realization that although my peers believed I needed improvement, so did every other leader who came before me — and if they could learn leadership skills, then I could as well. Women in the Workplace The review of etiquette and modern leadership was particularly illuminating as it pointed out how the changes in our society have affected the way we conduct business.7 The advent of women (especially) into the workforce has required changes in how we greet each other, how we interact on a professional level, and even how we address our business correspondence. Workforce Diversity, Conflict Management Leadership skills have changed to include working with a diverse workforce based not only on gender but also on race, ethnicity, beliefs, and in some instances educational backgrounds. Conflict management has become an important skill, especially the ability to discuss conflicts without inflaming the issue, to achieve a mutually acceptable solution to a contentious issue, and to preserve group cohesiveness in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. Again, the use and application of language appropriate to the situation assists a leader in negating the conflict. International Environment Operating effectively within the international environment is becoming increasingly important in today’s environment. As the global economy progresses, defense contractors merge and employ various subcontractors that may not be American. Successful program managers must be able to maneuver effectively in this culturally and ethically challenging environment. In my review, I identified several key areas as potential pitfalls, especially for a woman interfacing with male counterparts from a different country, such as the proper way to greet a customer or

peer both physically and verbally, acceptance of gifts, and appropriate dinner etiquette. The primary lesson that emerged from my review, however, is simple: use good judgment and common courtesy before engaging in international business relations. Be sure to do some informal research on foreign nations being visited; conversely, become familiar with the customs and culture of any foreign visitors or dignitaries before their arrival.

Bottom Line — Communications is an Absolutely Essential Skill
The ability to speak in a group setting and convey a message is an essential skill in the business environment. As a technical advisor to an acquisition (contracting) organization at the Air Staff level, I often must convey technical ideas and concepts in easily understandable terms. To obtain support for the various electronic commerce activities of the Air Force, I must make the transition from “techno-geek-speak” to “understanding” in a manner that encourages support and buy-in from the audience. The audience may range from a base-level organization all the way through to DoD or congressional staffers. I must adjust my image and speaking skills to match the audience without either insulting them or losing the message.

Leadership Skills and Business Etiquette
Also included in my research were lessons on today’s business etiquette and necessary overall skills for leaders. Commanding respect as program managers is even more difficult if we are not recognizable as leaders. Even if our speech is brilliant, our appearance impeccable, and our command of the language truly impressive, our message will be lost if we have already offended the audience and placed ourselves in an unconstructive light. Hence, the ability to garner respect and operate in the realms of upper management is an important skill for the aspiring PM. Leading is Not Inborn While we intuitively understand that even leaders at the highest organizational levels were not born knowing how to conduct themselves in the upper echelons of business, it is reassuring to know that no one is born knowing how to be an executive. Although learning the skills necessary to lead varies in degree of difficulty, depending on personality and environment, each of today’s leaders had
34 P M : J A N U A RY - F E B R U A RY 2 0 01

Practical Application
For immediate feedback on my progress toward this effort, I used a representative sampling of 16 students from a course on Information Technology that I teach to graduate students at the Joint Military Intelligence College. These students are not information technologists and are not familiar with the terms and concepts that I address during the 10week course. To evaluate the students’ level of understanding, on the first day of class I gave them a pre-test. As the class progressed, I obtained feedback each class period by conducting a review of the previous class meeting — this provided information on the effectiveness of my teaching techniques. As the course progressed, it appeared I became more effective in conveying complex ideas, as more of the stu-

dents were able to answer the review questions. Additionally, their enthusiasm for the course increased, as I was able to convey the importance and possibilities of information technology relative to their profession. Student presentations on emerging technologies from this group were significantly more encompassing, more drastic (“ethereal” technologies), and more thorough than those from previous classes.8 The review of books, tapes, and audio CDs during the time allotted for the Advanced Program Management Course provided significant food for thought as well as valuable suggestions on ways to more effectively communicate with my audience — and hopefully correct the professional shortfall identified by my peers in the PROFILOR assessment. Editor’s Note: The author welcomes questions or comments on this article. Contact her at carolyn.lee@pentagon. af.mil.

Dr. Mark E. Nissen Named Winner of Naval Postgraduate School 2000 Menneken Faculty Award

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r. Mark E. Nissen, Manager of the DAU External Acquisition Research Program, was named Winner of the 2000 Menneken Faculty Award for Excellence in Scientific Research. Nissen's award was announced Dec. 15, 2000, at Monterey, Calif., during a ceremony honoring the graduates at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The Menneken represents the highest research award given at NPS, and competition is campus-wide. Nissen's selection as this year's winner is particularly significant, given that the award has never before gone to an acquisition faculty member. The Menneken Award recognizes recent, highly meritorious research having identifiable impact on Navy or other DoD technology. The award is open to all faculty professor positions. Each year, a committee of distinguished faculty members solicits nominations for the Menneken. Nissen was cited for his “outstanding contribution to knowledge systems, for his ability to demonstrate to DoD and Department of Navy the applicability of his theoretical work in military settings, and for enlisting student involvement in his research work.” Professor Shu Liao, Associated Chair for Research in the Systems Management Department, NPS, nominated Nissen for the award: “Despite his relatively junior status at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Professor Nissen is a very promising academic with an already-impressive record of research and publication that directly benefits the Navy and DoD … [Dr. Nissen] was the first to develop and employ measurementdriven inference for intelligent, automated reasoning about process innovation. His Knowledge-based Organizational Process Redesign system was demonstrated through application to redesign key procurement and contracting processes in a major aviation command of the Navy … Professor Nissen then further defined the state of the art through research and development of the Intelligent Mall, a multi-agent system to automate and support supply chain processes for the military … Professor Nissen then adapted this agent technology and integrated his research with novel economics work from Game Theory and Market Theory … focused on developing agent-based markets for automatically matching sailors with jobs through a Web environment … Professor Nissen is currently extending his research to focus on the Navy's new concept of knowledge-centric warfare.” As manager of the DAU External Acquisition Research Program, Nissen is a researcher first and bureaucrat third. This helps the program attract some of the best researchers in the world. Relevant information about Nissen's research is available online at http://web.nps.navy.mil/~menissen/.

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N D N O T E S

1. J. Mitchell Perry, Dr., “Winning Communication Skills: Four Keys to Personal and Professional Success,” Audio CDs, Jim Perry Corporation. 2. PROFILOR Assessment conducted July 2000; results obtained September 2000, DSMC. 3. Quote from Broadcaster Earl Nightingale in Earl Nightingale’s Greatest Discovery, CD 3. 4. Quote from Broadcaster Earl Nightingale in Earl Nightingale’s Greatest Discovery, CD 2. 5. Toogood, Granville N., The Articulate Executive: Learn to Look, Act, and Sound Like a Leader, McGraw-Hill: New York, 1996, p. 16. 6. White, Julie, “Image and Self-Projection,” LRC, DSMC, Oct. 5, 2000, Videotape. 7. Sourcecom, “Business Image and Etiquette,” LRC, DSMC, Oct. 5, 2000 (four Audiotapes). 8. Actual tracking of grades was the “tool” required by DSMC for this Program Management and Leadership (PML) activity.

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Top 7 Insights to Effective Speaking
By Sandra Schrift

The ability to speak well can enhance your career, clinch a sale, sell a point-of-view and increase an executive's productivity. Here is a list of do's and don'ts regarding speaking and presentations. 1. The most important objective of any speaker is to appear credible and knowledgeable about his or her subject. Speak to your audience as if you were having a conversation. 2. Grab the audience's attention in the first few minutes with a question, startling comment, inspiring story, or funny experience. This will help you connect immediately with everyone and reduce the tension. Stay away from jokes! 3. Reduce your nervousness by taking several deep breaths immediately before you're introduced. And for you chocoholics...eat some chocolate to relax your vocal chords. 4. When making a presentation, look at one person long enough to deliver one complete thought, then move to another individual and repeat the process. Everyone else in the audience will also feel attended to. 5. Use visual aids to increase audience retention of your message. But NEVER become a master of ceremonies to your overheads. 6. Avoid the number one mistake in the speaking business...failing to check your audiovisual equipment before your presentation. Show up early to check out the sound system and any other equipment you will be using. 7. Personal benefits from acquiring excellent speaking skills include: more selfconfidence, becoming more persuasive and evolving into a magnetic or dynamic speaker.

Top 7 Characteristics of Great Speakers
By Bill Lampton, Ph.D.

Have you admired speakers who seem to captivate the audience instantly, hold attention throughout, change the tone from humorous to intensely serious with seamless transition, overcome distractions, generate frequent applause, and by the end of the presentation have the listeners change their beliefs, even their actions? Have you wanted to become that speaker? I have good news for you. You can progress to that stage. How? By recognizing the top seven characteristics of great speakers.

1. AUTHORITATIVE Top-caliber speakers strike you as authoritative. You consider them experts. Clearly, they have mastered their topic. Through long hours of preparation, possibly even years, they have earned the right to speak with credibility. Mastery may or may not include academic degrees in that area. Primarily, mastery results from wide reading, research, interviewing experts, and learning through professional associations, not because you have to but because you have an overwhelming urge to learn all you can on this theme. Keep this in mind: Great speakers don't settle for reading articles in popular magazines, watching TV specials, or coffee shop conversations. No amount of showmanship could compensate for lack of expertise. 2. ATTITUDE Outstanding speakers avoid saying they are going to deliver a speech. That sounds too bland and routine, like delivering a package. Instead, they visualize having a dinner conversation with friends, when you'd share your ideas naturally, with no pretense. In fact, the finest speech coaches suggest that a speech should become a lively conversation with your audience. Roger Ailes, who served as a speech coach for Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, said: "The best communicators I've ever known never changed their style of delivery from one situation to another." Ailes observed that they were the same whether they are "delivering a speech, having an intimate conversation, or being interviewed on a TV talk show." 3. AUDIENCE The audience becomes the centerpiece of attention. If the speaker focuses too much on herself and the impression she is making, she will become unnerved by a simple mispronunciation, and will lose confidence and poise. If the speaker focuses too much on the message, the event turns into a lifeless recitation. Note: Terrific speakers focus mostly on the audience. They find ways to involve audiences, creating interactive sessions, involving attendees in discussion, and directing meaningful small group activities. 4. ANIMATION Listeners don't want to wonder if the speaker has a pulse. So start by selecting a topic that mesmerizes you, demands your total commitment. Then you won't have to simulate enthusiasm. Seek what actors call "the illusion of the first time." Although you have thought these thoughts hundreds of times, your listeners want spontaneity, as though you had just discovered these ideas and words. Vary your voice in pitch, rate, and volume, just as you do in casual chit chat. Gesture freely, naturally, without rehearsed motions.

5. ANECDOTES Think back to your childhood days. When a parent or other relative sat by your bed at night and said, "Once upon a time," a magical world opened for you. As long as you can remember, stories grabbed you, and wouldn't let go until you had heard all of the fables. As adults, we still respond to intriguing stories. People learn from and remember the anecdotes, not your statistics. Paint word pictures. Create a "you are there" sensation. 6. APPEARANCE Yes, "casual dress" has permeated the work place. The trend started with Casual Fridays, with more days added eventually. Even so, speakers need to look like professionals when they face audiences. Your audience wants you to dress a level above their garb, just to indicate respect for them and the situation. Check with your club or convention host to determine the appropriate dress style. Fifteen years ago, a coat and tie were mandatory for male speakers. Now a mock turtle neck and classy blazer are likely to match expectations. As casual as society has become, good grooming still matters. 7. ATYPICAL You don't have to fit a mold that seems right for most other presenters. Other presenters may cling tightly to a podium, while you choose to wander among the audience, even getting comments from those in the back of the auditorium. Other speakers may never quote poetry, yet you can do that if you select a poem that illustrates your point compellingly. Other speakers may avoid magic, acrobatics, singing, props, or impersonation. But if any of those works well for you, be atypical. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote, "To be great is to be a nonconformist."

Top 7 Ways to Improve Your Presentation Skills
By Jill Frank

Anyone aspiring to work in an executive capacity must to have refined presentation skills, unless of course you are the President of the United States – sorry George. However, few people are naturally eloquent speakers. Public speaking is difficult for most, but with a little

help, you can polish your skills and impress even the most critical audiences. Use the following ideas to diminish your anxiety and improve your presentations. 1. Take a class. This may seem like a obvious solution, but you would be surprised how many people never think of enrolling in a public speaking class. Ask your employer if they will offer one through their training department or bring in an outside program. If they aren’t receptive to the idea, check out your local college as most offer refresher classes. 2. Join an organization dedicated to improving your public speaking skills. Not only do you have a safe environment to practice, but you get objective feedback on your presentations so you know where you need to improve. 3. Practice, practice, and then practice a little more. If you have a speech to deliver, you should know it start to finish. Practice until you are comfortable with the material and it just rolls off your tongue. 4. Video tape your practice sessions. Most people hate to see themselves on TV, so that makes this especially difficult but extremely effective. If you are serious about mastering public speaking, you need to see yourself as others see you. Watching yourself deliver a speech will help you determine your strengths and show you where you still need improvement. You’ll also get an opportunity to see that you’re probably not as bad as you think! 5. Select topics that you are knowledgeable or passionate about. It’s much easier to be engaging and comfortable when speaking about something you are experience in or have a lot of energy around. Stick to your strengths and you'll quickly build your confidence. 6. Speak at every opportunity. Speaking is like exercising a muscle, the more you use it, the better developed it becomes. So raise your hand the next time an opportunity arises – in all likelihood, you’ll be the only one. 7. Relax and remember that people came to see YOU. Chances are good that you are way more critical of yourself than anyone else. So take a deep breath and remember that you have something the audience wants – information – because that is where they are going to focus most of their attention.

Delivering a Lecture
[From the hard copy book Tools for Teaching by Barbara Gross Davis; Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993. Linking to this book chapter from other websites is permissible. However, the contents of this chapter may not be copied, printed, or distributed in hard copy form without permission.]

Lecturing is not simply a matter of standing in front of a class and reciting what you know The classroom lecture is a special form of communication in which voice, gesture, movement, facial expression, and eye contact can either complement or detract from the content. No matter what your topic, your delivery and manner of speaking immeasurably influence your students' attentiveness and learning. Use the following suggestions, based on teaching practices of faculty and on research studies in speech communication, to help you capture and hold students' interest and increase their retention.

General Strategies
Watch yourself on videotape. Often we must actually see our good behaviors in order to exploit them and see our undesirable behaviors in order to correct them. If you want to improve your public speaking skills, viewing a videotape of yourself can be an invaluable way to do so. See "Watching Yourself on Videotape." Learn how not to read your lectures. At its best, lecturing resembles a natural, spontaneous conversation between instructor and student, with each student feeling as though the instructor is speaking to an audience of one. If you read your lectures, however, there will be no dialogue and the lecture will seem formal, stilted, and distant. Even if you are a dynamic reader, when you stick to a script you forfeit the expressiveness, animation, and give-and-take spontaneity of plain talking. Reading from notes also reduces your opportunities to engage your class in conversation and prevents you from maintaining eye contact. On this point all skilled speakers agree: don't read your presentation. See "Preparing to Teach the Large Lecture Course" for advice on preparing lecture notes. Prepare yourself emotionally for class. Some faculty play rousing music before lecturing. Others set aside fifteen or thirty minutes of

solitude to review their notes. Still others walk through an empty classroom gathering their thoughts. Try to identify for yourself an activity that gives you the energy and focus you need to speak enthusiastically and confidently. (Source: Lowman, 1984)

Opening a Lecture
Avoid a "cold start." Go to class a little early and talk informally with students. Or walk in the door with students and engage them in conversation. Using your voice informally before you begin to lecture helps keep your tone conversational. Minimize nervousness. A certain amount of nervousness is normal, especially right before you begin to speak. To relax yourself, take deep breaths before you begin or tighten and then release the muscles of your body from your toes to your jaw Once you are under way your nervousness will lessen. Grab students' attention with your opening. Open with a provocative question, startling statement, unusual analogy, striking example, personal anecdote, dramatic contrast, powerful quote, short questionnaire, demonstration, or mention of a recent news event. Here are some sample openings:

• •

"How many people would you guess are sent to prison each week in the state of California? Raise your hand if you think 50 people or fewer. How about 51 to 100? 101 to 150? Over 150? (Pause) In fact, over 250 people are placed in custody every week." (sociology lecture) "Freddie has been with the company for nearly four years and is considered a good worker. Recently, though, he’s been having problems. He's late for work, acts brusque, and seems sullen. One morning he walks into the office, knocks over a pile of paper, and leaves it lying on the floor. His supervisor says, 'Freddie, could you please pick up the material so that no one trips over it?' Freddie says loudly, 'Pick it up yourself.' If you were the supervisor, what would you do next?" (business lecture) "The number-one fear of Americans - more terrifying than the fear of death - is public speaking." (rhetoric lecture) An economist shows a slide of farmers dumping milk from trucks or burning cornfields and asks, "Why would people do this?" (economics lecture) "Watch what happens to this balloon when the air is released." (physics lecture)

• •

"Take two minutes to complete the ten true-false items on the questionnaire that I'm distributing. We'll use your answers as part of today's lecture." (psychology lecture) "How many of you believe that high-rise housing means highdensity housing?" (architecture lecture) "Nearly three-quarters of all assaults, two-thirds of all suicide attempts, half of all suicides, and half of all rapes are committed by people under the influence of what drug? How many think crack? Heroin? Marijuana? None of the above? The correct answer is alcohol." (social welfare lecture)

Vary your opening. Any dramatic technique loses impact upon repetition. Announce the objectives for the class. Tell your students what you expect to accomplish during the class, or list your objectives on the board. Place the day's lecture in context by linking it to material from earlier sessions. Establish rapport with your students. Warmth and rapport have a positive effect on any audience. Students will feel more engaged in the class if the opening minutes are personal, direct, and conversational. (Source: Knapper, 1981)

Capturing Students' Interest
During class, think about and watch your audience-your students. Focus on your students as if you were talking to a small group. One-on-one eye contact will increase students' attentiveness and help you observe their facial expressions and physical movements for signs that you are speaking too slowly or too quickly, or need to provide another example. A common mistake lecturers make is to become so absorbed in the material that they fail to notice whether students are paying attention. Vary your delivery to keep students' attention. Keeping students' attention is among the most important facets of helping them learn (Penner, 1984). Studies show that most people's attention lapses after ten minutes of passive listening (Wolvin, 1983). To extend students' attention spans, do the following:
• •

Ask questions at strategic points or ask for comments or opinions about the subject. Play devil's advocate or invite students to challenge your point of view

Have students solve a problem individually, or have them break into pairs or small four-person groups to answer a question or discuss a topic. Introduce visual aids: slides, charts, graphs, videotapes, and films.

