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(same every‐where) * is measured with a balance. Weight; *measure the effects of gravity on mass. *weight can vary from place to place. *weight is measured by a scale. A. Matter ‐ it's properties to changes. a. Physical property VS. Chemical property Physical property; do not alter identity. *can be determined without altering identity; mass, weight, temperature, volume, density, color.... Chemical property; *can be determined only by altering identity; combustibility. b. Intensive property VS. Extensive property. Intensive property; *does not depend on quantity. Example; temperature, density, color. Extensive property; *does depend on quantity. Example; mass, weight, volume. 1
c. Physical change VS. Chemical change Physical change; *does not alter identity. Chemical change; *does alter identity. B. Forms of matter Pure substance vs. Mixtures Pure substance; one form of matter. 1. Cannot be broken down into smaller substance by physical changes. 2. Has a constant composition. 3. Changes in state occur at a constant temperature. ‐Two types of pure substance; element or compound. Element; basic building block of matter, cannot be broken down by simple substances by ordinary chemical changes. Compound; can be broken down by simple substances by chemical changes. Distinct substance composed of two or elements combined in a definite proportion by mass. Mixtures; one form of matter. containing two or more substances which can be present in variable amounts; can be homogeneous (sugar water) or heterogeneous (sand and water). 1. Can be broken down by simple substances by physical changes. 2. Can have variable composition. 3. The temperature varies in the change in state. ‐Two types of mixtures; homogeneous & heterogeneous. Heterogeneous; different properties throughout. Also known as a solution. Matter without uniform composition having two or more components or phases. Homogeneous; same properties throughout. Matter that has uniform properties throughout. 2
A. chemical combination of atoms. Compounds. only the first is a capital. Kinetic energy Potential energy –store energy. *if two letters. Elements. Position. *One or two letters. Natural occurring‐ 92 2. Covalent compounds VS. use a capital. *compounds are symbol by chemical formulas. Potential energy vs. A chemical bond for between two atoms of sharing a pair of electrons. 1. Solution (homogeneous)‐a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance. Symbols of elements. Man‐made A. Internal arrangement (chemical) 3 . shared a form of energy due to: 1. chemical combinations of Ion's that are either positive or negative. A. dissolving agent or the most abundant in a solution. Solvent. *if one letter. Solute. substance that is dissolved or the last abundant component in a solution. tells the number and types of atoms or ions in the compound. Ionic compounds Covalent compounds. B. Energy‐forms & changes. Ionic compounds. 2. or the energy of an object to its relative position.
Heat energy‐ natural form of energy that flows from a region of higher temperature to one of lower temperature. heat. Heat energy vs. we used to measure relative hotness or coldness. Kinetic energy‐energy that matter possesses due to its motion. Motion B. 3. Exothermic reaction ‐ a chemical reaction in which heat is released as a product. *these conversions are not 100% efficient source of energy. mechanical. 2. chemical. Temperature‐ man‐made scales. Endothermic reaction ‐ a chemical reaction that absorbs heat. active form of energy due to: 1. Temperature. Change in state. is always “lost” as heat energy. *changes in the amount of heat energy in a substance will cause either. 1. Change in temperature. sound. *three commonly used temperature scales: Fahrenheit=°F Celsius= °C Kelvin (absolute) = K *all physical and chemical changes are compounded by changes in heat energy. light. Or both 4 . Type of work it does. *these are also convertible.
Changes in state. Will occur under the proper conditions. 4) Sublimation→ Solid→ Gas (endothermic). A. 1. 5 . (endothermic). Solid (s): maintains its own shape and does not always fill its container. 1) The reverse→ Freezing→ Liquid into a solid (Exothermic). liquid or solid. 2. Matter can be a gas. 2) Vaporization→ Liquid into a gas. but does not always fill it. Late 1700s. 3. a. Melting. Liquid (l): takes its shape of its container. VI. Laws of conservation of matter (mass)‐total amount of matter in the universe is constant. (Endothermic). 5) Deposition→ Gas→ Solid (exothermic) Conservation laws. B. Gas (g): it takes the shape of its container and always completely fills it. 3) Condensation→ Gas into a liquid (exothermic). is when a solid converts into a liquid. States of matter. A.
