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First Edition, 2011
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1- Introduction Chapter 2 - Biomass (First-generation Technology) Chapter 3 - Hydroelectricity (First-generation technology) Chapter 4 - Geothermal Electricity (First-generation Technology) Chapter 5 - Solar Water Heating (Second-generation technology) Chapter 6 - Photovoltaics (Second-Generation Technology) Chapter 7 - Wind Power (Second-generation technology) Chapter 8 - Biomass Gasification (Third-generation technology) Chapter 9 - Enhanced Geothermal System (Third-Generation Technology)
Sun. and biomass are three renewable energy sources .Chapter-1 Introduction The wind.
Q-Cells. which are already mature and economically competitive. project finance. photovoltaics. biorefinery technologies. include biomass. wind power. and modern forms of bioenergy. and have enacted wide-ranging public policies to promote renewables. Third-generation technologies require continued R&D efforts in order to make large contributions on a global scale and include advanced biomass gasification. hydroelectricity. solar thermal power stations. Gamesa. Global revenues for solar photovoltaics. public markets. First-generation technologies. and biofuels expanded from $76 billion in 2007 to $115 billion in 2008. and research and development—expanded by 4. geothermal power and heat. and ocean energy. Climate change concerns are driving increasing growth in the renewable energy industries. Siemens. hot-dry-rock geothermal power. GE Energy. Continued growth for the renewable energy sector is expected and promotional policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other . and Vestas. wind power. New global investments in clean energy technologies—including venture capital. and it is often public policy and political leadership that drive the widespread acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Leading renewable energy companies include First Solar. There are some non-technical barriers to the widespread use of renewables. they include solar heating. Sharp Solar.Global renewable energy investment growth (1995–2007) Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years. Second-generation technologies are marketready and are being deployed at the present time. Suntech.7 percent from $148 billion in 2007 to $155 billion in 2008. SunOpta. Some 85 countries now have targets for their own renewable energy futures.
Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling. with about half of them in the biofuels industry. to environmental benefits. energy was produced by burning something — oil. at least in part. and gas to wind. • • . or natural gas — leading to the carbon emissions that have come to define our economy. Globally. coal. In the old economy. Climate-disrupting fossil fuels are being replaced by clean. Clean Edge suggests that the commercialization of clean energy has helped countries around the world pull out of the 2009 global financial crisis. Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification. as they contribute to world energy security. Three generations of technologies The term renewable energy covers a number of sources and technologies at different stages of commercialization. biomass combustion. climate-stabilizing.S. and geothermal energy is well under way. The new energy economy harnesses the energy in wind.sectors. Many of the technologies reflect significant advancements in materials. development and demonstration (RD&D) investments since the 1980s. and heat from within the earth itself. U. modern forms of bioenergy. geothermal power and heat. solar. the energy coming from the sun. These technologies are quite widely used. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has defined three generations of renewable energy technologies. President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 included more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. oil. concentrating solar thermal power. non-depletable sources of energy: . biorefinery technologies. Initial investment was prompted by energy security concerns linked to the oil crises of the 1970s but the enduring appeal of these technologies is due. These are now entering markets as a result of research. and solar photovoltaics. wind power.the transition from coal. and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Overview Rationale for renewables Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio. there are an estimated 3 million direct jobs in renewable energy industries. The International Energy Agency estimates that nearly 50% of global electricity supplies will need to come from renewable energy sources in order to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 and minimise significant.. reaching back over 100 years: • First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower.. irreversible climate change impacts. reduce dependency on fossil fuels.
More wind power capacity was added during 2009 than any other renewable technology. Selected renewable energy indicators Selected global indicators 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Investment in new renewable capacity 150 billion 30 38 63 104 130 (annual) USD Existing renewables power capacity.hot-dry-rock geothermal power. second-generation technologies are entering markets.230 GWe including large-scale hydro Existing renewables power capacity. "three-quarters of Americans feel that increasing renewable energy and decreasing U. dependence on foreign oil are the country's top energy priorities". where the public sector has a role to play. 160 182 207 240 280 305 GWe excluding large hydro Wind power capacity (existing) 48 59 74 94 121 159 GWe Solar PV capacity (grid-connected) 7.140 1. more renewable energy than conventional power capacity was added in both the European Union and United States.S.070 1. and third-generation technologies heavily depend on long-term RD&D commitments. In addition. "67 percent of Americans would be willing to pay more for their monthly utility bill if their utility company increased its use of renewable energy". 895 930 1.5 21 GWe Solar hot water capacity 77 88 105 126 149 180 GWth Ethanol production (annual) 30. according to a report released by REN21. a global renewable energy policy network based in Paris. Recent growth of renewables During the five-years from the end of 2004 through 2009. and ocean energy. with a 60 percent annual average growth rate for the five-year period. growth accelerated in 2009 relative to the previous four years. For wind power and many other renewable technologies. A 2010 survey conducted by Applied Materials shows that two-thirds of Americans believe solar technology should play a greater role in meeting the country's energy needs. However. First-generation technologies are well established. grid-connected PV increased the fastest of all renewables technologies.6 13. . worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10–60 percent annually for many technologies. According to the survey.5 33 39 50 69 76 billion liters Biodiesel production (annual) 10 15 17 billion liters Countries with policy targets 45 49 68 75 85 for renewable energy use In 2008 for the first time. demonstrating a "fundamental transition" of the world's energy markets towards renewables. Advances in nanotechnology may also play a major role.020 1.
economic costs for renewable power (exclusive of subsidies or policy incentives) are shown in the Table below. Third. Renewable power generation costs 2010 Power generator Large hydro Small hydro Onshore wind Offshore wind Biomass power Geothermal power Rooftop solar PV Utility-scale solar PV Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) Typical characteristics Plant size: 10 . renewable energy technologies are being rapidly improved. while fossil fuel technologies are more mature. Unlike carbonbased fuels. in amounts that are effectively limitless. So innovation and ingenuity give us the ability to constantly increase the efficiency of renewable energy and continually reduce its cost. once the world makes a clear commitment to shifting toward renewable energy. .Economic trends The International Solar Energy Society argues that renewable energy technologies and economics will improve with time. Al Gore has explained that renewable energy technologies are declining in price for three main reasons: First. once the renewable infrastructure is built.5 . cents/kWh) 3-5 5-12 5-9 10-14 5-12 4-7 20-50 15-30 14-18 As time progresses.5 MW Turbine size: 1. the wind and the sun and the earth itself provide fuel that is free.S.5 MW Plant size: 1-20 MW Plant size: 1-100 MW Peak capacity: 2-5 kilowattspeak Peak capacity: 200 kW to 100MW 50-500 MW trough Typical electricity costs (U. the volume of production will itself sharply reduce the cost of each windmill and each solar panel.000 MW Plant size: 1-10 MW Turbine size: 1.5 . levelised.3. renewable energy generally gets cheaper. Indicative. while fossil fuels generally get more expensive.18. and that they are "sufficiently advanced at present to allow for major penetrations of renewable energy into the mainstream energy and societal infrastructures". while adding yet more incentives for additional research and development to further speed up the innovation process. the fuel is free forever. Second.
However. Biomass for heat and power is a fully mature technology which offers a ready disposal mechanism for municipal. agricultural. and industrial organic wastes. Biomass Biomass heating plant in Austria. particularly in developing countries.First-generation technologies First-generation technologies are widely used in locations with abundant resources. Their future use depends on the exploration of the remaining resource potential. and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and social acceptance. The total heat power is about 1000 kW. the .
but may still require deployment support to overcome public acceptance and small-scale issues. even though demand for biomass (mostly wood) continues to grow in many developing countries.industry has remained relatively stagnant over the decade to 2007. Hydroelectric plants have the advantage of being long-lived and many existing plants have operated for more than 100 years. followed by Canada. First-generation biomass technologies can be economically competitive. leading to severe health and environmental consequences. even compared to fossil fuels and there are no harmful emissions associated with plant operation. Hydroelectricity The Hoover Dam when completed in 1936 was both the world's largest electric-power generating station and the world's largest concrete structure. supplying about 17% of total electricity in 2005. although improved cook stove programmes are alleviating some of these effects. One of the problems of biomass is that material directly combusted in cook stoves produces pollutants. Hydroelectric power is currently the world’s largest installed renewable source of electricity. . Large hydropower provides one of the lowest cost options in today’s energy market. China is the world's largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world. Hydropower is also an extremely flexible technology from the perspective of power grid operation.
which would involve planning hydropower development in co-operation with other water-using sectors. however. The areas of greatest hydroelectric growth are the growing economies of Asia. India and China are the development leaders. release of significant amounts of carbon dioxide and methane during construction and flooding of the reservoir. Hydroelectric power is now more difficult to site in developed nations because most major sites within these nations are either already being exploited or may be unavailable for these environmental reasons. . other Asian nations are also expanding hydropower. There is a strong consensus now that countries should adopt an integrated approach towards managing water resources. there are several significant social and environmental disadvantages of largescale hydroelectric power systems: dislocation of people living where the reservoirs are planned. and disruption of aquatic ecosystems and birdlife.However.
a geothermal power field in northern California. The United States is the world leader in terms of installed capacity. Italy (0.2 GW). Estimates for the world potential capacity for geothermal power generation vary widely. Iceland (0.8 GW). with a total output of over 750 MW Geothermal power plants can operate 24 hours per day. geothermal power accounts for a .5 GW).5 GW). Indonesia (1. Japan (0. Mexico (1. Other countries with significant installed capacity include the Philippines (1.0 GW).000 GW.1 GW.6 GW). representing 3. Geothermal power capacity grew from around 1 GW in 1975 to almost 10 GW in 2008.Geothermal power and heat One of many power plants at The Geysers. In some countries.9 GW). ranging from 40 GW by 2020 to as much as 6. providing baseload capacity. and New Zealand (0.
. Second-generation technologies Markets for second-generation technologies have been strong and growing over the past decade.significant share of the total electricity supply. such as in the Philippines. Spain. such as solar water heaters. for space heating. Many large industrial companies and financial institutions are involved and the challenge is to broaden the market base for continued growth worldwide. . are a prime example of a soft energy technology. As of 2008. agricultural drying and other uses) reaching an estimated 15 GWth. where geothermal represented 17 percent of the total power mix at the end of 2008. the United States.e. and Japan. and these technologies have gone from being a passion for the dedicated few to a major economic sector in countries such as Germany. Solar Heating Solar energy technologies. with other direct uses of geothermal heat (i. Geothermal (ground source) heat pumps represented an estimated 30 GWth of installed capacity at the end of 2008. located on or near the buildings which they supply with energy. at least 76 countries use direct geothermal energy in some form.
These panels track the sun in one axis. . The systems may be used to heat domestic hot water. or homes and businesses. and a reservoir or tank for heat storage. a solar heating system can provide a very high percentage (50 to 75%) of domestic hot water energy.Solar heating systems are a well known second-generation technology and generally consist of solar thermal collectors. China has 27 million rooftop solar water heaters. swimming pools. a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage. The heat can also be used for industrial process applications or as an energy input for other uses such as cooling equipment. As of 2009. Photovoltaics Nellis Solar Power Plant at Nellis Air Force Base. In many warmer climates.
54 MW). France. making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. the cumulative global PV installations reached 15. convert light into electricity. In the 1980s and early 1990s.200 MW. Photovoltaic (PV) cells. And in countries situated further to the north such as Germany. Germany. Photovoltaic production has been doubling every two years. and the USA. Falling technology prices and the rising costs of fossil fuels are making photovoltaic (PV) power plants increasingly attractive for large investors. and the Czech Republic. grid parity is expected by 2015. . increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002. North Africa. The top five photovoltaic producing countries are Japan. At the end of 2008. Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada. but from around 1995. 50 MW). the largest photovoltaic power plants in the world are the Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany. 80 MW). 80. and parts of China. most photovoltaic modules were used to provide remote-area power supply. 60 MW). the Middle East. India. also called solar cells. and the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain. Some photovoltaic power stations which are presently proposed will have a capacity of 150 MW or more. industry efforts have focused increasingly on developing building integrated photovoltaics and photovoltaic power stations for grid connected applications. Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain.7 MW). In particularly sunny regions such as Spain.President Barack Obama speaks at the DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center. modern solar modules are close to achieving grid parity. 53 MW). Taiwan. the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany. the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany. China. As of November 2010. the southern USA.
Wind power Worldwide installed wind power capacity 1996-2008 Fenton Wind Farm at sunrise .
11% in Spain and Portugal. .900 MW. Wind power is widely used in European countries. and wind power supplied some 1. such as wind power. Wind power accounts for approximately 19% of electricity generation in Denmark.3% of global electricity consumption.Some of the second-generation renewables. worldwide wind farm capacity was 157. have high potential and have already realised relatively low production costs. representing an increase of 31 percent during the year. and more recently in the United States and Asia. At the end of 2009. and 9% in the Republic of Ireland. PS20. as of July 2010: Installed capacity Country (MW) Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662 USA Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 600 USA Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 736 USA Roscoe Wind Farm 781 USA San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm 619 USA Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm 690 USA Wind farm Solar thermal power stations Solar Towers from left: PS10. These are some of the largest wind farms in the world.
while biodiesel expanded more than tenfold from less than 1 billion to almost 11 billion litres. The main producing countries for transport biofuels are the USA.8% of the world’s transport fuel and recent estimates indicate a continued high growth. Biofuels provide 1. 150 MW). The 370 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility. gasoline on the right (G) at a filling station in Brazil. and the PS10 solar power tower (Spain. located in California's Mojave Desert. is the world’s largest solar-thermal power plant project currently under construction. 11 MW). 20 MW). and ethanol now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel. Modern forms of Bioenergy Neat ethanol on the left (A). 100 MW). mainly in Spain and the USA.Solar thermal power stations include the 354 megawatt (MW) Solar Energy Generating Systems power plant in the USA. Andasol solar power station (Spain. Global ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion litres. involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combinedcycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt. In developing countries. 64 MW). Nevada Solar One (USA. and Morocco have been approved. Brazil. Solnova Solar Power Station (Spain. Mexico. PS20 solar power tower (Spain. Many other plants are under construction or planned. As a result of this and the exploitation of domestic deep water . and the EU.
and maintenance.oil sources.5 billion in tax revenues at the local. the ethanol industry created almost 154. and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. operations.5 billion gallons of biofuels to be used annually by 2012. recently reached complete self-sufficiency in liquid fuels. Brazil. trucks. state.7 billion. will also help to expand the market. The Energy Policy Act of 2005. . mostly in rural communities. jobs in 2005 alone.S. boosting household income by $5. there were approximately six million E85-compatible vehicles on U. and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). California Nearly all the gasoline sold in the United States today is mixed with 10 percent ethanol. Ford. According to the Renewable Fuels Association. which calls for 7. a mix known as E10.S. roads.000 U. DaimlerChrysler. and federal levels. Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and availability. and GM are among the automobile companies that sell flexible-fuel cars. Information on pump. which for years had to import a large share of the petroleum needed for domestic consumption. It also contributed about $3. The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date. By mid-2006. The growing ethanol and biodiesel industries are providing jobs in plant construction.
but still depend on attracting sufficient attention and RD&D funding. and is the largest tidal power station in the world.S. and ocean energy. wheat straw and rice straw). are also promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions of the United States. wood waste. it is currently operated by Électricité de France. France. KS Wheat straw BlueFire Ethanol Irvine. especially on west-facing coasts with latitudes between 40 and 60 degrees: . GA Wood waste SunOpta Little Falls. such as switchgrass. (Operational or under construction) Company Location Feedstock Abengoa Bioenergy Hugoton. First proposed more than thirty years ago. hot-dry-rock geothermal power. Selected Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plants in the U. The facility is located on the estuary of the Rance River. biorefinery technologies. Crop residues (such as corn stalks. Third-generation technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or have limited commercialization. MN Wood chips Xethanol Auburndale. New bioenergy technologies According to the International Energy Agency. Cellulosic ethanol can be made from plant matter composed primarily of inedible cellulose fibers that form the stems and branches of most plants. Many are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies. MI Wood POET LLC Emmetsburg.Third-generation technologies Third-generation renewable energy technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification. Dedicated energy crops. IA Corn cobs Range Fuels Treutlen County. The potential for this technology is considered promising. FL Citrus peels Ocean energy The Rance Tidal Power Station (240 MW) is the world's first tidal power station. systems to harvest utility-scale electrical power from ocean waves have recently been gaining momentum as a viable technology. cellulosic ethanol biorefineries could allow biofuels to play a much bigger role in the future than organizations such as the IEA previously thought. in Brittany. Opened on the 26th November 1966. and municipal solid waste are potential sources of cellulosic biomass. CA Multiple sources Gulf Coast Energy Mossy Head. in terms of installed capacity. FL Wood waste Mascoma Lansing.
Nanosolar has secured more than $100 million from investors to build a factory for nanotechnology thin-film solar panels. for example. Across Europe. Demonstration EGS projects are operational in the USA. may cost half as much as traditional photovoltaic cells. at a cost of over 4 million pounds. such as Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The farm will be the world's largest with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines. partially attributable to the development of new technologies. Funding for a wave farm in Scotland was announced in February 2007 by the Scottish Executive. In 2003. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimated the viable resource in the United States at 255 TWh per year (6% of demand). The company expects the factory to open in 2010 and produce enough solar cells each year to generate 430 megawatts of power. according to executives and investors involved in developing the products. Enhanced geothermal systems As of 2008. geothermal power development was under way in more than 40 countries. and The United Kingdom. the technologically achievable resource has been estimated to be at least 280 TWh per year. France. the Carbon Trust recently estimated the extent of the economically viable offshore resource at 55 TWh per year. as part of a £13 million funding packages for ocean power in Scotland. Australia.S.In the United Kingdom. The development of binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology may enable enhanced geothermal systems over a much greater geographical range than "traditional" Geothermal systems. the U. about 14% of current national demand. Germany. Nanotechnology thin-film solar panels Solar power panels that use nanotechnology. which can create circuits out of individual silicon molecules. .
Renewable energy industry A Vestas wind turbine .
PA .Gamesa Wind Turbine Installed at Bald Mountain in Bear Creek Township.
Spain. wind power. India. .Monocrystalline solar cell Global revenues for solar photovoltaics. Germany. and employs more than 20. Wind power companies Vestas is the largest wind turbine manufacturer in the world with a 20% market share in 2008. project finance. Sweden. New global investments in clean energy technologies — including venture capital. public markets.000 people globally. Australia and China. Italy. and research and development — expanded by 4. Norway. The company operates plants in Denmark. Britain. and biofuels expanded from $76 billion in 2007 to $115 billion in 2008.7 percent from $148 billion in 2007 to $155 billion in 2008.