Make the organization of your lecture explicit. Put an outline on the board before you begin, outline the development of ideas as they occur, or give students a handout of your major points or topics. Outlines help students focus on the progression of the material and also help them take better notes. If their attention does wander, students can more readily catch up with the lecture if they have an outline in front of them. Convey your own enthusiasm for the material. Think back to what inspired you as an undergraduate or to the reasons you entered the field you are in. Even if you have little interest in a particular topic, try to come up with a new way of looking at it and do what you can to stimulate students' enthusiasm. If you appear bored with the topic, students will quickly lose interest. Be conversational. Use conversational inflections and tones, varying your pitch just as you do in ordinary conversation. If you focus on the meaning of what you are saying, you'll instinctively become more expressive. Choose informal language, and try to be natural and direct. Use concrete, simple, colorful language. Use first-person and second-person pronouns (I, we, you). Choose dramatic adjectives, for example, "vital point" rather than "main point" or "provocative issue" rather than "next issue." Eliminate jargon, empty words, and unnecessary qualifiers ("little bit," "sort of," "kind of"). (Source: Bernhardt, 1989) Incorporate anecdotes and stories into your lecture. When you are in a storytelling mode, your voice becomes conversational and your face more expressive, and students tend to listen more closely. Use anecdotes to illustrate your key points. Don't talk into your notes. If you are not using a lectern and you need to refer to your note cards, raise the cards (rather than lower your head) and take a quick glance downward, keeping your head steady This movement will be easier if your notes are brief and in large letters. (Source: Bernhardt, 1989) Maintain eye contact with the class. Look directly at your students one at a time to give them a sense that you are speaking to each individual. Look at a student for three to five seconds - a longer glance

will make most students uncomfortable. Beware of aimless scanning or swinging your head back and forth. Mentally divide the lecture hall into three to five sections, and address comments, questions, and eye contact to each section during the course of your lecture, beginning in the center rear of the room. Pick out friendly faces, but also try to include nonlisteners. However, don't waste your time trying to win over the uninterested; concentrate on the attentive. If real eye contact upsets your concentration, look between two students or look at foreheads. (Source: Bernhardt, 1989) Use movements to hold Students' attention. A moving object is more compelling than a static one. Occasionally, move about the room. Use deliberate, purposeful, sustained gestures: hold up an object, roll up your sleeves. To invite students' questions, adopt an open, casual stance. Beware of nervous foot shifting, however, and aimless, distracting gestures. Use movements to emphasize an important point or to lead into a new topic. Some faculty move to one side of the table or the lectern when presenting one side of an argument and to the other side when presenting the opposing view This movement not only captures students' attention but reinforces the Opposition between the two points of view (Harris, 1977). Other faculty indicate tangential points by standing off to the side of the room (Weimer, 1988). Use facial expressions to convey emotions. If you appear enthusiastic and eager to tell students what you know they are more likely to be enthusiastic about hearing it. Use your facial features: eyes, eyebrows, forehead, mouth, and jaw to convey enthusiasm, conviction, curiosity, and thoughtfulness. (Source: Lowman, 1984) Laugh at yourself when you make a mistake. If you mispronounce a word or drop your notes, your ability to see the humor of the situation will put everyone at ease. Don't let your confidence be shaken by minor mistakes. Keep track of time. How long is it taking you to cover each point? Where should you be in the material halfway through the class period? If you seem to be running out of time, what will you leave out? If time runs short, do not speed up to cover everything in your notes. Have some advance plan of what to omit: If I don't have fifteen minutes left when I reach this heading, I'll give only one example and distribute a handout with the other examples.

Mastering Delivery Techniques

Vary the pace at which you speak. Students need time to assimilate new information and to take notes, but if you speak too slowly, they may become bored. Try to vary the pace to suit your own style, your message, and your audience. For example, deliver important points more deliberately than anecdotal examples. If you tend to speak quickly, try to repeat your major points so that students can absorb them. Project your voice or use a microphone. Ask students whether they can hear you, or have a graduate student instructor sit in the back corner to monitor the clarity and volume of your speaking voice. Try not to let the volume of your voice drop at the ends of sentences. When using a microphone, speak in a normal voice and do not lean into the microphone. Vary your voice. Consider the pitch, volume, duration of words, intonation, and the intensity of your voice. Experiment with vocal techniques by reading aloud. Lowman (1984, chap. 4) describes a series of voice exercises to improve projection, articulation, and tonal quality Pause. The pause is one of the most critical tools of public speaking. It is an important device for gaining attention. Pauses can be used as punctuation -to mark a thought, sentence, or paragraph - and also for emphasis, before or after a key concept or idea. If you suddenly stop in midsentence, students will look up from their notes to see what happened. Planned pauses also give you and your audience a short rest. Some faculty take a sip of coffee or water after they say something they want students to stop and think about. Other faculty deliberately pause, announce, "This is the really important consideration," and pause again before proceeding. Watch out for vocalized pauses. Try to avoid saying "um," "well," "you know," "OK," or "so." Silent pauses are more effective. Adopt a natural speaking stance. Balance yourself on both feet with your toes and heels on the ground. Beware of shifting movements or unconscious rocking to and from. Keep your knees slightly relaxed. Shoulders should be down and loose, with elbows cocked, and your hands at waist level. If you use a lectern, don't grip the sides, elbows rigid; instead, keep your elbows bent and lightly rest your hands on the lectern, ready for purposeful gestures. (Source: Bernhardt, 1989) Breathe normally. Normal breathing prevents vocal strain that affects the pitch and quality of your speech. Keep your shoulders relaxed, your neck loose, your eyes fully open, and your jaw relaxed.

Closing a Lecture
Draw some conclusion for the class. Help students see that a purpose has been served, that something has been gained during the last hour. A well-planned conclusion rounds out the presentation, ties up loose ends, suggests ways for students to follow up on the lecture, and gives students a sense of closure. Finish forcefully. Don't allow your lecture to trail off or end in midsentence because the period is over, and avoid the last-minute "Oh, I almost forgot. . ." An impressive ending will echo in students' minds and prompt them to prepare for the next meeting. End with a thought-provoking question or problem; a quotation that sets an essential theme; a summation of the major issue as students now understand it, having had the benefit' of the lecture just delivered; or a preview of coming attractions. For example, a physics professor ended a lecture by asking a volunteer to come up to the front, stand with his back to the wall, and try to touch his toes. She challenged the class to think about why the volunteer was not successful in this task. The topic of the next lecture, center of gravity, was thus introduced in a vivid, memorable way Don't worry if you finish a few minutes early; explain that you have reached a natural stopping point. But don't make it a habit. End your lecture with the volume up. Make your voice strong, lift your chin up, keep your eyes facing the audience. Be sure to stay after class for a few minutes to answer students' questions.

Improving Your Lecture Style
Make notes to yourself immediately after each lecture. Consider the timing, the effectiveness of your examples, the clarity of your explanations, and the like. Jot down questions students asked or any comments they made. These notes will help you be more effective the next time you give that lecture. Use a cassette recorder. Record a practice session or an actual lecture. Listen to your pacing, inflection, tone emphasis, and use of pauses. Is your tone conversational? Are the transitions clear? Are the vocalized pauses ("um," "well," "you know") at a minimum? Lowman (1984) describes the following procedure for comparing your conversational style and your lecturing style. Ask a friend to meet you in a moderate-sized room. Sit down, start the recorder, and begin a conversation by stating your name, age, and birthplace. Then talk for four or five minutes about a favorite book, movie, restaurant, exhibit,

or hobby. Have your friend ask you some questions. Now move to a classroom, stand up, and give a short lecture (five to eight minutes) to your friend. Several days later listen to the recordings.

• •

• •

Listen first straight through, without stopping the tape or taking notes. What is your overall impression of the voice you are hearing? Replay the recording of the conversation, and jot down words that best describe your voice. Replay the conversation again, this time focusing on the use of extraneous words, the level of relaxation and fluency in the voice, patterns of breathing, pitch and pace, emphasis and articulation. The next day replay the recording of the lecture and make a set of notes on it. Review your notes to identify the differences between the two recorded segments. Consider style, use of language, pacing, volume, fluency, expressiveness, and soon. Any differences you note will help you decide how to improve

Use a video recorder. When reviewing a videotape of yourself lecturing, you can watch the entire tape, watch the tape with the sound turned off, or listen to the tape without watching it. Adopt the procedures outlined above for reviewing and analyzing your videotape. Most of the time you will be pleasantly surprised: you may have felt nervous during the lecture, but the videotape will show you that your nervousness was not apparent to your class. Seeing yourself on tape can be a good confidence builder. See "Watching Yourself on Videotape." Work with a speech consultant. Speech consultants can help you develop effective delivery skills. Ask your campus faculty development office for names of consultants or a schedule of workshops on lecturing.

References
Bernhardt, D. Workshop on Public Speaking, University of California at Berkeley, Aug.1989. Harris, R. J. "The Teacher as Actor." Teaching of Psychology, 1977, 4, 185-187. Knapper, C. K. "Presenting and Public Speaking." In M. Argyle (ed.), Social Skills and Work. New York: Methuen, 1981.

Lowman, J. Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1984. Penner, J. G. Why Many College Teachers Cannot Lecture. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1984. Weimer, M. G. "Ways and Means of Communicating Structure." Teaching Professor, 1988, 2(7), 3. Wolvin, A. D. "Improving Listening Skills." In R. B. Rubin (ed.), Improving Speaking and Listening Skills. New Directions for College Learning Assistance, no.12. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.

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Available at the UCB campus library (call # LB2331.D37). The entire book is also available online as part of netLibrary (accessible only through computers connected to the UC Berkeley campus network). It is available for purchase at the Cal Student Store textbook department, the publisher, and Amazon. Note: Barbara Gross Davis is working on the second edition of Tools for Teaching. Publications and Teaching Tips | Office of Educational Development | UC Berkeley
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Preparing to Teach the Large Lecture Course
[From the hard copy book Tools for Teaching by Barbara Gross Davis; Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993. Linking to this book chapter from other websites is permissible. However, the contents of this chapter may not be copied, printed, or distributed in hard copy form without permission.]

A sizable portion of the work involved in teaching a large lecture course takes place well before the first day of classes. For example, in a seminar you can make a spur-of-the-moment assignment, but in large classes you may need to distribute written guidelines. Similarly, in small classes students can easily turn in their homework during class. In large lectures you must decide how to distribute and collect papers without consuming precious class time. All these tasks take planning and organization. Many of the following suggestions for teaching large classes will also work for small classes: good teaching practices apply to classes of any type.

General Strategies
Become comfortable with the material. In an introductory survey course you may be covering topics outside your specialty area. Read up on those topics and try to anticipate questions that beginning students might ask. Review the course materials, assignments, and reading lists of colleagues who have taught the course before. Consider sitting in on courses taught by colleagues who are especially effective teachers of large classes to see what ideas and techniques work well, or ask them about their experiences teaching the course. Don't plan to lecture for a full period. The average student's attention span is between ten and twenty minutes (Penner, 1984). After that, students have difficulty concentrating on the speaker. For each lecture, plan to change the pace every fifteen minutes or so to relieve the monotony and recapture students' interest. For example: ask students to solve a problem at their seats or in groups of two or three, give a demonstration, use an audiovisual aid, or tell a story or anecdote.

Be clear about what can reasonably be accomplished by lecturing. Research shows that lecturing is as effective as other instructional methods,such as discussion, in transmitting information but less effective in promoting independent thought or developing students' thinking skills (Bligh, 1971). In addition to presenting facts, try to share complex intellectual analyses, synthesize several ideas, clarify controversial issues, or compare and contrast different points of view Budget your own time carefully. Teaching a large lecture class takes a great deal of time and energy Set up weekly work schedules for yourself so that you are prepared for the onslaught of midterms and finals. Find ways to scale back other obligations, if you can, so that you have time to deal with the complexities of teaching such courses.

Organizing the Course
Decide what content to cover. After reviewing your department's guidelines or sample curricula, set your broad goals for the course. The goals of an introductory survey course might include stimulating students' interest in the field and providing them with sufficient foundation to pursue that interest. Next, make a list of topics you feel are important to include. Estimate the amount of time required to address these topics, and then increase your estimate by 50 percent to allow time for entertaining questions from students and for the inevitable slippage in large groups (Christensen, 1988). For suggestions on how to reduce the number of topics to fit the length of the course, see "Preparing or Revising a Course." Organize the topics in a meaningful sequence. Lurching from one topic to another makes it difficult for students to assimilate and retain the material (Dubrow and Wilkinson, 1984). Arrange the course topics thematically, chronologically spatially, in ascending or descending order, by cause and effect or problem and solution, or according to some other conceptual rationale. Here are some examples of course organizational patterns:

Topical: A psychology course examines how four groups of theorists approach human behavior: social learning theorists, developmental theorists, psychoanalytic theorists, and cognitive theorists. Causal: An economics course explores various factors that affect the distribution of wealth: the labor market, tax policy, investment policy, and social mobility.

Sequential: A course on education in the United States covers the school system from preschool to elementary school, secondary school, college, and graduate school. Symbolic or graphic: An integrative biologist begins each lecture by projecting the same transparency of a diagram of the human brain. Using a plastic overlay, she then draws in those structural details relevant to that day's lecture. Structural. A physiologist discusses anatomical systems in the same consistent format: the organs, the functions of the organs, how the organs are regulated, the relationship of the system to other systems, and so on. Problem-solution: An engineering course looks at a series of structural failures in various types of buildings.

Make the course structure explicitly known to students throughout the term. Describe the organizational structure in the syllabus, at the beginning of the course, and throughout the term. Periodically devote a part of the lecture to the broader view Vary the types of lectures you deliver. Choose formats that suit the content (adapted from Frederick, 1986, pp. 45-47):

The expository lecture is the traditional lecture that treats a single question or problem, typically with a hierarchical organization of major and minor points. This approach allows you to present broad concepts and factual information efficiently but runs the risk of reducing students to passive spectators. The interactive lecture evolves around orderly brainstorming in which students generate ideas in response to a question or prompt ("Call out what you know about DNA"). The instructor and the class then sort the responses into categories. The flow of examples and counterexampIes, generalizations and specifics, or rules and exceptions encourages students to grapple actively with the topic. Problem solving, demonstrations, proofs, and stories begin with the instructor posing a question, paradox, or enigma --- some provocative problem that whets students' interest: "What would happen if. . . The suspenseful answer unfolds during the class period, with students actively or passively anticipating or pointing toward solutions. The case study method follows a realistic situation step by step to illustrate a general principle or problem-solving strategy. Depending on the level of the students, either the instructor takes the lead or the students themselves generate the questions and principles. Short lectures framing discussion periods allow an instructor to shift the energy to students. The instructor begins with a

twenty-minute lecture setting the stage for some issue, then opens up a fifteen-minute discussion of implications and effects, and closes with another short lecture that pulls together the major themes or issues. In large classes, the discussion segment may be turned over to students working in trios or small groups. (Sources: Bligh, 1971; Brown, 1978; Brown and Atkins, 1988; Frederick, 1986; Lowman, 1984; Penner, 1984) Consider the abilities and interests of your students. In preparing your course, ask yourself How much will the class know about the subject matter? How interested will they be in the material? What experiences or attitudes might students have that I can use to draw them into the subject? Prepare a detailed syllabus for students. The more information you give in writing, the fewer problems you will have later on. During the term, try to stick to the course schedule. If you must deviate, make it clear when and why you are departing from the schedule. Meet with your graduate student instructors before the term begins. Discuss course procedures, their responsibilities, grading, and the most effective ways for them to conduct sections. See "Guiding, Training, and Supervising Graduate Student Instructors." Visit the classroom before the first meeting. Notice the instructor's area, placement of light switches, chalkboards, and other details. Make arrangements for whatever instructional equipment you will need: overhead projector, microphone, slide projector. When you visit the classroom, stand where you will lecture, practice using the equipment, and write on the board. Check whether your board work can be seen from the back of the room. (Source: Johnson, 1988)

Preparing Lecture Notes
Carefully prepare your lectures. Thorough preparation can prevent last-minute headaches. You need time to arrange your points, develop your examples, write out definitions, solve equations, and so on. Some faculty prepare their lectures well in advance and revise them during the term to take into account students' reactions to previous lectures. Other faculty believe that the best time to prepare a lecture is immediately after class, when the experience of what worked and what didn't is still fresh (Eble, 1988). New faculty typically complete the bulk of preparatory reading before the course starts and

then keep about one or two weeks ahead of their students (Dubrow and Wilkinson, 1984). Avoid lecturing verbatim from a script. If you simply read from a prepared text, you will find yourself disengaged from the material (you won't be thinking about what you are saying) and your students will feel disengaged as well (Day, 1980). Moreover, reading prevents you from maintaining eye contact with students, and it casts your voice down toward your notes instead of up and out toward the lecture hall. Writing out lectures is also extremely time-consuming. If you do feel the need to write out your lectures, reduce the completed text to a brief outline of key words and phrases. Lecture from this outline - you will naturally produce sentences more for the ear than for the eye, thereby making it easier for students to grasp the material. See "Delivering a Lecture." Experiment with different formats for your lecture notes. Some formats are more suited to certain subjects and disciplines than others (adapted from Day; 1980, pp. 101-104).