C. A. Bromine) c) The rest are solid. Rest are man‐made. b) 2 are liquids (Mercury. 92 naturally occurring elements. E= energy. law of conservation of matter and energy‐ total amount of matter and energy in the universe is constant. a) 11 are gases. B. C. *large amounts of energy can convert into a small amount of energy. Space. there are no detectable changes in mass. 116 known elements. Laws of conservation of energy. *small amounts of mass can convert into large amounts of energy. At room temperature. Pure substance ‐ cannot be broken down by chemical changes. M= mass. 6 . total amount of energy in the universe is constant. laws of conservation of math *during physical and chemical changes. 1905 Einstein E=mc². Elements. c²= speed of light (3x10⁸meters per second). E. D. B. Or.
Na + (Nativum). (basic building blocks of elements). Elements are composed of atoms. *One letter. A. • Gold. Democritus and Leucippus believed matter to be discrete. • Lead. Pb (plumbum). K (Kalium). 1500 A. Carbon. • Sodium. Atoms= smallest part of an elements. “On the nature of things” Attempted to explain all natural theories using the atom idea. B. *most elements originate from the English system. C Hydrogen. Au (Aurum) *One originates from the German language. W (Wolfman) V. Most Greek philosophers believed matter to be continuous. which he called atoms. which returns all properties of that element. B Fluorine . • Potassium. Socrates→ Plato → Aristotle *all believed matter to be continuous. *some originate from the Latin language.F *Two letters. – 400 BC. * Democritus ‐thought that all forms of matter were composed of tiny invisible particles. idea survived. (Could be cut into smaller pieces).D. Origins. D. H Boron. Guthuberg‐ priestly press 7 . Elements are abbreviated by symbols. 1st letter uppercase & 2nd letter lowercase. A thread of atoms. Tungsten. upper case.
2. 4. neither created nor destroyed by are rarely rearranged. Atoms of different elements have different masses and sizes. Chemical compounds are formed by the union of two or more atoms of different elements. Elements consist of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. Chemical symbolism – F. Chemical formulas‐ gives the number and type of atoms or ions in the compound. 3. E. such as one to one. 6. ‐influenced many of European scientists (Newton). 2 to 3. A. Atoms combine to form compounds in a simple numerical ratios. 5. and so on. Postulates 1. Atoms of two elements make combined in different ratios to for more than one compound. Early 1800s‐ John Dalton. Atoms of the same elements are alike in mass and size. H₂O‐ water NH₃ ‐ ammonia CO₂ ‐ Carbon H= 2 atoms N= 1 atoms C= 1 atoms O=1 atoms H=3 atoms O = 2 atoms C₆H₁₂O₆ ‐ Glucose C₁₂H₁₂O₁₁ ‐ Sucrose (table sugar) C= 6 atoms C= 12 atoms H=12 atoms H=12 atoms O= 6 atoms O= 11 atoms NaCl – Table salt Na= 1 ion Cl=1 ion 8 . 1st atomic theory. During chemical change is atoms are matter. A given compound always contains the same number and type of atoms or ions. 1 to 2.
Stream of charged particles (matter). Empirical formula‐gives the type of atoms or ions but only their lowest whole number ratios. D. 1897‐ JJ Thomson. Ratio was constant. regardless of the material used on the tubes. 9 . Using cathode ray tube (crookes tube). 2. A. 1897‐ JJ Thomson proposes the first atom model (plum pudding model). Early atomic models. studying cathoric rays. Conclusion→ Theses cathode ray particles are inside of and common to all atoms. *Atoms consist of a uniform spiral mass positive charge with the negative charge cathrode ray particles embedded within. 3. also known as the simplest formula. Thomson→ 1. C₂H₂ CH₂ C₅H₁₀ CH₂ C₂H₆ CH₃ C₄H₀ C₂H₅ C₆H₁₂O₆ CH₂O H₂O H₂O C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ IV. B. Could calculate their mass ratio. C. G. Chemical formula → Empirical formula→ Chemical formula.
