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SECTION I General Instability of an Orthotropic Circular Cy1indrical Shell Subiected to a Pressure Combined with an Axial Load Considering Both Clamped and Simply Supported Edge Conditions
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Carl C. Steyer, Director Thomas A. Carlton Jr., Associate
University of Alabama Research Institute George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Contract No. NAS8 5012 May 28, 1962 October 15, 1962


SUMMARY REPORT
November, 1962

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GENERAL INSTABILITY O F AN ORTHOTROPIC CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELL SUBJECTED TO A PRESSURE COMBINED WITH AN AXIAL LOAD CONSIDERING BOTH CLAMPED AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED EDGE CONDITIONS
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BY
C a r l C. Steyer and Th0mas.A. Carlton, Jr.
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Submitted to George C. Marshall Space Flight Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration
This report represents section I of the summary report for contract number NAS85012
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Unive r sity of Alabama University, Alabama November, 1962
University of Alabama. f o r very thin c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell. Alabama. When a s h o r t cylindrical shell is subjected t o In the analyses presently available. a definite need exists f o r the development of an expression that w i l l yield the buckling c r i t e r i a in a form usable f o r designers when a s h o r t orthotropic o r stiffened cylindrical shell i s subjected t o a combination of a p r e s s u r e and a n axial load and h a s boundary conditions other than simply supported. D. INTRODUCTION Jn a discussion of the instability of a c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell the t e r m "short" is generally applied to a cylinder whose length is approximately equal t o the radius. Ph. the effect of the boundary conditions is no longer insignificant. Steyer. .University of Alabama Bureau of Engineering Research and Research Institute GENERAL INSTABILITY O F AN ORTHOTROPIC CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELL SUBJECTED TO A PRESSURE COMBINED WITH AN AXIAL LOAD CONSIDERING BOTH CLAMPED AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED EDGE CONDITIONS C a r l C. such as an axial load that produces instability. the socalled s m a l l deflection or linear theory does not yield satisfactory agreement with experimental results. * P r o f e s s o r of Engineering Mechanics. + and ++ Thomas A. University. University. Sr. with a radius to thickness ratio g r e a t e r than 200. the solution to the Donne11 type of differentialequation f o r a n orthotropic c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell is found f o r simply supported edge conditions. D. Carlton. Ala. B Y Ph.  References (1) and (2). In addition. University of Alabama. ++Associate P r o f e s s o r of Engineering Mechanics . . Therefore.
The Donnell type differential equation is also solved for the c a s e of clamped edge conditions. however. a r e derived f o r an orthotropic c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell by applying variational methods to the expression f o r the total energy of the shell. Such an approach o r simi lar one is needed in instability shell studies f o r as presently constituted the the inclusion of nonlinear t e r m s in such studies results in such complex mathematical procedures that t h e i r practical application is almost prohibitive. In the present paper a s e t of instability equilibrium equations . and a fourbyfour determinant that yields 2 . The r e s u l t s of such attempted linearization a s mentioned above w i l l be p r e sented in another paper In o r d e r to develop the most complete analysis possible based on existing straindisplacement information. but such analyses as now constituted are not applicable for design c r i t e r i a . the investigation w a s begun by using the best general theoretical analysis and modifying and limiting it when needed as indicated by the mathematical difficulties encountered. indicate better agreement with t e s t data. simil a r to those of Reference (2). F r o m these equilibrium equations a n eighth o r d e r differ ential equation of the Donnell type is obtained f o r a cylinder of uniform thickn e s s subjected to a p r e s s u r e and a compressive axial force. The theoretical approach used is s i m i l a r to the one used in Reference (2) wherein orthotropic shell analysis is applied to a stiffened c i r c u l a r cylinder. This algebraic expression can be minimized quite readily f o r certain p a r a m e t e r s by the use of a digital computer for the purpose of establishing design c r i t e r i a . In this paper a constant factor is included i n a radial displacement expression f o r the purpose of linearizing certain energy t e r m s that w e r e neglected in Reference (2) s o that t h e i r effect may be studied. and a quadratic algebraic expression is developed that yields the buckling c r i teria. such as References (3). additional straindisplacement t e r m s a r e included that w i l l later make pos sible the linearization study mentioned above.Nonlinear analyses based on an assumed deflection pattern. and (5). (4). This differ ential equation is solved f o r the case of simply supported edge conditions.