An outline is especially useful in organizing a talk and providing an overview of the general structure of subordinate points and transitions. A list of major points is closer to extemporaneous speech than a detailed outline; this format is appropriate for a speaker who knows the material well. A tree diagram (such as a flowchart or network) provides a system of pathways through important points with optional stopovers, tangents, useful illustrations, or examples.

Honjo (1989) describes one faculty member in engineering who blocks out a single sheet of paper for each session. He reserves the uppermost left-hand block for the outline of the day's lecture (this outline is also placed on the board). The remaining blocks each correspond to a panel of the board, enabling him to visualize how the board will look as he works through all the examples. Prepare your notes to aid your delivery. If you are writing an outline of key words or phrases, 5" x 8" index cards are easier to use than smaller cards or sheets of paper. Color code your notes to highlight difficult points, distinctions between major examples, and important information. Include notations that indicate times to pause, ask questions, raise your voice, and so on. Write in the margin, "Put this on the board" or "Have students jot down a response at their seats" or "If less than ten minutes left at this point, skip to card 7." Examples boxed in red could mean "Include this if students seem uncertain about my point."

Write down facts and formulas for easy reference. Within the body of your lecture notes or on a separate sheet of paper, copy out all the key facts, quotations, computations, or complex analyses. Write down vivid examples. Clear, straightforward, memorable examples reinforce the points you are trying to make. Experienced faculty recommend that you give special attention to preparing examples, illustrations, and demonstrations - more than you might need, to be able to respond to students' confusions or questions (Erickson and Strommer, 1991). Research shows that an important characteristic of an effective teacher is the ability to take difficult concepts and transform them in ways that students can understand, through the use of metaphors, analogies, and examples (Shulman, 1987). See "Explaining Clearly." Prepare your lecture for the ear, not the eye. Oral presentations are very different from written presentations. When students are listening to you speak, they cannot go back and "reread" a troublesome sentence or look up a difficult word in the dictionary. Use these techniques to facilitate oral comprehension:
• • •

Use short, simple words and informal diction, including personal pronouns and contractions. Speak succinctly, in short, straightforward sentences. Offer signposts for transitions and structure - "the third objection," "let's look at this argument from another angle," "in contrast," "as we have seen," "now we can turn to. Restate and periodically summarize key points.

To prevent students from sinking into passive listening, also engage students' active listening skills by interspersing questions throughout your lecture. Rehearse your lecture. A run-through will give you a sense of how comfortable you are with the material and the length of your presentation. To save time, practice only the most difficult sections, the opening and the ending.

Structuring a Lecture
Structure the lecture to suit your audience and the subject matter. Consider the difficulty of the material and students' level of ability as you make decisions about the amount of information to cover, the amount of detail, and the number of examples you present.

Begin by writing out the main theme and why students should learn about it. Identify what you most want your students to remember about the topic. It is better to teach two or three major points well than to inundate students with information they are unlikely to remember. Brown and Atkins (1988, pp. 36-39) recommend the following process for writing a lecture:
• • • • • • •

Specify the main topic or topics. Free associate words, facts, ideas, and questions as they come to you. State a working title or a general question based on the groupings from your free association. Prepare a one-page sketch of the lecture. Read selectively, as needed, and jot down notes on important ideas and organizational structure. Structure the lecture in outline form and flesh it out with examples and illustrations; identify your key points. Check the opening and ending.

Provide a logical progression for the material. Some lectures lend themselves to a chronological or sequential approach. At other times, you can move from the general principle to specific instances, build up from the parts to the whole, trace one idea across time or space, describe a problem and then illustrate its solution, or announce your thesis and then step back to provide evidence for your argument. Structure your lectures to help students retain the most important material. Research shows that students' retention is greatest at the beginning of a fifty-minute class, decreases to low levels as the period wears on, and then increases slightly in anticipation of the end (Ericksen, 1978). Plan your classes so that the main points come at a time when students are most attentive. Structure them to include these elements:
• • • •

Attention-getting introduction Brief overview of main points to be covered Quick statement of background or context Detailed explanation of no more than three major points, the most important first, with a change of pace every ten or fifteen minutes Concluding summary of main points to reinforce key themes

Design your lectures in ten- or fifteen-minutes blocks. Each block should cover a single point with examples and end with a brief summary and transition to the next section. If you find yourself running out of time, cut an entire block or shorten the middle section of a block rather than rush the summary.

Budget time for questions. Whether or not you formally open the floor for questions, leave time for students to ask you to repeat material or to supply additional explanations. Some faculty ask for students' questions at the beginning of class and list these on the board to be answered during the hour. Begin and end with a summary statement. Continuity and closure are important: students need to see how each new topic relates to what they have already learned as well as to what they will be learning in the coming weeks. To bring your points home, use different words and examples in your opening and closing summaries.

Managing a Large Lecture Course
Establish reasonable rules for student behavior. Instructors in large classes usually find it helpful to announce policies about latecomers, eating and talking during class, and other disruptive behavior. Explain your rules early on and stress the value of cooperation and consideration. For example, some faculty set limits on when students can pack up and leave: "You're mine until 2 P.M." or "When the cartoon appears on the overhead you can go or "After the class has posed three good questions about the material, students can leave" (Hilsen, 1988). Let students know that you expect them to arrive promptly but use the first couple of minutes to discuss a related issue, to take account of stragglers. For example, a geography faculty member discusses the nation's weather. Shea (1990) describes a faculty member in political science who begins class with discussion of a relevant news item. Plan how to grade and return homework. If homework is an essential part of your course and you do not have a graduate student instructor, grade samples of homework assignments to save time. For the assignments you do not grade, distribute an answer sheet so students can assess their own performance. If you have graduate student instructors, have students turn in and receive their homework in section. Otherwise, collect homework in a locked box in the department office. Distribute homework in alphabetical folders in boxes on the side of the lecture hall. Call out one or two letters at a time and let the people whose last names begin with those letters go get their papers. Or label a set of manila envelopes with row numbers, and ask students to choose a row for the term and to sit in that row when taking exams, turning in homework, and picking up homework (Chism, 1989). Stagger due dates for essay or research papers. One faculty member requires all three hundred of his students to write one paper

during the semester, but students write on different topics and the papers are due on different dates. At the beginning of the term, he randomly divides the class into, say, ten groups of thirty students each. He announces the dates when the various groups are to turn in their papers. All students receive their paper topics two weeks before their due date. Using this approach, the instructor is able to read and respond to all three hundred papers but never reads more than thirty or so in any given week (Source: Erickson and Strommer, 1991). Use multiple-choice tests, if possible. Machine-scored multiplechoice exams can save time and minimize grading errors, but students also need practice in writing and grappling with complex questions. If you can, then, include two or three questions that call for a few paragraphs of explanation or analysis. Avoid giving makeup exams. Scheduling makeup exams is logistically difficult and time-consuming. Instead, try to give enough exams or quizzes so that students can drop their lowest score. Some faculty give shorter final exams and use the last hour for makeup tests. See "Allaying Students' Anxieties About Tests." Consider forming a student exam review committee. The committee, made up of four or five elected members of the class, is charged with identifying specific test questions that may have been problematic for the class and with suggesting possible remedies. During the exam, students who so wish anonymously complete a brief comment sheet that they turn in with their exam. Members of the student exam review committee meet after the test has been administered to review the exam and look at students' comment sheets. They then meet with the professor to negotiate possible adjustments. For example, if over half the class felt question 3 was unfair, the committee may suggest tossing it out. The instructor makes the final decision after hearing from the committee. All students in the class are made aware of subsequent adjustments. (Source: Holmgren, 1992) Consider using computerized record-keeping and communications systems. Software such as BIJOU (Wiseman, 1986) can facilitate the storage and retrieval of information related to enrolling students into sections, coordinating the preparation and delivery of materials with staff and office support, and maintaining rosters and grade records.

Sample Lecture Outline

Below is a sample outline (adapted from Scott, 1990, p. 35) for a lecture on DNA. Opening: While you may be familiar with DNA, did you know that the story surrounding its structure, the double helix, is one of the greatest detective stories of all time? Thesis: Crick and Watson's discovery of the genetic code radically changed our views about all forms of life. Connection: If you plan to take other science courses, this topic will be invaluable in helping you understand genetics and molecular biology But even if this is the last science course you will ever take, the DNA in your body will influence your life and life span. The genetic code also holds the key to cures for life-threatening diseases and has ethical ramifications, especially regarding efforts to alter the genes of a human fetus. Organizers: There are three things I want to discuss. a. Double helix b. Human genomes c. The book of life project Body: (Elaboration of three topics with opportunities for small group work during the session) Summary: (Brief recap about each of the three topics and why the discoveries are so important) Closing: Let me close by posing a question: If you could genetically alter a vegetable or piece of fruit, what would you change and why?

References
Bligh, D. A. What's the Use of Lecturing? Devon, England: Teaching Services Centre, University of Exeter, 1971. Brown, G. Lecturing and Explaining. New York: Methuen, 1978. Brown G., and Atkins, M. Effective Teaching in Higher Education. London: Methuen, 1988.

Chism, N.VN. "Large-Enrollment Classes: Necessary Evil or Not Necessary Evil." Notes on Teaching. Columbus: Center for Teaching Excellence, Ohio State University, June 1989, pp. 1-7. Christensen, N. "Nuts and Bolts of Running a Lecture Course." Jn A. L. Deneff, C. D. Goodwin, and E. S. McCrate (eds.), The Academic Handbook. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1988. Day, R. S. "Teaching from Notes: Some Cognitive Consequences." In W.J. McKeachie (ed.), Learning, Cognition, and College Teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no.2. San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1980. Dubrow, H., and Wilkinson, J. "The Theory and Practice of Lectures." In M. M. Gullette (ed.), The Art and Craft of Teaching Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984. Eble, K. E. The Craft of Teaching. (2nd ed.) San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1988. Ericksen, S. C. "The Lecture." Memo to the Faculty, no. 60. Ann Arbor: Center for Research on Teaching and Learning, University of Michigan, 1978. Erickson, B. L., and Strommer, D. W Teaching College Freshmen. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991. Frederick, P. J. "The Lively Lecture- 8 Variations." College Teaching, 1986, 34(2), 43-50. Hilsen, L. "A Helpful Handout: Establishing and Maintaining a Positive Classroom Climate." In E. C. Wadsworth, L. Hilsen, and M. A. Shea (eds.), A Handbook for New Practitioners from the Profession land Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. Stillwater, OkIa.: New Forums Press, 1988. Holmgren, P. "Avoiding the Exam-Return Question ‘Wall'- Working with Your SERC Committee." Journal of College Science Teaching, 1992,20(4), 214-216. Honjo, R. T. Speak of the GSI: A Handbook on Teaching. Berkeley: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, 1989. Johnson, C. R. Taking Teaching Seriously. College Station: Center for Teaching Excellence, Texas A&M University 1988.

Lowman, J. Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984. Marincovich, M., and Rusk, L. Excellence in Teaching ElectricalEngineering. Stanford, Calif.: Center for Teaching and Learning, Stanford University, 1987. Penner, J. G. Why Many College Teachers Cannot Lecture. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1984. Scott, M.D. Agents of Change: A Primer for Graduate Teaching Assistants. Chico: College of Communication, California State University, 1990. Shea, M. A. Compendium of Good Ideas on Teaching and Learning. Boulder: Faculty Teaching Excellence Program, University of Colorado, 1990. Shulman, L. S. "Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform." Havard Educational Review, 1987, 57(1), 1-22. Wiseman, M. "The BIJOU Teaching Support System." Perspectives in Computing, 1986, 6(1), 5-13.

From the hard copy book Tools for Teaching by Barbara Gross Davis; Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, 1993. Linking to this book chapter from other websites is permissible. However, the contents of this chapter may not be copied, printed, or distributed in hard copy form without permission.

Available at the UCB campus library (call # LB2331.D37). The entire book is also available online as part of netLibrary (accessible only through computers connected to the UC Berkeley campus network). It is available for purchase at the Cal Student Store textbook department, the publisher, and Amazon. Note: Barbara Gross Davis is working on the second edition of Tools for Teaching. Publications and Teaching Tips | Office of Educational Development | UC Berkeley
Last Updated 4/11/02 Questions or Comments? Contact us.

Preparing and Presenting an Effective Lecture
There is no cookie cutter approach

Know the Material
• Demonstrate confidence • Review the material • Practice your lecture • Revise if necessary • Be passionate

Know the Room
• Learn the lecture room • Arrive early • Walk around the speaking area • Practice with the AV equipment

Detach Yourself From Your Own Interests
• Consider the needs of the students • Don’t teach material that’s only of interest to you • Theory and science not applicable to patient care are okay, but … • Put yourself in the position of the student • Know the audience

Choose Your Material Carefully
• Limit amount of material
– Include all necessary material – If excessive, little is learned

• Limit complexity of material
– Avoid – Simplify – Explain

Target Audience
• Any student that wants to learn • Donald Seldin: “Teach to the least intelligent student in the class. Anyone can teach a genius. What separates good teachers from great teachers is the ability to teach students at the lower end of the class.”

Engage the Students
• Make the students partners with you regarding the subject • Give them a reason to care • Explain to the students why they should be interested in the material

Engage the Students
• • • • • Make eye contact Use your hands Move Face the audience Use the laser pointer minimally

Engage the Students
• Humor
– Spontaneous – Relevant – Balance entertainment with information – Medical cartoons available on internet

• Enthusiasm
– Be interested in material – Be interested in teaching

Engage the Students
• Pay attention to the audience • Modify your speaking style and actions based on audience response • State rhetorical questions from the student’s point of view

Attitude
• Relax • Exercise • Mentally walk your way through the experience step by step • The audience wants you to succeed • Don’t apologize • Turn nervous energy into enthusiasm • Gain experience and training

Voice Tips
• • • • Adequate speaking level Microphone Articulate every word Don’t speak with too many words in one breath • Rest your voice • Keep water available

Voice Tips
• Avoid alcohol and caffeine before speaking • Be rested • Don’t smoke • Avoid eating or drinking just prior to lecture • Treat or avoid heartburn

Slides
• Slides can be deadly
– Students need to listen to you and think – Too many words → too much writing – Reflex pathway

• Slides are okay if best for presenting information
– Not just for your convenience – Displaying images – Put them in the syllabus or handout

Slides
• Don’t include material you won’t discuss
– Distracting – Don’t use old slides

• “I apologize for this slide.”
– Unacceptable expression – Don’t apologize. FIX IT!

Slides
• A font size of 32 is ideal
• 28 font is also easy to see
• Font size 24 is acceptable
• A font size of 20 may be difficult to see from the back of a large room
• Forget about size 16 font or lower, unless it is a disclaimer that you don’t want the audience to read

The authors of this presentation are not responsible for any disasters that may occur during your future lectures disasters

Slides
• Keep the background simple • Use just one or two colors for fonts
– Avoid dark colors – Use bright colors

• • • •

Use light font on a darker background Color blind students 12 lines per slide, if possible List the main point on each bullet, then expand on it verbally • Minimize movement and audio if it distracts from your message

Examples of Bad Slides

We’ve all used these!

Blackboard
• Advantages of the “blackboard”
– You can’t write faster than the students can – Allow them to relax and listen to you – The time and effort it takes to write on the board causes you to limit what you write
• The material eliminated is generally not missed by anyone

Above All… Be Yourself

Here Is Your Free Report! For More Tips Visit: www.10publicspeakingtips.com Purpose Of This Report
The purpose of this Special Report is to help you overcome the fear of public speaking. It begins by discussing ten key principles to always keep in mind. If you approach any problem in life with the right starting principles, everything else will fall into place. On the other hand, if you start with the wrong guiding principles, you can try all you want, but there is little chance you'll improve. This Report also reveals eleven "hidden" causes of public speaking stress. I have summarized these eleven causes, along with the ten key principles, at the end of this Report, so you can easily review them.

Key Principles Principle #1--Speaking in Public is NOT Inherently Stressful
Most of us believe parts of life are inherently stressful. In fact, most of us have been taught to believe that life as a whole is very stressful! To deal with any type of stress effectively, you first must understand that life itself, including public speaking, is NOT inherently stressful. Thousands of human beings have learned to speak in front of groups with little or no stress at all. Many of these people were initially terrified to speak in public. Their knees would shake, their voices would tremble, their thoughts would become jumbled . . . you know the rest. Yet they learned to eliminate their fear of public speaking completely. You are no more or less human than they are. If they can conquer the fear of public speaking, so can you! It just takes the right guiding principles, the right understanding, and the right plan of action to make this goal a reality. Believe me, it's not difficult. I'm a good example of someone who conquered the fear of public speaking. And while I didn't do it overnight, it wasn't difficult. All it took was approaching the problem in the right way.