Yingli Green Energy. producing some 1. Consumers often ignore renewable power systems because they are not given accurate price signals about electricity consumption. These barriers are impediments which put renewable energy at a marketing. Gamesa’s main markets are within Europe. Key barriers include: • Lack of government policy support. conventional power plants. JA Solar Holdings. The obstacles to the widespread commercialization of renewable energy technologies are primarily political. Sinovel and Goldwind. but utility operators often reject renewable resources because they are trained to think only in terms of big. Sovacool has argued that "some of the most surreptitious.After a sales slump in 2005. SunPower.100 MW of product.000 MW. Suntech was in second place with production of 595 MW in 2009 and market share of 7%. the US and China. not technical. Q-Cells and its 540 MW output was fourth in 2009. Sharp was close behind the leaders with 580 MW of output. was the world's third largest wind turbine manufacturer in 2008. with 19% market share. The company has installed over 5. Motech Solar and Gintech rounded out the 2009 Top 10 ranking. or policy disadvantage relative to other forms of energy. Oregon in December. institutional. GE Energy was the world's second largest wind turbine manufacturer in 2008. and there have been many studies which have identified a range of "non-technical barriers" to renewable energy use. and its installed capacity of renewable energy worldwide exceeds 160. which includes the lack of policies and regulations supporting deployment of renewable energy technologies and the presence of policies and regulations hindering renewable energy development and . 2008.500 wind turbines and 3. Vestas recovered and was voted Top Green Company of 2006. Gamesa. founded in 1976 with headquarters in Vitoria. Intentional market distortions (such as subsidies). and unintentional market distortions (such as split incentives) may work against renewables. Non-technical barriers to acceptance Newer and cleaner technologies may offer social and environmental benefits. yet powerful. and it is also a major builder of wind farms. Suzlon. Vestas announced a major expansion of its North American headquarters in Portland. Spain. with a 13% market share. Other major wind power companies include Siemens. impediments facing renewable energy and energy efficiency in the United States are more about culture and institutions than engineering and science".600 hydro turbines. Photovoltaic companies First Solar became the world's largest solar cell maker in 2009. Benjamin K. GE Energy bought out Enron Wind in 2002 and also has nuclear energy operations in its portfolio. Kyocera.
g. government underwriting for nuclear plant accidents. risk of supply disruption) and failure to internalize all benefits of renewable energy (e. there is no "silver bullet" solution to drive the transition to renewable energy. Lack of adequate codes. Inadequate workforce skills and training. Higher capital cost of renewable energy technologies compared with conventional energy technologies. including insufficient access to affordable financing for project developers. insufficient consumer-based renewable energy incentives. which includes failure to internalize all costs of conventional energy (e. Examples include subsidies for fossil-fuels. even if the technology itself is commercially viable. electricity markets designed for centralized power plants. utility interconnection. technical. Poor public perception of renewable energy system aesthetics. Imperfect capital markets. Technologies that do not easily fit into these networks may struggle to enter the market. energy security). and net-metering guidelines. maintenance. and market control by established operators. which includes lack of adequate scientific. This applies to distributed generation as most grids are not suited to receive electricity from many small sources. With such a wide range of non-technical barriers. Difficulty overcoming established energy systems. and manufacturing skills required for renewable energy production. and failure of the educational system to provide adequate training in new technologies.g. A policy framework must be created that will level the playing field and redress the imbalance of traditional approaches associated with fossil fuels.. So ideally there is a need for several different types of policy instruments to complement each other and overcome different types of barriers. As the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change points out: National grids are usually tailored towards the operation of centralised power plants and thus favour their performance. particularly for distributed generation such as photovoltaics. entrepreneurs and consumers. standards. Large-scale renewables may also encounter problems if they are sited in areas far from existing grids. which includes difficulty introducing innovative energy systems. • • • • • • Inadequate financing options for renewable energy projects. Lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness. The policy landscape . cleaner air. Lack of stakeholder/community participation and co-operation in energy choices and renewable energy projects.• • • supporting conventional energy development. because of technological lock-in. and inspection services. and complex zoning and permitting processes for renewable energy. lack of reliable installation. effects of air pollution..
In 2001. Public policy landscape Public policy has a role to play in renewable energy commercialization because the free market system has some fundamental limitations. in order to create a more responsive market. Italy. The International Solar Energy Society has stated that "historical incentives for the conventional energy resources continue even today to bias markets by burying many of the real societal costs of their use".must keep pace with broad trends within the energy sector. a tax on coal that included the increased health care costs associated with breathing polluted air. Sweden launched a new 10-year environmental tax shift designed to convert 30 billion kroner ($3. a number that is projected to rise to 103. investors. Shifting taxes Tax shifting involves lowering income taxes while raising levies on environmentally destructive activities. by 2001. It had also increased growth in the renewable energy sector. A four-year plan adopted in Germany in 1999 gradually shifted taxes from labor to energy and. Spain. thereby showing limited concern for future generations. Many policies distort the market in favour of existing fossil fuel technologies. Norway. For example. this plan had lowered fuel use by 5 percent. operators and consumers should face the full cost of their decisions. The Stern Review explains that of 20 key innovations from .9 billion) of taxes on income to taxes on environmentally destructive activities. and the costs of climate disruption would encourage investment in renewable technologies.400 jobs by 2003 in the wind industry alone. As the Stern Review points out: In a liberalised energy market. Tax and subsidy shifting can help overcome these problems. and it does not respect the sustainable-yield thresholds of natural systems". Japan and China.000 by 2010. Asia’s two leading economies. the costs of acid rain damage. it does not value nature’s services adequately. as well as reflecting specific social. But this is not the case in many economies or energy sectors. It also favors the near term over the long term. economic and environmental priorities. and the United Kingdom. Shifting subsidies Subsidies are not inherently bad as many technologies and industries emerged through government subsidy schemes. to achieve environmental goals. Other European countries with significant tax reform efforts are France. creating some 45. It has been widely discussed and endorsed by economists. Lester Brown goes further and suggests that the market "does not incorporate the indirect costs of providing goods or services into prices. Several Western European countries are already shifting taxes in a process known there as environmental tax reform. are considering the adoption of carbon taxes.
in which the fossil fuel and nuclear power receive the largest share of financial support." The International Solar Energy Society advocates "leveling the playing field" by redressing the continuing inequities in public subsidies of energy technologies and R&D. Germany reduced its coal subsidy from $5. most notably coal. Mali.4 billion in 1989 to $2. While some leading industrial countries have been reducing subsidies to fossil fuels. New Zealand. Egypt. Switzerland. Germany plans to phase out this support entirely by 2010. the European Union has prescribed an indicative renewable energy target of 12 per cent of the total EU energy mix and 22 per cent of electricity consumption by 2010. Renewable energy targets in most countries are indicative and nonbinding but they have assisted government actions and regulatory frameworks. In terms of specific examples. and South Africa. Shifting these subsidies to the development of climate-benign energy sources such as wind.the past 30 years. and Japan have phased out all subsidies for coal. only one of the 14 they could source was funded entirely by the private sector and nine were totally funded by the public sector. there is also a need for subsidy shifting. Lester Brown has argued that "a world facing the prospect of economically disruptive climate change can no longer justify subsidies to expand the burning of coal and oil. Israel. Developing countries with renewable energy targets include China. China cut its coal subsidy from $750 million in 1993 to $240 million in 1995 and more recently has imposed a tax on high-sulfur coals. But just as there is a need for tax shifting. Some countries are eliminating or reducing climate disrupting subsidies and Belgium. and geothermal power is the key to stabilizing the earth’s climate. National targets are also an important component of renewable energy strategies in some developing countries.8 billion in 2002. Malaysia. Other developed countries with defined national or regional targets include Australia. solar. Norway. National targets for individual EU Member States have also been set to meet the overall target. biomass. Renewable energy targets Setting national renewable energy targets can be an important part of a renewable energy policy and these targets are usually defined as a percentage of the primary energy and/or electricity generation mix. Thailand. Korea. France. For example. and some US States. Brazil. India. The United Nations . Indonesia. the Internet was the result of publicly funded links among computers in government laboratories and research institutes. Singapore. and in the process lowered its coal use by 46 percent. the United States has been increasing its support for the fossil fuel and nuclear industries. the Philippines. The targets set by many developing countries are quite modest when compared with those in some industrialized countries. Japan. Canada. And the combination of the federal tax deduction and a robust state tax deduction in California helped to create the modern wind power industry.
which confirmed clean energy as a mainstream issue.000. and argued that economic growth need not be incompatible with cutting energy consumption.000. Some $188 billion in green stimulus funding had been allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency. According to a trend analysis from the United Nations . the Stern Review made a strong economic case for investing in low carbon technologies now. including the US mid-term elections in November. Recent developments Projected renewable energy investment growth globally (2007-2017) A number of events in 2006 pushed renewable energy up the political agenda. Green stimulus programs In response to the global financial crisis. the world’s major governments have made “green stimulus” programs one of their main policy instruments for supporting the economic recovery. associated with growing and processing a variety of feedstocks into ethanol and biodiesel. the photovoltaics sector an estimated 170. and the solar thermal industry more than 600. Over 1 million jobs are found in the biofuels industry.000 people.3 million worldwide. Most of the overall clean energy stimuli are expected to be spent in 2010 and in 2011.Environment Program has suggested that making renewable energy targets legally binding could be an important policy tool to achieve higher renewable energy market penetration. Also in 2006. Employment Current employment in the renewable energy sector and supplier industries is estimated at 2. The wind power industry employs some 300.
New government spending. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy has explained that both resources must be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide emissions: . Chinese companies were the second largest recipient of venture capital in 2006 after the United States. and policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors. Most notably.4 billion in 2008. and often offer significant economic benefits. Opportunities for improvement on the demand side of the energy equation are as rich and diverse as those on the supply side. Clean Edge suggests that the commercialization of clean energy will help countries around the world pull out of the current economic malaise. history for renewables. public markets. President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 included more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. The OECD still dominates. consolidation. Investment capital flowing into renewable energy reached a record US$77 billion in 2007. However. Global revenues for solar photovoltaics. 2009 was a year of refocus. For the first time. regulation. new wind power capacity installed in 2009 grew strongly with record installations of 38 GW worldwide.S. Sustainable energy Moving towards energy sustainability will require changes not only in the way energy is supplied. wind power.4 billion in 2007 to $155.Environment Programme. wind. and reducing the amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is essential. but in the way it is used.9 billion in 2008. one sector alone. India was the largest net buyer of companies abroad.S. climate change concerns coupled with recent high oil prices and increasing government support are driving increasing rates of investment in the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. many more utilities strengthened their clean-energy programs. but there is now increasing activity from companies in China. New global investments in clean energy technologies — including venture capital. or retrenchment for many companies. partly as a result of the rapid rise of Chinese manufacturing. India and Brazil. This policy-stimulus combination represents the largest federal commitment in U. advanced transportation. U.7 percent from $148. Renewable energy and energy efficiency are said to be the “twin pillars” of sustainable energy policy. and energy conservation initiatives. project finance. had revenues exceeding $50 billion. After several years with strong political backing and growth. and biofuels expanded from $75. with the upward trend continuing in 2008. Based on these new rules. Any serious vision of a sustainable energy economy requires commitments to both renewables and efficiency. and research and development — expanded by 4. In the same year. mainly in the more established European markets.8 billion in 2007 to $115.
instead of being developed in isolation. The IEA has stated that renewable energy and energy efficiency policies should be viewed as complementary tools for the development of a sustainable energy future. unless clean energy supplies come online rapidly. Likewise. renewable energy development will chase a receding target. If energy use grows too fast. slowing demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions. .Efficiency is essential to slowing the energy demand growth so that rising clean energy supplies can make deep cuts in fossil fuel use. reducing the carbon content of energy sources is also needed.
Chapter-2 Biomass (First-generation Technology)
Biomass, a renewable energy source, is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, (hydrogen) gas, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. In this sense, living biomass can also be included, as plants can also generate electricity while still alive. The most conventional way in which biomass is used however, still relies on direct incineration. Forest residues for example (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and garbage are often used for this. However, biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It excludes organic materials such as fossil fuels which have been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). The particular plant used is usually not important to the end products, but it does affect the processing of the raw material. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient biomass, they are not considered biomass by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. Their combustion therefore disturbs the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere.
Biomass is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based. Nitrogen and small quantities of other atoms, including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals can be found as well. Metals are often found in functional molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium.
Plants in particular combine water and carbon dioxide to sugar building blocks. The required energy is produced from light via photosynthesis based on chlorophyll. On average, between 0.1 and 1 % of the available light is stored as chemical energy in plants. The sugar building blocks are the starting point for the major fractions found in all terrestrial plants, lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose.
Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels. Wood energy is derived both from direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood waste streams. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass energy. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste (MSW), manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. Biomass alcohol fuel, or ethanol, is derived primarily from sugarcane and corn. It can be used directly as a fuel or as an additive to gasoline. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, release methane gas - also called "landfill gas" or "biogas." Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Also, Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research.
Biomass conversion process to useful energy
There are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly, in the form of heat or electricity, or may convert it to another form, such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options, for others there may be only one appropriate technology.
These are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives of combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature). There are a number of other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing. Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass,
including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20-27%.
A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself.
A microbial electrolysis cell can be used to directly make hydrogen gas from plant matter As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion, fermentation and composting. Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification. Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. However, this process has not been perfected yet. Scientists are still researching the effects of converting biomass.
Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants, in some cases at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural
000 homes. electricity supply. Despite harvesting. The biomass-is-carbon-neutral proposal put forward in the early 1990s has been superseded by more recent science that recognizes that mature. which consists of approximately 11. and the carbon storage capacity of the forest may be reduced overall if destructive forestry techniques are employed. the carbon from biomass is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2). biofuels. preserves landfill space in urban communities in Florida. however. When the biomass is from forests.S. both living and dead. and much less soil disruption in cultivation. biomass crops may sequester carbon. The facility reduces dependence on oil by more than one million barrels per year. it contributes to climate change much more than woodland timber rotting slowly over decades.000 MW of summer operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid. Currently. and by recycling sugar cane and wood waste. So for example soil organic carbon has been observed to be greater in switchgrass stands than in cultivated cropland soil. Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity as transport costs of the (bulky) fuel play a key factor in the plant's economics. When from agricultural sources. plant matter used as a fuel can be replaced by planting for new growth. In 2009 a Swedish study of the giant brown haze that periodically covers large areas in South Asia determined that it had been principally produced by biomass burning.4 percent of the U. and biomass . built up over years. On combustion. which has led to a global biomass market. The grass sequesters the carbon in its increased root biomass. Such small power plants can be found in Europe. especially at depths below 12 inches. intact forests sequester carbon more effectively than cut-over areas.a pollutant created by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. that rail and especially shipping on waterways can reduce transport costs significantly. The existing biomass power generating industry in the United States. The 140 MW facility uses sugar cane fiber (bagasse) and recycled urban wood as fuel to generate enough power for its large milling and refining operations as well as to supply renewable electricity for nearly 60. the time to recapture the carbon stored is generally longer. which is associated with recent plant life rather than with fossil fuels. Black carbon . produces about 1. a cycle similar to the water steam power process just with an organic working medium. the New Hope Power Partnership is the largest biomass power plant in North America. Researchers measured a significant concentration of 14C. perennial crops sequester much more carbon than annual crops due to much greater non-harvested living biomass. The amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight. and to a lesser extent by fossil-fuel burning.gas. To make small plants of 1 MWel economically profitable those power plants have need to be equipped with technology that is able to convert biomass to useful electricity with high efficiency such as ORC technology. Typically. It has to be noted.is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming. When a tree’s carbon is released into the atmosphere in a single pulse. Current studies indicate that "even after 50 years the .
.forest has not recovered to its initial carbon storage" and "the optimal strategy is likely to be protection of the standing forest".
Chapter-3 Hydroelectricity (First-generation technology) .
a large number of small hydroelectric power plants were being constructed by commercial companies in the mountains that surrounded metropolitan areas. the Bureau of Reclamation which had began a series of western U.the Vulcan Street Plant . and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations like the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Boulder Canyon Project Act. By 1889. the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.S. At the beginning of the 20th century.The Gordon Dam in Tasmania is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility.S.began operating September 30. In 1878. 1882. This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity. Additionally. After the Hoover Dam's initial 1. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. Army Corps of Engineers was also involved in hydroelectric development. with an output of about 12. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. In the mid-1770s.S. in Appleton. completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency. History Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. England.5 kilowatts. and Canada. an installed capacity of 777 GWe supplied 2998 TWh of hydroelectricity in 2006. their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control. As the power plants became larger. there were 200 in the U. By the late 19th century. The U. Worldwide. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed. and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Wisconsin. irrigation and navigation.S. the project produces no direct waste. The first Edison hydroelectric power plant . the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. side began to produce electricity in 1881. a French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical. Hydroelectric power plants continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. with an installed capacity of up to 430 MW.345 MW power plant became the world's largest hydroelectric power plant in 1936 it was soon eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. By 1886 there was about 45 hydroelectric power plants in the U.and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. . The Act created the Federal Power Commission who's main purpose was to regulate hydroelectric power plants on federal land and water. Brazil's and Paraguay's Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 as the largest. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.S. the world's first house to be powered with hydroelectricity was Cragside in Northumberland.
producing 14. Argentina .000 hydroelectric power plants which supply 49% of its renewable electricity.000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China with a production capacity of 22. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Generating methods Turbine row at Los Nihuiles Power Station in Mendoza. Paraguay and Brazil with over 85% of their electricity. Hydroelectricity would eventually supply countries like Norway. The United States currently has over 2.500 MW.
Cross section of a conventional hydroelectric dam. .
. Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. To deliver water to a turbine while maintaining pressure arising from the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with smaller reservoir capacities. can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. When there is higher demand. Tide A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of water due to tides. water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. This height difference is called the head. a large pipe called a penstock may be used. and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs. excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. thus making it impossible to store water. At times of low electrical demand.A typical turbine and generator Conventional Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. such sources are highly predictable. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system.
and Guri Dam at 10. some are created to serve specific industrial enterprises. with some hydroelectric facilities capable of generating more than double the installed capacities of the current largest nuclear power stations.5 GW. Large-scale hydroelectric power stations are more commonly seen as the largest power producing facilities in the world. .500 MW. facilities from over a few hundred megawatts to more than 10 GW is generally considered large hydroelectric facilities. Itaipu Dam at 14 GW. New Zealand's Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point. the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants.000 MW) are in operation worldwide. only three facilities over 10 GW (10. In Suriname. for example. is the largest operating hydroelectric power stations at an installed capacity of 22. While many hydroelectric projects supply public electricity networks.Sizes and capacities of hydroelectric facilities Large and specialized industrial facilities The Three Gorges Dam. The Grand Coulee Dam switched to support Alcoa aluminium in Bellingham. United States for American World War II airplanes before it was allowed to provide irrigation and power to citizens (in addition to aluminium power) after the war. Washington. Although no official definition exist for the capacity range of large hydroelectric power stations. Currently.2 GW. Three Gorges Dam at 22.
such as the International Hydropower Association. creating just as much damage to the environment as at helps it by being a renewable resource. Since small hydro projects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work.5 GW). The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10 megawatts (MW) is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro. Alternatively. raising the total world small-hydro capacity to 85 GW. Small-scale hydroelectricity production grew by 28% during 2008 from 2005. look into these matters on a global scale. Small hydro plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low-cost renewable energy. and India (2 GW). Small Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. Many specialized organizations. This decreased environmental impact depends strongly on the balance between stream flow and power production. small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a network. are often too at very large scales. .The construction of these large hydroelectric facilities and the changes it makes to the environment. This may be stretched to 25 MW and 30 MW in Canada and the United States. followed by Japan (3. or in areas where there is no national electrical distribution network. Over 70% of this was in China (65 GW). the United States (3 GW).
or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community. water flow. It is useful in small. Micro hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 KW of power. For example. and through the turbine before being exhausted back to the stream. Even smaller turbines of 200-300W may power a single home in a developing country with a drop of only 1 m (3 ft). Pico Pico hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power generation of under 5 KW. . Micro hydro systems complement photovoltaic solar energy systems because in many areas. to power one or two fluorescent light bulbs and a TV or radio for a few homes. meaning that dams are not used.Micro A micro-hydro facility in Vietnam. but rather pipes divert some of the flow. There are many of these installations around the world. remote communities that require only a small amount of electricity. particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel. drop this down a gradient. Pico-hydro setups typically are run-of-the-river. and thus available hydro power. is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum.
closer to 1) with larger and more modern turbines. h is height in meters.8 m/s2. In some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.Calculating the amount of available power A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is: P = ρhrgk. Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. r is flow rate in cubic meters per second. Efficiency is often higher (that is. g is acceleration due to gravity of 9. k is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 1. Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectricity Advantages The Ffestiniog Power Station can generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the demand arising. ρ is the density of water (~1000 kg/m3). where • • • • • • P is Power in watts. .
and become tourist attractions themselves. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil. presumably similar conditions prevail in North America and Northern Asia. and fourth was solar photovoltaic. According to this project. a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost. natural freeze/thaw cycle (with associated seasonal plant decay and regrowth). Coming in second place was wind. and no imports are needed. third was nuclear energy. natural gas or coal. Hydroelectric plants also tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation. aquaculture in reservoirs is common. . One measurement of greenhouse gas related and other externality comparison between energy sources can be found in the ExternE project by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Stuttgart which was funded by the European Commission. In some countries. Operating labor cost is also usually low. providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation. Large hydro dams can control floods. they do not directly produce carbon dioxide. with some plants now in service which were built 50 to 100 years ago. The above study was for local energy in Europe. as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. CO2 emissions Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels. hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases and externality of any energy source. The extremely positive greenhouse gas impact of hydroelectricity is found especially in temperate climates. Where a dam serves multiple purposes. this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation. Other uses of the reservoir Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports.Economics The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project. which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project. which all see a regular.