Beta (β)‐“particles like” (negative charge). E. 1909 Ernest Rutherford‐ Gold foil experiment. Expected: most Alpha particles should pass straight through with a few being slightly reflected. Gamma (γ) ‐ “pure energy” H. Unexpected: a few Alpha particles were greatly reflected and a very few balanced off the Gold foil. *1896‐ Becquerel G. Types: Alpha (α) ‐ “particles like” (positive charge). Actual: most did pass straight through with a few reflected. Radioactivity‐spontaneous release particles and/or energy. 10 . Gold foil experiment: lead lined box (page 92) I. F.
625 x 10 kg 1. V. 2. The e‐ moved randomly about the nucleus. 1. • e‐ Spirals into the nucleus.650 x 10 kg *protons and neutrons are inside the nucleus. Particle Electron Proton Neutron Discovery 1897‐ JJ Thomson 1919‐Rutherford 1932‐ Chadwick Symbol e‐ p n Charge ‐1 +1 0 (neutral) Mass 9. 3. 11 .1 x 10 kg 1. • The atom consists of a tiny positive charge nucleus which contains most of the mass of the atom. nuclear model (unstable). Overview of the modern atom. *electrons are outside the nucleus. 1911 Rutherford. J. ee • Orbiting e‐ will lose energy. three subatomic particles.
(Rule rather than the exception). G. C. Mass of a carbon‐ 12 atom = 12 atomic mass units. A. Nuclear symbolism X Z= atomic number‐ number of protons in the nucleus (determines the element). Over 2000 man‐made isotopes. All but 23 of the 92 natural elements have two or more natural isotopes. Atomic mass units (amu) F. 286 natural isotopes. Nearly all elements consist of two or more atoms. Isotopes‐ different varieties of atoms that have the same number of (protons) Z value. Add‐in ₁H ₆C ₆C ₆C ₉₂U U ₁H ₁H (Deutrium) (tritium) Z= # protons A‐Z =# neutrons Z= # electrons 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 8 6 92 146 92 92 143 92 B. D. 12 . One Atomic mass units = 1/12 mass of a carbon ‐12 atom. 1. but different number of A values (neutrons). A= the mass number = number of protons in the number of neutrons in the nucleus (Determines the isotope). E. 2.
at the atomic level = whole not equal to the sum of the parts.0993 amu • Mass of the whole atom = 12.0000 amu = • Mass of the defect = .0033 amu • Mass of the sum of the parts = 12. Mass (amu) Electron . *each has to give up its mass.0522 amu .00055)= 6. 13 .0993 amu • Mass defect: mass “lost” when protons and neutrons combined to form a nucleus.0073) = 6(1.0087)= 6(. E= mc² converts into energy.0073 amu Neutron 1. C‐12 atom 6 ‐ protons 6‐ neutrons 6‐ electrons 6(1.0000 amu 12.0438 amu 6.0993 subtracted from 12.00055 amu Proton 1.87 B.
acts between protons and neutrons. • Why is the nucleus stable? C‐12 nucleus • Nuclear binding energy acts as fuel for strong nuclear force. mid‐1800s. Weak nuclear force‐ mid‐1900s. Strong nuclear force‐ attractive force which acts between protons and protons. * Repulsion the protons = strong nuclear forces Stable nucleus (nonradioactive) Or Unstable (radioactive) 14 . C. Strong nuclear force‐mid‐1900s *short range forces. Gravity‐ Newton. Nuclear binding energy = energy needed to hold the nucleus together. 3. 4. 3. 4‐force in nature 1. acts between neutrons and neutrons. Early 1700s Electromagnetic‐ Maxwell. 2.