STRESS STRAIN RELATIONS Figure 1: Coordinate System and Displacements of Circular Cylindrical Shell The c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell geometry employed.\+ + .y.)(+ * L . LJp  2 %& W/P) e.x = u. i )t K = v .V . U ] S +(. s+ " / . and a comma indicates differentiation with respect t o the succeeding variable. F o r a homogeneous orthotropic material. a r e the axial. the s t r e s s . e s s ers ...s 4 %)y x . The straindisplacement e.W R  % / i j . and s h e a r s t r a i n s . t e r m s of the shell middlesurface displacements. respectively. XS + & ( d . 3 . ~ V Q  (1) .t(L"J. and d . is shown in Figure (1) together with the coordinate system used and the corresponding middlesurface displacements. 3 is the radius of the cylinder.w a p dds . Again it may be possible that design c r i  teria may be established by minimizing this determinant for certain para m e t e r s by using a digital computer.. relationships used are written as follows.the buckling c r i t e r i a is developed. circumferential.s t r a i n relations in generalized plane s t r e s s can be written as follows. and where I< is a constant. (A In . ewr . which is the s a m e a s that of Reference (2). the ex pressions f o r the buckling s t r a i n s i n the shell w a l l are the s a m e as those given in References (2) with some additional t e r m s .
the following relationship must hold between the elastic constants. also defined. a r e Poissonls ratios. and For convenience in l a t e r calculations . = q L). respectively.: . For an elastic system. and s h e a r stresses.In the preceding equations . (4) Based on Maxwell's reciprocal theorem. a criterion of buckling is that the variation of the change in the energy of the 4 . G is the average s h e a r modulus . the following constants and notations. i rand k Z a r ethe values of the moduli of elasticity averaged over the thickness in the axial and circum sdx and &s ferential directions. circum ferential. a r e the axial. and G. EL3 ':. above relationship. s i m i l a r to those given in Reference (2). GSL .# (5) The two expressions foro(+ and % in Equations (3) are the result of the STRAIN ENERGY AND TOTAL ENERGY EXPRESSION The instability differential equations of equilibrium w i l l be derived using the s a m e procedure as given in Reference (2). a r e introduced. respectively.
G). Txx . with respect to the displacements..pR . (7) . and Vs is the volume of the shell wall. . and for this c a s e the change in the potential energy of the external forces during buckling is given by the following expression. must be zero. ‘P R f o r the c a s e of The theore f o r an internal pressure. Described mathematically. and existing i n the shell in the compressed but unbuckled state. I 5 . Oj. the following expression f o r the total energy is obtained. css s t r e s s e s superimposed during the buckling process. C F S ] A V .+ . c. I If p a n external pressure.system due to buckling. The s t r a i n energy of the shell can be computed in t e r m s of the buckling s t r a i n s and the prebuckling stresses by substituting Equation (2) into Equation (8) with the following result.I 6 = aI . The total energy of a n orthotropic c i r c u l a r cylindrical shell can then be obtained in t e r m s of the displacements and t h e i r derivatives by substituting Equations (1) into Equation (8) and adding the r e s u l t t o Equation (9)... tical development w i l l be continued for i&. this criterion becomes i(u++)=..s CAS + G. . c%Axt OI: e*. and designates a radial pressure.0 in the potential energy of the external forces during the buckling process. 4 C. where is the middle surface area of the shell wall.S+ i(a i* fr. A f t e r integrating over the shell thickness and retaining only second o r d e r t e r m s . then  n. If initial bending stresses a r e neglected (6) w h e r e u is the change in the s t r a i n energy of the shell and i T is the change UI p*‘[ In the preceding expression are the csa i . and GXS a r e the membrane stresses 6.
applying a wellknown __ identity from the calculus of variations.EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS AND NATURAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS I RESULTING FROM THE APPLICATION O F VARIATIONAL PROCEDURES F r o m Equation (10) the following expression is obtained for the v a r i ation in the total energy of the shell after making the substitutions indicated by Equations (3). 6 . I I After using I dAs= dr& . and integrating Equation (11) by p a r t s between the proper limits. the following expression is obtained for the variation in the total energy.
and the following equations of equilibrium are obtained from this requirement. JL. f & y.The change in the total energy of a system must vanish for any of the a r b i t r a r y virtual displacements in equilibrium. and 6 W..x + Di W ~ tM D ~ W ./K /K f (7 0CfJP) Y . respectively.S / R = 0 (15) The following natural boundary conditions are obtained as a result of the requirement that the change in the total energy of the system represented by the line integrals of Equation (12) must vanish for any of the virtual displacements o r t h e i r derivatives.)3qx t 2'85 W A S / p R t z r D . . ( d + ~d f . S J S + (ZD3t2f)q)w)otr~ 'd+c(.. Jr. / R ' ) &s %5Y. and 4 when the system is Therefore the integrands in the surface integral of Equation (12) that are multiplied by J & . 7 . $\r. must vanish../k & bt .D I / Z P ' ) k s x t &'W.A. i /p 0 (14) w r f m * / r ~( 2)or ~x/n'a.(..