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Principle #2--You don’t have to be Brilliant or Perfect to Succeed
Many of us have observed public speakers and thought to ourselves "Wow, I could never be that smart, calm, witty, entertaining, polished . . . or whatever." Well, I've got news for you-- you don't have to be brilliant, witty, or perfect to succeed. That is not what public speaking is all about. I know it may look that way, but it's not. You can be average. You can be below average. You can make mistakes, get tongue-tied, or forget whole segments of your talk. You can even tell no jokes at all and still be successful. It all depends on how you, and your audience, define "success." Believe me, your audience doesn't expect perfection. I used to think most audiences did, but I was wrong! Before I discovered this, I used to put incredible pressure on myself to deliver a perfect performance. I worked for days to prepare a talk. I stayed up nights worrying about making mistakes. I spent hours and hours rehearsing what I was going to say. And you know what? All this did was make me even more anxious! The more perfect I tried to be, the worse I did! It was all very disheartening (not to mention unnecessary). The essence of public speaking is this: give your audience something of value. That's all there is to it. If people in your audience walk away with something (anything) of value, they will consider you a success. If they walk away feeling better about themselves, feeling better about some job they have to do, they will consider you a success. If they walk away feeling happy or entertained, they will consider their time with you worthwhile. Even if you pass out, get tongue-tied, or say something stupid during your talk . . . they won't care! As long as they get something of value, they will be thankful. They don't even need to feel good to consider you a success. If you criticize people, or if you stir them up to ultimately benefit them, they might still appreciate you, even though you didn't make them feel good at the time.

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Principle #3--All You Need is Two or Three Main Points
You don't have to deliver mountains of facts or details to give your audience what they truly want. Many studies have shown that people remember very few of the facts or information speakers convey. While you may choose to include lots of facts and information, you only need to make two or three main points to have your talk be successful. You can even have your whole talk be about only one key point, if you wish. When I first began speaking in public during medical school (kicking, screaming, and quivering all the way), I wasn't aware of this simple principle. I wrongly believed that my audience wanted encyclopedic knowledge from me, which of course I didn't have. So I tried to research my topic thoroughly and deliver as much worldly wisdom as possible. Boy was that exhausting! It was also boring for my audience to suffer through. Later, when I began giving public seminars on how to cope with stress, I spent hours each week typing a twenty-page script to read from, so I wouldn't forget any important tidbit. As time went on, I gradually learned that this degree of complexity wasn't needed. As a result, the length of my discussion notes gradually declined. My twenty-page typed manuscript gave way to a five-page detailed outline. Then, I replaced my outline with ten or fifteen index cards. Eventually, I could conduct a full two-hour seminar with only one 3X5 index card (containing my two or three key points) to support me! As long as I focused on these two or three key points, I was able to speak at length about them by naturally drawing upon my past experiences and knowledge. Remember, all your audience wants from you is to walk away with one or two key points that will make a difference to them. If you structure your talks to deliver this result, you can avoid lots of complexity that isn't really needed. This also should make your job as a speaker much easier, and more fun too!

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Principle #4--You also Need a Purpose That is Right for the Task
This principle is very important . . . so please listen up. One big mistake people make when they speak in public is they have the wrong purpose in mind. Often, they have no specific purpose in mind, but the one that is operating within them unconsciously causes a whole lot of unnecessary stress and anxiety. This is a prime example of what I call a "hidden cause" of public speaking stress. When I first started speaking in public, I thought my purpose was to get everyone in the audience to approve of me. I mistakenly thought that this was what good public speakers try to do. I wasn't consciously aware of this purpose, nor how foolish it was, but it was there nonetheless. Because of this hidden purpose, I felt I needed to be absolutely perfect and brilliant to win my audience's unanimous approval. If just one person in the audience disapproved . . . my goose was cooked! If one person left early, if anyone fell asleep, or if someone looked uninterested in what I was saying . . . I was defeated! This was very anxiety producing. Later, after I became aware of this stress-producing purpose, I was able to look at it honestly and realize how foolish it was. How many public speakers get 100% approval from their audiences? The answer is zero! The truth about public speaking is no matter how good a job you do . . . someone is going to disapprove of either you or your argument. That is just human nature. In a large group of people, there will always be a diversity of opinions, judgments, and reactions. Some will be positive, others will be negative. There is no rhyme or reason to it. If you do a lousy job, some people will sympathize with you and feel for you, while others will critique you harshly. If you do a fantastic job, someone will resent your ability and might disapprove of you on that basis alone. Some people will leave early because of an emergency. Some will fall asleep because they were up all night taking care of a sick child. Therefore, it's foolish and unrealistic to attempt to get everyone in your audience to think well of you. More importantly, it's the wrong type of purpose to adopt in the first place. Remember, the essence of public speaking is to give your audience something of value. The operative word here is GIVE not GET! The purpose of public speaking is not for you to get something (approval, fame, respect, sales, clients, etc.) from your audience. It is to give something useful to your audience. Yes, if you do this well, you'll gain notoriety, respect, sales, and new clients. But this should never be your organizing purpose going in. If you focus on giving as much as you can to your audience, you will then be aligned with the truth about public speaking. You To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

also will avoid one of the biggest pitfalls that cause people to experience public speaking anxiety. Giving of yourself is rarely stressful or anxiety producing. When I give a talk to a group of people, I often imagine myself handing out $1,000 bills to everyone in the audience. I try to give them at least that much value. If a few individuals in the group reject this "gift," it no longer surprises or demoralizes me. I no longer expect anything different.

Principle #5--The Best Way to Succeed is Not to consider Yourself a Public Speaker!
While it may seem paradoxical, the best way to succeed as a public speaker is not to consider yourself a public speaker at all. Many of us have distorted, exaggerated views of what successful public speakers do. We often assume that to be successful ourselves, we must strive very hard to bring forth certain idealistic qualities we presently lack. Consequently, we struggle desperately to emulate those personal characteristics of other speakers, which we wrongly believe are responsible for their public speaking success. In other words, we try to become someone other than ourselves! We try to be a public speaker, whatever that image means to us. The truth about public speaking is that most successful speakers got that way by doing just the opposite! They didn't try to be like somebody else. They just gave themselves permission to be themselves in front of other people. And much to their surprise, they discovered how much fun they could have doing something most other people dread. The secret, then, to their success is that they didn't try to become public speakers! You and I can do the very same thing. No matter what type of person we are, or what skills and talents we possess, we can stand up in front of others and fully be ourselves. I now love to speak in public. Why? Because it's one of the few times I give myself permission to fully be myself in the presence of others. I can be bold, compassionate, silly, informative, helpful, witty . . . anything I want. I can tell jokes, which I don't normally do, tell humorous or poignant stories, or do anything else that feels natural in the moment. As a result, I make much better contact with my audience. I don't drone on and on about some uninteresting subject. I'm alive, I'm energized, I'm fully invested in everything I say and do. That's another gift I can give my audience. It also allows me to tell when I've gone on too long or when the people who are listening to me begin to drift away.

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When you really get good at being yourself in front of others, you can even stand up in front of a group of people without any idea how you're going to get across your two or three main points. Sometimes, I enjoy throwing myself in front of a group without knowing specifically what I'm going to say. I just focus on my three main points and remember I'm there to give people something of value. Then I give myself permission to say whatever comes to mind. In many instances, I say things I've never said before! They just come out of me spontaneously while "being with my audience." Sometimes, I'm truly amazed at some of the things I end up saying or doing. And you know what? People in the audience often come up to me afterward and say, "you were great, I wish I had the confidence to give public talks like you." That's exactly the wrong way to think. Don't try to give talks the way I do, or the way anyone else does. Just go out there, armed with a little knowledge and a few key points, and be yourself. Everything else will usually work out. It might be a little rough the first few times you try it, but after a while, you'll settle into some very successful ways of being that will be all yours and no one else's.

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Principle #6--Humility and Humor Can Go a Long Way
While each person will eventually find his or her style of public speaking, certain maneuvers can be used by almost everyone. Two of these, humility and humor, can go a long way to making your talks more enjoyable and entertaining for your audience. Humor is well understood by most of us, so little needs to be said about it here. If being humorous feels comfortable for you, or if it fits your speaking situation, go for it. It usually works, even if you don't do it perfectly. By humility, I mean standing up in front of others and sharing some of your own human frailties, weaknesses, and mistakes. We all have weaknesses, you know, and when you stand up in front of others and show that you're not afraid to admit yours, you create a safe, intimate climate where others can acknowledge their personal shortcomings as well. Being humble in front of others makes you more credible, more believable, and paradoxically more respected. People can connect with you more easily. You become "one of them" instead of a remote expert who's head and shoulders above them (which you really aren't). It also sets a tone of honesty and self-acceptance, which people recognize in themselves as well. Don't try to do this, however, if it's not authentic for you. True humility is easily distinguished from the pretense of acting humble. If you pretend, your audience will perceive this and lose respect for you. Often, humor and humility can be combined very effectively. Telling humorous stories about yourself, or using your own personal failings to demonstrate some point you are trying to make, can be both entertaining and illuminating. For example, if you get nervous when you stand up to speak in front of a group, or if you suddenly feel nervous during the middle of your talk, don't hide this fact from your audience (they can tell anyway). Be real--and humble--by acknowledging your fear openly and honestly. Ask your audience for forgiveness while you take a few moments to collect yourself. Or, you can start your talk with a humorous story that produces the same effect. For example, I've seen speakers begin their talks by saying "What lies at the bottom of the ocean and shakes all over?" Answer: a nervous wreck! This is a very endearing strategy that also helps relieve speaking anxiety.

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Principle #7--When You Speak in Public, Nothing "Bad" Can Ever Happen!
One thing that adds to the fear of public speaking is the dread people have that something awful, terrible, or publicly humiliating will happen to them. What if I pass out from nervous exhaustion? What if I forget everything I intended to say and am left standing there, totally speechless? What if the audience hates me and begins throwing things at me? What if they all get up and leave after the first ten minutes? What if they snipe at me with harsh questions or comments once I'm done? What if someone in the audience tries to turn the group against me? These could be embarrassing if they occurred. Fortunately, most of them don't happen. Even when they do, it's useful to have a strategy in mind that has them turn out perfect. Sound difficult? It's not really. I've found that most of the "negative" things that happen when I'm speaking can be handled by keeping this one simple, but powerful, principle in mind: everything that happens can be used to my advantage. If people get up and start to head for the door, I can stop what I'm doing and ask for feedback. Was there something about my topic, my style, or my manner of presentation that was offensive to them? Were they simply in the wrong room at the start and didn't know it? Did someone misinform them about what my talk was going to cover? Regardless of what they tell me, just stopping to deal with this situation, honestly and humbly, will often score points with my remaining audience. It also will give me the opportunity to learn how I am affecting people, so I can make any corrections that might be needed. Even if everyone walked out and refused to give me a reason, I could ultimately find ways to benefit from this experience. At the very least, I could use it as the opening for my next presentation. "You know, I gave this same talk the other day and everyone in the audience walked out in the first ten minutes. That's my current record, so I guess we'll just have to see what happens today." The same principle holds for dealing with hecklers or people who ask harsh or confrontational questions. If you assume that nothing truly bad can ever happen when you're speaking in public, you'll be amazed how well you can relate to such events and how often you can indeed use them to your advantage. And once you've successfully used this principle many times, your anxiety about public speaking will almost completely go away. You'll know it will be virtually impossible for To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

anything "bad" to happen that you won't be able to handle. That is a very comforting thought. TIP: If you want a good role model for developing this skill, rent a video tape of Johnny Carson's opening monologues. He was a master at using this principle. No matter how his audience responded, Carson was always ready to use their response, positive or negative, to make another joke. He simply couldn't lose, even if the material his writers provided him was rotten.

Principle #8--You Don't Have to Control the Behavior of Your Audience
To succeed as a public speaker, you don't have to control the behavior of your audience. There are certain things you do need to control--your own thoughts, your preparation, arrangements for audio-visual aids, how the room is laid out--but one thing you don't have to control is your audience. They will do whatever they do, and whatever they do will usually be "perfect." If people are fidgety or restless, don't try to control this. If someone is talking to a neighbor, or reading the newspaper, or falling asleep, leave them alone. If people look like they aren't paying attention, refrain from chastising them. Unless someone is being intentionally disruptive, there is very little you need to control. Thinking you need to change or control other people is a hidden cause of stress in many areas of life. This is just as true for relating to a group as it is for relating to your friends, spouse, children, or other acquaintances.

Principle #9--In General, the More You Prepare, the Worse You Will Do
Preparation is useful for any public appearance. How you prepare, however, and how much time you need to spend are other matters entirely. Many of the errors in thinking we've discussed so far often creep in to people's strategies for preparation. If you have the wrong focus (i.e., purpose), if you try to do too much, if you want everyone to applaud your every word, if you fear something bad might happen or you might make a minor mistake, then you can easily drive yourself crazy trying to overprepare your talk. In these instances, the more effort you put in, the worse you probably will do. On the other hand, if you know your subject well, or if you've spoken about it many times before, you may only need a few minutes to prepare sufficiently. All you might need is to remind yourself of the two or three key points you want to make, along with several good examples and supporting facts and . . . BOOM you're ready to go. Overpreparation usually means you either don't know your subject well or you do, but you don't feel confident about your ability to speak about it in public. In the former instance, you'll need to do some extra research. In the latter, you'll need to develop trust To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

in your natural ability to speak successfully. The only way to do this is to put yourself in the spotlight, over and over again. Go out and solicit opportunities to speak on your subject in public. Offer to speak free or for a small fee, enough to cover your expenses. If you have something of value to tell others, keep getting in front of people and deliver it. In no time at all, you'll gain confidence. You'll also begin to respect the natural public speaker/communicator within you.

Principle #10--Your Audience Truly Wants You to Succeed
The last principle to remember is that your audience truly wants you to succeed. Most of them are scared to death of public speaking, just like you. They know the risk of embarrassment, humiliation, and failure you take every time you present yourself in public. They feel for you. They will admire your courage. And they will be on your side, no matter what happens. This means that most audiences are truly forgiving. While a slip of the tongue or a mistake of any kind might seem a big deal to you, it's not very meaningful or important to your audience. Their judgements and appraisals will usually be much more lenient than yours. It's useful to remind yourself of this point, especially when you think you've performed poorly.

Review Of 11 Hidden Causes Of Public Speaking Stress
1. Thinking that public speaking is inherently stressful (it's not). 2. Thinking you need to be brilliant or perfect to succeed (you don't). 3. Trying to impart too much information or cover too many points in a short presentation. 4. Having the wrong purpose in mind (to get rather than to give/contribute). 5. Trying to please everyone (this is unrealistic). 6. Trying to emulate other speakers (very difficult) rather than simply being yourself (very easy). 7. Failing to be personally revealing and humble. 8. Being fearful of potential negative outcomes (they almost never occur and even when they do, you can use them to your advantage). 9. Trying to control the wrong things (e.g., the behavior of your audience). 10. Spending too much time overpreparing (instead of developing confidence and trust in your natural ability to succeed). 11. Thinking your audience will be as critical of your performance as you might be.

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Review of 10 Key Principles To Always Keep In Mind
#1---Speaking in Public is NOT Inherently Stressful #2---You Don't Have to be Brilliant or Perfect to Succeed #3---All You Need is Two or Three Main Points #4---You also Need a Purpose That is Right for the Task #5---The Best Way to Succeed is NOT to Consider Yourself a Public Speaker! #6---Humility and Humor Can Go a Long Way #7---When You Speak in Public, Nothing "Bad" Can Ever Happen! #8---You Don't Have to Control the Behavior of Your Audience #9---In General, the More You Prepare, the Worse You Will Do #10--Your Audience Truly Wants You to Succeed That's all there is to it. Just look for these eleven hidden causes and keep the ten corresponding principles in mind. Of course, you will need to practice. It's extremely easy to forget the ten key principles. No matter how often you review them, you'll instinctively fall back into your old stressproducing patterns. What is the best way to practice? Go out and speak in public. Join a local Toastmasters Group if you like. Take a community college course in public speaking. Better yet, offer to teach a course about something you know very well. Just keep throwing yourself into the arena, and in no time at all, your skill, confidence, and natural ability will come to the surface. And remember, if you get up in front of a group and find this stressful, it only means you forgot the truth about what public speaking is all about. Go back and review this Report. Find out what you did wrong or what you didn't remember. Then go back out and speak again until you get it right. It may take time, but the long-term rewards will be impressive.

To Gain Instant Access To A Free 30 Minute AUDIO On The 10 Principles Of Public Speaking Visit http://www.10PublicSpeakingTips.com

Public Speaking and Panic Attacks What you should know

DISCLAIMER AND/OR LEGAL NOTICES The information presented herein represents the views of the author as of the date of publication. Because of the rate with which conditions change, the author reserve the rights to alter and update their opinions based on the new conditions. This report is for informational purposes only and the author does not accept any responsibilities for any liabilities resulting from the use of this information. While every attempt has been made to verify the information provided here, the author and his resellers and affiliates cannot assume any responsibility for errors, inaccuracies or omissions. Any slights of people or organizations are unintentional.

