Naval Education and Training Command

NAVEDTRA 134 August 1992 0502-LP-219-8800

Training Manual (TRAMAN)

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Nonfederal government personnel wanting a copy of this document must use the purchasing instructions on the inside cover.

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D IS TRIB U TION S TATEMEN T A: Ap p ro v e d fo r p u blic re le a s e ; d is tribu tio n is u n lim ite d .

Non fe de ral gove rn m e n t pe rson n e l w an tin g a copy of th is docu m e n t m u st w rite to Su pe rin te n de n t of Docu m e n ts, Gove rn m e n t P rin tin g Office , Wash in gton , DC 20402 OR Com m an din g Office r, Naval P u blication s an d Form s Dire ctorate , Navy Aviation Su pply Office , 5801 Tabor Ave n u e , P h ilade lph ia, P A 19120-5099, Atte n tion ; Cash Sale s, for price an d availability.

COMMANDING OFFICER NETPMSA 6490 SAUFLEY FIELD RD PENSACOLA FL 32509-5237 22 ERRRATA # 1 Stock Ordering No. 0502-LP-219-8801 Specific NAVY 1. Make On to the Instructions and Errata Training Manual MANUAL, to the NAVEDTRA TRAMAN. line 2 5 to for 134 September 1995

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A-0 0 -1 3 1 0 O ffice r G r ou p P a ce d I n s t r u ct or .DEP ARTMENT OF THE NAVY CHIEF OF NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING NAVAL AIR STATION P ENSACOLA. C or r e ct ion s a n d com m e n t s con ce r n in g t h is m a n u a l a r e in vit e d a n d s h ou l d b e a d d r e s s e d t o C h i e f of N a v a l E d u ca t i on a n d T r a i n i n g (N -6 3 ). N a va l 4. As a s u p p le m e n t a r y t e xt for for m a l in s t r u ct or t r a in in g cou r s e s A-0 1 2 -0 0 1 1 G r ou p P a ce d I n s t r u ct or . P A 19120. a n d gu id a n ce p r e s e n t e d in t h is m a n u a l for m a fou n d a t ion for t h e p r a ct ica l a p p lica t ion of in s t r u ct ion a l m e t h od s a n d t e ch n iq u e s w h ich w ill b e d e ve lop e d t h r ou gh for m a l in s t r u ct or t r a in in g cou r s e s . 2. N a v y I n s t r u ct ion a l T h e or y. b . 5. for p e r s on n e l a s s ign e d t o Na vy 3. . d . As a ge n e r a l r e fe r e n ce in s t r u ct or d u t y. a n d Q -5 K -0 1 0 1 Aca d e m ic I n s t r u ct or . P u b lica t ion s a n d F or m s C e n t e r . T h is p u b lica t ion is a va ila b le fr om C om m a n d in g O ffice r . As a b a s ic s ou r ce gu id e for in s t r u ct or in -s e r vice t r a in in g p r og r a m s w i t h i n N a v a l E d u ca t i on a n d T r a i n i n g C om m a n d s ch ool s . Th is m a n u a l will be u sed as follow s : a . As a t e x t for cor r e s p on d e n ce cou r s e N AVE D T R A 8 3 4 . T h e p r oce d u r e s in s t r u ct ion in N a vy cla s s r oom s a n d la b or a t or ie s . c . P h ila d e lp h ia . R e v i e w e d a n d a p p r ov e d . 5 8 0 1 T a b or Ave n u e . FLORIDA 32508-5100 1500 S e r N -6 3 /0 3 3 0 LE TTE R OF P ROMULGATION T h is p u b lica t ion p r ovid e s a b a s is for t h e d e live r y of 1.

I V V (1 -1 7 . 3 9 . 4-6). cop y t o: C N O (O P -1 1 . VI I (1-2. I I (1-2). NAVY INSTRUCTOR MANUAL Dis t r ibu t ion : (CN E TI N S T 5218 F . I I I (7). 2 4 -4 4 ) V1 . 2 9 . Ca s e A) Lis t s I .S u bj: LE TTE R OF P ROMULGATION F OR NAVE DTRA 134. 2 1 . 5 9 ) (1 ) COMNAVSE ASYSCOM (04MP ) (2) COMN AVAIRSYSCOM (P MA 205-41) (1) COMS P AWARS YS COM (Cod e 003-244) (1) H S E T C (C od e 0 5 ) (2 ) AE GI S TRACE N (TD2) (1) D I R S S P (S P -1 5 3 1 1 ) (1 ) N AVP E RSRAN DCE N (Code 152) (2) N AVS AF E CE N (Cod e 48) (2) 2 .