• 1st Particle theory: required at the speed of light in the air was less than the speed of light in the water. 1700‐Newton‐ propose that light was 1st a stream of particles (1st particle theory). experimentally verified Maxwell's theory.0 x 10 ⁸ m/s =C= speed of light in a vacuum. • Refraction‐ bending of light. 6. 15 . propose that light excavates into force (wave property). Also. 2. Early 1800s‐ Sir Thomas Young. • All electron magnetic waves in a vacuum has the speed 3. Mid‐1800s Foucalt ‐measured speed of light in the air and H2O. Nature of light (Wave theory vs. Mid‐1800s Maxwell‐ created the theory of electromagnetic waves. 1700‐Huygen & Hooke: proposed that light is a series of waves. 4. 5. • Wave theory‐ required at the speed of light in the air was greater than the speed of light in the water. Late 1800s‐Hertz. A. particle theory) 1. experimentally discovered the photoactive effect. • Light is electron magnetic waves. • 1st wave theory‐could explain: reflection and refraction. 3.
Frequency (f or V): number of wavelengths. 2. passing a given point each second. 1.0 x 10⁸ m/s. Energy and wavelength are inversely proportional. Energy and frequency are directly proportional. Properties of EM a. Maxwell's theory.0 x 10⁸ m/s = C = speed of light in a vacuum. always been a vacuum have a constant speed = 3. 5. 4. Frequency + wavelength. VI. Wavelengths. B. b. inversely proportional. d. it means the products of frequency of a wavelength = 3. Amplitude (A): max height. Wavelength (η): peak to peak distance. c. Light is an electric magnetic wave (EM). EM spectrum(page204) 16 . Speed of a wave (v or u): products of frequency times wavelength. 3.
8 x 10 ⁻⁶ m Angstrom = 1 Ǻ= 10⁻1⁰ 7600Ǻ C. GREEN. INDGO. Visible light. YELLOW. VIOLET 2. ROY G BIV RED. Atom specticrocopy = interaction between light and matter. BLUE. ORANGE.6 x 10 ⁻⁶m 3. Red= bends least Violet = bends the most 17 . 1. Continuous spectrum: Newton 1700s Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet different wavelengths bend at different angles.
Kinchoff Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet *bright color lines and a dark background. Mid‐1800s‐ Fraundhfer. *the patterns on the dark lines were unique for each gas (fingerprint = gas) 3. 2. Emission spectrum (bright lines) Mid‐1800s‐ Fraundhfer. *pattern of bright lines are also unique for each gas. *gaps in the color. *could not explain any of this. Bunson. 18 . *photographic negatives of each other. Kinchoff Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet *dark lines on a continuous background. Absorption spectrum. Bunson.
explained it by treating energy to be discrete. Theory of special relativity change scientist view of space and time. 2. Explain the photoelectric effect(noble prize) 2. all failed. depending on their temperature). E= hf Planks constant (very. very well not even by Plank. All early attempts to explain its treated energy as being continuous. and all failed. Photoelectric effect (late 1800s‐ Hertz) All early attempts to explain it. 1900 Planks. 1. Atoms were accepted worldwide. Blackboard radiation (1900). D. Blackboard radiation. *Quanta‐ particles of energy. 3. * This idea was not accepted. just like matter (quanta). very small number) *bases of all modered chemistry and physics E. 1905‐Einstein 1. treats light as wave‐like. Interaction between light and solids (Known objects glow with a certain color. 19 . Explained Brownion motion‐ (using the atomic theory of matter) convinced scientists that atoms were real.
• Is light wave‐like or particle‐like? It is both and neither.(wavicle) Summarizes the Bohr principle of complementary light sometimes behaves as a wave and sometimes behaves as a particle. But never both are at the same time. 20 .
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