DEVELOPMENT OF A DONNELL TYPE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION In order to derive a Donne11 type of differential equation. (14). . Equations' (13). and (15) are written in the following manner.
.A linear differential operator is defined as follows: By successive differentiation and combination Equations (13a) and ~ expression.
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11 .
h a s the (23) In t h e above equation A is a constant and the dimensionless parameter.SOLUTION O F THE DONNELL TYPE O F DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR A LONG CYLINDER The assumption that the radial buckling displacement following f o r m results in a solution of Equation (21).. The above expression does not satisfy the boundary conditions for either a simply supported o r a clamped edge shell. ) .I trn/L . . the following derivation should only be used on a long cylindrical shell in which the boundary condition effects a r e negligible. is introduced. This relation 12 . The substitution of Equation (23) into Equation (21) is a solution of the stability equation provided a certain relation is satisfied. therefore.
ship results in the following algebraic equation which is the eigenvalue equation of the stability differential equation.and an axial compressive force an orthotropic cylindrical shell in addition to a p r e s s u r e p p a r e applied to . The following t e r m s are defined in o r d e r to utilize Equation (24) for design when a torque l. I I 1 In the preceding equation m and n a r e integers whose values govern the buckled mode. Since Then The substitution of Equations (26) and (28) into Equation (24) results in the following quadratic expression in t e r m s of the 11 axial pressure" ~ 13 .
1. A t r i a l and e r r o r procedure was used to determine the values of % and I . . assuming n continuous.In Equation (29) the buckled mode is described by the integer values of )n and n . The values of V and n t minimum in the past have been obtained by the following methods. n was mathematically minimized with respect t o f ly minimized. 14 . smallest positive value that w i l l satisfy Equation (29). the values used in This is equivalent for which f w i l l be a * this equation must be chosen so a s t o minimize f . in o r d e r to find its . t o minimizing the energy. A value for M was chosen based on experimental evidence and. O r a value of w a s chosen and M formal 2.. Since the lowest critical load is desired.
Once a computer program has been written that determines the minimum positive values of f for the parameters K. The substitution of Equation (31) into Equation (21)is a solution of the stability equation provided again that a certain relationship is satisfied. 15 . this program can readily b e adapted f o r use in developing No interaction relationships or equations are needed with such design data. . SOLUTION O F THE DONNELL TYPE O F DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR A SIMPLY SUPPORTED CYLINDRICAL SHELL The assumption that the radial buckling displacement w has the following f o r m also results in a solution of Equation (21)when %s. and / c z . SOLUTION O F THE DONNELL TYPE O F DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR A CYLINDER WITH CLAMPED EDGES For this particular case Nu is again assumed t o be z e r o and the following substitution is made i n Equation (21). Graphical methods w e r e used. in most cases the labor involved is tremendous. however. the use of a digital computer reduces this t i m e to only a few minutes. It is easily seen that the above equation can be derived from Equation (29) by setting Kz equal to zero. is zero. Thus any procedure that minimizes 8 from Equation (29) can also be applied to the c a s e of a simply supported cylindric a l shell that is subjected t o an axial compressive force 2 combined with a radial p r e s s u r e p . F o r the above methods t o insure accurate results. a program. After considerable mathematical manipu lation this relationship results i n the following second degree algebraic equation which is the eigenvalue equation of the stability differential equation. The above expression satisfies the boundary conditions on the W displacement I i f o r a simply supported cylindrical shell. .3.
.. ) C K RL/R~) ~ Equation (34) can be written a s follows: 16 . + K Z ~ .where a ev = (d.
. it must be a periodic function. .. (48). = (44) (45) E4 Since G is a function of the variable that represents the circum. G4. 8 2 . (471.. and 8. of Equations (46). Therefore. and (49) is given by trigonometric functions. a r e obtained. . where After repeated differentiation and considerable algebraic manipulation it can be shown that G 3 = 73.. A s a result the following values for the constants 73. the solution  ferential direction. 17 .