have been demolished due to the high impact on fish.Disadvantages Ecosystem damage and loss of land Hydroelectric power stations that uses dams would submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir. Large reservoirs required for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams. Mitigation measures . In some cases dams. destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests. such as the Marmot Dam. The loss of land is often exacerbated by the fact that reservoirs cause habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas. For instance. studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream. Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research. This has led to some areas transporting smolt downstream by barge during parts of the year. even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. Salmon spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines. Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. marshland and grasslands.
the daily cyclic flow variation caused by Glen Canyon Dam was found to be contributing to erosion of sand bars. the entire river may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed. Some hydroelectric projects also use canals to divert a river at a shallower gradient to increase the head of the scheme. Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently. which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks. which can change aquatic faunal populations. including endangered species. The result of diminished river flow can be power shortages in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. For example. Lower river flows because of drought. Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment.such as fish ladders may be required at new projects or as a condition of re-licensing of existing projects. Depending on the location. and prevent natural freezing processes from occurring. climate change or upstream dams and diversions will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. In some cases. Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed. in the Grand Canyon. water exiting from turbines is typically much warmer than the pre-dam water. Flow shortage Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. Dissolved oxygen content of the water may change from pre-construction conditions. . Examples include the Tekapo and Pukaki Rivers in New Zealand.
with an installed capacity of up to 2. Lower positive impacts are found in the tropical regions. as it has been noted that the reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane.Methane emissions (from reservoirs) The Hoover Dam in United States is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility. where the reservoir is large compared to the generating capacity (less than 100 watts per square metre of surface area) and no clearing of the forests in the area was undertaken prior to impoundment of the reservoir. and forming methane. According to the World Commission on Dams report. greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir may be higher than those of a conventional . This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment.080 MW. a very potent greenhouse gas.
where almost 2000 people died. no amount of compensation can replace ancestral and cultural attachments to places that have spiritual value to the displaced population. terrorism. Failure hazard Because large conventional dammed-hydro facilities hold back large volumes of water. Also. however. Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities create less risk. In 2007. it was estimated that 40-80 million people worldwide had been physically displaced as a direct result of dam construction. or other causes can be catastrophic to downriver settlements and infrastructure. the creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters like the one of the Vajont Dam in Italy. in 1963. not fossil deposits that had been sequestered from the carbon cycle. the Three Gorges Dam in China. the small Kelly Barnes Dam . The Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China directly resulted in the deaths of 26. These carbon credits – of hydropower projects under the CDM in developing countries – can be sold to companies and governments in rich countries. Such problems have arisen at the Aswan Dam in Egypt between 1960 and 1980. For example.oil-fired thermal generation plant. the Clyde Dam in New Zealand. Dam failures have been some of the largest man-made disasters in history. for hydropower projects already finished or under construction at the moment they applied to join the CDM. Millions were left homeless. but can form continuing hazards even after they have been decommissioned. good design and construction are not an adequate guarantee of safety. In February 2008. Additionally. in order to comply with the Kyoto protocol. In many cases. greenhouse gas emissions are typically only 2% to 8% of any kind of conventional fossil-fuel thermal generation. a failure due to poor construction. A new class of underwater logging operation that targets drowned forests can mitigate the effect of forest decay. sabotage and terrorism. there is a greater amount of methane due to anaerobic decay.000 people. Although these emissions represent carbon already in the biosphere. Dams are tempting industrial targets for wartime attack. Also. and the Ilisu Dam in Turkey.000 from epidemics. such as Operation Chastise in World War II. and another 145. causing greater damage than would otherwise have occurred had the forest decayed naturally. International Rivers accused hydropower firms for cheating with fake carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism. Relocation Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost. In boreal reservoirs of Canada and Northern Europe.
and may be significantly reduced in years of low rainfall or snowmelt. hydroelectricity is also a renewable energy source. Unlike fossil-fuelled combustion turbines. Comparison with other methods of power generation Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion. nor nuclear leaks. Utilities that primarily use hydroelectric power may spend additional capital to build extra capacity to ensure sufficient power is available in low water years. and environmental impact assessment. in many areas the most cost effective sites have already been exploited. If the project has a storage reservoir. hydroelectricity power plants have a more predictable load factor. New hydro sites tend to be far from population centers and require extensive transmission lines. Compared to nuclear power. it can be dispatched to generate power when needed. Long-term energy yield may be affected by climate change. causing 39 deaths with the Toccoa Flood. Unlike plants operated by fuel. including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide. has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining. hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste. Compared to wind farms. ten years after its power plant was decommissioned in 1957. nitric oxide. hydrological studies.failed in 1967. Hydroelectric generation depends on rainfall in the watershed. dust. construction of a hydroelectric plant requires a long lead-time for site studies. Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand. carbon monoxide. and mercury in the coal. Hydrological data up to 50 years or more is usually required to determine the best sites and operating regimes for a large hydroelectric plant. . the number of sites that can be economically developed for hydroelectric production is limited. such as fossil or nuclear energy. Unlike uranium.
the ratio between annual average power and installed capacity rating is the capacity factor. Paraguay produces 100% of its electricity from hydroelectric dams. Norway. The installed capacity is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings. Norway produces 98–99% of its electricity from hydroelectric sources. Canada. and Venezuela are the only countries in the world where the majority of the internal electric energy production is from hydroelectric power.25 China . A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full power rating over a full year. Annual hydroelectric Installed Capacity % of total Country production (TWh) capacity (GW) factor capacity 652.79 0.Full Report 2009 Brazil.World hydroelectric capacity World renewable energy share as at 2008. Paraguay. and exports 90% of its production to Brazil and to Argentina.37 22. Sources came from BP Statistical Review .05 196. The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by actual annual energy production or by installed capacity power rating. Switzerland. with hydroelectricity more than 50% of all renewable energy sources. Ten of the largest hydroelectric producers as at 2009.
400 MW China Nuozhadu Dam 5.20 7.600 14.6 India Venezuela 85.080 79. Controversial 228 meter tall dam with capacity to produce 35. 2015 2005 Comments Construction once stopped due to lack of environmental impact study.37 0.59 0. Jinping 2 Hydropower Station 4.67 0.600 MW China 3. 2007 2014 Jinping 1 Hydropower Station Pubugou Dam 3.2 Japan Sweden 65.5 363.49 0.25 15.5 Norway 115.209 0.850 MW China November 26.229 16.300 MW China November 11. 2010 .511 45.600 MW China December 26.64 98. Multi-phase construction over a period of 15 years.000 Project MW India April. 23 families and 129 local residents need to be moved. Xiluodu Dam Siang Upper HE 11.56 5.528 33.8 Brazil United States 250.43 0.42 0.34 Major projects under construction Name Maximum Construction Scheduled Country Capacity started completion 12.46 61.110 MW Burma March.974 69.12 85. It works with Jinping 1 Hydropower Station as a group. 2015 2006 2006 2017 To build this dam. 2007 2022 Xiangjiaba Dam 6.42 0.0 Russia 140.80 69. 2014 2005 March 30.5 88.Canada 369. 2009 2024 TaSang Dam 7.21 44.000 27.446 Ghw annually. Construction was delayed due to dispute with China.56 0.96 69.622 27.74 17.6 167.800 MW China January 30.
000 MW Argentina August 15. Lianghekou 3. 2011 2003 2008 2015 Construction of the roads and spillway started.000 MW China 3. 2007 July 27.Goupitan Dam Guanyinyan Dam 3.400 MW China 2008 This new power plant would be the last development in the Low Caroni Basin.400 MW China 2010 2006 November 11.000 MW China Dam Ahai Dam 2. including the 10.400 MW China 2012 2007 Liyuan Dam 2.000 MW China Subansiri Lower 2.000MW Guri Dam.600 MW China 2014 2008 December Jinanqiao Dam 2.000 MW Russia 1980 2010 Chapetón 3. 2006 2005 2015 Shuangjiangkou 2.160 MW Venezuela 2004 2014 Ludila Dam 2. Dagangshan 2. Guandi Dam 2. Tocoma Dam Bolívar State 2.000 MW India Dam 2012 .000 MW China 2004 November 8. The dam will be 314 m high.000 MW China 2009 2015 Dam Boguchan Dam 3. bringing the total to six power plants on the same river. Construction halt due to lack of the evnironmental assessment.100 MW China 2007 December.
As a more recent technology.715 megawatts (MW). Estimates of the electricity generating potential of geothermal energy vary from 35 to 2000 GW. a small fraction of that of conventional fossil fuel plants. The emission intensity of existing geothermal electric plants is on average 122 kg of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MW·h) of electricity. Geothermal power is considered to be sustainable because the heat extraction is small compared to the Earth's heat content.Chapter-4 Geothermal Electricity (First-generation Technology) Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy. flash steam power plants and binary cycle power plants. Technologies in use include dry steam power plants. . geothermal electricity generation is currently used only in 24 countries while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries.086 MW). Current worldwide installed capacity is 10. Philippines. and Indonesia. with the largest capacity in the United States (3.
Experimental generators were built in Beppu. came on-line. Japan and the Geysers.History and development Global geothermal electric capacity. The development of binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology may . It successfully lit four light bulbs. Alaska. but Italy was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until New Zealand built a plant in 1958. Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal electric power plant in the United States at The Geysers in California. The binary cycle power plant was first demonstrated in 1967 in Russia and later introduced to the USA in 1981. the world's first commercial geothermal power plant was built there. In the 20th century. In 2006. in the 1920s. in 1911. This technology allows the use of much lower temperature resources than were previously recoverable. California. Italy. Upper red line is installed capacity. a binary cycle plant in Chena Hot Springs. producing electricity from a record low fluid temperature of 57°C. The original turbine lasted for more than 30 years and produced 11 MW net power. lower green line is realized production. Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904 in Larderello. demand for electricity led to the consideration of geothermal power as a generating source. Geothermal electric plants have until recently been built exclusively where high temperature geothermal resources are available near the surface. Later. In 1960.
because geothermal fluids are at a low temperature compared to steam from boilers. but it does factor into the viability of the plant. . the United Kingdom. while an earlier effort in Basel. The global average was 73% in 2005. Demonstration projects are operational in Landau-Pfalz. its capacity factor can be quite large – up to 96% has been demonstrated. Exhaust heat is wasted. In order to produce more energy than the pumps consume. unlike. France. Other demonstration projects are under construction in Australia. Because geothermal power does not rely on variable sources of energy. for example in greenhouses. and the United States of America.enable enhanced geothermal systems over a much greater geographical range. wind or solar. Switzerland was shut down after it triggered earthquakes. unless it can be used directly and locally. The efficiency of the system does not affect operational costs as it would for a coal or other fossil fuel plant. electricity generation requires high temperature geothermal fields and specialized heat cycles. and Soultz-sousForêts. By the laws of thermodynamics this low temperature limits the efficiency of heat engines in extracting useful energy during the generation of electricity. Germany. for example. around 10-23%. The thermal efficiency of geothermal electric plants is low. timber mills. and district heating.
(TW.2 terawatts. .Resources Enhanced geothermal system 1:Reservoir 2:Pump house 3:Heat exchanger 4:Turbine hall 5:Production well 6:Injection well 7:Hot water to district heating 8:Porous sediments 9:Observation well 10:Crystalline bedrock The earth’s heat content is 1031 joules. water or other) to release the heat underneath. This heat naturally flows to the surface by conduction at a rate of 44. but most of this power is too diffuse (approximately 0. These power rates are more than double humanity’s current energy consumption from primary sources.) and is replenished by radioactive decay at a rate of 30 TW.1 W/m2 on average) to be recoverable. The Earth's crust effectively acts as a thick insulating blanket which must be pierced by fluid conduits (of magma.
such as Exxon's Z-12 well in the Chayvo field. or where water pressure is inadequate. and hot springs bring the heat to the surface. hot springs. Then they pump water or liquefied carbon dioxide down one borehole. The heat must be carried to the surface by fluid circulation. If no hot spring is available. and wells would have to be several kilometres deep to permit electricity generation. with the potential to increase this to over 2. Wairakei. Upper estimates of geothermal resources assume wells as deep as 10 kilometres (6 mi). individual wells may cool down or run out of water. This circulation sometimes exists naturally where the crust is thin: magma conduits bring heat close to the surface. a well must be drilled into a hot aquifer. geothermal wells are rarely more than 3 kilometres (2 mi) deep. the Kola superdeep borehole.sufficient to provide all the world's present energy needs for several millennia. Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades. Geothermal power is considered to be sustainable because the heat extraction is small compared to the Earth's heat content. The MIT report estimated that over 200 zettajoules (ZJ) would be extractable. geothermal heat pumps and other direct use. or a combination of these.Electricity generation requires high temperature resources that can only come from deep underground. or enhanced geothermal systems in North America. Away from tectonic plate boundaries the geothermal gradient is 25-30°C per kilometre (km) of depth in most of the world.000 ZJ with technology improvements . Sakhalin. that included the potential of enhanced geothermal systems. and it comes up the other borehole as a gas. This does not include non-electric heat recovered by co-generation. and fracture the rock between them with explosives or high pressure water. either through magma conduits. injected fluid can stimulate production. It is not clear whether these plants extracted energy faster than it was replenished from greater depths. but extraction must still be monitored to avoid local depletion. At present. . is 12 kilometres (7 mi) deep. estimated that investing 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years would allow the creation of 100 GW of electrical generating capacity by 2050 in the United States alone. although it is an expensive process. Wells drilled to depths greater than 4 kilometres (2 mi) generally incur drilling costs in the tens of millions of dollars. oil wells. Drilling at this depth is now possible in the petroleum industry. A 2006 report by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). hydrothermal circulation. and the Geysers have all reduced production from their peaks. at Larderello. This record has recently been imitated by commercial oil wells. The three oldest sites. Much greater potential may be available from this approach than from conventional tapping of natural aquifers. This approach is called hot dry rock geothermal energy in Europe. Estimates of the electricity generating potential of geothermal energy vary from 35 to 2000 GW depending on the scale of investments. Developers bore two holes into a candidate site. The technological challenges are to drill wide bores at low cost and to break larger volumes of rock. drilled water wells. The deepest research well in the world. In ground that is hot but dry. The quantity and quality of recoverable resources improves with drilling depth and proximity to tectonic plate boundaries.
and at The Geysers field in California since 1960. these wells could theoretically recover their full potential. The long-term sustainability of geothermal energy has been demonstrated at the Lardarello field in Italy since 1913. Such mitigation strategies have already been implemented at some sites. If production is reduced. and water is reinjected. Power station types Dry steam plant .or whether the aquifers supplying them are being depleted. at the Wairakei field in New Zealand since 1958.
They require fluid temperatures of at least 180°C. . This is the most common type of plant in operation today. usually more. They directly use geothermal steam of 150°C or more to turn turbines. high-pressure hot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drive turbines. Flash steam power plants Flash steam plants pull deep.Flash steam plant Dry steam power plants Dry steam plants are the simplest and oldest design.
the Philippines. which is expected to generate 67. This causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor. in Southwest Alaska.500 MW by 2015. Enhanced geothermal systems that are several kilometres in depth are operational in France and Germany and are being developed or evaluated in at least four other countries.086 MW of installed capacity from 77 power plants. As of 2004. United States. and can accept fluid temperatures as low as 57°C. the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 3. Installed geothermal electric capacity Country percentage Capacity (MW) Capacity (MW) of national 2007 2010 production . This is the most common type of geothermal electricity plant being built today.Binary cycle power plants Binary cycle power plants are the most recent development. In 2010. a geothermal field in California. The moderately hot geothermal water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. often in areas previously assumed to have little exploitable resource. geothermal power makes up approximately 18% of the country's electricity generation. the largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers. The thermal efficiency is typically about 10%. due to the large number of projects presently under consideration. IGA projects this will grow to 18. with 1.715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power in 24 countries is online. This represents a 20% increase in geothermal power online capacity since 2005. Utility-grade plants The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers. The Philippines follows the US as the second highest producer of geothermal power in the world. and Costa Rica) generate more than 15% of their electricity from geothermal sources.246 GWh of electricity in 2010. During 2005. while there were also plants under construction in 11 other countries. a geothermal field in California. five countries (El Salvador.904 MW of capacity online. contracts were placed for an additional 500 MW of electrical capacity in the United States. Iceland. which then drives the turbines. Kenya. Worldwide production The International Geothermal Association (IGA) has reported that 10. Geothermal electricity is generated in the 24 countries listed in the table below. Naknek Electric Association (NEA) is going to make an exploration well near King Salmon. It could cut the cost of electricity production by 71 percent and the planned power is 25 megawatts. Both Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles are used.
4 1.2% 14% 10% .5 Nicaragua 87.1 0.709.2 Japan 535.7 Ethiopia 7.4 Russia 79 Turkey 38 Papua-New Guinea 56 Guatemala 53 Portugal 23 China 27.6 1.4 Austria 1.731.7 0.1% 14% 11.7 Indonesia 992 Mexico 953 Italy 810.9 3086 1904 1197 958 843 628 575 536 204 167 166 88 82 82 56 52 29 24 16 7.3 10.6 Iceland 421.2 Thailand 0.3 Germany 8.7% 3% 10% 30% 0.5 New Zealand 471.2 El Salvador 204.1 Australia 0.USA 2687 Philippines 1969.3 6.3 TOTAL 9.3% 27% 3.8 Costa Rica 162.2 Kenya 128.8 France 14.
The modern practice of injecting geothermal fluids back into the Earth to stimulate production has the side benefit of reducing this environmental risk. These chemicals come out of solution as the water cools. Plants that experience high levels of acids and volatile chemicals are usually equipped with emission-control systems to reduce the exhaust. arsenic. boron. Plant construction can adversely affect land stability. Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kg of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MW·h) of electricity. hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The project in Basel. hot water from geothermal sources may hold in solution trace amounts of toxic chemicals such as mercury. Switzerland was suspended because . and noxious smells if released. notably carbon dioxide (CO2). These pollutants contribute to global warming. and salt. as a form of carbon capture and storage. Geothermal plants could theoretically inject these gases back into the earth. antimony.Environmental impact Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases. methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). Enhanced geothermal systems can trigger earthquakes as part of hydraulic fracturing. acid rain. and can cause environmental damage if released. a small fraction of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel plants. In addition to dissolved gases. Subsidence has occurred in the Wairakei field in New Zealand.
.054 per kW·h in 2007. electrical plant construction and well drilling cost about 2-5 million € per MW of electrical capacity. while the levelised energy cost is 0.5 square kilometres per gigawatt of electrical production (not capacity) versus 32 and 12 square kilometres for coal facilities and wind farms respectively. with capital costs above $4 million per MW and levelized costs above $0.5 megawatt (MW) of electricity generation and costs about $10 million to drill. Economics Geothermal power requires no fuel. and is therefore immune to fuel cost fluctuations. all owned by Calpine. They use 20 litres of freshwater per MW·h versus over 1000 litres per MW·h for nuclear. coal. but capital costs tend to be high. and exploration of deep resources entails significant risks. The most developed geothermal field is the Geysers in California.4 on the Richter Scale occurred over the first 6 days of water injection. or oil. Enhanced geothermal systems tend to be on the high side of these ranges. this field supported 15 plants. with a total generating capacity of 725 MW. with a 20% failure rate. In total. Geothermal power is highly scalable: a large geothermal plant can power entire cities while a smaller power plant can supply a rural village. Drilling accounts for over half the costs. A typical well doublet in Nevada can support 4.000 seismic events measuring up to 3. Geothermal plants use 3. Geothermal has minimal land and freshwater requirements.more than 10. Chevron Corporation is the world's largest private producer of geothermal electricity.04-0. In 2008.10 € per kW·h.
Austria and China and co. Japan. SWH has been widely used in Israel. Australia. . Solar water heating (SWH) systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies which have been accepted in most countries for many years.Chapter-5 Solar Water Heating (Second-generation technology) Roof-mounted close-coupled thermosiphon solar water heater.