CHAN GE RECORD Recom m en ded ch a n ges t o t h is m a n u a l will be for wa r ded t o CNE T (N63) via t h e fu n ct ion a l com m a n der . ii . Appr oved ch a n ges will be r ecor ded on t h e Ch a n ge Recor d of t h is m a n u a l.

.

t h e t er m s u sed in t h is m a n u a l m a y differ fr om t h ose u sed in ot h er m a n u a ls. in st r u ct or s. t h ey p r ovid e p r oced u r es for ca r r yin g ou t t h a t policy. N a v y I n s t r u ct or M a n u a l N AVE D T R A 1 3 5 . Th e p u r p os e of N AVE DTRA 134. F or N a vy r e s e r vis t s . M a n a ge m e n t /L e a d e m h ip /S e m in a r C u r r icu lu m D e ve lop m e n t M a n u a l N AVE D T R A 1 3 3 . a n d t h e m a n a gem en t a n d eva lu a t ion of t r a in in g p r ogr a m s . in s t r u ct ion a n d eva lu a t ion a n d s econ d . T E R M U S E D I N N AVE D T R A 1 3 4 E XC E P T I O N T E R M T r a in in g Act ivit y T r a in e e G u id e St u den t Lesson P la n Ad m in is t r a t or ’s G u id e Tr a in in g F a cilit y S t u d en t Gu id e T r a in e e I n s t r u ct or G u id e P r oct or G u id e Wr it t en Test s K n ow le d ge T e s t s iii . P e r s on n e l P e r for m a n ce P r ofi l e B a s e d C u r r i cu l u m D e v e l op m e n t Manual N AVE D T R A 1 3 2 . h owever . N a v y S ch ool M a n a g e m e n t M a n u a l Th e N AVE DTRA 130 s er ies of m a n u a ls p r ovid es fu n d a m en t a l gu id a n ce wit h in t h e N a va l E du ca t ion a n d Tr a in in g Com m a n d for t h e developm en t of cu r r icu la . t h ey su pplem en t t h e CN E TI N STs in t wo im p or t a n t wa ys . T e a m T r a i n i n g cu r r i cu l u m D e v e l op m e n t M a n u a l N AVE D T R A 1 3 4 . Ra t h er . Th e m a n u a ls a r e. F ir s t . is t o pr esen t kn owledge fa ct or s a n d ba ck gr ou n d in for m a t ion on t h e t h eor y a n d t ech n iqu es of N a vy cla s s r oom in s t r u ct ion . T a s k B a s e d C u r r icu lu m D e ve lop m e n t M a n u a l N AVE D T R A 1 3 1 . I t is design ed t o follow t h e ou t lin e of t h e for m a l gr ou p-pa ced In st r u ct or Tr a in in g Cou r ses a n d is t o be u sed a s a su pplem en t a r y t ext for t h ose cou r ses. t h ey r eflect t h e ph ilos oph ica l pr in ciples u n der lyin g CN E T p olicy for cu r r icu lu m . In som e in st a n ces. or eva lu a t or s of t r a in in g. Th ese m a n u a ls do n ot su per sede t h e dir ect ive policy est a blish ed by Ch ief of Na va l E du ca t ion a n d Tr a in in g In st r u ct ion s (CN E TIN S Ts) in t h ese su bject a r ea s. Th e followin g is a list of except ion s t o t h e u se of t er m s loca t ed in t h is m a n u a l. I t m a y a ls o b e u s e d a s a ge n e r a l r e fe r e n ce b y t h os e h a vin g r es p on s ibilit y for con d u ct in g s h ip boa r d or on -t h e-job t r a in in g p r ogr a m s .F OREWORD Th is m a n u a l is p a r t of t h e followin g s er ies s ch ed u led for p u blica t ion : N AVE D T R A 1 3 0 . E a ch of t h e 130 ser ies m a n u a ls is design ed a s a st a n d a lon e docu m en t t o ser ve a specific u ser gr ou p su ch a s cu r r icu lu m developer s. t r a in in g m a n a ger s. in t er r ela t ed a n d a p p r op r ia t ely cr os s r efer en ced t o on e a n ot h er . N AVE D T R A 1 3 4 is t o be u sed a s t h e pr im a r y t ext for t h e cor r espon den ce cou r se t h a t is pr er equ isit e t o t h eir t wo w e e k gr ou p -p a ce d cou r s e . N a vy I n s t r u ct or M a n u a l. t h e deliver y of in st r u ct ion .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTRUCTIONAL ME TH ODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . COURSE MATE RIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . E F F E CTIVE COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . .63 8. . . . ii F ORE WORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LE ARNING OBJ E CTIVE S . . . . . . . . . . . . . TE STING . . . . . . .85 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . NAVY TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . P RINCIP LE S OF LE ARNING. . . . . . . . .32 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 iv . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTRUCTOR E VALUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TAB LE OF CON TEN TS CH ANGE RE CORD . . . . . TH E NAVY INSTRUCTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv C H AP T E R S 1. . . . . . MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii TABLE OF CONTE NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C h i e f of N a v a l E d u ca t i on a n d T r a in in g (C N E T ). S ever a l offices coor din a t e wit h ea ch ot h er t o pla n for t r a in in g a n d t o det er m in e t h e pu r poses of t r a in in g wit h in va r iou s com m a n ds. d is ch a r ge. N ew t ech n ica l d evelop m en t s a s well a s los s es of t r a in ed p er s on n el t h r ou gh p r om ot ion .CHAP TER 1 N AVY TRAIN IN G IN TROD U CTION Th e pr im a r y pu r pose of t h e Na vy t r a in in g est a blish m en t is t o pr ovide t h e oper a t ion a l for ces wit h t r a in ed p er s on n el wh o ca n m a in t a in a h igh d egr ee of fleet r ea d in es s . a n d t h e C om m a n d e r . Th ese offices a r e t h e Ch ief of Na va l Oper a t ion s (CNO). H ow d oes t h e N a vy per for m su ch a la r ge a n d com plex t r a in in g t a sk wit h ch a n gin g r equ ir em en t s a n d a ch a n gin g 1 . S y s t e m C om m a n d s (S YS C O M S ). or t r a n s fer cr ea t e a con s t a n t n eed for t r a in in g. F leet Com m a n der s i n C h i e f (F L T C I N C ’s ). Abou t on e-t h ir d of a ll people in t h e Na vy a r e in volved in som e kin d of t r a in in g a t a n y on e t im e. r et ir em en t . N a va l R e s e r ve F or ce s (C O M N AVR E S F O R ).