. d ./\<.7L) = 0 (6 1) The application of the preceding boundary conditions t o Equation (60) .0 (54) (rxY iBs(6aY 4 Bb(ray 4 (ra) I B q  Q Q (59) are When the quantities I<. EIc. . and and positive integer values of chosen in such a manner that two roots of the preceding quartic equation are r e a l and negative. into Equation (36) results in the following differential equation. (51). hb//t 1 \vwid . (45). r e s u l t s I in the following linear homogeneous algebraic equations in t e r m s of the con:+ stants given in Equation (60). h ' A. are constants and four r= & ir. then a solution of Equation (54) can be written incthe following manner. (50). (52). ? / L / g .fPI %flP t 9 . (44).i . and (53). then the natural boundary conditions given by I Equations (16) may not be satisfied. (42)./Ri (53) The substitution of Equations (37).3 AA/Rk 413' A./&! . /\C (51) (52) h$C\S/f(* . TX + Baf . 1 p . . . I i 18 . . (43). 0 )= f(L) '= T*b) = +..n= AY/T<? b oa74. I I where T+ . and r = i ra roots of Equation(59) If Equation (60) is used t o satisfy the following clamped edge geom e t r i c boundary conditions . and  a r e written in the f o r m Bik . + +B. .h y . (50) b> = cr .
B l . If the preceding analysis does not yield accurate comparison with experiments. and and positive integer values of yield two negative values f o r )7 which satisfy Equations (59) and (64) and r z in Equation (59).nant of the coefi cients of 6 9 6 B t 0 . . The minimum positive value of f that satisfies these conditions determines the critical buckling load. a digital computer program needs to the written that established s e t s of values for K . In o r d e r to determine the buckling load f o r a clamped edge circular cylindrical shell subjected to a combination of a hydrostatic p r e s s u r e and an axial compressive load. must be z e r o o r I 0 F r o m the preceding expression the following eigenvalue equation of the stab ility differential equation is obtained. then a general solution of Equation (54) needs t o be found that satisfies the geom e t r i c boundary conditions given by Equations (61) and the natural boundary conditions given by Equations (16). Calculations need to be performed for comparison with experimental results in o r d e r to establish the validity of the preceding analysis. and I BIZ. 19 . by use of the preceding analysis.
circumferential and s h e a r s t r e s s resultants p e r unit length L . D~ . & s . .WI . and the applied torque As Area of the middle surface of the shell Bending and t w i s t rigidities of an elemental a r e a of an orthotropic circular eylindrical shell eircumferential and shearing strain D . F E . ? c Radial or hydrostatic p r e s s u r e p Axial load 20 : .Constants that a r e functions of the extensional and s h e a r stiffnesses. c  n Nu. . errAxial. . .CS Moduli of elasticity for orthotropic circular cylindrical shell Function of the axial coordinate derived from the radial displacement Shear modulus f o r orthotropic circular cylindrical shell Function of the Circumferential coordinate derived from the radial displacement Wall thickness of the shell P a r a m e t e r introduced for the purpose of later studying the effect of previously neglected higher o r d e r energy t e r m s . . the applied pressure.. the bending and twist rigidities. F o r the present paper I G F h kr Kr Ratio of the radial p r e s s u r e to an axial load function Ratio of a torque function to an axial load function Length of the shell Integer that indicates buckled mode in the axial direction Integer that indicates buckled mode in the circumferential direction Axial. the axial load. 55. e.D.srr.
269277 (June. Aerospace Sciences. Aero. pp. pp. 1962) 'I (2) S. pp.Function of the axial load expressed in pressure units Function of the applied torque expressed in p r e s s u r e units Mathematical operator Roots of a n auxiliary equation Radius of cylindrical shell Axial. Gerard. Von Karman and HsueShen Tsien.. 1957) 11 (3) T. General Instability of a RingStiffened Circular Cylindrical Shell Under Hydrostatic P r e s s u r e . Appl. 303312 (June. circumferential and shearing stresses I REFERENCES (1) H. "Elastic Stability of Orthotropic Shells. 1941) It J. J. J. Mech. R. 505512 (May. Bodner. "The Buckling of Thin I I Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression. Becker and G. I tI I 21 . circumferential and radial coordinates of cylindrical shell middle surface Applied torque Axial. circumferential and radial dis placements of cylindrical shell middle surface u V Change in the s t r a i n energy of the shell during the buckling process Change in the potential energy of the external forces during the buckling process Volume of shell w a l l Extensional and shearing stiffnesses of orthotropic cylindrical shell P a r a m e t e r that defines the ratio of the radius of the cylinder t o the length of the cylinder Poisson's ratios for orthotropic shell Axial. Sciences.
739745 (December. I ' NACA TM 1390 (July. "The Behavior of Thin Cylindrical Shells after Buckling under Axial Compression. F. pp. Aero. 1948) 11On the Mechanism of Buckling of a Circular Cylindrical Shell under Axial Compression. J. 22 . Yoshimura. 1955) (5) Y.(4) H. Michielsen. Sciences.
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