In a "pump-circulated" system the storage tank is ground or floor mounted and is below the level of the collectors. A solar hot water heater installed on a house in Belgium In order to heat water using solar energy. SWH systems are designed to deliver the optimum amount of hot water for most of the year. While perhaps best known in a residential setting to provide hot domestic water. solar hot water also has industrial applications. in winter there sometimes may not be sufficient solar heat gain to deliver sufficient hot water. However. Designs suitable for hot climates can be much simpler and cheaper. Overview Hot water heated by the sun is used in many ways. and can be considered an appropriate technology for these places. often fastened to a roof or a wall facing the sun. No pumping is required as the hot water naturally rises into the tank through thermosiphon flow.In a "close-coupled" SWH system the storage tank is horizontally mounted immediately above the solar collectors on the roof. or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated (near . heats working fluid that is either pumped (active system) or driven by natural convection (passive system) through it.g. to generate electricity . Europe. a circulating pump moves water or heat transfer fluid between the tank and the collectors. Japan and India. a collector. The collector could be made of a simple glass topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes and painted black. In this case a gas or electric booster is normally used to heat the water. e. The global solar thermal market is dominated by China.
thus creating the first 'batch water heater' as they are known today. Hence. The heat transfer fluid (HTF) for the absorber may be the hot water from the tank. Therefore. and because the optimum final temperature for the solar collector is lower than a typical immersion or combustion heater. In 1896 Clarence Kemp of Baltimore.vacuum) glass cylinder. When a solar water heating and hot-water central heating system are used in conjunction. The tank is not pressurized and is open to atmospheric pressure. As soon as the pump shuts off. Although flat-plate collectors for solar water heating were used in Florida and Southern California in the 1920s there was a surge of interest in solar heating in North America after 1960. flow reverses and the pipes are empty before freezing could occur. USA enclosed a tank in a wooden box. solar water heating for washing and bathing is often a better application than central heating because supply and demand are better matched. History There are records of solar collectors in the United States dating back to before 1900. Residential solar thermal installations fall into two groups: passive (sometimes called "compact") and active (sometimes called "pumped") systems. combined hot water and space heating systems (solar combisystems) are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy. This can include domestic non-electric concentrating solar thermal systems. without the supplemental heat requirement of a solar water heating system being met with fossil fuels or electricity. instead all the piping is sloped to cause water to drain back to the tank. the primary need for central heating is at night and in winter when solar gain is lower. The volume of this tank needs to be larger with solar heating systems in order to allow for bad weather. a solar hot water system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy. or the solar heat exchanger will replace the lower heating element and the upper element will remain in place to provide for any heating that solar cannot provide.In many climates. but more commonly (at least in active systems) is a separate loop of fluid containing anti-freeze and a corrosion inhibitor which delivers heat to the tank through a heat exchanger (commonly a coil of copper tubing within the tank). In industrial cases a parabolic mirror can concentrate sunlight on the tube. However. Heat is stored in a hot water storage tank. . Both typically include an auxiliary energy source (electric heating element or connection to a gas or fuel oil central heating system) that is activated when the water in the tank falls below a minimum temperature setting such as 55°C. hot water is always available. solar heat will either be concentrated in a pre-heating tank that feeds into the tank heated by the central heating. In many northern European countries. but specially after the 1973 oil crisis. The combination of solar water heating and using the back-up heat from a wood stove chimney to heat water can enable a hot water system to work all year round in cooler climates. comprising a black-painted tank mounted on a roof. Another lowermaintenance concept is the 'drain-back': no anti-freeze is required.
solar water heaters were used by only 20% of the population by 1967. Israel's first commercial manufacturer of solar water heating. and the government forbade heating water between 10 p. Levi Yissar built the first prototype Israeli solar water heater and in 1953 he launched the NerYah Company.m. Israel is now the world leader in the use of solar energy per capita with 85% of the households today using solar thermal systems (3% of the primary . in 1980 the Israeli Knesset passed a law requiring the installation of solar water heaters in all new homes (except high towers with insufficient roof area).m. Following the energy crisis in the 1970s.Work in Israel Passive (thermisiphon) solar water heaters on a rooftop in Jerusalem Flat plate solar systems were perfected and used on a very large scale in Israel. Despite the abundance of sunlight in Israel. In the 1950s there was a fuel shortage in the new Israeli state. As a result. and 6 a..
Installation of solar water heating has become the norm in countries with an abundance of solar radiation. like the Mediterranean. life expectancy and ease of use of these systems. and made adaptations as to meet the specifications set by the Banco Central Hipotecario (BCH) which prescribed that the system must be operational in cities like Bogotá where there are more than 200 days overcast. the highest per capita use of solar energy in the world. Over 40. worldwide. In 2005. directed by Paolo Lugari..national energy consumption). and the second (after Israel) to require the installation of solar water heating systems in 2006. and still function a quarter of a century later. . Driven by a desire to reduce costs in social housing. estimated to save the country two million barrels of oil a year.000 were installed. Other countries New solar hot water installations during 2007. The ultimate designs were so successful that Las Gaviotas offered in 1984 a 25 year warranty on any of its installations. and Japan and Austria. The world saw a rapid growth of the use of solar warm water after 1960. where there Colombia developed a local solar water heating industry thanks to the designs of Las Gaviotas. with systems being marketed also in Japan and Australia Technical innovation has improved performance. the team of Gaviotas studied the best systems from Israel. Spain became the first country in the world to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings.
Solar water heating systems have become popular in China. Types of Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems A monobloc (thermosiphon) solar heater in Cirque de Mafate.Australia has a variety of incentives (national and state) and regulations (state) for solar thermal introduced starting with MRET in 1997 . The temperature of the water required from the system.500 yuan (US$190). much cheaper than in Western countries (around 80% cheaper for a given size of collector). Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter. where basic models start at around 1. It is said that at least 30 million Chinese households now have one. La Réunion The type and complexity of a solar water heating system is mostly determined by: • • • The changes in ambient temperature during the day-night cycle. Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar water heating systems with over 30%-40% of homes using them. . and that the popularity is due to the efficient evacuated tubes which allow the heaters to function even under gray skies and at temperatures well below freezing .
in an extreme case). wall mount The location of the storage tank in relation to the collector The method of heat transfer .roof mount. there are a number of other system characteristics that distinguish different designs: • • • • • The type of collector used (see below) The location of the collector .open-loop or closed-loop (via heat exchanger) Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors can be designed to produce both hot water and electricity. In addition.The minimum efficiency of the system is determined by the amount or temperature of hot water required during winter (when the largest amount of hot water is often required). There are two main categories of solar water heating systems. Passive systems rely on convection or heat pipes to circulate water or heating fluid in the system. . while active systems use a pump. The maximum efficiency of the system is determined by the need to prevent the water in the system from becoming too hot (to boil. ground mount.
They are simple. Neither pumps nor electricity are used to enforce circulation. These are often plate type or evacuated tube collectors with built-in insulated tanks. efficient and less costly than plate and tube collectors but are only suitable in moderate climates with good sunshine. They are seldom pressurised and usually depend on gravity flow to deliver their water.Passive systems An integrated collector storage (ICS) system A special type of passive system is the Integrated Collector Storage (ICS or Batch Heater) where the tank acts as both storage and solar collector. The unit uses convection (movement of hot water upward) to move the water from collector to tank. It is more efficient . A step up from the ICS is the Convection Heat Storage unit (CHS or thermosiphon). Batch heaters are basically thin rectilinear tanks with glass in front of it generally in or on house wall or roof.
. Indirect ('closed loop') passive systems use a non-toxic antifreeze heat transfer fluid (HTF) in the collector. Consequently the maintenance of a passive system is simple and cheap. Typically these systems will function by natural convection or heat pipes to transfer the heat energy from the collector to the tank. It can be used in areas with less sunshine than the ICS. Direct systems: (A) Passive CHS system with tank above collector. convection causes it to flow to the tank where a passive heat exchanger transfers the heat of the HTF to the water in the tank. When this fluid is heated. There are no mechanical or electrical parts that can break or that require regular supervision or maintenance. When the water in the collector becomes warm. (B) Active system with pump and controller driven by a photovoltaic panel Direct ('open loop') passive systems use water from the main household water supply to circulate between the collector and the storage tank. The efficiency of a passive system is often somewhat lower than that of an active system and overheating is largely avoided by the inherent design of a passive system. The attraction of passive solar water heating systems lies in their simplicity. An CHS also known as a compact system or monobloc has a tank for the heated water and a solar collector mounted on the same chassis. convection causes it to rise and flow towards the water storage tank. at night. They are often not suitable for cold climates since.than an ICS as the collector heats a small(er) amount of water that constantly rises back to the tank. the water in the collector can freeze and damage the panels.
Because the pump should only operate when the fluid in the collector is hotter than the water in the storage tank. (D) Drainback system with drainback reservoir. a controller is . the heat of which is transferred to the water in the storage tank. Like their passive counterparts. In these schematics the controller and pump are driven by mains electricity Active solar hot water systems employ a pump to circulate water or HTF between the collector and the storage tank. indirect active systems which are usually made of metals pump heat transfer fluid (HTF).Active systems Indirect active systems: (C) Indirect system with heat exchanger in tank. active solar water heating systems come as two types: direct active systems pump water directly to the collector and back to the storage tank (direct collectors can contain conventional freeze-vulnerable metal pipes or low pressure freeze-tolerant silicone rubber pipes).
thermostatic and time-clock control of auxiliary heat. thus cooling the water in the storage tank. A pumped system allows the storage tank to be located out of sight. Active systems with intelligent controllers Modern active solar water systems have electronic controllers that permit a wide range of functionality such as full programmability. display of error messages or alarms. In passive systems the storage tank must be located above the collector so that the thermosiphon effect can transport water or HTF from collector to tank. For direct active systems in cold weather. or at night. . • • • • Active systems can tolerate higher water temperatures than would be the case in an equivalent passive system. inside the roof of a house. thus avoiding damage to the metal parts of the system.required to turn the pump on and off.g. measurement of the energy produced. Reducing the risk of freezing. Consequently active systems are often more efficient than passive systems but are more complex.g. the pump controller can pump hot water from the water storage tank through the collector in order to prevent the water in the collector from freezing. or others. the tank can be located where heat loss from the tank is reduced. If no water from the solar hot water system is used (e. thus avoiding duplication of equipment. New active solar water heating systems can make use of an existing warm water storage tanks ("geysers"). The use of an electronically controlled pump has several advantages: • The storage tank can be situated lower than the collectors. the water in the storage tank is likely to overheat. hot water circulation loops. where freeze tolerant collectors or drain down approaches are not used. Several pump controllers avoid overheating by activating the pump during the day at during times of low sunlight. more expensive. The use of a pump allows the storage tank to be located lower than the collector since the circulation of water or HTF is enforced by the pump. interaction with a backup electric or gasdriven water heater. This increases the efficiency of the solar water heating system. Reducing the risk of overheating. when water users are away). more difficult to install and rely on either mains or PV sourced electricity to run the pump and controller. remote display panels. e. sophisticated safety functions. and remote or local datalogging. Because of the fact that active systems allow freedom in the location of the storage tank. This pumps hot water or HTF from the storage tank through the collector (which can be cool in low light levels).
which in turn drives the direct current (DC) pump. A PV powered solar controller is sometimes used to prevent the pump from running when there is sunlight to power the pump but the collector is still cooler than the water in storage. water flows through the collector only when the sun is shining. the controller turns the pump on when the water in the collector is about 8-10°C warmer than the water in the tank and it turns the pump off when the temperature difference approaches 0 °C. Although the pumps of most active systems are driven by mains electricity. depending on the pump and its PV power supply. but revert to mains electricity when light is not available. The PV panel converts sunlight into electricity.A typical programmable differential controller The most popular pump controller is a differential controller that senses temperature differences between water leaving the solar collector and the water in the storage tank near the heat exchanger. Several DC-pumps are intelligent and employ maximum power point (MPP) tracking to optimise pump rate. It shuts off later in the day when the available solar energy diminishes. The pump is operated by the sun and is completely independent from mains electricity. Also the solar hot water can still be collected during a power outage. In a typical indirect configuration. . for instance during periods of small amounts of electricity from the PV panel during cloudy weather. Some differential controllers use power from the PV panel when sunlight is available. some active solar systems obtain energy to power the pump by a photovoltaic (PV) panel. In direct systems this "on differential" can be reduced to around 4C because there is no heat exchanger impediment. The pump starts when there is sufficient solar radiation available to heat the solar collector and to start the pump. This ensures the water always gains heat from the collector when the pump operates and prevents the pump from cycling on and off too often. This "pump starting" irradiation varies from 4% to 10% of full sunlight. The DC-pump and PV panel must be suitably matched to ensure proper performance. this improves performance at low light levels. In this way. The main environmental advantage of a PV-driven pump is that it eliminates the energy / carbon clawback or "parasitics" associated with using a solar thermal systems. By allowing more "pump on" time.
This stategy has been found to maximise efficiency. This makes this type of system well-suited to colder climates. The HTF typically arrives at the heat exchanger at 70 °C and returns to the circulating pump at 50 °C. However the collector piping is not pressurised and includes an open drainback reservoir. usually in the ratio of 60 to 40. Pumping typically starts at about 50°C and increases as the sun rises until equilibrium is reached depending on the efficiency of the heat exchanger. If the pump is switched off. causing an upward flow.The low /variable flow from PV powered pumps for domestic hot water only (no heating) is typically matched with a temperature maximising solar absorber of the serpentine type. . In frost prone climates the HTF is water with propylene glycol anti-freeze added. the temperature of the water being heated and the strength of the sun. In a bubble pump system. being driven by a pump. Active systems with a bubble pump The bubble separator of a bubble-pump system An active solar water heating system can be equipped with a bubble pump (also known as geyser pump) instead of an electric pump. The system is designed such that the bubbles are separated from the hot fluid and condensed at the highest point in the circuit. A bubble pump circulates the heat transfer fluid (HTF) between collector and storage tank using solar power and without any external energy source and is suitable for flat panel as well as vacuum tube systems. This in conjunction with a stratified hot water tank design maximises a small quantity of hot water that reduces the need for the standby heating system to operate. Consequently the collector cannot be damaged by freezing or overheating. The steam bubbles form a geyser pump. the closed HTF circuit is under reduced pressure. which causes the liquid to boil at low temperature as it is heated by the sun. all the heat transfer fluid drains into the drainback reservoir and none remains in the collector. Active systems with drainback A drain-back system is an indirect active system where heat transfer fluid circulates through the collector. after which the fluid flows downward towards the heat exchanger caused by the difference in fluid levels.
Designs which may boil the hot water store usually allow for relief of pressure and excess heat through a heat dump. propylene glycol) in the heat transfer fluid. this is called drainback and in direct systems (where the heated water is used as the transfer fluid) it is called draindown. In indirect systems (where the transfer fluid is separated from the heated water). A rough comparison of solar hot water systems Characteristic Comparison of SWH systems ICS Active Active Bubble Thermosyphon Drainback (Batch) direct indirect Pump . Almost all sealed and unvented solar circuits have pressure relief valves through which excessive water pressure or steam can be vented. When the water in the collector reaches a temperature near freezing. Some active systems deliberately cool the water in the storage tank by heat export: circulating hot water through the collector at times when there is little sunlight or at night (when solar energy does not heat the collector). the controller turns the pump on for a few minutes to warm the collector with water from the tank. 11 possible types of overheat control in solar thermal have been identified in the International Energy Agency's Task Group 39 on Polymeric materials in solar heating and cooling. This approach is common in climates where freezing temperatures do not occur often. In both direct and indirect systems. This approach is simpler and more reliable than drainback and is common in climates where freezing temperatures occur often.Freeze protection Freeze protection measures prevent damage to the system due to the expansion of freezing transfer fluid. Overheat protection Particularly when no hot water has been used for some time. In some direct systems. Other direct systems use freeze tolerant solar collectors. or if the pump fails to operate. such as during a power cut. these can freeze solid without cracking. One European solar collector is being produced to this specification under the Solar Keymark and EN 12975 standards. Many indirect systems use anti-freeze (e. the water from the collector can reach very high temperatures in good sunshine. automatic recirculation may be used for freeze protection. Heat export operates most effectively in systems which do not use basal heat exchangers to add heat to the water store (because cool water sinks below hot water). Being non-metal. Vented systems have a simpler safety feature already built in via the open vent. the collectors are manually drained when freezing is expected. Here the water channels of the collector are made of flexible polymers such as silicone rubber.g. Some systems drain the transfer fluid from the system when the pump stops. a simple and virtually fail-safe approach.
above: once when the tank and water has started to be heated. . Thermal insulation is used to slow down heat loss from a hot object to its environment. convection and radiation. Within the context of a solar collector. The heat from the sun would then heat the metal tank and the water inside. due to heat loss from the hot object. We may term this the 'delta-t effect'.Low profileunobtrusive Lightweight collector Survives freezing weather Low maintenance Simple: no ancillary control Retrofit potential to existing store Space saving: no extra storage tank Collectors used in modern domestic solar water heating systems Solar thermal collectors capture and retain heat from the sun and transfer this heat to a liquid. ultimately until the water in the tank would assume the ambient temperature. convection and radiation are the most important sources of heat loss. However. this was how the very first SWH systems worked more than a century ago. convection as well as radiation occur more rapidly over large thermal gradients. The efficiency of a solar thermal collector is directly related to heat losses from the collector surface (efficiency being defined as the proportion of heat energy that can be retained for a predefined period of time). Indeed. This is actually a direct manifestation of the Second law of thermodynamics but we may term this the 'equilibrium effect'. this setup would be inefficient due to an oversight of the equilibrium effect. The most simple approach to solar heating of water is to simply mount a metal tank filled with water in a sunny place. thus delaying the time until thermal equilibrium is reached. Heat is lost more rapidly if the temperature difference between a hot object and its environment is larger. Heat loss is predominantly governed by the thermal gradient between the temperature of the collector surface and the ambient temperature. Conduction. the heat gained would be lost back into the environment. The processes that result in this heat loss are conduction. Two important physical principles govern the technology of solar thermal collectors: • • Any hot object ultimately returns to thermal equilibrium with its environment. The challenge is therefore to limit the heat loss from the tank.
a pipe is connected to the water tank and the water is circulated through this pipe and back into the tank. This is because ICS collectors have a characteristic that strongly limits the efficiency of the collector: a small surface-tovolume ratio. with some ICS collectors comprising several smaller water containers and even including evacuated glass tube technology. The efficiency of the heating process is therefore sharply increased. enclosing a network of piping. In many flat-plate collectors the metal . it follows that a small surface would limit the degree to which the water can be heated by the sun. Since the surface-to-volume ratio increases sharply as the diameter of a pipe decreases. The water tank is now outside the collector that only contains the pipes. The design of a flat-plate collector therefore typically takes the shape of a flat box with a robust glass top oriented towards the sun. This is achieved by encasing the water tank in a glass-topped box that allows heat from the sun to reach the water tank. most flat-plate collectors have pipes less than 1 cm in diameter. the other walls of the box are thermally insulated. reducing convection as well as radiation to the environment. In a simple way one could consider an ICS solar water heater as a water tank that has been enclosed in a type of 'oven' that retains heat from the sun as well as heat of the water in the tank. Here. the box can also have a reflective surface on the inside. Using a box does not eliminate heat loss from the tank to the environment. Flat plate and evacuated tube collectors side-by-side. Cylindrical objects such as the tank in an ICS collector inherently have a small surface-to-volume ratio and most modern collectors attempt to increase this ratio for efficient warming of the water in the tank. This reflects heat lost from the tank back towards the tank. There are many variations on this basic design. However. Since the amount of heat that a tank can absorb from the sun is largely dependent on the surface of the tank directly exposed to the sun. but it largely reduces this loss. Flat plate collectors are an extension of the basic idea to place a collector in an 'oven'like box.ICS or batch collectors overcome the above problem by putting the water tank in a box that limits the loss of heat from the tank back into the environment. In addition.