Please Note: You can do whatever you want with this report such as sell it for profit or give it away. However you cannot change the contents or claim to be the author. Peter Lawrence

It is a fact that most people fear speaking in public more than death and this is usually the top ranking fear. It can be joked that these same people would rather be lying dead in a casket rather than giving the eulogy. Public speaking for people who experience from panic attacks or general anxiety frequently becomes a major source of concern weeks or even months before the speaking event is to take place. These speaking activities do not necessarily have to be the traditional "on a podium or lectern" events but can be as straightforward as a workplace gathering where the person is expected to articulate a view or provide verbal opinion. The fear of public speaking and panic attacks in this case centers on having an attack while speaking. The person fears being harmed by the anxiety and therefore not capable to finish what he or she is saying. The person imagines fleeing the attention and having to make all kinds of excuses later for their improper exit out the office window.... This differs somewhat from the majority of people who fear public speaking because their fear tends to revolve around going blank while speaking or feeling uncomfortable under the spotlight of their coworkers for instance. The jitters or nerves of speaking in public are

definitely a problem for this group, but they are unfamiliar with that unbearable threat which is the panic attack, as they most likely have not experienced one before. How should a person with an anxiety issue tackle public speaking? Stage one is accepting that all these weird and quite frankly frightening sensations are not going to go away overnight. In fact, you are not even going to concern yourself with getting rid of them for your next talk. When they turn up during a speech/meeting, you are going to approach them in a new manner. What we need to do is build your confidence back to where it used to be before any of these feelings ever occurred. This time you will approach it in a unique, empowering way, allowing you to feel your confidence once more. It is said that most of the top speakers are usually very anxiety before speaking, but they somehow use this nervousness to enhance their speech. Now I am going to show you exactly how to do this, although I know that right now if you suffer from public speaking and panic attacks you may find it difficult to believe you can ever overcome it. My first tip is this and it is significant. The typical healthy person can experience an extreme range of anxiety and very uncomfortable sensations while giving a speech and is in no danger of ever losing control, or even appearing somewhat anxious to the meeting. No matter how tough it gets, you will always finish your piece, even if at the outset it feels very uncomfortable to go on. You will not become incapacitated in any way. The real step forward for if you suffer from public speaking and panic attacks happens when you fully believe that you are not in jeopardy and that the sensations will pass. "I realize you (the anxiety) hold no threat over me." What keeps a panic attack repeating itself is the fear of the fear-the fear that the next one will really knock your socks off and you feel you were lucky to have made it past the last one unharmed. As they were so frightening and daunting, it is your confidence that has been damaged by previous anxiety episodes. Once you fully understand you are not under any threat, then you can have a new response to the anxiety as it arises while speaking. Defeating public speaking and panic attacks... There is always a turning point when you move from general anxiety into a panic attack, and that happens with public speaking when you think to yourself:

"I will not be able to handle this in front of all these people." That split second of self-doubt leads to a rush of adrenaline, and the extreme anxiety arrives in a wave like format. If, however, when you feel the initial anxiety and you react with a high level of confidence that this is not a threat to you, you will move out of the anxiety state very fast. Using this fresh approach is a potent ally since it means it is okay to feel terrified and feel the anxiety when speaking-that is fine; you are going to feel it and move with and through the sensations in your body and out the other side. Because you are feeling extremely anxious, often before the talk has begun, you may feel they have already let yourself down. Now, you can relax on that point. It is entirely natural to feel the anxiety. Take for example the worst of the sensations you have ever experienced in this situation-be it general unease to loss of breath. You will have an initial automatic reaction that says: "Danger-I'm going to have an occurrence of anxiety now and I really can't afford for that to happen." At this point most people react to that idea and confirm it must be true because of all of the unusual feelings they are experiencing. This is where your thinking can lead you down a train of thought that creates a cycle of anxiety that produces a negative impact on your overall presenting skills. So let that preliminary "oh dear, not now" "why me" thought pass by, and follow it up immediately with the attitude of: "There you are-I've been wondering when you would arrive. I've been expecting you to show up-by the way, I am not in the least threatened by any of the strange feelings you are creating-I am totally safe in this situation." The solution to controlling your fear of public speaking and panic attacks is that instead of pushing the emotional energy and excitement down into your stomach, you are moving out through it. Your body is in a slightly energized state, exactly as it should be while giving a speech, so release that energy in your self-expression. Push it out through your presentation not down into your stomach. You push it out by expressing yourself more forcefully. In this way you turn the anxiety to your benefit by using it to deliver a speech where you come across more alive, energetic and in the present moment. When you notice the anxiety drop as it does when you willingly move into it. Fire a quick thought off when you get a brief break (as I am sure you have between pieces), asking it for "more." You want more of its intense feelings as you are interested in them and are absolutely not threatened by them.

It seems like a lot of stuff to be thinking about while talking to a group of people, but it is not really. You will be amazed how many different non-related thoughts you can have while speaking. This approach is about adopting a new attitude of self-confidence to what you might have deemed a serious threat up until now. This approach will help you with fear of public speaking and panic attacks you have associated with them. If your major fear of the speaking engagement is driven by a feeling of being trapped, then I would suggest factoring in some mental releases that can be prepared before the event. For example, some meetings/speeches allow for you to turn the attention back to the room to get responses etc. from the group. If possible, you might want to prepare such opportunities in your own mind before the engagements. This is not to say you have to ever use them, but people in this situations often remark that just having small opportunities where attention can be diverted for the briefest of moments can make the task seem less daunting. It my even be something as simple as having people introduce themselves or opening the floor to questions. I realize these diversions are not always possible and depend on the situation, but anything you can factor in that makes you feel less trapped or under the spotlight is worth the effort and can help alleviate fear of public speaking and panic attacks. Discover how you can treat your public speaking fear : http://tinyurl.com/2344xa

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How To Conquer Public Speaking Fear
By Morton C. Orman, M.D.
© 1996-2002, M. C. Orman, MD, FLP. All rights reserved

Public speaking is a common source of stress for everyone. Many of us would like to avoid this problem entirely, but this is hard to do. Whether we work alone or with large numbers of people, eventually we will need to speak in public to get certain tasks accomplished. And if we want to be leaders or achieve anything meaningful in our lives, we will often need to speak to groups, large and small, to be successful. The truth about public speaking, however, is IT DOES NOT HAVE TO BE STRESSFUL! If you correctly understand the hidden causes of public speaking stress, and if you keep just a few key principles in mind, speaking in public will soon become an invigorating and satisfying experience for you.

Purpose Of This Report
The purpose of this Special Report is to help you overcome the fear of public speaking. It begins by discussing ten key principles to always keep in mind. If you approach any problem in life with the right starting principles, everything else will fall into place. On the other hand, if you start with the wrong guiding principles, you can try all you want, but there is little chance you'll improve. This Report also reveals eleven "hidden" causes of public speaking stress. I have summarized these eleven causes, along with the ten key principles, at the end of this Report, so you can easily review them.

Key Principles
Principle #1--Speaking in Public is NOT Inherently Stressful Most of us believe parts of life are inherently stressful. In fact, most of us have been taught to believe that life as a whole is very stressful! To deal with any type of stress effectively, you first must understand that life itself, including public speaking, is NOT inherently stressful. Thousands of human beings have learned to speak in front of groups with little or no stress at all. Many of these people were initially terrified to

speak in public. Their knees would shake, their voices would tremble, their thoughts would become jumbled . . . you know the rest. Yet they learned to eliminate their fear of public speaking completely. You are no more or less human than they are. If they can conquer the fear of public speaking, so can you! It just takes the right guiding principles, the right understanding, and the right plan of action to make this goal a reality. Believe me, it's not difficult. I'm a good example of someone who conquered the fear of public speaking. And while I didn't do it overnight, it wasn't difficult. All it took was approaching the problem in the right way. Principle #2--You Don't have to be Brilliant or Perfect to Succeed Many of us have observed public speakers and thought to ourselves "Wow, I could never be that smart, calm, witty, entertaining, polished . . . or whatever." Well, I've got news for you-- you don't have to be brilliant, witty, or perfect to succeed. That is not what public speaking is all about. I know it may look that way, but it's not. You can be average. You can be below average. You can make mistakes, get tongue-tied, or forget whole segments of your talk. You can even tell no jokes at all and still be successful. It all depends on how you, and your audience, define "success." Believe me, your audience doesn't expect perfection. I used to think most audiences did, but I was wrong! Before I discovered this, I used to put incredible pressure on myself to deliver a perfect performance. I worked for days to prepare a talk. I stayed up nights worrying about making mistakes. I spent hours and hours rehearsing what I was going to say. And you know what? All this did was make me even more anxious! The more perfect I tried to be, the worse I did! It was all very disheartening (not to mention unnecessary). The essence of public speaking is this: give your audience something of value. That's all there is to it. If people in your audience walk away with something (anything) of value, they will consider you a success. If they walk away feeling better about themselves, feeling better about some job they have to do, they will consider you a success. If they walk away feeling happy or entertained, they will consider their time with you worthwhile. Even if you pass out, get tongue-tied, or say something stupid during your talk . . . they won't care! As long as they get something of value, they will be thankful. They don't even need to feel good to consider you a success. If you criticize people, or if you stir them up to ultimately benefit them, they might still appreciate you, even though you didn't make them feel good at the time. Principle #3--All You Need is Two or Three Main Points You don't have to deliver mountains of facts or details to give your audience what they truly want. Many studies have shown that people remember very few of the facts or information

speakers convey. While you may choose to include lots of facts and information, you only need to make two or three main points to have your talk be successful. You can even have your whole talk be about only one key point, if you wish. When I first began speaking in public during medical school (kicking, screaming, and quivering all the way), I wasn't aware of this simple principle. I wrongly believed that my audience wanted encyclopedic knowledge from me, which of course I didn't have. So I tried to research my topic thoroughly and deliver as much worldly wisdom as possible. Boy was that exhausting! It was also boring for my audience to suffer through. Later, when I began giving public seminars on how to cope with stress, I spent hours each week typing a twenty-page script to read from, so I wouldn't forget any important tidbit. As time went on, I gradually learned that this degree of complexity wasn't needed. As a result, the length of my discussion notes gradually declined. My twenty-page typed manuscript gave way to a five-page detailed outline. Then, I replaced my outline with ten or fifteen index cards. Eventually, I could conduct a full two-hour seminar with only one 3X5 index card (containing my two or three key points) to support me! As long as I focused on these two or three key points, I was able to speak at length about them by naturally drawing upon my past experiences and knowledge. Remember, all your audience wants from you is to walk away with one or two key points that will make a difference to them. If you structure your talks to deliver this result, you can avoid lots of complexity that isn't really needed. This also should make your job as a speaker much easier, and more fun too! Principle #4--You also Need a Purpose That is Right for the Task This principle is very important . . . so please listen up. One big mistake people make when they speak in public is they have the wrong purpose in mind. Often, they have no specific purpose in mind, but the one that is operating within them unconsciously causes a whole lot of unnecessary stress and anxiety. This is a prime example of what I call a "hidden cause" of public speaking stress. When I first started speaking in public, I thought my purpose was to get everyone in the audience to approve of me. I mistakenly thought that this was what good public speakers try to do. I wasn't consciously aware of this purpose, nor how foolish it was, but it was there nonetheless. Because of this hidden purpose, I felt I needed to be absolutely perfect and brilliant to win my audience's unanimous approval. If just one person in the audience disapproved . . . my goose was cooked! If one person left early, if anyone fell asleep, or if someone looked uninterested in what I was saying . . . I was defeated! This was very anxiety-producing.

Later, after I became aware of this stress-producing purpose, I was able to look at it honestly and realize how foolish it was. How many public speakers get 100% approval from their audiences? The answer is zero! The truth about public speaking is no matter how good a job you do . . . someone is going to disapprove of either you or your argument. That is just human nature. In a large group of people, there will always be a diversity of opinions, judgements, and reactions. Some will be positive, others will be negative. There is no rhyme or reason to it. If you do a lousy job, some people will sympathize with you and feel for you, while others will critique you harshly. If you do a fantastic job, someone will resent your ability and might disapprove of you on that basis alone. Some people will leave early because of an emergency. Some will fall asleep because they were up all night taking care of a sick child. Therefore, it's foolish and unrealistic to attempt to get everyone in your audience to think well of you. More importantly, it's the wrong type of purpose to adopt in the first place. Remember, the essence of public speaking is to give your audience something of value. The operative word here is GIVE not GET! The purpose of public speaking is not for you to get something (approval, fame, respect, sales, clients, etc.) from your audience. It is to give something useful to your audience. Yes, if you do this well, you'll gain notoriety, respect, sales, and new clients. But this should never be your organizing purpose going in. If you focus on giving as much as you can to your audience, you will then be aligned with the truth about public speaking. You also will avoid one of the biggest pitfalls that cause people to experience public speaking anxiety. Giving of yourself is rarely stressful or anxiety producing. When I give a talk to a group of people, I often imagine myself handing out $1,000 bills to everyone in the audience. I try to give them at least that much value. If a few individuals in the group reject this "gift," it no longer surprises or demoralizes me. I no longer expect anything different. Principle #5--The Best Way to Succeed is Not to consider Yourself a Public Speaker! While it may seem paradoxical, the best way to succeed as a public speaker is not to consider yourself a public speaker at all. Many of us have distorted, exaggerated views of what successful public speakers do. We often assume that to be successful ourselves, we must strive very hard to bring forth certain idealistic qualities we presently lack. Consequently, we struggle desperately to emulate those personal characteristics of other speakers which we wrongly believe are responsible for their public speaking success.

In other words, we try to become someone other than ourselves! We try to be a public speaker, whatever that image means to us. The truth about public speaking is that most successful speakers got that way by doing just the opposite! They didn't try to be like somebody else. They just gave themselves permission to be themselves in front of other people. And much to their surprise, they discovered how much fun they could have doing something most other people dread. The secret, then, to their success is that they didn't try to become public speakers! You and I can do the very same thing. No matter what type of person we are, or what skills and talents we possess, we can stand up in front of others and fully be ourselves. I now love to speak in public. Why? Because it's one of the few times I give myself permission to fully be myself in the presence of others. I can be bold, compassionate, silly, informative, helpful, witty . . . anything I want. I can tell jokes, which I don't normally do, tell humorous or poignant stories, or do anything else that feels natural in the moment. As a result, I make much better contact with my audience. I don't drone on and on about some uninteresting subject. I'm alive, I'm energized, I'm fully invested in everything I say and do. That's another gift I can give my audience. It also allows me to tell when I've gone on too long or when the people who are listening to me begin to drift away. When you really get good at being yourself in front of others, you can even stand up in front of a group of people without any idea how you're going to get across your two or three main points. Sometimes, I enjoy throwing myself in front of a group without knowing specifically what I'm going to say. I just focus on my three main points and remember I'm there to give people something of value. Then I give myself permission to say whatever comes to mind. In many instances, I say things I've never said before! They just come out of me spontaneously while "being with my audience." Sometimes, I'm truly amazed at some of the things I end up saying or doing. And you know what? People in the audience often come up to me afterward and say, "you were great, I wish I had the confidence to give public talks like you." That's exactly the wrong way to think. Don't try to give talks the way I do, or the way anyone else does. Just go out there, armed with a little knowledge and a few key points, and be yourself. Everything else will usually work out. It might be a little rough the first few times you try it, but after a while, you'll settle into some very successful ways of being that will be all yours and no one else's. Principle #6--Humility and Humor Can Go a Long Way While each person will eventually find his or her style of public speaking, certain maneuvers can be used by almost everyone. Two of these, humility and humor, can go a long way to making your talks more enjoyable and entertaining for your audience.

Humor is well understood by most of us, so little needs to be said about it here. If being humorous feels comfortable for you, or if it fits your speaking situation, go for it. It usually works, even if you don't do it perfectly. By humility, I mean standing up in front of others and sharing some of your own human frailties, weaknesses, and mistakes. We all have weaknesses, you know, and when you stand up in front of others and show that you're not afraid to admit yours, you create a safe, intimate climate where others can acknowledge their personal shortcomings as well. Being humble in front of others makes you more credible, more believable, and paradoxically more respected. People can connect with you more easily. You become "one of them" instead of a remote expert who's head and shoulders above them (which you really aren't). It also sets a tone of honesty and self-acceptance, which people recognize in themselves as well. Don't try to do this, however, if it's not authentic for you. True humility is easily distinguished from the pretense of acting humble. If you pretend, your audience will perceive this and lose respect for you. Often, humor and humility can be combined very effectively. Telling humorous stories about yourself, or using your own personal failings to demonstrate some point you are trying to make, can be both entertaining and illuminating. For example, if you get nervous when you stand up to speak in front of a group, or if you suddenly feel nervous during the middle of your talk, don't hide this fact from your audience (they can tell anyway). Be real--and humble--by acknowledging your fear openly and honestly. Ask your audience for forgiveness while you take a few moments to collect yourself. Or, you can start your talk with a humorous story that produces the same effect. For example, I've seen speakers begin their talks by saying "What lies at the bottom of the ocean and shakes all over?" Answer: a nervous wreck! This is a very endearing strategy that also helps relieve speaking anxiety. Principle #7--When You Speak in Public, Nothing "Bad" Can Ever Happen! One thing that adds to the fear of public speaking is the dread people have that something awful, terrible, or publicly humiliating will happen to them. What if I pass out from nervous exhaustion? What if I forget everything I intended to say and am left standing there, totally speechless? What if the audience hates me and begins throwing things at me? What if they all get up and leave after the first ten minutes? What if they snipe at me with harsh questions or comments once I'm done? What if someone in the audience tries to turn the group against me? These could be embarrassing if they occurred. Fortunately, most of them don't happen.