a n d t r a in in g m a n a ger s (fi g . Th e p u r p o s e o f t h e N a v y ’s t r a i n i n g s ys t e m is t o e n s u r e a s ys t e m a t ic a p p r oa ch for d e t e r m in in g w h a t t o t r a in a n d h ow b e s t t o a ccom p lis h t h a t t r a in in g. T H E N A V Y T R A I N I N G S YS T E M T h e p u r p os e of a n y syst em s a ppr oa ch is t o pr ovide a m et h od by wh ich a n or ga n iza t ion ca n a n a lyze a n d a p p ly a ll t h e elem en t s t h a t m a k e u p t h e syst em (fig. d evelop t r a in in g. a n d eva lu a t ion a t t e n t i on a n d e m p h a s i s t o e a ch elem en t of t h e s ys t em a n d t o h ow ea ch elem en t r ela t es t o t h e ot h er s . visu a lize Na vy t r a in in g a s a syst em wit h t h r ee d is t in ct bu t in t er r ela t ed elem en t s: of t r a in in g. t h e t r a i n i n g of N a v y t r a in er s m u st a ddr ess t a sk s in a ll t h r ee elem en t s of t h e syst em . give An or ga n iza t ion must equal F ig u re 1-1. a n d t r a in i n s t r u ct or s . cu r r i cu l u m d evelop er s . p r e p a r a t i on t o t r a i n . 1 -2 ).-Th e N a v y tra in in g s y s te m . On e of t h e pu r poses of t h is m a n u a l is t o a cqu a in t you wit h t h e det a ils of t h e Na vy’s for m a l t r a in in g syst em a n d t h e ed u ca t ion a l con cep t s u p on wh ich it is ba s ed .-P re p a ra tio n to tra in . it m u st det er m in e t r a in in g r equ ir em en t s . T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e N a vy’s a p p r oa ch t o t r a in in g. pla n n in g pr ocess t h r ou gh wh ich it 2 . d eliver y of t r a in in g. i t u s e s a F ig u re 1-2.popu la t ion ? H ow do t h e Na vy’s t r a in er s en su r e n eeded st a n da r diza t ion a n d ca r r y ou t r equ ir ed ch a n ges? Th e a n swer is t h a t t h e Na vy u ses a syst em s a ppr oa ch t o t r a in in g. T h e r e for e . 1-1). T h e r e for e . P R E P AR ATION TO TR AIN B e for e t h e N a v y ca n p r ov i d e t r a in in g. Th e su ccess of t h e en t ir e syst em d e p e n d s u p on t h e e ffe ct ive n e s s of the in dividu a l elem en t s.