Many systems are configured as drainback systems where the water drains into the pool when the water pump is switched off.. Once the pool water has reached the required temperature. . whether solid sheets or floating disks. Evacuated tube collectors are a way in which heat loss to the environment. Consequently these types of collectors are much less efficient for domestic water heating. A fairly simple differential temperature controller is used to direct the water to the panels or heat exchanger either by turning a valve or operating the pump. these collectors are efficient for that specific purpose. Since two flat sheets of glass are normally not strong enough to withstand a vacuum. This is because the 'delta-t effect' is becoming important. may either supplement the solar thermal collectors discussed below or make them unnecessary. Pool covering systems. act as solar collectors and provide pool heating benefits which. flat metal plate to which the pipes are connected. the water piping in an evacuated tube collector is therefore surrounded by two concentric tubes of glass with a vacuum in between that admits heat from the sun (to heat the pipe) but which limits heat loss back to the environment. This causes less corrosion. However. However. Solar thermal collectors for nonpotable pool water use are often made of plastic. the problem of radiation of heat back to the environment is very important. In cold or windy environments evacuated tubes or flat plates in an indirect configuration do not have pool water pumped through them. unglazed plastic collectors are more efficient as a direct system. the vacuum is rather created between two concentric tubes. a diverter valve is used to return pool water directly to the pool without heating. since water colder than the ambient temperature is heated. mildly corrosive due to chlorine. it forms an efficient isolation mechanism to keep heat inside the collector pipes. even though a box-like 'oven' is used. Since heat loss due to convection cannot cross a vacuum. In mild environments. the energy output of flat plate collectors drops off rapidly in cloudy or cool conditions compared to the output of evacuated tube collectors that decrease less rapidly. Pool water. Heating of swimming pools Both pool covering systems floating atop the water and separate solar thermal collectors may be used for pool heating.surface of the pipe is increased with flat metal flanges or even a large. The inner tube is coated with a thermal absorbent. Typically. Flat plate collectors are generally more efficient than evacuated tube collectors in full sunshine conditions. inherent in flat plates. they are used in conjunction with a heat exchanger that transfers the heat to pool water. is circulated through the panels using the existing pool filter or supplemental pump. depending on climate. Since the water in a flat-plate collector usually reaches temperatures much higher than that of an ICS. has been reduced. Formed collectors are a degenerate modification of a flat-plate collector in that the piping of the collector is not enclosed in a box-like 'oven'.
environment. Useful calculators for estimating insolation at a site can be found with the Joint . energy. A simple rule-of-thumb for the required panel area needed is 50% of the pool's surface area. the panels are often formed collectors or unglazed flat plate collectors. Even at the same latitude the average insolation can vary a great deal from location to location due to differences in local weather patterns and the amount of overcast.h per day. 3. 7 kW. Due to the low temperature difference between the air and the water. and system costs A laundromat in California with panels on the roof providing hot washing water. in a cold climate. Adding solar collectors to a conventional outdoor pool. In tropical places the insolation can be relatively high.The collector panels are usually mounted on a nearby roof. or ground-mounted on a tilted rack.g. not year 'round. can typically extend the pool's comfortable usage by some months or more if an insulating pool cover is also used. This is for areas where pools are used in the summer season only. Economics.2 kW. An active solar energy system analysis program may be used to optimize the solar pool heating system before it is built. Energy production The amount of heat delivered by a solar water heating system depends primarily on the amount of heat delivered by the sun at a particular place (the insolation).h per day.g. e. e. whereas the insolation can be much lower in temperate areas where the days are shorter in winter.
USA The figures are fairly similar between the above collectors. Zurich.61 0.68 0. The evac tube systems used below both have 20 tubes Evac Flat plate Flat plate Flat plate Evac tube Technology tube Direct Indirect Indirect Direct Thermosiphon Configuration active active active active 2 2. resulting in a significantly larger percentage of inactive overall collector area.46 Maximum efficiency Energy production (kW. Many thermosiphon systems are quite efficient and have comparable energy output to equivalent active systems.57 0. Therefore.9 8.Insolation 8.e. even within the 2 m2 range.h/day) for a tropical and a temperate scenario.h/m2/day (tropical) 11.74 0. when comparing figures.1 9. With most solar water heating systems.2 kW.h) of five solar thermal systems. .87 2. These estimates are for heating water to 50 degrees C above ambient temperature.96 Absorber size (m ) 0.e.h/day): .3 3. Below is a table that gives a rough indication of the specifications and energy that could be expected from a solar water heating system involving some 2 m2 of absorber area of the collector. Daily energy production (kWth.49 1.72 2.3 4.85 2. yielding some 4 kW.97 Overall size (m ) 2 2.g.h/day in a more tropical climate when using a collector with an absorber area of about 2m2 in size.98 1. take into account the absorber area of the collector because collectors with less absorber area yield less heat.9 3. Switzerland .0 3.h/m2/day (temperate) .2 . the energy output scales linearly with the surface area of the absorbers. Certification information or figures calculated from those data are used. demonstrating two evacuated tube and three flat plate solar water heating systems.5 kW.Research Laboratory of the European Commission and the American National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In the temperate scenario this is sufficient to heat 200 litres of water by some 17 degrees C. In the tropical scenario the equivalent heating would be by some 33 degrees C.h/day in a temperate climate and some 8 kW.85 2. Specifications for many complete solar water heating systems and separate solar collectors can be found at Internet site of the SRCC.98 1.4 6.8 4.Insolation 5.8 7. The efficiency of evacuated tube collectors is somewhat lower than for flat plate collectors because the absorbers are narrower than the tubes and the tubes have space between them. The bottom two rows give estimates for daily energy production (kW.g.21 1. Phoenix.
annual tax rebates and installation costs. .h/day) due to SWH. thus greatly reducing the operating costs. can be quite expensive over time. In addition. Some of these are: • • • • • • • • • Price of purchasing solar water heater (more complex systems are more expensive) Efficiency of SWH system purchased Installation cost State or government subsidy for installation of a solar water heater Price of electricity per kW. However the table does give an indication of the total cost and the order of magnitude of the payback period. The table assumes an energy savings of 140 kW. a proper analysis will consider that solar energy is free. It does not take into account annual maintenance costs.h Number of kW. where freeze protection is not necessary. such as gas and electricity. The efficiency of the collectors becomes lower if one demands water with a very high temperature. System cost In sunny. When calculating the total cost to own and operate.h per month (about 4. warm locations. to a level much higher than a comparable hot water heater of the conventional type. then in many cases the total monthly cost of solar heat can be less than other more conventional types of hot water heaters (also in conjunction with an existing hot water heater). Offsetting this expense can take several years and the payback period is longer in temperate environments where the insolation is less intense. when the initial costs of a solar system are properly financed and compared with energy costs. there are often additional design requirements for cold weather. which add to system complexity. The biggest single consideration is therefore the large initial financial outlay of solar water heating systems. possibly requiring larger and/or dual-heating systems.h of electricity used per month by a household Annual tax rebates or subsidy for using renewable energy Annual maintenance cost of SWH system Savings in annual maintenenance of conventional (electric/gas/oil) water heating system The following table gives some idea of the cost and payback period to recover the costs.Some methods of comparison calculate the efficiency of evacuated tube collectors based on the actual absorber area and not on the 'roof area' of the system as has been done in the above table. This has the effect of increasing the initial cost (but not the life-cycle cost) of a solar water heating system.6 kW. an ICS (batch type) solar water heater can be extremely cost effective. The calculation of long term cost and payback period for a household SWH system depends on a number of factors. At higher latitudes. Thus. whereas other energy sources. In higher latitudes. federal and local incentives can be significant. solar heaters may be less effective due to lower solar energy.
9 126 7. so to clarify. This expands an older system based only on rebates.8 States Two points are clear from the above table. Solar leasing is now available in Spain for solar water heating systems from Pretasol with a typical system costing around 59 euros and rising to 99 euros per month for a system that would provide sufficient hot water for a typical family home of six persons. based on national renewable energy targets. Firstly. allowing users in those countries to need smaller systems than in temperate areas.9 Belgium Euro 2500 0 2500 0.11 15. thus extending the payback period of such a system. Operational energy footprint (OEF) is also called energy parasitics ratio (EPR) or coefficient of performance (CoP). listed above.4 Kingdom Pound United US$ 5000 30 3500 0. even in the northern hemisphere countries where payback periods are often longer than 10 years.25 35 6.0 Brazil Real South ZA Rand 14000 15 11900 0. solar water heating is financially extremely efficient. The payback period would be five years.Costs and payback periods assuming a household electricity savings of 140 kW. here are some synonyms. This is partly because of good sunshine. the payback period is shorter in countries with a large amount of insolation and even in parts of the same country with more insolation.9 4000 50 2000 0.1 14 11. In many cases the payback period for a SWH system is shortened if it supplies all or nearly all of the warm water requirements used by a household. This is evident from the payback period less than 10 years in most southern hemisphere countries. Operational Carbon / Energy Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment Unfortunately this topic can seem a bit jargon-laden. The payback period for photovoltaic systems is much longer.h savings/month period(y) Australia $Aus 5000 40 3000 0.9 Africa United UK 4000 10 3600 0. .18 25 9.4 19. Many SWH systems supply only a fraction of warm water needs and are augmented by gas or electric heating on a daily basis.10 14 20. Secondly. This is partly because the SWH technology is efficient in capturing irradiation. Australia has instituted a system of Renewable Energy Credits.h/month due to SWH (using 2010 data) System Effective Electricity Electricity Payback Country Currency Subsidy(%) cost cost cost/kW.
has typically only about 40% of the carbon intensity of mains electricity per unit of energy delivered. These are generally based on thermal expansion and phase changes of liquids and gases.Operational carbon footprint (OCF) is also called carbon clawback ratio (CCR). However. LCA takes into account the total environmental cost of acquisition of raw materials. Work is also taking place in a number of parts of the world on developing alternative non-electrical zero carbon pumping systems. transport. The energy used during each of the above stages. The carbon footprint of such household systems varies substantially.h/day and a pump running intermittently from mains electricity for a total of 6 hours during a 12-hour sunny day. a very low figure compared to technologies such as heat pumps. a variety of which are under development. manufacturing. The source of electricity in an active SWH system determines the extent to which a system contributes to atmospheric carbon during operation. Now looking at a wider picture than just the operational environmental impacts. the potentially negative effect of such a pump can be reduced to about 3% of the total power produced. There are several aspects to such an assessment. In most systems the pumping cancels the energy savings by about 8% and the carbon savings of the solar by about 20%. servicing and disposing of the equipment. low power diaphragm pump or centrifugal pump to circulate the water. Assuming a solar collector panel delivering 4 kW. in many countries. The CO2 emissions due to each of the above stages. some new low power pumps will start operation with 1W and use a maximum of 20W. zero-carbon active solar thermal systems typically use a 5-30 W PV panel which faces in the same direction as the main solar heating panel and a small. Life cycle assessment is usually referred to as LCA. Except where a high proportion of electricity is already generated by non-fossil fuel means. Therefore the 3% or 8% energy clawback in a gas home referred to above could therefore be considered 8% to 20% carbon clawback. Each of these aspects may present different trends with respect to a specific SWH device. Active solar thermal systems that use mains electricity to pump the fluid through the panels are called 'low carbon solar'. recognised standards can be used to deliver robust and quantitative life cycle assessment (LCA). This represents a zero operational carbon and energy footprint: a growing design goal for solar thermal systems. depending on whether electricity or other fuels such as natural gas are being displaced by the use of solar. using. a common water heating fuel. natural gas. However. including: • • • The financial costs and gains incurred during the life of the equipment. .
retrofitted to an existing water store. use and disposal contributing small parts towards this. However. the life cycle emissions of a SWH system are also recovered fairly rapidly. a solar electric (PV) installation took around 5 years to reach energy payback.e.). the environmental transparency afforded by life cycle analysis allows consumers (of all products) to make increasingly well-informed product selection decisions. freeze tolerant and of 2.Financial assessment. some 60% of the materials of a SWH system goes into the tank. the yearly environmental load of an average European inhabitant) in Greece. Using the Eco-indicator 99 points system as a yardstick (i. As for identifying sectors where this information is likely to appear first.8 sqm aperture. Analysing their lower impact retrofit solar water heating system. In Italy. with all the components of manufacture. some 11 GJ of electricity are used in producing the equipment. For comparison. The production of a test SWH system in Italy produced about 700 kg of CO2. . where a SWH system has about 20% of the impact of an electrical water heater and half of the emissions impact of a gas water heater. This calculation assumes that the solar system produces about half of the hot water requirements of a household. In terms of energy. depending on the insolation. Where information based on established standards are available. the energy payback time of a solar water heating system in a UK climate is reported as only 2 years. PV pumped. Maintenance was identified as an emissions-costly activity when the heat transfer fluid (Glycol-based) was periodically replaced. The table in the previous section as well as several other studies suggest that the cost of production is gained during the first 5–12 years of use of the equipment. The energy used in manufacturing is recovered within the first two to three years of use of the SWH system through heat captured by the equipment a this southern European study. the emissions cost was recovered within about two years of use of the equipment through the emissions saved by solar water heating. In Australia. which is around half the environmental impact reported in the Ardente et al (qv) study. with cost efficiency increasing as the insolation does. a purely gas-driven system may be cheaper in terms of emissions than a solar system. In terms of CO2 emissions. with about 35% of the energy going towards the manufacturing the tank. environmental technology suppliers in the microgeneration and renewable energy technology arena are increasingly being pressed by consumers to report typical CoP and LCA figures for their products. less sunny climates. Allen et al (qv) report a production CO2 impact of 337 kg. This figure was derived from the studied solar water heating system being: direct. a large degree of the emissions-saving traits of a SWH system is dependent on the degree to which water heating by gas or electricity is used to supplement solar heating of water. Moving further north into colder. with another 35% towards the collector and the main energy-related impact being emissions.. according to the same comparative study. with some 30% towards the collector (thermosiphon flat plate in this case) (Tsiligiridis et al.
as in the developing world. by reusing existing hot water stores and. are becoming common in parts of Europe. In some PV pumped systems. the energy and emissions cost of a SWH system forms a small part of the life cycle cost and can be recovered fairly rapidly during use of the equipment. to generate hot water. DIY solar water heating systems (DIY SWH) With an ever-rising do-it-yourself-community and their increasing environmental awareness. overnight display of temperatures is enabled by internal energy stores such as large supercapacitors. people have begun building their own (small-scale) solar water heating systems from scratch or buying easy to install kits. in cold climates. by eliminating antifreeze replacement visits. In particular the new freeze tolerant.In summary. . Rather than build DIY solar water heating systems from scratch. DIY solar water heating systems are usually much cheaper than commercial ones. In such installations a low voltage PV powered controller. Plans for solar water heating systems are available on the Internet. using non-mains circulation. and people have set about building them for their own domestic requirements. and installation costs can sometimes be avoided as well. Their simplicity enables them to be plumbed in quickly and safely without the need of a mains electrician. Their environmental impacts can be reduced further by sustainable materials sourcing. The DIY solar water heating systems are being used both in the developed world. zero-carbon PV active systems. switches the variable speed pump. many DIY solar enthusiasts are buying simple off-the-shelf solar DIY kits.
Chapter-6 Photovoltaics (Second-Generation Technology) Nellis Solar Power Plant at Nellis Air Force Base in the USA. . These panels track the sun in one axis.
Photovoltaic system 'tree' in Styria. polycrystalline silicon. Austria Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. solar photovoltaics generates electricity in more than 100 countries and. while yet comprising a tiny fraction of the 4800 GW total global power-generating . amorphous silicon. the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. cadmium telluride. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material. and copper indium selenide/sulfide. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources. As of 2010.
The photovoltaic effect was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel in 1839. Net metering and financial incentives. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication. have supported solar PV installations in many countries. grid-connected PV capacity increased at an annual average rate of 60 percent. In the case of a p-n junction solar cell.capacity from all sources. from the valence to conduction bands) within the material. to some 21 GW. Off-grid PV accounts for an additional 3–4 GW. Between 2004 and 2009. the two processes are different and should be distinguished.e. the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. resulting in the buildup of a voltage between two electrodes. illumination of the material results in the creation of an electric current as excited electrons and the remaining holes are swept in different directions by the built-in electric field of the depletion region. Though the photovoltaic effect is directly related to the photoelectric effect. . such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity. Such installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building. known as Building Integrated Photovoltaics or BIPV for short. In most photovoltaic applications the radiation is sunlight and for this reason the devices are known as solar cells. The photovoltaic effect is different in that the generated electrons are transferred between different bands (i. Photovoltaic effect The photovoltaic effect is the creation of a voltage (or a corresponding electric current) in a material upon exposure to light. electrons are ejected from a material's surface upon exposure to radiation of sufficient energy. is the fastest growing power-generation technology in the world. In the photoelectric effect.
recreational vehicles. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft. but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. roadside emergency telephones. Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC.Solar cells Solar cells produce electricity directly from sunlight Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into electricity. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. electric cars. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light knocking electrons into a higher state of energy to create electricity. which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. and cathodic protection of pipelines. . Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light. boats. There is a smaller market for off-grid power for remote dwellings. remote sensing.
Note that this is for a horizontal surface. but for a house or a power plant the modules must be arranged in multiples as arrays. In 2008. Italy and France triggered a huge growth in demand. When more power is required than a single cell can deliver. These often provide the only electricity available. followed quickly by production. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources. the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced dramatically in recent years. Although the selling price of modules is still too high to compete with grid electricity in most places. A single module is enough to power an emergency telephone. watts per square metre. from an extra 2500 MW in 2008. The first commercial installation of this kind was in 1966 on Ogami Island in Japan to transition Ogami Lighthouse from gas torch to fully self-sufficient electrical power. to an expected additional 375 MW in 2009. A significant market has emerged in off-grid locations for solar-power-charged storagebattery based solutions. . cells are electrically connected together to form photovoltaic modules. Spain installed 45% of all photovoltaics.Average solar irradiance. but a change in law limiting the feed-in tariff is expected to cause a precipitous drop in the rate of new installations there. significant financial incentives in Japan and then Germany. or solar panels. Cells require protection from the environment and are usually packaged tightly behind a glass sheet. whereas solar panels are normally mounted at an angle and receive more energy per unit area. The small black dots show the area of solar panels needed to generate all of the world's energy using 8% efficient photovoltaics.
600 MW. At the end of 2009. Japan and the US) represent nearly 89% of the total worldwide PV installed capacity.500 MW in 2010. The three leading countries (Germany.95 gigawatts in 2008. Germany was also the fastest growing major PV market in the world from 2006 to 2007 industry observers speculate that Germany could install more than 4. assuming a serious commitment is made to energy efficiency. and 5. Notably. and other factors.3GW respectively. Therefore the 2008 installed base peak output would have provided an average output of 3. the manufacture of solar cells and modules had expanded in recent years. depending on geographical location. The German PV industry generates over 10. World solar photovoltaic (PV) installations were 2.04 GW (assuming 20% × 15. Germany installed a record 3. weather conditions. PV systems could be generating approximately 1. distribution and installation.200 MWp). Roughly 90% of this generating capacity consists of grid-tied electrical systems. which is lower than many other industrial sources of electricity.864 GW of electricity around the world. and 7.Photovoltaic production has been increasing by an average of more than 20 percent each year since 2002. in contrast. The EPIA/Greenpeace Advanced Scenario shows that by the year 2030. nearly 88% of all solar PV installations in the EU were in grid-tied applications in Germany. was set by Spain in 2008. According to Navigant Consulting and Electronic Trend Publications. This means that.15 percent of global demand at the time. Such installations may be groundmounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building. making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. This represented 0.8GW and 12.826 gigawatts peak (GWp) in 2007. enough solar power would be produced globally in twenty-five years’ time to satisfy the electricity needs of almost 14% of the world’s population.000 megawatts. Solar PV power stations today have capacities ranging from 10–60 MW although proposed solar PV power stations will have a capacity of 150 MW or more.800 MW of solar PV in 2009. known as Building Integrated Photovoltaics or BIPV for short. the cumulative global PV installations surpassed 21.800 MW of solar PV in 2009.5 gigawatts in 2009. 2. or "rated. . By the end of 2006. the US installed about 500 MW in 2009. Germany installed a record 3.000 jobs in production. The actual power output at a particular point in time may be less than or greater than this standardized. Photovoltaic power capacity is measured as maximum power output under standardized test conditions (STC) in "Wp" (Watts peak). The previous record. the estimated PV worldwide installations outlooks of 2012 are 18. time of day. Solar photovoltaic array capacity factors are typically under 25%." value.
microcrystalline Si). and continuous printing processes.50 to USD 9. Photovoltaic panels based on crystalline silicon modules are being partially replaced in the market by panels that employ thin-film solar cells (CdTe CIGS. concentrator modules. inverters. which are rapidly growing and are expected to account for 31 percent of the global installed power by 2013. Other developments include casting wafers instead of sawing. Germany is the current leader in solar production. 'Sliver' cells. and electrical items.Current developments Map of solar electricity potential in Europe. including panels. the average cost per installed watt for a residential sized system was about USD 7. Due to economies of scale solar panels get less costly as people use and buy more — as manufacturers increase production to meet demand. . mounts.50. the cost and price is expected to drop in the years to come. amorphous Si. By early 2006.
funded by grants from the EPA and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. advances past this efficiency mark are being pursued in academia and R&D labs with efficiencies of 42% achieved at the University of Delaware in conjunction with DuPont by means of concentration of light The highest efficiencies achieved without concentration include Sharp Corporation at 35. Applications Power stations President Barack Obama speaks at the DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center. to be repaid via an additional tax assessment on the property which remains in place for 20 years. and Boeing Spectrolab (40. . California. However.In 2006 investors began offering free solar panel installation in return for a 25 year contract. It is expected that by 2009 over 90% of commercial photovoltaics installed in the United States will be installed using a power purchase agreement. An innovative financing arrangement in Berkeley. a San Jose based company.7% also using a triple layer design). or Power Purchase Agreement. well above the market average of 12–18%. absorption efficiency should not be confused with the sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency. to purchase electricity at a fixed price. This allows installation of the solar system at "relatively little up-front cost to the property owner. A March 2010 experimental demonstration of a design by a Caltech group which has an absorption efficiency of 85% in sunlight and 95% at certain wavelengths (it is claimed to have near perfect quantum efficiency).8% using a proprietary triple-junction manufacturing technology in 2009. However." The current market leader in solar panel efficiency (measured by energy conversion ratio) is SunPower.2%. normally set at or below current electric rates. Sunpower's cells have a conversion ratio of 24. lends money to a homeowner for solar system.