Even when they do, it's useful to have a strategy in mind that has them turn out perfect. Sound difficult? It's not really. I've found that most of the "negative" things that happen when I'm speaking can be handled by keeping this one simple, but powerful, principle in mind: everything that happens can be used to my advantage. If people get up and start to head for the door, I can stop what I'm doing and ask for feedback. Was there something about my topic, my style, or my manner of presentation that was offensive to them? Were they simply in the wrong room at the start and didn't know it? Did someone misinform them about what my talk was going to cover? Regardless of what they tell me, just stopping to deal with this situation, honestly and humbly, will often score points with my remaining audience. It also will give me the opportunity to learn how I am affecting people, so I can make any corrections that might be needed. Even if everyone walked out and refused to give me a reason, I could ultimately find ways to benefit from this experience. At the very least, I could use it as the opening for my next presentation. "You know, I gave this same talk the other day and everyone in the audience walked out in the first ten minutes. That's my current record, so I guess we'll just have to see what happens today." The same principle holds for dealing with hecklers or people who ask harsh or confrontational questions. If you assume that nothing truly bad can ever happen when you're speaking in public, you'll be amazed how well you can relate to such events and how often you can indeed use them to your advantage. And once you've successfully used this principle many times, your anxiety about public speaking will almost completely go away. You'll know it will be virtually impossible for anything "bad" to happen that you won't be able to handle. That is a very comforting thought. TIP: If you want a good role model for developing this skill, rent a video tape of Johnny Carson's opening monologues. He was a master at using this principle. No matter how his audience responded, Carson was always ready to use their response, positive or negative, to make another joke. He simply couldn't lose, even if the material his writers provided him was rotten. Principle #8--You Don't Have to Control the Behavior of Your Audience To succeed as a public speaker, you don't have to control the behavior of your audience. There are certain things you do need to control--your own thoughts, your preparation, arrangements for audio-visual aids, how the room is laid out--but one thing you don't have to control is your audience. They will do whatever they do, and whatever they do will usually be "perfect." If people are fidgety or restless, don't try to control this. If someone is talking to a neighbor, or reading the newspaper, or falling asleep, leave them alone. If people look like they aren't paying

attention, refrain from chastising them. Unless someone is being intentionally disruptive, there is very little you need to control. Thinking you need to change or control other people is a hidden cause of stress in many areas of life. This is just as true for relating to a group as it is for relating to your friends, spouse, children, or other acquaintances. Principle #9--In General, the More You Prepare, the Worse You Will Do Preparation is useful for any public appearance. How you prepare, however, and how much time you need to spend are other matters entirely. Many of the errors in thinking we've discussed so far often creep in to people's strategies for preparation. If you have the wrong focus (i.e., purpose), if you try to do too much, if you want everyone to applaud your every word, if you fear something bad might happen or you might make a minor mistake, then you can easily drive yourself crazy trying to overprepare your talk. In these instances, the more effort you put in, the worse you probably will do. On the other hand, if you know your subject well, or if you've spoken about it many times before, you may only need a few minutes to prepare sufficiently. All you might need is to remind yourself of the two or three key points you want to make, along with several good examples and supporting facts and . . . BOOM you're ready to go. Overpreparation usually means you either don't know your subject well or you do, but you don't feel confident about your ability to speak about it in public. In the former instance, you'll need to do some extra research. In the latter, you'll need to develop trust in your natural ability to speak successfully. The only way to do this is to put yourself in the spotlight, over and over again. Go out and solicit opportunities to speak on your subject in public. Offer to speak free or for a small fee, enough to cover your expenses. If you have something of value to tell others, keep getting in front of people and deliver it. In no time at all, you'll gain confidence. You'll also begin to respect the natural public speaker/communicator within you. Principle #10--Your Audience Truly Wants You to Succeed The last principle to remember is that your audience truly wants you to succeed. Most of them are scared to death of public speaking, just like you. They know the risk of embarrassment, humiliation, and failure you take every time you present yourself in public. They feel for you. They will admire your courage. And they will be on your side, no matter what happens. This means that most audiences are truly forgiving. While a slip of the tongue or a mistake of any kind might seem a big deal to you, it's not very meaningful or important to your audience. Their judgements and appraisals will usually be much more lenient than yours. It's useful to remind yourself of this point, especially when you think you've performed poorly.

Review Of 11 Hidden Causes Of Public Speaking Stress

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Thinking that public speaking is inherently stressful (it's not). Thinking you need to be brilliant or perfect to succeed (you don't). Trying to impart too much information or cover too many points in a short presentation. Having the wrong purpose in mind (to get rather than to give/contribute). Trying to please everyone (this is unrealistic). Trying to emulate other speakers (very difficult) rather than simply being yourself (very easy). 7. Failing to be personally revealing and humble. 8. Being fearful of potential negative outcomes (they almost never occur and even when they do, you can use them to your advantage). 9. Trying to control the wrong things (e.g., the behavior of your audience). 10. Spending too much time overpreparing (instead of developing confidence and trust in your natural ability to succeed). 11. Thinking your audience will be as critical of your performance as you might be.

Review of 10 Key Principles To Always Keep In Mind
#1---Speaking in Public is NOT Inherently Stressful #2---You Don't Have to be Brilliant or Perfect to Succeed #3---All You Need is Two or Three Main Points #4---You also Need a Purpose That is Right for the Task #5---The Best Way to Succeed is NOT to Consider Yourself a Public Speaker! #6---Humility and Humor Can Go a Long Way #7---When You Speak in Public, Nothing "Bad" Can Ever Happen! #8---You Don't Have to Control the Behavior of Your Audience #9---In General, the More You Prepare, the Worse You Will Do #10--Your Audience Truly Wants You to Succeed That's all there is to it. Just look for these eleven hidden causes and keep the ten corresponding principles in mind. Of course, you will need to practice. It's extremely easy to forget the ten key principles. No matter how often you review them, you'll instinctively fall back into your old stress-producing patterns.

What is the best way to practice? Go out and speak in public. Join a local Toastmasters Group if you like. Take a community college course in public speaking. Better yet, offer to teach a course about something you know very well. Just keep throwing yourself into the arena, and in no time at all, your skill, confidence, and natural ability will come to the surface. And remember, if you get up in front of a group and find this stressful, it only means you forgot the truth about what public speaking is all about. Go back and review this Report. Find out what you did wrong or what you didn't remember. Then go back out and speak again until you get it right. It may take time, but the long-term rewards will be impressive. Suggestions for Further Reading If you like this type of advice and find it useful, you might want to check out my full-length book about stress called The 14 Day Stress Cure (323 pages, $24.95). It covers many additional hidden causes of stress. It also focuses on numerous other issues, such as how to cope with anger, frustration, and other negative emotions; how to deal with relationship conflicts; how to reduce your stress at work; and how to deal with stress related physical complaints. To order a copy of this award-winning book, contact Amazon.com, 24 hours a day.

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• Speaking

Anxiety •

First and foremost, recognize that public-speaking anxiety if the number one anxiety shown by years of popular and more social-scientific testing. So no one need feel like the odd man or woman out if you suffer from even a soupçon of public-speaking anxiety. There are numerous self-help books and more scholarly texts on how to solve this problem. I am going to list some exercises and processes that you can try which are not part of the canon of the more scholarly works. They are simply methods I have developed over the years with clients who suffer from severe anxiety and have significant aspirations in public or corporate life. The first thing is to recognize that all public speaking is no different than an acting role. •I can•t act,• you say. •Nonsense,• I say. You act all the time. You are acting when you assume the persona who goes to work and deals with a difficult colleague with respect and patience. You are acting when you behave as if you like someone who you find heinous. You are acting when you compliment someone on a purple/mauve/pink/moss-green flower-patterned tie that looks like a neck fungus. You can and do act. The problem with public speaking is that you think it is a personal experience. It isn•t. It is a role like any other. You are •playing• the role of the professional who knows X about Y. This is a distinctly different person from the one who sits around having a Sam Adams with buddies. It does not negate that you know the material in the Sam Adams moment just as you do in the professional moment. It is that you assume the persona of knowing and that is where the acting comes in. We all get hung up with how the professional with a certain areas of expertise should walk, talk, behave and speak•which includes articulation, phrasing, manner, style, etc. In our deepest heart of hearts, we fear that we won•t play the role right and then, even if we do know the material, the audience will see us as frauds. Then comes the anxiety•and remember, anxiety by definition is not rational•the horrid anxiety of what the audience will do to us. Talk behind our backs. Laugh at us. Get bored and dismiss us. Tell our superiors we are incompetent. Or worse, be our superiors viewing our incompetence laid bare. Throw things at us. Hoot and shriek with laughter and derision (oh, yes, some people fear this and you would be amazed how highly accomplished and placed they are).

In truth, I frequently give public presentations•maybe 50-60 each year for audiences ranging from 100 to 300. I find that there are times I too let anxiety run the show but I have learned how to cover. Please notice that I say that I let or allow anxiety to run the show. This is true. More about this later. Our bodies are curious mechanisms. You all remember reading about fight or flight in biology classes. We often hear that this is a vestigial response left over from our caveman days. Siberian tiger! Red alert! Run or kill! It is biologically embarrassing that we are victims of that same response and the concomitant release of adrenaline when we get up to speak in public. After all, we are civilized people in the year 2000. Face it, folks, that audience might as well be one pissed-off Wooly Mammoth. Your epinephrine and norepinephrine are released and you experience all the same feelings as that caveman. Here•s what happens: The actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine are generally similar, although they differ from each other in certain of their effects. Norepinephrine constricts almost all blood vessels, while epinephrine causes constriction in many networks of minute blood vessels but dilates the blood vessels in the skeletal muscles and the liver. Both hormones increase the rate and force of contraction of the heart, thus increasing the output of blood from the heart and increasing the blood pressure. The hormones also have important metabolic actions. Epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, which results in the raising of the level of blood sugar. Both hormones increase the level of circulating free fatty acids. The extra amounts of glucose and fatty acids can be used by the body as fuel in times of stress or danger where increased alertness or exertion is required. Epinephrine is sometimes called the emergency hormone because it is released during stress and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an animal for either "fight or flight." Here•s the problem. You are now a professional trapped in a biological response. Your autonomic nervous system doesn•t care that your boss is watching. You may suffer from a dry mouth, a racing heart, shortness of breath and eventually shaking hands and other extremities (post the adrenaline rush, you may have lactic acid in the muscles which can cause this but I•ll spare you the glucose talk). This is not fun. The shortness of breath can cause you to take short, shallow breathes which leads to hyperventilation, dizziness, cold sweats, clamminess (not unlike shock) a sense of physical displacement and the desire to be anywhere but here. It•s a vicious cycle and unlike the caveman, you can•t choose the flight part of the equation. So what to do? There are the obvious and realistic answers that may help but not cure the problem. Prepare your material well. Use flash cards with one side having a key word or image and the other side containing the major points of each section of your speech to check yourself on content. Make sure you have outlined the content so that it has a logical flow that you can follow and are comfortable with intellectually. Be sure that any visual aids, e.g., PowerPoint, are designed to provide you with the cue words on the flashcards.

Do not make the presentation an opportunity to tell all you know. Most people appreciate brevity. It is not only the Generation Y folks who have no attention span. Busy people want you to get to the major point ASAP and help them to stay involved. If they want to know more, give them a Q&A section which helps you in two ways: 1) you can see the light at the end of your anxiety tunnel if your presentation is brief; and 2) during Q&A you have the opportunity to engage in conversation which is a structure that relaxes people and gives you time to breath • literally. Never be afraid to say that you are nervous. You can couch it in statements such as: •I am really honored to have the chance to present my ideas to all of you. I•m sure my dry throat and shaking hands are just part of the charm of the moment.• EVERYONE HAS EXPERIENCED PRESENTATION ANXIETY AT SOME LEVEL. They will find your honesty disarming. They may even laugh. Good. Now they are comrades-in-anxiety, not the enemy. In addition, their moment of laughter has bought you time to breathe. If you have very high anxiety, build pauses or breathers into the presentation. Handouts are not a good idea as a rule because they distract from you but they can be invaluable if that slight break in scrutiny allows you to refocus and breathe. Lack of oxygen and thorough expelling of carbon dioxide is a big problem in anxiety. Deep cleansing breaths are key. A handout buys the time to do this. Also, walk around the room and hand it out. This moves your muscles, helps with that lactic acid and makes breathing more regular. There are many ploys for moving around a room and refocusing attention. Think of ones that will work for your presentation. The moment the eyes leave you, you have a private moment to regroup. There are a number of things you can do to help you wean yourself from the intense anxiety that builds up before the presentation. Don•t wait to do this until the presentation is imminent. Make a list of all of your fears of what could go wrong: I•ll throw up. I•ll get hysterical; I•ll lose my voice; I•ll sweat through my clothes; they•ll throw rotten fruit at me. Then make a parallel list in which you evaluate the likelihood of this/these fear(s) becoming reality. Have you ever done such a thing? Are these people likely to react this way? It is not stupid and don•t feel silly. We have children act out their fears to alleviate anxiety. This works for adults too. Imagine the worst-case scenario and then let your rational self determine how likely it is. Beyond working with flashcards and being well prepared with the structure of the presentation, you must rehearse. Ask a spouse, significant other, tolerant friend or sibling to listen to your presentation. Realize that they are often the toughest audience because their esteem is critical to you. They•ll tell you all sorts of things such as, •don•t fidget,• •smile more,• etc. These comments are not what you need them for• don•t tell them that. You need them there so that you will experience the nervousness

and survive. Every time you survive a one-on-one rehearsal of your presentation, you are less likely to get anxious in public. Anxiety can be self-induced. I had to do a lengthy introductory set of remarks a couple of months ago to a group of about 150. I was not at all anxious. The room was dry and hot. I had taken some cold medicine which made my mouth very dry. I was having trouble forming words effectively because of the dryness. This made me conscious of what I was doing and in turn made me all the more aware of how difficult this talking in front of people was. (Could they sense my breathlessness? Were they thinking that I was nervous?) It caused me to breathe less deeply which induced the sense of anxiety through the physiological effects telling my body I was anxious. I had to break the cycle. I took a detour and introduced someone who deserved thanks for the event and encouraged everyone to applaud. In that interval, I did all the tricks to regularize my breathing and was then fine. What are the tricks? First, stand up straight. If your posture is bad, your diaphragm cannot work efficiently and cannot serve as the muscular bellows to push air from your lungs across your vocal cords and out through the mouth. Nor can you get in a good deep breath. Make a point of lifting and dropping your shoulders. This is where we all tighten the body when anxious. Keep your head centered on your neck, not jutting the chin forward. All this relaxes the throat and back, and makes breathing easier. This is something to focus on in your everyday life. If you make yourself aware of the tightening of these areas, you will begin to correct it in a casual conversation. Eventually, you will self correct without much thought. You will make the action of selfrelaxation reflexive. Also, loosen up the face and mouth by doing exercises that help you to lose tension and improve articulation. Sounds silly but say: Red leather, yellow leather Rubber baby buggy bumpers She sells seashells by the seashore Repeat these over and over while driving, in the shower or on a park bench if you are so bold. OVER-articulate. Really exaggerate the words and move your mouth and lips and tongue back and forth, up and down. A stuff mouth makes a stiff face, makes a stiff upper body and throat, makes speaking harder and creates a sense of anxiety in the biological rhythms. Start with these suggestions. We•ll work on more as we work on future presentations. Let me know when you want to rehearse a presentation for critiques and assistance personally and/or as a group.

How To Stop Anxiety and Panic Attacks Forever Using A Revolutionary Technique ! THE ROOT Cause of Your Panic Attacks Is What You NEED To TREAT

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It is often observed that many people’s top ranking fear is not death but having to speak in public. The joke is that these people would rather be lying in the casket at the funeral than giving the eulogy. Public speaking for people who suffer from panic attacks or general anxiety often becomes a major source of worry weeks or even months before the speaking event is to occur.

These speaking engagements do not necessarily have to be the traditional “on a podium” events but can be as simple as an office meeting where the individual is expected to express an opinion or give verbal feedback. The fear of public speaking and panic attacks in this case centers on having an attack while speaking. The individual fears being incapacitated by the anxiety and hence unable to complete what he or she is saying. The person imagines fleeing the spotlight and having to make all kinds of excuses later for their undignified departure out the office window…. This differs slightly from the majority of people who fear public speaking because their fear tends to revolve around going blank while speaking or feeling uncomfortable under the spotlight of their peers. The jitters or nerves of speaking in public are of course a problem for this group as well, but they are unfamiliar with that debilitating threat which is the panic attack, as they most likely have not experienced one before. So how should a person with an anxiety issue tackle public speaking? Stage one is accepting that all these bizarre and quite frankly unnerving sensations are not going to go away overnight. In fact, you are not even going to concern yourself with getting rid of them for your next talk. When they arrive during a speech/meeting, you are going to approach them in a new manner. What we need to do is build your confidence back to where it used to be before any of these sensations ever occurred. This time you will approach it in a unique, empowering manner, allowing you to feel your confidence again. It is said that most of the top speakers are riddled with anxiety before speaking, but they somehow use this nervousness to enhance their speech. I am going to show you exactly how to do this, although I know that right now if you suffer from public speaking and you may find it difficult to believe you can ever overcome it.