World's largest photovoltaic power stations (50 MW or larger) Nominal Production Capacity (Annual Notes PV power station Country Power factor GW·h) (MWp) Phase I completed Finsterwalde Solar Germany 80.7 2009. and be fully operational by 2013. 80 MW).11 Completed in 2009 Photovoltaic Park Topaz Solar Farm is a proposed 550 MW solar photovoltaic power plant which is to be built northwest of California Valley in the US at a cost of over $1 billion. High Plains Ranch is a proposed 250 MW solar photovoltaic power plant which is to be built by SunPower in the Carrizo Plain. the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany. 54 MW). Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada.17 Power Plant 2010 Rovigo Completed November Photovoltaic Power Italy 70 2010 Plant Olmedilla Completed September Spain 60 85 0.12 Park Lieberose Germany 53 53 0.7 MW). Built on 9. the project would utilize thin-film PV panels designed and manufactured by OptiSolar in Hayward and Sacramento.100 gigawatt-hours (GW·h) annually of renewable energy. 50 MW). 60 MW). In buildings Photovoltaic arrays are often associated with buildings: either integrated into them. some proposed will have a capacity of 150 MW or more. . Rovigo Photovoltaic Power Plant (Italy. the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany. Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain. Larger power stations are under construction. the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany. mounted on them or mounted nearby on the ground.16 Photovoltaic Park 2008 Strasskirchen Solar Germany 54 57 0. 80.As of November 2010. 53 MW) and the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain. The project is expected to begin construction in 2010. The project would deliver approximately 1. northwest of California Valley. 70 MW). phase II and III Park 2010 Sarnia Photovoltaic Completed October Canada 80 120 0.5 square miles (25 km2) of ranchland. begin power delivery in 2011.
Photovoltaic solar panels on a house roof. but is being used increasingly to provide auxiliary power in boats and cars. PV is rarely used to provide motive power in transport applications. A self-contained solar vehicle would have limited power and low utility. . Solar-powered cars have been demonstrated. more than four-fifths of the 9. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are increasingly incorporated into new domestic and industrial buildings as a principal or ancillary source of electrical power. usually mounted on top of the existing roof structure or on the existing walls. In transport PV has traditionally been used for electric power in space.Arrays are most often retrofitted into existing buildings. Alternatively. Typically. In 2010. an array can be located separately from the building but connected by cable to supply power for the building. The power output of photovoltaic systems for installation in buildings is usually described in kilowatt-peak units (kWp). but a solar-charged vehicle would allow use of solar power for transportation. Roof tiles with integrated PV cells are also common.000 MW of solar PV operating in Germany was installed on rooftops. an array is incorporated into the roof or walls of a building.
Solar parking meter. Until a decade or so ago, PV was used frequently to power calculators and novelty devices. Improvements in integrated circuits and low power LCD displays make it possible to power such devices for several years between battery changes, making PV use less common. In contrast, solar powered remote fixed devices have seen increasing use recently in locations where significant connection cost makes grid power prohibitively expensive. Such applications include water pumps, parking meters, emergency telephones, trash compactors, temporary traffic signs, and remote guard posts & signals.
Developing countries where many villages are often more than five kilometers away from grid power have begun using photovoltaics. In remote locations in India a rural lighting program has been providing solar powered LED lighting to replace kerosene lamps. The solar powered lamps were sold at about the cost of a few month's supply of kerosene. Cuba is working to provide solar power for areas that are off grid. These are areas where the social costs and benefits offer an excellent case for going solar though the lack of profitability could relegate such endeavors to humanitarian goals.
A 45 mi (72 km) section of roadway in Idaho is being used to test the possibility of installing solar panels into the road surface, as roads are generally unobstructed to the sun and represent about the percentage of land area needed to replace other energy sources with solar power.
Solar Power satellites
Design studies of large solar power collection satellites have been conducted for decades. The idea was first proposed by Peter Glaser, then of Arthur D. Little Inc; NASA conducted a long series of engineering and economic feasibility studies in the 1970s, and interest has revived in first years of the 21st century. From a practical economic viewpoint, the key issue for such satellites appears to be the launch cost. Additional considerations will include developing space based assembly techniques, but they seem to be less a hurdle than the capital cost. These will be reduced as photovoltaic cell costs are reduced or alternatively efficiency increased.
Generally, temperatures above room temperature reduce the performance of photovoltaics.
Optimum Orientation of Solar Panels
For best performance, terrestrial PV systems aim to maximize the time they face the sun. Solar trackers aim to achieve this by moving PV panels to follow the sun. The increase can be by as much as 20% in winter and by as much as 50% in summer. Static mounted systems can be optimized by analysis of the Sun path. Panels are often set to latitude tilt, an angle equal to the latitude, but performance can be improved by adjusting the angle for summer or winter.
The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface is plentiful – almost 6,000 times more than the 15 terawatts equivalent of average power consumed by humans. Additionally, solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m²) among renewable energies. Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are under development and policies are being produced that encourage recycling from producers. PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up, so after the initial capital cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies. Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Long-standing examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean vessels. When grid-connected, solar electric generation replaces some or all of the highest-cost electricity used during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions). This can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power to provide for use in times of darkness. These features are enabled by net metering. Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable, but requires newer electronic metering, which may still be impractical for some users. Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses (transmission losses in the US were approximately 7.2% in 1995). Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating photovoltaic cells and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass-production costs are rapidly falling.
Photovoltaics are costly to install. While the modules are often warranteed for upwards of 20 years, much of the investment in a home-mounted system may be lost if the homeowner moves and the buyer puts less value on the system than the seller. Solar electricity is seen to be expensive. With the UK Feed-In Tariff for green solar energy, Solar PV has been made more accessible to homeowners. Under the scheme,
homeowners can generate both free electricity, and a fee per kWh sold to the grid "Solar PV as a Domestic Investment Opportunity: Solar electricity is not produced at night and is much reduced in cloudy conditions. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required. Solar electricity production depends on the limited power density of the location's insolation. Average daily output of a flat plate collector at latitude tilt in the contiguous US is 3–7 kilowatt·h/m² and on average lower in Europe. Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4–12%.
Chapter-7 Wind Power (Second-generation technology)
Wind power: worldwide installed capacity 1996-2008
. at the entrance to the River Mersey in North West England.Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm.
A modern wind turbine in rural scenery. wind mills for mechanical power. such as 20% of stationary electricity production in Denmark. and load management techniques must be used to match supply with demand. the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed because of their visual impact and other effects on the environment. and 8% in Germany in 2009. clean. As of May 2009. Utility companies increasingly buy back surplus electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Energy production was 340 TWh. as an alternative to fossil fuels. is plentiful. and has doubled in the past three years. At the end of 2009. 14% in Ireland and Portugal. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies). 80 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. which is about 2% of worldwide electricity usage. Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind energy. or sails to propel ships. Wind power is non-dispatchable. wind pumps for pumping water or drainage. smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. such as using wind turbines to make electricity. Other resources.2 gigawatts (GW). However. The . 11% in Spain. all of the available output must be taken when it is available. meaning that for economic operation. worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 159. such as hydropower. Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy. renewable. and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. widely distributed.
but as the proportion rises. the need to upgrade the grid. can mitigate these problems. problems are created such as increased costs. History Medieval depiction of a wind mill . and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production. Power management techniques such as exporting excess power to neighboring areas or reducing demand when wind production is low.intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand.
In the United States. small wind machines provided electricity to isolated farms. wind power generators in Spain near an Osborne bull Humans have been using wind power for at least 5. a Scottish academic. The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was. In the image. These were the first of what was to become the modern form of wind turbine. Small wind turbines for lighting of isolated rural buildings were widespread in the first part of the 20th century. which was then used to produce hydrogen. the development of the "water-pumping windmill" was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. In July 1887. for many years. which powered his home and laboratory until about 1900. Windmills have been used for irrigation pumping and for milling grain since the 7th century AD in what is now Afghanistan.500 years to propel sailboats and sailing ships. When fitted with generators and battery banks. In the United States. In the 1890s. Brush produced electricity using a wind powered machine. Charles F. starting in the winter of 18871888. Windpumps contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world. the Danish scientist and inventor Poul la Cour constructed wind turbines to generate electricity. Larger units intended for connection to a distribution network .Windmills are typically installed in favourable windy locations. a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. Professor James Blyth. Iran and Pakistan. undertook wind power experiments that culminated in a UK patent in 1891. by pumping water from water wells for the steam locomotives.
while wind turbine production has expanded to many countries. The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant. they have increased greatly in size.25 megawatt (MW) experimental unit in Vermont in 1941. . the wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse heat throughout the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. The histogram shows measured data. Nordtank. Energy is the Betz limit through a 100 m (328 ft) diameter circle facing directly into the wind. with the Enercon E-126 capable of delivering up to 7 MW. These early turbines were small by today's standards. The Earth is unevenly heated by the sun.were tried at several locations including Balaklava USSR in 1931 and in a 1. while the curve is the Rayleigh model distribution for the same average wind speed. The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is considerably more than present human power use from all sources. such that the poles receive less energy from the sun than the equator. An estimated 72 terawatt (TW) of wind power on the Earth potentially can be commercially viable. Since then. Wind energy Distribution of wind speed (red) and energy (blue) for all of 2002 at the Lee Ranch facility in Colorado. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (99 mph) occur. with capacities of 20–30 kW each. dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do.4 gigawatt-hours (GW·h). Total energy for the year through that circle was 15. Vestas. along with this. and Bonus. Eventually. The differential heating drives a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere which acts as a virtual ceiling.
batteries. but simpler model. half of the energy available arrived in just 15% of the operating time. The Weibull factor is often close to 2 and therefore a Rayleigh distribution can be used as a less accurate. Problems of variability are addressed by grid energy storage. much of the energy comes in short bursts. Distribution of wind speed The strength of wind varies. pumped-storage hydroelectricity and energy demand management. Not all the energy of the wind flowing past a given point can be recovered. The Weibull model closely mirrors the actual distribution of hourly wind speeds at many locations. The consequence is that wind energy from a particular turbine or wind farm does not have as consistent an output as fuel-fired power plants. Because so much power is generated by higher wind speed. in particular the use of stronger inter-regional transmission lines to link widely distributed wind farms. .compared to about 15 TW average global power consumption from all sources in 2005. a probability distribution function is often fit to the observed data. Making wind power more consistent requires that various existing technologies and methods be extended. Different locations will have different wind speed distributions. The 2002 Lee Ranch sample is telling. To assess the frequency of wind speeds at a particular location. utilities that use wind power provide power from starting existing generation for times when the wind is weak thus wind power is primarily a fuel saver rather than a capacity saver. and an average value for a given location does not alone indicate the amount of energy a wind turbine could produce there.
in some jurisdictions. At a substation. rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position In a wind farm. Different types of wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances. be fed into the network and sold to the utility company. . this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.5 kV). The surplus power produced by domestic microgenerators can. In particular. producing a retail credit for the microgenerators' owners to offset their energy costs. so extensive modelling of the dynamic electromechanical characteristics of a new wind farm is required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behaviour during system faults. require reactive power for excitation so substations used in wind-power collection systems include substantial capacitor banks for power factor correction. Grid management Induction generators. often used for wind power. individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.Electricity generation Typical components of a wind turbine (gearbox. power collection system and communications network.
Unlike fueled generating plants.760 MW·h in a year (1 × 24 × 365). In a 2008 study released by the U. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. A gas turbine plant may have an annual capacity factor of 5–25% due to relatively high energy production cost. the capacity factor is limited by the inherent properties of wind. unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators. Nuclear plants have low incremental fuel cost. . Capacity factor Worldwide installed capacity 1997–2020 [MW]. and so are run at full output and achieve a 90% capacity factor. averaging to 0. but only 1 × 0. Plants with higher fuel cost are throttled back to follow load. For example. Transmission systems operators will supply a wind farm developer with a grid code to specify the requirements for interconnection to the transmission grid.066 MW·h. Online data is available for some locations and the capacity factor can be calculated from the yearly output. a wind farm's annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in a year. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor.35 × 24 × 365 = 3.35 MW. constancy of frequency and dynamic behavior of the wind farm turbines during a system fault. the capacity factor achieved by the wind turbine fleet is shown to be increasing as the technology improves. This will include power factor. with a small amount of downtime for maintenance. with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites. Since wind speed is not constant.induction generators cannot support the system voltage during faults. The capacity factor achieved by new wind turbines in 2004 and 2005 reached 36%. developments and prognosis. a 1 MW turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will not produce 8. Capacity factors of other types of power plant are based mostly on fuel cost. Typical capacity factors are 20–40%. Doubly-fed machines generally have more desirable properties for grid interconnection.S. Gas turbine plants using natural gas as fuel may be very expensive to operate and may be run only to meet peak power demand.
The limit for a particular grid will depend on the existing generating plants. demand management. and interconnection to a large grid area export of electricity when needed. But even with a modest level of penetration. but the economic implications become more significant. There is no generally accepted "maximum" level of wind penetration. For example. some degree of dispatchable energy. . and other factors. These studies have been for locations with geographically dispersed wind farms. Electrical utilities continue to study the effects of large (20% or more) scale penetration of wind generation on system stability and economics. pricing mechanisms. Studies have indicated that 20% of the total electrical energy consumption may be incorporated with minimal difficulty. capacity for storage or demand management. Germany and the Republic of Ireland (values over 6%). Spain and Portugal (values over 11%). this reserve capacity can also serve to regulate for the varying power generation by wind plants. An interconnected electricity grid will already include reserve generating and transmission capacity to allow for equipment failures.Penetration Kitegen Wind energy "penetration" refers to the fraction of energy produced by wind compared with the total available generation capacity. or hydropower with storage capacity. there can be times where wind power provides a substantial percentage of the power on a grid. Beyond this level. a few grid systems have penetration of wind energy above 5%: Denmark (values over 19%). At present. there are few technical limits.
This was an instance where demand was very low but wind power generation was very high. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability. load shedding. Route 385 Intermittency and penetration limits Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: from hour to hour. or storage solutions or system . Wind power forecasting methods are used. Annual variation also exists. Related to variability is the short-term (hourly or daily) predictability of wind plant output. wind energy must be "scheduled". daily. Intermittency and the non-dispatchable nature of wind energy production can raise costs for regulation. Like other electricity sources. this variability can present substantial challenges to incorporating large amounts of wind power into a grid system. wind energy produced covered more than half the electricity demand in Spain.in the morning hours of 8 November 2009. Wildorado Wind Ranch in Oldham County in the Texas Panhandle. incremental operating reserve. as photographed from U. but is not as significant. and (at high penetration levels) could require an increase in the already existing energy demand management.S. but predictability of wind plant output remains low for short-term operation. setting a new record. and seasonally.
and have high installation costs. In the UK. peak wind speeds may not coincide with peak demand for electrical power. Wind power can be replaced by other power stations during low wind periods. The potential revenue from this arbitrage can offset the cost and losses of storage. Transmission networks must already cope with outages of generation plant and daily changes in electrical demand. widespread adoption of this technology would better match electricity demand to wind availability in areas with hot summers and low summer winds. whereas in many areas wind energy is lower in summer and higher in winter. and allows base-load suppliers to run their plant more efficiently. At low levels of wind penetration. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high-wind periods and release it when needed. Systems with large wind capacity components may need more spinning reserve (plants operating at less than full load). Another option is to interconnect widely dispersed geographic areas with an HVDC "Super grid". but it is not envisaged that this would apply to a large proportion of wind energy generated. Wind power advocates argue that these periods of low wind can be dealt with by simply restarting existing power stations that have been held in readiness or interlinking with HVDC. In the US states of California and Texas. Although pumped storage power systems are only about 75% efficient. hot days in summer may have low wind speed and high electrical demand due to air conditioning. A demonstration project at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy shows the effect. A report on Denmark's wind power noted that their wind power network provided less than 1% of average demand 54 days during the year 2002. and so are wind speeds. Electrical grids with . the cost of storage may add 25% to the cost of any wind energy stored. whereas low pressure areas tend to be windier and cloudier. biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock. Solar power tends to be complementary to wind. In the USA it is estimated that to upgrade the transmission system to take in planned or potential renewables would cost at least $60 billion. entirely from renewable sources. The 2 GW Dinorwig pumped storage plant in Wales evens out electrical demand peaks. solar energy typically peaks in summer. wind.interconnection with HVDC cables. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar. fluctuations in load and allowance for failure of large generating units requires reserve capacity that can also regulate for variability of wind generation. to reduce electricity demand during the summer months by making air conditioning up to 70% more efficient. Thus the intermittencies of wind and solar power tend to cancel each other somewhat. high pressure areas tend to bring clear skies and low surface winds. for example. On daily to weekly timescales. their low running costs and ability to reduce the required electrical base-load can save both fuel and total electrical generation costs. Some utilities subsidize the purchase of geothermal heat pumps by their customers. demand for electricity is higher in winter than in summer. In particular geographic regions. Stored energy increases the economic value of wind energy since it can be shifted to displace higher cost generation during peak demand periods. On seasonal timescales.
Installation placement Good selection of a wind turbine site is critical to economic development of wind power. and environmental impact of construction and operations. worth 5 times the capacity credit value) is its fuel and CO2 savings. other factors include the availability of transmission lines.3 1.slow-responding thermal power plants and without ties to networks with hydroelectric generation may have to limit the use of wind power. . This means that reserve capacity on a system equal in MW to 20% of added wind could be retired when such wind is added without affecting system security or robustness.3 0. A 2006 International Energy Agency forum presented costs for managing intermittency as a function of wind-energy's share of total capacity for several countries. as shown: Increase in system operation costs.3 Sweden 0. Wind farm designers use specialized wind energy software applications to evaluate the impact of these issues on a given wind farm design. which are modest. generally agree that variability of wind needs to be taken into account. According to a 2007 Stanford University study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. equal to about 20% of its rated output (but this figure varies depending on actual circumstances). Aside from the availability of wind itself. and the additional costs.5 Norway 0. land use considerations. Three reports on the wind variability in the UK issued in 2009. But the precise value is irrelevant since the main value of wind (in the UK. Euros per MW·h. baseload electric power. as long as minimum criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height. for 10% and 20% wind share 10% 20% Germany 2.7 Capacity credit and fuel saving Many commentators concentrate on whether or not wind has any "capacity credit" without defining what they mean by this and its relevance.1 0. but it does not make the grid unmanageable. cost of land acquisition. using a widely accepted and meaningful definition. thereby reducing cost of energy produced. interconnecting ten or more wind farms can allow an average of 33% of the total energy produced to be used as reliable. Wind does have a capacity credit.2 Denmark 0.8 Finland 0. can be quantified. value of energy to be produced.4 0.5 3. Off-shore locations may offset their higher construction cost with higher annual load factors.
149 11.963 2.040 1.428 20.288 1.740 Spain 4.070 3.255 European Union United States 9.759 2.270 7. from a total generating capacity of 1.067 Ireland 495 746 805 1.494 Sweden 509 571 831 1. the higher it is rated by class.353 1.726 3.087 995 801 725 606 563 .260 1.850 4. in 2007 the US consumed electricity at an average rate of 474 GW. Wind power classes 3 (300– 400 W/m2 at 50 m altitude) to 7 (800–2000 W/m2 at 50 m altitude) are generally considered suitable for wind power development.426 France United Kingdom 1.245 573 758 873 990 Greece 819 965 982 995 Austria 20 65 207 433 Turkey Poland 83 153 276 472 29 237 247 339 Brazil 167 194 287 384 Belgium # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2009 74. In the United States.123 2.130 2.309 1.237 Netherlands 1.145 16.430 6.319 2. If this area is fully utilized for wind power.846 2. Wind power usage Installed windpower capacity (MW) Nation 2005 2006 2007 2008 40.236 1.614 65.819 25. A map showing the distribution of wind power density is a first step in identifying possible locations for wind turbines.056 1.460 1.587 India 1.028 11. the National Renewable Energy Laboratory classifies wind power density into ascending classes.088 GW.129 3.164 Denmark Canada 683 1.Wind power density (WPD) is a calculation of the effective power of the wind at a particular location.535 3. The larger the WPD at a location.880 Japan Australia 579 817 817 1.159 25.229 2.622 22.925 4.477 3.170 Germany 18.716 2.528 1.210 China 10.140 3.247 23.850 9.022 1.369 1.149 10.560 1.104 19.722 48.000 km2 in the contiguous United States that have class 3 or higher wind resources and which are within 10 km of electric transmission lines.912 12.389 3.718 2. it would produce power at the average continuous equivalent rate of 734 GWe.712 1.571 1.266 2.132 3.603 16.862 Portugal 3.465 3.537 Italy 779 1.410 4. For comparison.589 2.777 25. There are 625.767 35.630 15.903 1.122 56.599 5.
over 200 GW of capacity would have been installed worldwide. implying an anticipated net growth rate of more than 28% per year. by 2010. Spain. and India — have seen substantial capacity growth in the past two years.024 74.927 121. .188 157. doubling about every three years. The World Wind Energy Association forecast that. but climbed to 73% by 2008 as those countries — the United States. The share of the top five countries in terms of new installations fell from 71% in 2004 to 62% in 2006. China. 81% of wind power installations are in the US and Europe.899 There are now many thousands of wind turbines operating.151 93. World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006. with a total nameplate capacity of 157. up from 73.9 GW at the end of 2006. with a commitment made in the 1970s to eventually produce half of the country's power by wind. Germany. Wind accounts for nearly one-fifth of electricity generated in Denmark — the highest percentage of any country — and it is tenth in the world in total wind power generation.899 MW of which wind power in Europe accounts for 48% (2009).23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Mexico 2 84 85 85 520 New Zealand 168 171 322 325 497 104 188 280 358 436 Taiwan 268 325 333 428 431 Norway 145 230 310 390 430 Egypt 119 176 192 278 348 South Korea 64 64 125 125 253 Morocco Hungary 18 61 65 127 201 30 57 116 150 192 Czech Republic Bulgaria 14 36 57 158 177 ? ? ? 20 168 Chile Finland 82 86 110 143 147 Estonia ? ? 59 78 142 Costa Rica ? ? ? 74 123 77 86 89 90 94 Ukraine Iran 32 47 67 82 91 Lithuania 7 56 50 54 91 Other Europe (non EU27) 391 494 601 1022 1385 Rest of Americas 155 159 184 210 175 Rest of Africa 52 52 51 56 91 & Middle East Rest of Asia 27 27 27 36 51 & Oceania World total (MW) 59. Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and use of wind turbines.
east of Vredendal in the Western Cape .S. Indigenous wind power could generate up to 253. with a wind potential of 143 GW. Sempra Energy announced it would build a wind farm in Baja California. Mexico recently opened La Venta II wind power project as a step toward reducing Mexico's consumption of fossil fuels. In May 2010. and that offshore wind farms could do the same job. The 88 MW project is the first of its kind in Mexico. Iowa is the state with the highest percentage of wind generation. the US has added substantial amounts of wind power generation capacity. but reached 22. Texas is the state with the largest amount of generation capacity with 9. or 3% of all electricity produced in India.000 MW.4% of its electrical power from wind. South Africa has a proposed station situated on the West Coast north of the Olifants River mouth near the town of Koekenaap. after the wind industry reached the original goal of 5 GW three years ahead of schedule.2% in 2009. A Chinese renewable energy law was adopted in November 2004.S. and North Dakota could provide enough electricity to power the entire nation.410 MW installed. The country as a whole generates just 2.S.5 billion. were Texas a separate country.In recent years. in installed capacity for many years. but several states generate substantial amounts of wind power. wind power was growing faster in China than the government had planned. California was one of the incubators of the modern wind power industry.500 MW.S. Department of Energy studies have concluded that wind from the Great Plains states of Texas. Micon among others. Vestas. and indeed faster in percentage terms than in any other large country. Muppandal village in Tamil Nadu state. This would have ranked sixth in the world. China had originally set a generating target of 30. growing from just over 6 GW at the end of 2004 to over 35 GW at the end of 2009. and is one of the major wind energy harnessing centres in India led by majors like Suzlon. Kansas. Policymakers doubled their wind power prediction for 2010. and will provide 13 percent of the electricity needs of the state of Oaxaca. states had wind power generation capacities in excess of 1000 MW. The U. fourteen U. having more than doubled each year since 2005. following the World Wind Energy Conference organized by the Chinese and the World Wind Energy Association.000 MW by 2020 from renewable energy sources. India.000 MW by end of 2010.925 MW in 2009. Another growing market is Brazil. U.. at a cost of $5. is currently the world's leader in wind power generation capacity. As of mid-2010. India ranks 5th in the world with a total wind power capacity of 10. with China shortly thereafter pursuing the United States for the world wind power lead.000 MW.500 MW by end of 2009 and could easily surpass 30. with a capacity of at least 1. has several wind turbine farms in its vicinity. at 14. and led the U. By 2012 the project will have a capacity of 3. By 2008. Current trends suggest an actual installed capacity near 20 GW by 2010. The World Wind Energy Conference in New Delhi in November 2006 has given additional impetus to the Indian wind industry.
the provincially owned electric utility plans to purchase an additional 2000 MW by 2013. yet nameplate capacity (table on left) grew by 63% in the same period. In Quebec. .500 MW installed by 2010. Power analysis Due to ever increasing sizes of turbines which hit maximum power at lower speeds energy produced has been rising faster than nameplate power capacity. For example. the Ontario government announced that it will introduce a feed-in tariff for wind power. and showing an annual growth rate of 38%.451 MW. The station is proposed to have a total output of 100 MW although there are negotiations to double this capacity. or 20% of the country's energy needs. Energy more than doubled between 2006 and 2008 in the table above. though their installation trends over the past few years suggest they'll fall well short of their goal. This growth was fed by measures including installation targets. The plant could be operational by 2010. with total capacity doubling from the 684 MW at end-2005. with total installed capacity increasing from 137 MW to 1. By 2025. Particularly rapid growth was seen in 2006. Canada will reach its capacity of 55.000 MW of wind energy. which may boost the wind industry across the province. France has announced a target of 12. referred to as 'Standard Offer Contracts'.province. Canada experienced rapid growth of wind capacity between 2000 and 2006. economic incentives and political support.
displacing purchased energy with local production when available. that may otherwise rely on diesel generators may use wind turbines to displace diesel fuel consumption. Wind turbines have been used for household electricity generation in conjunction with battery storage over many decades in remote areas. Off-grid system users can either adapt to intermittent power or use batteries. Grid-connected wind turbines may use grid energy storage. Isolated communities. Small-scale wind power is the name given to wind generation systems with the capacity to produce up to 50 kW of electrical power.Small-scale wind power This wind turbine charges a 12 V battery to run 12 V appliances. or to reduce their carbon footprint. photovoltaic or diesel systems to supplement the wind turbine. Equipment such as parking meters or wireless Internet gateways may be powered . Individuals may purchase these systems to reduce or eliminate their dependence on grid electricity for economic or other reasons.
In locations near or around a group of high-rise buildings. rendering the costs of insuring urban wind systems prohibitive. quantifying the amount of wind in urban areas has been difficult. This is based on the assumption that 10% of households would install turbines at costs competitive with grid electricity.5 terawatt hours (TW·h) per year of electricity (0.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (Mt CO2) emission savings. The electronic interfaces required to connect renewable generation units with the utility system can include additional functions. A new Carbon Trust study into the potential of small-scale wind energy has found that small wind turbines could provide up to 1. The risks associated with mechanical or catastrophic failure have thus plagued urban wind development in densely populated areas. such as the active filtering to enhance the power quality. especially at street-level. around 12 pence (US 19 cents) a kW·h. wind shear generates areas of intense turbulence. Distributed generation from renewable resources is increasing as a consequence of the increased awareness of climate change. replacing the need for a connection to the power grid.4% of total UK electricity consumption). . as little is known about the actual wind resources of towns and cities.by a wind turbine that charges a small battery. saving 0. Moreover.
Economics and feasibility 5 kilowatt Vertical axis wind turbine .
and other components. but a high capital cost. which may be in excess of twenty years.Windmill with rotating sails Relative cost of electricity by generation source Growth and cost trends Wind power has negligible fuel costs. Energy cost estimates are highly dependent on these assumptions so published cost figures can differ substantially.2 . A British Wind Energy Association report gives an average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3. averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment. borrowed funds. estimated annual production. return to investors (including cost of risk). The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities.
Existing generation capacity represents sunk costs.50. and the decision to continue production will depend on marginal costs going forward. In terms of economic value.6 percent each year. the annual market for wind continued to increase at an estimated rate of 37%.pence (between US 5 and 6 cents) per kW·h (2005).35 percent by 2013 and 8 percent by 2018. taking the total installed wind energy capacity to 94 GW.100 a kW in 2005. Wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3. so constraints develop in the supply of turbines resulting in higher costs. Although the wind power industry will be impacted by the global financial crisis in 2009 and 2010.7 percent. installed cost averaged €1. Cost per unit of energy produced was estimated in 2006 to be comparable to the cost of new generating capacity in the US for coal and natural gas: wind cost was estimated at $55. In 2004. Therefore.10/MW·h and natural gas at $52.300 a kW in 2007. Not as many facilities can produce large modern turbines and their towers and foundations. by raising energy costs and driving away electricity-intensive businesses. the presence of wind energy.80 per MW·h. even when subsidised. Over the past five years the average growth in new installations has been 27. the estimated cost of new wind power capacity may be lower than that for "new coal" (estimated average costs for new generation capacity) but higher than for "old coal" (marginal cost of production for existing capacity). wind energy cost a fifth of what it did in the 1980s. and some expected that downward trend to continue as larger multi-megawatt turbines were mass-produced.27 jobs. However. up from 74 GW in 2006. Other sources in various studies have estimated wind to be more expensive than other sources. A 2009 study on wind power in Spain by the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos concluded that each installed MW of wind power destroyed 4. Despite constraints facing supply chains for wind turbines. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) figures show that 2007 recorded an increase of installed capacity of 20 GW. For example. compared to €1. . the choice to increase wind capacity will depend on factors including the profile of existing generation capacity. a BTM Consult five year forecast up to 2013 projects substantial growth. with the total value of new generating equipment installed in 2007 reaching €25 billion. In the forecast to 2013 the expected average annual growth rate is 15. can reduce costs for consumers (€5 billion/yr in Germany) by reducing the marginal price by minimising the use of expensive 'peaker plants'. following 32% growth in 2006. coal at $53. the wind energy sector has become one of the important players in the energy markets. More than 200 GW of new wind power capacity could come on line before the end of 2013. However. or US$36 billion. not estimated average costs at project inception.
The study assumes six 1. Wind power available in the atmosphere is much greater than current world energy consumption.Theoretical potential . The most comprehensive study as of 2005 found the potential of wind power on land and near-shore to be 72 TW. The authors acknowledge that many practical barriers would need to be overcome to reach this theoretical capacity. The practical limit to exploitation of wind power will be set by economic and environmental factors.5 megawatt.000 MToE (million tons of oil equivalent) per year. or over five times the world's current energy use in all forms. The potential takes into account only locations with mean annual wind speeds ≥ 6.9 m/s at 80 m. Color codes indicate wind power density class. since the resource available is far larger than any practical means to develop it. 77 m diameter turbines per square kilometer on roughly 13% of the total global land area (though that land would also be available for other compatible uses such as farming). equivalent to 54. .World Map of available wind power for the United States.
whereby the system operator undertakes to purchase power from wind at a fixed price for a certain period (perhaps up to a limit). average revenue per unit of production may be lower as more expensive and less-efficient forms of generation.UK A recent estimate gives the total potential average output for UK for various depth and distance from the coast. The wind which was historically a nuisance is now becoming a valuable resource. the average cost of wind energy per unit of production depends on a few key assumptions. This may be of particular concern if the output of many wind plants in a market have strong temporal correlation. If wind represents a significant portion of supply.Theoretical potential . risk (as perceived by investors) will affect projected costs per unit of electricity. . such as the cost of capital and years of assumed service. the marginal revenue of the wind sector as penetration increases may diminish. The profitability of wind farms will therefore be higher if their production schedule coincides with these periods. and even incorporate an implicit subsidy. Direct costs Many potential sites for wind farms are far from demand centres. these prices may be different than purchase prices from other sources. revenue for all producers per unit is higher when their production coincides with periods of higher prices. requiring substantially more money to construct new transmission lines and substations. These may take the form of standard offer contracts. The commercial viability of wind power also depends on the price paid to power producers. In economic terms. thereby ensuring more stable returns for projects at the development stage. Electricity prices are highly regulated worldwide. but it may be far from large populations which developed in areas more sheltered from wind. The maximum case considered was beyond 200 km from shore and in depths of 100 – 700 m (necessitating floating wind turbines) and this gave an average resource of 2.000 GWe which is to be compared with the average UK demand of about 40 GWe. let alone indirect subsidies or negative externalities. and in many locations may not reflect the full cost of production. In some regions this is partly because frequent strong winds themselves have discouraged dense human settlement in especially windy areas. are displaced from economic dispatch. Since the cost of capital plays a large part in projected cost. The marginal cost of wind energy once a plant is constructed is usually less than 1 cent per kW·h. Since the primary cost of producing wind energy is construction and there are no fuel costs. Where the price for electricity is based on market mechanisms. which typically set revenue levels. Customers may enter into long-term pricing contracts for wind to reduce the risk of future pricing changes.
such as tax credits or minimum purchase prices for wind generation. or to compensate for subsidies received by other forms of production which have significant negative externalities. the credit has a yearly inflationary adjustment.000 wind turbines at Altamont Pass. Another tax benefit is accelerated depreciation. Countries such as Canada and Germany also provide incentives for wind turbine construction. Wind energy benefits from subsidies in many jurisdictions. at 1. even if there is a premium price for the electricity. including microturbines. this wind farm has more turbines than any other in the United States. In the United States. Many American states also provide incentives. Developed during a period of tax incentives in the 1980s. wind power receives a tax credit for each kW·h produced. mandated purchases. Wind energy in many jurisdictions receives some financial or other support to encourage its development. socially . Secondary market forces also provide incentives for businesses to use wind-generated power. United States.Incentives Some of the over 6.9 cents per kW·h in 2006. such as exemption from property tax. and additional markets for "green credits". with assured grid access (sometimes referred to as feed-in tariffs). For example. in California. either to increase its attractiveness. The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 contains extensions of credits for wind. These feed-in tariffs are typically set well above average electricity prices.
Wind generation offers the most readily available short-term enhancement in renewable electricity and its base cost is relatively cheap. possibly with a negative impact on energy security. Furthermore. A House of Lords Select Committee report (2008) on renewable energy in the UK says: We have a particular concern over the prospective role of wind generated and other intermittent sources of electricity in the UK. define the cost base as narrowly as possible. go for a wider cost base (for example. and in return they can claim that they are making a powerful "green" effort. in the absence of a break-through in electricity storage technology or the integration of the UK grid with that of continental Europe. the wind power industry has recently increased its lobbying efforts considerably. Helm (2009) is critical of how the costs of wind power are citied by lobbyists: For those with an economic interest in capturing as much of the climate-change pork barrel as possible. when considering the alternatives. and. so it cannot be relied upon to meet peak demand. remain significantly higher than those of conventional or nuclear generation (even before allowing for support costs and the environmental impacts of wind farms). . focusing on the full fuel-cycle costs of nuclear and coal-mining for coal generation) and assume that these technologies are mature. Companies use wind-generated power. second. back-up conventional plant and grid connection). And. assume that the costs will fall over time with R&D and large-scale deployment. for good measure. In the USA the organization Green-e monitors business compliance with these renewable energy credits. and even that costs might rise (for example. there are two ways of presenting the costs [of wind power] in a favourable light: first. spending about $5 million in 2009 after years of relative obscurity in Washington.responsible manufacturers pay utility companies a premium that goes to subsidize and build new wind power infrastructure. Yet the evidence presented to us implies that the full costs of wind generation (allowing for intermittency. invoking the peak oil hypothesis). although declining over time. the evidence suggests that the capacity credit of wind power (its probable power output at the time of need) is very low. In the United States. by more reliable means Helm (2009) says that wind's problem of intermittent supply will probably lead to another dash-for-gas or dash-for-coal in Europe. Thus wind generation needs to be viewed largely as additional capacity to that which will need to be provided. in any event. Full costs and lobbying Commenting on the EU's 2020 renewable energy target.
In addition. or converted via the Fischer-Tropsch process into synthetic fuel. or biomass. Gasification is a method for extracting energy from many different types of organic materials. Gasification can also begin with materials that are not otherwise useful fuels. petroleum. such as wood. However. The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas is potentially more efficient than direct combustion of the original fuel because it can be combusted at higher temperatures or even in fuel cells.Chapter-8 Biomass Gasification (Third-generation technology) Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials. the high-temperature combustion refines out corrosive ash elements such as chloride and potassium. biofuel. The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas or syngas and is itself a fuel. into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. the carbonaceous material undergoes several different processes: . so that the thermodynamic upper limit to the efficiency defined by Carnot's rule is higher or not applicable. almost any type of organic material can be used as the raw material for gasification. Gasification of fossil fuels is currently widely used on industrial scales to generate electricity. biomass. such as coal. or even plastic waste. Gasification relies on chemical processes at elevated temperatures >700°C. Chemistry In a gasifier. which distinguishes it from biological processes such as anaerobic digestion that produce biogas. Syngas may be burned directly in internal combustion engines. such as biomass or organic waste. allowing clean gas production from otherwise problematic fuels. used to produce methanol and hydrogen.
the reversible gas phase water gas shift reaction reaches equilibrium very fast at the temperatures in a gasifier. thus moving the system closer to the reaction equilibrium for a fixed residence time. carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This third reaction occurs more abundantly in reactors that increase the residence time of the reactive gases and organic materials. which provides heat for the subsequent gasification reactions. Volatiles are released and char is produced. a limited amount of oxygen or air is introduced into the reactor to allow some of the organic material to be "burned" to produce carbon monoxide and energy. steam. Further reactions occur when the formed carbon monoxide and residual water from the organic material react to form methane and excess carbon dioxide. Letting C represent a carboncontaining organic compound. . The pyrolysis (or devolatilization) process occurs as the carbonaceous particle heats up. The gasification process occurs as the char reacts with carbon dioxide and steam to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The process is dependent on the properties of the carbonaceous material and determines the structure and composition of the char.Pyrolysis of carbonaceous fuels Gasification of char 1. the basic reaction here is 3. resulting in up to 70% weight loss for coal. which will then undergo gasification reactions. The combustion process occurs as the volatile products and some of the char reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. 2. In addition. which drives a second reaction that converts further organic material to hydrogen and additional carbon dioxide. In essence. Catalysts are used in more sophisticated reactors to improve reaction rates. This balances the concentrations of carbon monoxide. as well as heat and pressure. via the reaction 4.