My first point is this and it is important. The average healthy person can experience an extreme array of anxiety and very uncomfortable sensations while giving a speech and is in no danger of ever losing control, or even appearing slightly anxious to the audience. No matter how tough it gets, you will always finish your piece, even if at the outset it feels very uncomfortable to go on. You will not become incapacitated in any way. The real breakthrough for if you suffer from public speaking and panic attacks happens when you fully believe that you are not in danger and that the sensations will pass. “I realize you (the anxiety) hold no threat over me.” What keeps a panic attack coming again and again is the fear of the fear—the fear that the next one will really knock your socks off and you feel you were lucky to have made it past the last one unscathed. As they were so unnerving and scary, it is your confidence that has been damaged by previous anxiety episodes. Once you fully understand you are not under any threat, then you can have a new response to the anxiety as it arises while speaking. Defeating public speaking and ... There is always a turning point when a person moves from general into a panic attack, and that happens with public speaking when you think to yourself: "I won’t be able to handle this in front of these people." That split second of self-doubt leads to a rush of adrenaline, and the extreme anxiety arrives in a wave like format. If, however, when you feel the initial anxiety and you react with confidence that this is not a threat to you, you will move out of the anxiety rapidly. Using this new approach is a powerful ally because it means it is okay to feel scared and feel the anxiety when

speaking–that is fine; you are going to feel it and move with and through the sensations in your body and out the other side. Because he or she is feeling very anxious, often before the talk has begun, that person may feel they have already let themselves down. Now, you can relax on that point. It is perfectly natural to feel the anxiety. Take for example the worst of the sensations you have ever experienced in this situation—be it general unease to loss of breath. You will have an initial automatic reaction that says: “Danger–I’m going to have an episode of anxiety here and I really can’t afford that to happen.” At this point most people react to that idea and confirm it must be true because of all of the unusual feelings they are experiencing. This is where your thinking can lead you down a train of thought that creates a cycle of anxiety that produces a negative impact on your overall presenting skills. So let that initial “oh dear, not now” thought pass by, and follow it up immediately with the attitude of: “There you are–I’ve been wondering when you would arrive. I’ve been expecting you to show up—by the way, I am not in the least threatened by any of the strange sensations you are creating—I am completely safe here.” The key to controlling your fear of public speaking and panic attacks is that instead of pushing the emotional energy and excitement down into your stomach, you are moving out through it. Your body is in a slightly excited state, exactly as it should be while giving a speech, so release that energy in your selfexpression. Push it out through your presentation not down into your stomach. You push it out by expressing yourself more forcefully. In this way you turn the anxiety to your advantage by using it to deliver a speech where you come across more alive, energetic and in the present moment. When you notice the anxiety drop as it does when you willingly move into it. Fire a

quick thought off when you get a momentary break (as I am sure you have between pieces), asking it for “more.” You want more of its intense feelings as you are interested in them and are absolutely not threatened by them. It seems like a lot of things to be thinking about while talking to a group of people, but it is not really. You’d be amazed how many different non-related thoughts you can have while speaking. This approach is about adopting a new attitude of confidence to what you might have deemed a serious threat up until now. This tactic will truly help you with fear of public speaking and panic attacks you have associated with them. If your predominant fear of the speaking engagement is driven by a feeling of being trapped, then I would suggest factoring in some mental releases that can be prepared before the event. For example, some meetings/speeches allow for you to turn the attention back to the room to get feedback etc. from the group. If possible, you might want to prepare such opportunities in your own mind before the engagements. This is not to say you have to ever use them, but people in this situation often remark that just having small opportunities where attention can be diverted for the briefest of moments can make the task seem less daunting. It my even be something as simple as having people introduce themselves or opening the floor to questions. I realize these diversions are not always possible and depend on the situation, but anything you can factor in that makes you feel less trapped or under the spotlight is worth the effort and can help alleviate fear of public speaking and. Learn more.. http://www.panicaway.com Joe Barry is an international panic disorder coach. His informative site on all issues related to panic and anxiety attacks can be found here:

http://www.panicaway.com

The following is an excerpt from Chapter One of the book Fearless Presentations published by The Leader's Institute. You can purchase the entire book from our website by clicking here.

Public Speaking Fear & Anxiety
When I was in college, I had an internship with a large oil and gas company. While I was working there, I felt like I really impressed the people around me with my work ethic, determination, resourcefulness, and productivity. Many of the projects that I worked on were finished weeks and even months ahead of schedule to everyone's surprise. But at the end of the internship, I, along with a half-dozen other interns, was asked to give a presentation to the executive committee who created the intern program. In this meeting were not only my boss, but my boss’s boss, three vice-presidents, all of my intern peers, and various observers. In the beginning, I didn’t think much of this presentation, but as the day moved closer and closer, I began to get more and more nervous. I was the youngest person ever to be accepted to this program—just 19 years-old. The next youngest intern was 23 and was in her second year of law school. So, I felt a little outclassed to say the least. My boss told me that this would be a great opportunity to shine. He said that if I could just get across to this group how productive I had been to the company, then I would have no problem getting a generous permanent offer from the company upon graduation. That just made me even more nervous. I wrote, memorized, and practiced my speech over and over. I had a flawless delivery. I realized that I needed a few visuals, so I created a couple of black and white cut-outs of topics I’d be covering.

The big day came, and as I walked into the room, trembling from the fear and pressure, I noticed that every single person had on a nicely pressed suit. I was wearing slacks with a shirt and tie, but no jacket. I didn’t even own a jacket. The pressure began to build even more. As the first presenter was introduced, she walked to the front of the room, sat down a manila folder, turned on her overhead projector (this was in the days before PowerPoint,) and put up a beautiful, color-filled slide. Why in the world had I not thought of using an overhead! My palms began to sweat profusely. The second presenter had the audience laughing and nodding their heads within minutes. He created a true rapport with the audience. I didn’t have any jokes in my presentation, and I couldn't see how anyone would be nodding in agreement with me, because I was just prepared to recite some facts. My stomach churned. It was now my turn. As the director called my name, I stood and moved my hands to pick up my notes. When I did, the napkin that my hand was resting on came with me—attached as a result of the sweat that now seemed to be pouring from my palms. As I peeled it off, I picked up my notes, and I could see the pages shaking in my hand. I just prayed that the people in the audience

couldn't see it. As I spoke my first sentence, I could feel the beads of sweat on my forehead, so I pulled the sleeve of my white shirt across my brow. A few seconds later I used the other sleeve and continued alternating them throughout the presentation. I talk pretty fast anyway, but when I get nervous, ITalkRealFast! SoFastThatItWouldMakeYourEyeballsSpin! I gave my entire 15-minute speech in less than five minutes and said every word. As I looked into the audience, no one was nodding. Most people just had blank looks of confusion. When I sat down, there was utter silence in the room. The director called a break. I looked at my sleeves, and they were soaked to my skin. I was so embarrassed that I wanted to crawl under the table and die. If I could have walked out of that room and never laid eyes on any of those people again, I would have gladly done so. About seven months later, when the board came back to my school, my adviser pulled me aside and told me that they had told him that they would not be extending an offer to have me back. I was crushed. I had never failed this badly at anything. I learned a valuable lesson that day. Right or wrong, people form a perception about our competence based on how confidently we present ourselves. Let me give you an example. Let’s say you went to the doctor for a pain that you've been having in your side. The surgeon who is examining you says the following, “Uhm… Well, uh you know? You might, uhm, have to have your uh appendix taken out.” How competent are you going to feel about this doctor’s ability to treat you? Or even worse—the doctor says all the right things, but as he looks over your chart, you notice his hand shaking. It doesn't matter how many degrees this person has or how many initials the doctor has after his or her name. You will probably question the doctor’s competence. That is exactly what happened to me during my presentation. I realized that even though I had been a respected and valued employee of the company, the negative perception that was formed about me during my presentation counteracted all of the goodwill I had previously developed. I vowed that the same thing would never happen to me again. I was going to do whatever I had to do to make sure that the next time I gave a presentation, I would give the audience a true representation of my abilities. I was willing to attend any public speaking training, any presentation seminar, and any type of program to eliminate my public speaking anxiety. Over the last ten years of attending and teaching public speaking training, I have identified a number of simple, key things that anyone can do to overcome fear and nervousness in front of a group. I have used these things myself with great success. Over the last ten years in my public speaking classes, I've watched the confidence of thousands of people grow and develop in a matter of minutes as a result of using these few simple techniques. On the following pages, you will find an outline of tips and techniques that successful speakers

have used for centuries to create solid, polished first impressions and deliver dynamic, fearless presentations.

Universal Fear

A number of years ago in an episode of Seinfeld, Jerry Seinfeld talked about a poll that had been conducted in which Americans said that their number one fear was public speaking, and that the fear of death was number five. He said, “...that would mean that at a funeral, people are five times more likely to want to be in the casket than giving the eulogy. “ Below are a few simple things you can do to ease some of your nervousness and anxiety from public speaking. 1. Realize 90% of Nervousness doesn't Show: Most of the symptoms of nervousness, 2.
butterflies, sweaty palms, faster heart beat, etc., never show to an audience. If you set your notes down on a lectern, the audience won’t be able to see even shaky hands. Written Material: Never, never, never, never, never write out a talk word for word unless absolute accuracy must be maintained as in legal situations. Otherwise, just make brief notes. A little spontaneity adds a tremendous amount of character to your talk. Written speeches are almost always boring, and when you read text, it is much more difficult to make a connection with your audience. Committing Your Talk to Memory: Never memorize a talk word for word. Memorizing a talk word for word can actually lead to more anxiety. If something out of the ordinary happens or if you ever lose your place, you will put an extreme amount of pressure on yourself to get back. A better way to memorize a talk is to narrow your talk down to just a few main ideas and commit those main ideas to memory. If during your presentation you have additional time, you can add additional details to the main ideas, and if time runs short (which it often does,) you can rest assured that your main points were delivered. Show up Early: Get an idea for the setting, mingle with your audience, and test any equipment that you will be using. Take a Few Deep Breaths: When many of us get nervous, we tend to take shallow breaths. This robs our brain of oxygen and can create a negative reinforcing cycle. What happens is that we originally take a shallow breath out of nervousness and try to speak. Somewhere along the way, we realize that we won’t be able to finish our sentence, so we speed up. That makes us more nervous, so we breathe even more shallow. When this cycle occurs, just pause, take a deep breath, and continue. Look for a Friendly Face: As you are approaching the front, make eye contact with a few friendly faces in the audience. Smile, and they will probably smile back. It will put you both at ease. Drop your Hands: Your hands and your gestures can add great impact to your delivery, but when you are not using your hands, just drop them to your side. It will feel awkward at first, but dropping your hands to your side is the most natural gesture you can use. For instance, when you walk down the hallway at your office, do you cup your hands in front as you walk? Is it more natural to lock your hands behind you when you walk? Probably not. In most situations, it is natural to just let your hands drop to your side.

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When you do this, it will allow you to make more purposeful gestures when you need to. (See Chapter 6 on Gestures and Movement.) Speak Only on Topics in which You are an Expert: One of the reasons that speech classes and toasting clubs can actually make people more nervous is that the topics we choose to present on during these activities are topics that we put together after just a little research. If someone were going to ask you to present about a business topic, the main reason would be because you are the most qualified person to speak about the topic. You are qualified because of your experience. Your delivery should be as casual as if your best friend came up to you and asked, “How is your project going?” This will allow you to deliver your topic is a way that makes the audience feel as if you are talking to each person directly. Be Excited about Your Topic: If you aren't, no one else will be either. If you give your audience energy, they will give energy back to you. Practice: Rather than practicing your presentation in front of a mirror (when we do this, we tend to find things to nitpick that an audience would never notice,) try practicing your delivery by using it in a conversation with a friend or loved one. “Hey, have I told you about the project I’m working on…”

After training thousands of people to become better speakers, one thing that I know for sure is that EVERYONE gets nervous when they present. Exceptional speakers just don’t show it. In fact, in many cases, the great speaker will use that nervousness to his or her advantage

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Getting To Know Anxiety

A Self-Help Guide Brought To You By:
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Legal Disclaimer Information
The information provided to you within this ebook is done so for educational purposes only. It is not meant to replace the expert opinion or advice from your professional health care provider. Before attempting any type of mental health therapy, it is highly recommended you speak with your professional health care provider and follow their instructions. Neither the author nor any authorized redistributors of this material will be held liable for any actions of those persons reading the information provided herein. It is the sole responsibility of the reader to take responsibility of any and all actions the engage in. Furthermore, the author nor any authorized distributor will be held liable for any and all damages that may arise from the downloading, opening, use, or any other related actions of this ebook file. Your performing any of the aforementioned actions indicates that you have agreed to the terms set forth within this section. This is a free ebook. And it must be distributed as such. No monetary price must be charged for a copy of it. You may give away a copy of this ebook to your customers, subscribers or website visitors, providing none of the contents are changed in any way. You are not permitted to use any portion of this ebook, recompile, deconstruct, take apart, or otherwise change any of the content contained herein without prior written and granted permission from the author.

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Foreword
Do you often feel like this? • Alone. • Confused. • Scared. That's how I used to feel too. I could have all the people around me in the world, and still I would feel all by myself. I felt like the only person on the planet that was having such difficult problems that were starting to affect my ability to LIVE LIFE. At first, I thought either I was going mad, or that I must have an isolated case of some weird disease. Of course, I could NEVER reveal how I felt to another living soul. I was afraid I'd end up LOCKED UP in a mental health facility! I simply had NO CLUE what was happening to me, or that other people were also suffering just as I was. These panic attacks would just spring up from out of nowhere. While I was working, driving, eating, or doing any number of everyday tasks. WHY was this happening to me? WHAT was happening to me? And, would it EVER STOP?? I couldn’t tell anyone else about my problem, because I didn't KNOW what it was. Until I discovered what it was that made me feel this way. Today, I'm a VERY different person. I KNOW what it is I am battling with on a daily basis.
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I KNOW I'm not the only one who struggles with it. I KNOW that this will be a condition I will most likely have for the REST OF MY LIFE. And I'm OKAY with that. Because I know now that I suffer from anxiety disorder. I hope that by sharing the information I have found this will help you in some way to get control back of your life and overcome your anxiety and panic disorder.

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Introduction
Your heart starts to pound. . .You begin to feel dizzy or faint. . .You experience shortness of breath. . .You feel tingling or numbness in your hands and feet. . .You start to feel pressure in your chest. . .You think you may be dying or at the least having a heart attack. . .You think you may be going crazy. . .But you're NOT! These are the classic symptoms of a panic attack. Millions of people in countries all over the world, have them every single day. You may be one of them. Or you may know someone that is battling with this affliction. Either way, you need to know how to help yourself, or someone you care about deal with anxiety. And the best way to do this is through understanding what anxiety is and offering them, or getting, the support they desperately need. My hope is that as a long time sufferer of anxiety and depression, you can help yourself. Or make a loved one feel as if they are not alone in this by reading through this guide. Other people out there are suffering just as you may be right now. You CAN get help and overcome this affliction. You CAN learn to LIVE WITH IT and STOP letting IT control YOU.

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Who Suffers From Anxiety?
People who you would never suspect in a million years! In fact, anxiety is such a widespread disorder that virtually ANYONE can suffer from it. Your uncle Buddy, your Grandma Jean, your sister Annie, your neighbor Joe, your best friend Patti, or your brother George. But, because anxiety is one of those 'sweep it under the carpet', “embarrassment-type-Ithink-I-might-be-going-crazy” disorders, people don't like to talk about it. Or admit they are long time sufferers. Especially if you are someone always in the public eye, such as Kim Basinger. Kim had a long, difficult struggle with anxiety disorder, and kept it a secret for quite a good portion of her life. You would never guess it to see her up on the 'silver screen' though would you? But in fact she has spoken out publicly about her battle with anxiety in the hope that this may raise awareness of this dreaded disorder. And it has. She is one brave soul to expose a huge portion of her private life like this. Kudos to you Kim! Let us not forget also that anxiety is thought to be an inherited disorder, although your mother or father may not show the outward symptoms of it. Remember, this is an embarrassment disorder, or one that makes the sufferer believe they are, or are going, crazy. However, not every person who has experienced an anxiety attack will develop a full blown disorder, but don't discount the fact that potentially they COULD. Here's an interesting statistical fact for you. According to NIMH(National Institute of Mental Health) approximately 2.4 MILLION adult Americans suffer from some form of anxiety or Panic Disorder. That's about 40 Million! And, it is twice as common in women as it is in men. Hmmm. . .Maybe this could be a contributing factor in why women worry so much
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about things? ;-) Coincidentally, the major reason for people not knowing what is happening to them, or that they are suffering from anxiety or Panic Disorder COULD be attributed to the fact that many cases reported began in adolescence. Therefore, a child may not be as articulate in describing what they are experiencing compared to an adult. The key here is to LISTEN TO YOUR CHILDREN!! You would NOT want them to endure a childhood full of suffering and not even know the reason for it. Another interesting fact to be aware of is that anxiety attacks don't only happen when a person is awake! They can, and often do, happen while sleeping. How scary do you think that may be to wake up to? Indescribable would be putting it MILDLY.

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What Is Anxiety?
Imagine standing in front of a high-speed locomotive and you are frozen solid to the spot. Unable to move, knowing what is about to happen, and can do NOTHING to help yourself escape. Now imagine being plunged into this scenario several times A DAY. This is what it feels like for an anxiety disorder sufferer. Or as close as it can be described. The only difference is there is no speeding train heading towards you. It is unseen. And comes from out of nowhere. Without warning. Crippling you in utter fear. Sounds extreme? It IS. A good description of anxiety is a disorder in which the individual afflicted feels an intense, irrational fear and an impending sense of doom or dread. What this means in 'layman's terms' is, if you suffer from anxiety disorder, or any form of it, you can be overcome with paralyzing fear for no obvious reason. You may also feel as if there is no possible way out of it. And you can experience this sudden fear at any time within the course of a day. Someone suffering from anxiety disorder may also have other common disorders that go hand-in-hand with it such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, or any other number of phobias that make it all the more important to seek treatment.