During both world wars especially the Second World War the need of gasification produced fuel reemerged due to the shortage of petroleum. It is estimated that there were close to 9000. called Gasogene or Gazogène. fluidized bed and entrained flow.000 vehicles running on producer gas all over the world.History Adler Diplomat 3 with gas generator (1941) The Process of producing energy using the gasification method has been in use for more the 180 years. During that time coal and peat were used to power these plants. were used to power motor vehicles in Europe. By 1945 there were trucks. Wood gas generators. it was also used in blast furnaces but the bigger role was played in the production of synthetic chemicals where it has been in use since the 1920s. Initially developed to produce town gas for lighting & cooking in 1800s. co-current fixed bed. Gasification processes Four types of gasifier are currently available for commercial use: counter-current fixed bed. . this was replaced by electricity and natural gas. buses and agricultural machines that were powered by gasification.
but the gasification agent gas flows in co-current configuration with the fuel (downwards. oxygen and/or air) flows in counter-current configuration. achieving temperatures higher than the ash fusion temperature. Since all tars must pass through a hot bed of char in this configuration. The temperatures are relatively low in dry ash gasifiers. Most coals are suitable for this type of gasifier because of the high operating temperatures and because the coal particles are well separated from one another. coal or biomass) through which the "gasification agent" (steam. Heat needs to be added to the upper part of the bed. either by combusting small amounts of the fuel or from external heat sources. Fuel throughput is higher than for the fixed bed. and are suitable for higher rank coals. However. so the fuel must be highly reactive. however the oxygen requirement is higher than for the other types of gasifiers. although recent developments have reduced these restrictions to some extent. The conversion efficiency can be rather low due to elutriation of carbonaceous material. in particular certain types of biomasses. hence the name "down draft gasifier"). Thermal efficiency is high as the gas exit temperatures are relatively low. can form slag that is corrosive for ceramic inner walls that serve to protect the gasifier outer wall. All entrained flow gasifiers remove the major part of the ash as a slag as the operating temperature is well above the ash fusion temperature. Fluidized bed gasifiers are most useful for fuels that form highly corrosive ash that would damage the walls of slagging gasifiers. an atomized liquid fuel or a fuel slurry is gasified with oxygen (much less frequent: air) in co-current flow.g. The agglomerating gasifiers have slightly higher temperatures. The produced gas leaves the gasifier at a high temperature. The nature of the gasifier means that the fuel must have high mechanical strength and must ideally be non-caking so that it will form a permeable bed. Biomass fuels generally contain high levels of corrosive ash. so product gas must be extensively cleaned before use. However some entrained . The tar can be recycled to the reactor. The co-current fixed bed ("down draft") gasifier is similar to the counter-current type. Recycle or subsequent combustion of solids can be used to increase conversion. tar levels are much lower than the counter-current type. but not as high as for the entrained flow gasifier. The high temperatures and pressures also mean that a higher throughput can be achieved. The ash is either removed dry or as a slag. and most of this heat is often transferred to the gasification agent added in the top of the bed. resulting in an energy efficiency on level with the counter-current type. this means that tar and methane production is significant at typical operation temperatures. The throughput for this type of gasifier is relatively low. The high temperatures also mean that tar and methane are not present in the product gas. In the fluidized bed reactor. In the entrained flow gasifier a dry pulverized solid. however thermal efficiency is somewhat lower as the gas must be cooled before it can be cleaned with existing technology. The slagging gasifiers have a lower ratio of steam to carbon . The ash is removed dry or as heavy agglomerates that defluidize. low-grade coals are particularly suitable. A smaller fraction of the ash is produced either as a very fine dry fly ash or as a black colored fly ash slurry. the fuel is fluidized in oxygen and steam or air.The counter-current fixed bed ("up draft") gasifier consists of a fixed bed of carbonaceous fuel (e. Some fuels. The gasification reactions take place in a dense cloud of very fine particles.
Some fuels have ashes with very high ash fusion temperatures. The fuel particles must be much smaller than for other types of gasifiers. 2501000 kWe and new zero carbon biomass gasification plants have been installed in Europe that produce tar free syngas from wood and burn it in a reciprocation engines connected to a generator with heat recovery. Heating values of syngas are generally around 4-10 MJ/m3. These types of gasifiers do not suffer from corrosive slags. with the possibility of producing methane and hydrogen for fuel cells. where the wood source is sustainable. boilers. Gasification is also used industrially in the production of electricity. This means the fuel must be pulverized. which requires somewhat more energy than for the other types of gasifiers. Diesel engines can be operated on dual fuel mode using producer gas. IGCC demonstration plants have been operating since the early 1970s and some of the plants constructed in the 1990s are now entering commercial service. fuel delivery. Spark ignition engines and SOFC fuel cells can operate on 100% gasification gas. Gasification technologies have been developed in recent years that use plastic-rich waste as a feed. driving water pumps for irrigation or for coupling with an alternator for electrical power generation. Gasifiers offer a flexible option for thermal applications. In this case mostly limestone is mixed with the fuel prior to gasification. where syngas may replace fossil fuels. gasification. Addition of a little limestone will usually suffice for the lowering the fusion temperatures. waste disposal. ammonia and liquid fuels (oil) using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). as they can be retrofitted into existing gas fueled devices such as ovens. furnaces. producer gas gives greater control over power levels when compared to solid fuels. . Industrial-scale gasification is currently mostly used to produce electricity from fossil fuels such as coal. Current applications In small business and building applications. gas cleaning. Like other gaseous fuels. where the syngas is burned in a gas turbine. Diesel substitution of over 80% at high loads and 70-80% under normal load variations can easily be achieved. electricity generation and heat recovery..bed type of gasifiers do not possess a ceramic inner wall but have an inner water or steam cooled wall covered with partially solidified slag. By far the most energy consumption related to entrained bed gasification is not the milling of the fuel but the production of oxygen used for the gasification. Mechanical energy from the engines may be used for e. leading to more efficient and cleaner operation. etc. IGCC is also a more efficient method of CO2 capture as compared to conventional technologies.g. This type plant is often referred to as a wood biomass CHP unit but is a plant of seven different processes: biomass processing. Syngas can be used for heat production and for generation of mechanical and electrical power.
financial and maintenance problems. While small scale gasifiers have existed for well over 100 years. Small scale devices are typically DIY projects. Although technically applicable the systems face political. including biomass and plastic waste. Alternatively. currently in the US several companies offer gasifiers to operate small engines. Potential for renewable energy Gasification plant Güssing. However.Small-scale rural biomass gasifiers have been applied in India to a large extent. if the . especially in the state of Tamil-Nadu in South India. Austria (2006) In principle. Most of the applications are 9 kWe systems used for water pumping and street lighting operated by the local panchayat government. there have been few sources to obtain a ready to use machine. gasification can proceed from just about any organic material. The resulting syngas can be combusted. Most of the systems are no longer running after 1–3 years.
it may be used for power production in gas engines. but the net power production in slagging gasification is low (sometimes negative) and costs are higher. and may indirectly cause CO2 emissions. since 2003. In some gasification processes (slagging gasification) this ash has the form of a glassy solid with low leaching properties. including a plant using dual fluidized bed gasification that has supplied the town of Güssing with 2 MW of electricity and 4 MW of heat. In many gasification processes most of the inorganic components of the input material. gasification in principle may run on a wider variety of input materials and can be used to produce a wider variety of output fuels. While other biofuel technologies such as biogas and biodiesel are carbon neutral. There is at present very little industrial scale biomass gasification being done. because biomass production removes the same amount of CO2 from the atmosphere as is emitted from gasification and combustion. Regardless of the final fuel form. . generated from wood chips. Examples of demonstration projects include those of the Renewable Energy Network Austria. are retained in the ash. or diesel-like synthetic fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. in slagging and plasma gasification. gas turbines or even fuel cells. such as metals and minerals. the electricity consumption may even exceed any power production from the syngas. Combustion of syngas or derived fuels emits exactly the same amount of carbon dioxide as would have been emitted from direct combustion of the initial fuel. gasification itself and subsequent processing neither directly emits nor traps greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide. Biomass gasification and combustion could play a significant role in a renewable energy economy. methane via the Sabatier reaction. or converted efficiently to dimethyl ether (DME) by methanol dehydration. Power consumption in the gasification and syngas conversion processes may be significant though.syngas is clean enough.
According to the sales and sales management consultants KBI Group a pilot plant in Arnstadt implementing this process has completed initial tests. Waste gasification has several principal advantages over incineration: • • The necessary extensive flue gas cleaning may be performed on the syngas instead of the much larger volume of flue gas after combustion. one of several proposed waste gasification processes. but these have rather severe requirements regarding the purity of the gas.Waste disposal HTCW reactor. Even fuel cells may potentially be used. Electric power may be generated in engines and gas turbines. which are much cheaper and more efficient than the steam cycle used in incineration. .
and always in combination with fossil fuels. the consumption of large amounts of pure oxygen (which is often used as gasification agent). and gas cleaning. Several waste gasification processes have been proposed. The high efficiency of converting syngas to electric power is counteracted by significant power consumption in the waste preprocessing. Japan using the Thermoselect process) has been processing industrial waste since year 2000. One plant (in Chiba. A major challenge for waste gasification technologies is to reach an acceptable (positive) gross electric efficiency.• • Chemical processing of the syngas may produce other synthetic fuels instead of electricity. but has not yet documented positive net energy production from the process. Massachusetts. Another challenge becoming apparent when implementing the processes in real life is to obtain long service intervals in the plants. The facility was designed to demonstrate gasification of specific nonMSW waste streams using liquid metal gasification . and only a handful have been implemented as plants processing real waste. Some gasification processes treat ash containing heavy metals at very high temperatures so that it is released in a glassy and chemically stable form. Ze-gen is operating a waste gasification demonstration facility in New Bedford. but few have yet been built and tested. so that it is not necessary to close down the plant every few months for cleaning the reactor.
Chapter-9 Enhanced Geothermal System (ThirdGeneration Technology) .
Australia. the U. EGS industry Commercial projects are currently either operational or under development in Australia.Enhanced geothermal system 1:Reservoir 2:Pump house 3:Heat exchanger 4:Turbine hall 5:Production well 6:Injection well 7:Hot water to district heating 8:Porous sediments 9:Observation well 10:Crystalline bedrock Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are a new type of geothermal power technologies that do not require natural convective hydrothermal resources. There are HDR and EGS systems currently being developed and tested in France. The largest EGS project in the world is a 25 megawatt demonstration plant currently being developed in the Cooper Basin. .S. depending on the economic limits of drill depth. are expected to be baseload resources which produce power 24 hours a day like a fossil plant. However. the vast majority of geothermal energy within drilling reach is in dry and non-porous rock. geothermal power systems have only exploited resources where naturally occurring water and rock porosity is sufficient to carry heat to the surface. and Switzerland. Japan. Australia. HDR wells are expected to have a useful life of 20 to 30 years before the outflow temperature drops about 10 degrees Celsius and the well becomes uneconomic. enhancing the permeability of the fracture system. HDR / EGS may be feasible anywhere in the world. Australia's industry has been greatly aided by a national Renewable Portfolio Standard of 25% renewables by 2025. The injection increases the fluid pressure in the naturally fractured granite which mobilizes shear events. Good locations are over deep granite covered by a thick (3–5 km) layer of insulating sediments which slow heat loss. Water travels through fractures in the rock. The Cooper Basin project has the potential to develop 5–10 GW. Until recently.000 MW. drilling. EGS technologies "enhance" and/or create geothermal resources in this hot dry rock (HDR) through hydraulic stimulation.000–10. and industry. a vibrant Green Energy Credit market. When natural cracks and pores will not allow for economic flow rates. now cooled. The largest project in the world is being developed in Australia's Cooper Basin by Geodynamics. and Germany. The Cooper Basin has the potential to generate 5. the United States. which is converted into electricity using either a steam turbine or a binary power plant system. Distinct from hydrothermal. the permeability can be enhanced by pumping high pressure cold water down an injection well into the rock. EGS / HDR technologies. Australia now has 33 firms either exploring for. is injected back into the ground to heat up again in a closed loop. All of the water. and supportive R&D collaboration between government. like hydrothermal geothermal. capturing the heat of the rock until it is forced out of a second borehole as very hot water. academia. Germany. If left for 50 to 300 years the temperature will recover. or developing EGS projects.
Oregon Ogachi United Downs.2 ENGINE Operational (EU) United DOE. 11–50 Binary Development States GeothermEx Germany 3 Binary 3. despite Germany's relatively poor geothermal resource. (Unknown) Flash . The AltaRock Energy effort is a demonstration project being conducted to prove out the company's proprietary technology at the site of an existing geothermal project owned and operated by NCPA in The Geysers. any steam produced by the project will be supplied to NCPA's flash turbines under a longterm contract.0 – R&D Japan (Unknown) 1.8 NCPA AltaRock Energy. However. United (Unknown) Demonstration Davenport States Power 1.Germany's 23 cent/kWh Feed-In Tariff (FIT) for geothermal energy has led to a surge in geothermal development.3 Petratherm Drilling Project Soultz Desert Peak Type R&D R&D Landau Commercial Paralana (Phase Commercial 1) Cooper Commercial Basin Geodynamics Drilling Canceled (Jan 2010) Permitting (Mar 2010) CO2 experiments Fundraising Fundraising The United Demonstration Geysers States Bend. Redruth Eden Project AltaRock 3. Ormat.5 Engineering Kingdom Ltd United EGS Energy Commercial 3 MW Binary 3–4 Kingdom Ltd. Current EGS projects Plant Depth Country Size (MW) Developer Status Type (km) France 1.1 Geothermal United Commercial 10 MW Binary 4.3 ? Operational (EU) Australia 7–30 Australia 250–500 Binary 4.5 – Energy. The Landau partial EGS project is profitable today under the FIT.1 Kalina 4.5 Binary 4. 3. and does not include power generation.
Portugal – Portuguese government has awarded. an exclusive license to Geovita Ltd. On 30 May 2007. Match $1 from us. has recently connected its 1. and 55MW of thermal energy. interestingly. but those people who are keen on getting Australia into geothermal say we've got this great access to resource and one of the things. In an interview. The Soultz project has explored the connection of multiple stimulated zones and the performance of triplet well configurations (1 injector/2 producers).Research and development Australia The Australian government has provided research funding for the development of Hot Dry Rock technology. then Australian opposition environmental spokesperson and current Minister for the Environment. France. which has been granted planning permission. that's held them back is not having the capacity the put the drilling plants in place. Heritage and the Arts Peter Garrett announced that if elected at the 2007 Australian Federal Election. A commercial-scale project near Redruth is also planned. December 2008. Induced seismicity in Basel led to the cancellation of the EGS project. to prospect and explore geothermal energy in one of the best areas in continental Portugal. would generate 10MW of electricity. The plant.5 MW demonstration plant to the grid. An area of about 500 square kilometers that is being studied together by Geovita and Coimbra's University — Science and Technology Faculty — Earth Sciences Department. he promised: "There are some technical difficulties and challenges there. . that could pave the way for a series of 50MW commercial-scale geothermal power stations in suitable areas across the country. and foresees the installation of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). And so what we intend this $50 million to go towards is to provide a one for one dollars. based at the Eden Project. $1 from the industry so that they can get these drilling rigs on to site and really get the best sites identified and get the industry going. United Kingdom Cornwall is set to host a 3MW demonstration project. and is scheduled to become operational in 2013–2014. the Australian Labor Party would use taxpayers money to subsidise putting the necessary drilling rigs in place." European Union The EU's EGS R&D project at Soultz-sous-Forêts.
and the project was terminated. including $20 million in fiscal year 2009 funding." and the selection of one project for "full-scale development" at the Coso Hot Springs geothermal field at the U. EGS technology includes those methods and equipment that enhance the removal of energy from a resource by increasing the productivity of the reservoir. In Fiscal Year 2003. this vision translated into completing "preliminary designs for five competitively selected projects employing EGS technology. to include "drilling and reservoir stimulation experiments" at one and drilling a production well at another. New Mexico with a project run by the federal Los Alamos Laboratory. According to the Fiscal Year 2004 Budget Request to Congress from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.5 million was appropriated to launch the Coso project. Working at the Edges—Using EGS Technology to Improve Hydrothermal Resources EGS funding languished for the next few years.S. EGS are engineered reservoirs that have been created to extract heat from economically unproductive geothermal resources. Better productivity may result from improving the reservoir’s natural permeability and/or providing additional fluids to transport heat. Funding for this effort totaled $1. Department of Energy USDOE issued two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) on March 4. Naval Weapons Air Station in China Lake.. The Fiscal Year 2004 request for $6 million was to "[s]tep up work on EGS cost-shared projects' at the three sites. in two phases. the two FOAs offer up to $84 million over six years. U.S. 2009 for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The U. It was the first attempt anywhere to make a deep. although future funding is subject to congressional appropriations.United States Early Days—Fenton Hill The United States pioneered the first EGS effort—then termed Hot Dry Rock—at Fenton Hill. Ultimately. Together. with the aim of improving the permeability of an existing poorly performing well.5 million. full-scale HDR reservoir. the project was unable to generate net energy. In Fiscal Year 2002. . and to complete the conceptual design and feasibility studies at the Desert Peak and Glass Mountain sites. and by the next decade. and efforts there spanned 1974 through 1992. $3. and two additional projects for "preliminary analysis from a new solicitation" at Desert Peak in Nevada and Glass Mountain in California. efforts focused on the less ambitious goal of improving the productivity of existing hydrothermal resources. Calif.S.
The case of induced seismicity in Basel bears special mention because it led the city (which is a partner) to suspend the project and conduct a seismic hazard evaluation. a large portion of which will be used to develop CO2 EGS technologies. CO2 EGS The recently established Center for Geothermal Energy Excellence at the University of Queensland. has been awarded $18. CO2 has numerous advantages for EGS: 1. including $80 million aimed specifically at EGS proejcts. the reservoir rock may respond with tensile failure. Greater power output Minimized parasitic losses from pumping and cooling Carbon sequestration Minimized water use . Research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratories and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories examined the use of supercritical CO2. Induced seismicity Some induced seismicity is inevitable and.2 event at Baja California in Mexico. 2. Depending on the rock properties. 3. as is common in the oil and gas industry. 2009. indeed. In several cases. significant events have occurred including a magnitude 7. as the geothermal working fluid with favorable results. instead of water. as is thought to be the main mechanism of reservoir growth in EGS efforts. 4. Seismicity events at the Geysers geothermal field in California have been strongly correlated with injection data. and on injection pressures and fluid volume.3 million (AUS) for EGS research. of stimulus funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act for $350 million. or with shear failure of the rock's existing joint set. which involves pumping fluids at pressure to enhance or create permeability through the use of hydraulic fracturing techniques.The DOE followed up with another FOA on March 27. expected in EGS. which resulted in the cancellation of the project in December 2009.
reached several significant conclusions: 1. Department of Energy. Development Potential: With a modest R&D investment of $1 billion over 15 years (or the cost of one coal power plant).000 ZJ with technology improvements — sufficient to provide all the world's current energy needs for several millennia. A 2006 report by MIT. including hydrothermal and geo-pressured resources. of which over 200 ZJ would be extractable.S. conducted the most comprehensive analysis to date on the potential and technical status of EGS. the report estimated that 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more could be installed by 2050 in the United States. The report found that total geothermal resources.9 cents/kWh.000 zettajoules. Resource Size: The report calculated the United States total EGS resources from 3–10 km of depth to be over 13. chaired by Professor Jefferson Tester of MIT. The report further found that the "recoverable" resource (that accessible with today's technology) to be between 1.000 times the total U. with the potential to increase this to over 2. The 18-member panel.EGS potential in the United States Geothermal power technologies.000 ZJ — or roughly 140.S. 2. to equal 14.2–12. and funded by the U.2 TW for the conservative and moderate recovery scenarios respectively. annual primary energy use in 2005. 3. EGS costs were found to be sensitive to four main factors: . Cost: The report found that EGS could be capable of producing electricity for as low as 3.
.1) Temperature of the resource. and 4) Power conversion efficiency. 3) Drilling Costs. 2) Fluid flow through the system measured in liters/second.
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