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What Causes Anxiety?
Short and sweet? Everything and NOTHING! Reread the definition of it above. Now the picture should become a bit clearer. In most documented cases of anxiety attacks, the patient rarely reports any event that would have triggered the onset of the attack itself. Now, with that said, let me also explain that when an anxiety sufferer goes back to a situation or setting where a previous attack happened, this could trigger another attack. They'll be reminded of how terrifying that first attack was, and subconsciously be thinking about it triggering yet another attack! It's a vicious cycle of fear. And the greatest fear of an anxiety attack/disorder sufferer? To have ANOTHER PANIC ATTACK! I hope that this is beginning to make a little more sense to you now. Of course the attack hasn't killed them, and most likely won't, but it can sure feel like you're dying at the moment when an attack is occurring though. So, the greatest cause of having an anxiety attack is also your greatest treasure, your MIND. Even though you can tell someone having an anxiety attack that "It's All In Your Mind", this usually makes them feel you are being patronizing. Not a nice feeling I'm sure you'll agree. Even though you don't mean it in that way, this is most likely the way it is received. To be more 'clinical' about anxiety, it is, in fact, 'all in your mind'. Because the brain is where all your anxiety stems from. Many studies have focused mainly on two specific portions of the brain that are responsible for inducing feelings of fear and anxiety. It is
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simply a trigger that sets off one's “fight or flight” defense mechanism, kicks in the adrenaline, and BAM! A full blown anxiety attack is on it's way. Often, anxiety is the result of increased stress in your daily life. Bills piling up, children seemingly out of control, pressure from work, family, and other events can trigger this disorder bringing it to the surface of an otherwise “dormant” carrier of the genetic traits passed on by their parents.

What Are The Different Types Of Anxiety?
Anxiety/Panic Disorder This is the form of the disorder that brings on sudden attacks that paralyze you with fear for no apparent reason. Of course there are underlying factors that cause these attacks, however, the sufferer rarely knows what those are, unless they seek professional help from a family physician or a clinical specialist who is trained to deal with this type of disorder. Most common symptoms of the attacks would be: • • • • • • • • Dizziness Feeling faint Increased breathing Pounding heart. Tingling or numbing sensations in the hands and feet Fear of impending doom. Disconnection with reality Lack or loss of control.

People that suffer from this disorder may honestly feel as if they are dying, having a heart attack, or losing their minds. These attacks can occur at any time, and even while
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the sufferer is asleep. Anxiety/Panic Disorder is often associated with other serious disorders such as depression. Because attacks associated with this disorder are such terrifying events, the sufferer may make several trips to the local emergency room not really knowing the true cause as it may be difficult to get a correct diagnosis at first. This disorder can be very debilitating to the sufferer and can seriously hinder their daily activities. If a sufferer experiences an attack while driving, they will avoid driving to avoid having another attack. This can be true of any type of daily activity such as grocery shopping, doing dishes, watching television, etc. However, this form of disorder is the most treatable of all the anxiety disorders, and so an individual experiencing, or believe they are experiencing symptoms of this disorder should seek help and effective treatment through their chosen health care professional. Social anxiety disorder This type of disorder more commonly strikes when a sufferer is within a social setting. It is also referred to as Social Phobia and can be a very traumatic and debilitating disorder making it near impossible for one afflicted with it to be comfortable at any social gathering. This includes everyday functions such as attending class, going out to dinner at a restaurant, or even going to work. The person suffering from this disorder has strong self-conscious issues and may often times feel as if they are not welcome, or really a part of the social setting. They feel as if they are constantly being judged or watched by others for no apparent reason other than those things they themselves feel self-conscious about. The social settings can be those that occur on a daily basis, or those that are rare occurrences, such as a party, public speaking events, etc. Often times, the sufferer will experience any of the following symptoms when placed in social gatherings: • Profuse sweating. • Trembling or shaking. • Feeling sick to their stomachs.
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• Inability to speak, or blushing. A person suffering from this type of disorder can become so upset by an upcoming social event that it will plague them for weeks in advance working them into an anxious frenzy by the time the event finally comes around. In an attempt to 'self-medicate', a person experiencing this disorder will often times turn to alcohol or drugs to cope which usually leads to even more problems. Anxiety disorder usually starts sometime during early childhood or adolescence and continues throughout adulthood. Treatment for this disorder can be accomplished through careful and consistent counseling and medication. General anxiety disorder This disorder is a heightened sense of anxiety or worry experienced on a daily basis. It’s a chronic disorder which is continuous throughout the sufferer’s day. They experience difficulty concentrating or constant, excessive worry about every day concerns with an inability to control those overwhelming feelings of worry. Symptoms can also include: • • • • Increased nervousness Irritability Fatigue Restlessness.

While not as extreme a condition such as Anxiety/Panic Disorder, it is still a serious illness that requires professional treatment from a qualified health care provider or counselor.

What Can You Do To Battle Back?
First and foremost, you MUST realize this anxiety attack for what it is when you are having one. Understand that you are having an anxiety attack, and that it won't last
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forever. Most attacks only last anywhere from a few minutes up to no longer than a half an hour. Give or take. Even though it may be difficult, try to lay down and RELAX. If you can't lay down, sit still, close your eyes and focus on slow, even, breathing. This will help ease the symptoms somewhat. Not completely mind you, but enough that you can make it through. The REAL trick in battling anxiety is to redirect your train of thought. Keep yourself as busy as you can and let the thoughts of fear of an oncoming attack melt away. They will. And the more you practice this reversal of thought, the better you will get at it and be able to manage your anxiety attack better the next time you feel one coming on. If it becomes too much to manage on your own, seek medical assistance quickly. Never feel embarrassed for having to call an emergency squad. That's their job! These courageous folks get calls like this all the time, so you should not feel the least bit of embarrassment or guilt in asking for their help.

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What Can You Do To Support Someone Suffering From An anxiety disorder?
This section is for those trying to help someone who is experiencing, or dealing with, anxiety on a daily basis. How you provide support to them may help them to control their anxiety to some degree. First thing’s first. NEVER belittle or try to downplay someone's anxiety disorder. This is a REAL disorder and should be respected as such. Don't just dismiss their episode as a one time event, or try and 'solve' their problem through rationalization. You have to understand that when a person is actually going through an anxiety attack rationality is not something they are concentrating on. Or listening to. This is an extremely frightening experience and no matter how much you'd want to, you CANNOT MAKE THIS EXPERIENCE GO AWAY. Only the individual who is having the attack has the power to do this. Not YOU. The absolute worst thing you can do is to act as if they are making it up to get attention. This is simply not the case. While you may believe this to be true because you have never yourself experienced the sheer terror of an anxiety attack, that doesn't mean that it isn't happening to someone you care about. Imagine for a second that you had witnessed a "physical" accident that your loved one or dear friend was involved in. Something you could see the outcome from. What if they were trapped inside a car that was on fire? What if they were trapped underwater and were drowning? You would want to aid them, wouldn't you? What if they had stopped breathing?

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Wouldn't you do everything in your power to help them? While the above examples are extreme, sometimes, to an anxiety sufferer, it absolutely feels like the end of their world. As if they are drowning in a sea of fear, unable to pull themselves out. Also, by ignoring the anxiety attack, you are probably contributing to another disorder that goes hand in hand with anxiety. Depression. Instead of standing around, try helping them the next time they have an attack. How can you do that? Just BE there for them. Let them know that while you may not understand what they are going through, you are there for them and will stay until they feel better. Do NOT try and force someone out of an anxiety attack. It could make the attack that much worse for them. Just let the attack happen naturally, and in most, if not all, cases, their bodies will help them come out of the panic zone all on it's own. If it doesn't, get them to the nearest emergency room as soon as you can. Or call an emergency squad to take them. Also, NEVER try to give someone suffering from an anxiety attack any type of prescription drugs that have not been prescribed by their family physician. Seems like common sense, because when you see a loved one going through such a painful event, you really want to help them. Believe me, THIS WILL NOT HELP THEM. Getting them to a professional source, such as an emergency room or their own family physician, for help WILL.

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Where To Get Help For Your Anxiety?
If you have exhausted all your attempts to overcome anxiety on your own, there is still help for you. The best course of action for you at this point is to seek out professional help through your family physician. He will advise you what help is available for your anxiety problem. He may arrange for you to get help for your anxiety through your local area mental health facilities. These are equipped to deal with many different mental health disorders and illnesses, one of which is anxiety and panic disorder. Never think that you are the only one going through this. There are millions of other people struggling with anxiety just as you are every single day. And there are many support groups and counseling services you can turn to for help.

Self-Help Programs
There are many self-help programs available that will show you how to control your anxiety and/or panic attacks. If you think about it, the solution to your anxiety problems is in your own hands and these programs will show you the most effective ways to stop your feelings of anxiety. They are not free but they aren’t too expensive either considering what they can do for you. Moreover, they do come with a money-back guarantee if you find they don’t work for you. One of the best, which has helped many people, is Panic Away by Joe Barry. Joe knows all about anxiety and panic attacks because he is an ex-sufferer himself. He has finally cured his anxiety and panic attacks using his own techniques. He has many testimonials from former sufferers who have been helped by his methods too. You can find out more about Joe’s Panic Away by clicking on the link below.

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Joe Barry’s Panic Away

Yet another well-known treatment that has succeeded in helping thousands of people to stop anxiety and panic attacks is The Linden Method.

Overview of the Linden Method
The Linden Method is a highly successful anxiety treatment program that shows you some simple but effective techniques that can eliminate your Anxiety and Panic Attacks permanently. Created by Charles Linden, an ex-anxiety and panic attack sufferer who understands completely how you feel and knows EXACTLY what to do about it.

Some of the highlights of The Linden Method:
• • • • • • •

How to eliminate panic attacks. How to cure your insomnia. How to overcome agoraphobia. How to stop negative thoughts. The truth about anxiety medication. How changing your diet will help you feel better. FREE, UNLIMITED help and advice by email for 1 year. If you need help or advice about your anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias or panic attacks as you follow the Linden Method... just email them.

In addition, some Linden Method users who suffer from depression have found that they benefit greatly from it and learn techniques that reduce their depressive symptoms very effectively. The program is available instantly via download, and contains many extra resources including video and audio guides, and information on how nutrition affects your attacks Go to the Official Linden Method Website
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Finally, here are two more websites with self-help courses that can help you to overcome anxiety and panic attacks. Panic & Anxiety Gone EasyCalm And, of course your doctor can prescribe effective medicines for you if necessary.

Conclusion
Well, you have made it to the end of this ebook and hopefully you are coming away with more helpful information that when you began reading. I will leave you with a few more words of encouragement. If you suffer from anxiety, I commend you for being strong enough to learn more about what it is, what you can expect, some steps you can take to get your anxiety under control, and last but not least, finding someone that can understand what you are going through and know that you are not alone in your fight. You can get help and you shouldn’t feel stupid or embarrassed for doing so. You are a just a normal person that happens to suffer from an anxiety disorder. You deserve to be as happy and comfortable with your life as anyone else! If you are on the other side of the fence, and you are living with, care about someone with, or know someone with anxiety, I hope you now have a better understanding of what that person faces on a daily basis and how you can help them get through the tough times. Whether you are someone battling with anxiety or someone who is helping an anxiety sufferer, I wish you all the best life can give to you. You are a wonderful person for taking steps to educate yourself on this serious illness. Congratulate yourself for a job well done!
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And remember…

NEVER BE EMBARRASSED TO ASK FOR HELP WHEN YOU NEED IT.

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Getting Help Counselling and therapy are generally very helpful for overcoming anxiety and panic attacks. This usually involves looking at the sort of thoughts that are happening with the anxiety, ways of changing unhelpful thoughts, ways of recognising strengths you can draw upon and ways of relaxing. It often then involves taking small steps to face whatever triggers the anxiety in a safe and controlled way. This sort of help is available at the Counselling Centre. For severe anxiety some people find medication helpful and speaking with a GP can be a good idea. Anxiety can sometimes be affected by physical conditions and talking with a doctor can help respond to this or to rule it out. Self help groups. Some people find it helpful to talk to others who have gone through the same thing and a centre offering that help is: Panic Anxiety Disorder Association (PADA) (2004), P.O. Box 83, Fullarton, South Australia, 5063. www.panicanxietydisorder.org.au [accessed 25.5.2004]

Appointments or enquiries can be made by telephoning 8303 5663 or by visiting the Centre, ground floor, Horace Lamb Building.

Anxiety and Panic Attacks:
The Counselling Centre is available to assist students with personal difficulties that are affecting their study. The Centre provides:• Individual Counselling: Appointments are required. • Telephone Counselling. • Emergencies: Counsellors will be available. • Daily Drop In Service: From 1.00 – 4.30pm. Students are seen on a "first come first served basis". • Workshops.

Some ideas for managing anxiety

Ground floor, Horace Lamb Building North Terrace, Adelaide Telephone: 8303 5663 This pamphlet describes anxiety and in particular when experiences of anxiety interfere with every day life, making life less enjoyable. A little bit of anxiety can be useful, as it can help motivate us to do our best, but for some people feelings of anxiety get out of control, and instead of being motivated, the person is debilitated. These people may get to the point when their anxiety - or the fear of becoming anxious - means that they avoid giving a tutorial paper, sitting an exam, going on a date or looking for a job. The good news is that there are a number of ways of getting over such anxiety so it stops being a problem Different types Anxiety can occur in different degrees and for different reasons. A bit of anxiety can be helpful, as it might help us be motivated to perform well or look for signs of danger. An actor will usually have a bit of anxiety before a performance and consider that a good thing. Too much anxiety however can be very debilitating. Some people get anxious in social situations. Some get anxious about specific things (like flying or public speaking) and some find the anxiety is more general, and hangs around and seems to attach itself to all sorts of situations. Panic Attacks At the more extreme end of anxiety, some people suffer panic attacks. The intensity of the attack can be extremely severe and many people feel they are having a heart attack and are going to die, or that they are going crazy. It is not unusual for people to become fearful and chronically anxious about having another panic attack. Symptoms of panic attacks can be very intense and may include difficulty breathing properly, racing heart, sweating and even fear that you might be dying The symptoms of Panic Attack are related to the “Fight or Flight” response, which is a natural response that occurs in humans and animals when faced with danger. This is something which is useful in an evolutionary sense, as we have adrenalin released and other body changes that help in running away or fighting better. The brain also goes into something of a short circuit, so that we can notice and respond to

danger well, but not be very creative or think quite as clearly as usual. All of this is a great help if you happen to stumble across a tiger in the jungle, but not so helpful if you are about to give a talk to a tutorial group. Unhelpful strategies Avoidance: Because severe anxiety or panic attacks feel dreadful most people do whatever they can to avoid them. This makes sense but tends not to help much in the long term, as the fear tends to build up, the longer whatever causes the fear is avoided. Often this inadvertently makes it worse. Sometimes the fear just sits there until the same trigger for the fear is met again some time later, when it all comes up again. Drinking: In some cultures having a drink is a pretty common way to help with social nerves at a party. Generally, however, if people start to rely on alcohol or other drugs to cope with anxiety it can be quite dangerous. The symptoms may be alleviated in the short-term, but in the long-term the problem doesn’t go away and the effects of alcohol and drugs upon physical and mental health can be quite serious. Helpful strategies Awareness Generally it helps to learn a bit about anxiety and panic and to realise that some of it is shared by all of us. When it does get out of control it still helps to know it is a normal body process, which is just happening too strongly when you don’t want it. Acceptance Recognising the feeling, naming what is happening to you and allowing a bit of time for it to pass sounds too simple but does often help. People who suffer from problems with anxiety usually become anxious about being anxious, and so a feedback loop develops which makes it much worse. If you can just notice and name it and just keep breathing, that usually helps. Exercise Exercise doesn’t ‘solve’ anxiety but it can help to release the physical tension that goes with it. The usual guideline is to do at least thirty minutes with your heart rate raised. This might be jogging, riding a bike, going to a gym or just walking at a brisk pace. Exercise seems to shift the body out of the ‘fight or flight’ state and bring it back to a more normal resting state. It tends to ‘flush’ through the body chemicals like adrenalin that go with anxiety, and to release a few endorphins, one of the body’s ‘feel good’ chemicals. Balance Practical steps can also help, such as checking your work load and making sure you are not overloaded with study, or with things

that are emotionally demanding. Doing too much for too long without proper breaks can tend to build up stress and lead to anxiety. Taking some breaks and balancing your schedule can help. Think about thinking Usually when people are getting very anxious there is an initial anxious feeling which leads to a whirlpool of anxious thoughts, which leads to a massively increased anxious feeling. It can help to acknowledge that there is some anxiety, but then to stop the anxious thoughts that follow on from it. Try to notice the thoughts and let them pass, or have something positive to say to yourself, or remind yourself of what your goals are in the situation so you can focus on them. Controlled Breathing It may sound a little strange but the breath is a remarkably powerful mind-body link and a good place to start in controlling anxiety. Although we don’t usually notice it, our patterns of breathing change with each different emotion we are feeling and this is also true of anxiety. Generally people who are anxious tend to breathe high into the top of the chest, breathing in only a little then holding the breath. A panic attack might be different, still breathing high in the chest but rapidly, which can lead to hyperventilation. Doing a few slow deep breaths can have a physical effect to lower the anxiety a little. If it can be cranked down a notch or two, then it is easier to think through what is best to do next to help manage it. The Counselling Centre has a separate handout on controlled breathing for those who might like to explore this further. Click here for more information: Panic Away -End Anxiety And Panic Attacks

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