I d en t ifica t ion of t r a in in g r equ ir em en t s is a n on goin g p r oces s . con du ct . I f t h e in ve n t or y la ck s t r a in e d per son n el. t h e Na vy ch a n ges. t h ey m u st det er m in e if a ch a n ge or r evision t o exist in g t r a in in g ca n m eet t h e t r a in in g r equ ir em en t or if n ew cu r r icu lu m developm en t is r equ ir ed. s u p p or t . B e for e p r ovid in g for for m a l cou r s e s . t h e fu n ct ion a l com m a n d e r a n d t h e t r a in in g a ct ivit y m u s t t a k e t h e follow in g a ct ion s : n I d e n t i fy t h e m a n p ow e r . It t h en set s st a n da r ds for cou r se a n d cu r r icu lu m developm en t a n d pr escr ibes t h e t r a in in g pa t h (s) a ppr op r ia t e for in st r u ct or s. As s k ill r equ ir em en t s becom e obsolet e. F or n ew cou r se developm en t . T o e s t a b lis h a cou r s e . it in t r odu ces n ew cou r ses. Ma n a ger s will be a ble t o t r a ck s t u d en t s a n d t r a in in g in for m a t ion r ela t ed t o a s p ecific cou r s e beca u s e of t h e cou r s e u n iqu e CI N . D e t e rm i n i n g Tra i n i n g R e q u i re m e n t s Th e Na vy det er m in es t r a in in g r equ ir em en t s fr om t h e fleet ’s n eed for people wit h pa r t icu la r job s k ills . a n d e q u i p m e n t n e e d e d t o s u p p or t t h e t r a i n i n g r e q u ir e m e n t n Su bm it a cou r se descr ipt ion via t h e fu n ct ion a l com m a n der for in ser t ion in t o t h e C a t a l og of N a v y T r a i n i n g C ou r s es (C A N T R A C ) n As s ign a cou r s e id e n t ifica t ion n u m b e r (C I N ) Th e CI N will be in clu d ed in t h e N a vy I n t egr a t ed Tr a in in g Res ou r ces a n d Ad m in is t r a t ive S ys t em (N I TRAS ). Th e pr ogr a m m a n a ger t h en m u st en su r e t h a t design a t ed per son n el r eceive t h e r equ ir ed t r a in in g t o develop. r evises. 3 .d et er m in es t h e for m a l cou r s es it will offer a n d t h e n u m ber of s t u d en t s it will t r a in in e a c h cou r se. Th e N a vy pr ovides m ost in it ia l sk ill t r a in in g a n d a lm ost a ll t r a in in g t h a t a wa r ds a N a vy E n lis t e d C la s s ifica t ion (N E C ) t h r ou gh for m a l. t h e pr ogr a m m a n a ger m u st decide t h e t ype of t r a in in g n eeded a n d d ir ect t h e d evelop m en t of cou r s e m a t er ia ls . pr ogr a m m a n a ger s m u st det er m in e if t h e r equ ir ed t r a in in g is a lr ea dy a va ila ble. t h e d e s ign a t e d fu n ct ion a l com m a n d e r a n d t r a in in g a ct ivit y wor k t oget h er t o est a blish t h e cou r se of in st r u ct ion a n d develop t h e cou r se m a t er ia ls. t h e Na vy t h en pr ovides for m a l cou r ses in ea ch skill a r ea u n less on -t h e-job t r a in in g (OJ T) is m or e cos t effect ive. D e v e lo p i n g Tra i n i n g On ce a t r a in in g r equ ir em en t is va lida t ed. If n ot a va ila ble. or m a n a ge t h e cou r se. a n d t r a in in g m a n a ger s . N I TRAS is a N a vywid e a u t om a t ed in for m a t ion s ys t em d es ign ed t o m a n a ge a n d s u p p or t t h e N a vy t r a in in g effor t . a s n ew skill r equ ir em en t s a r e iden t ified. or delet es cou r ses. I t p r ovid e s n on -N E C s k ill t r a in in g cou r ses in bot h for m a l a n d in for m a l set t in gs. r e s id e n t cou r s e s . it ch e ck s t o s e e if t h e “t r a in e d ” p e r s on n e l in ve n t or y h a s e n ou gh p e op le w it h t h os e p a r t icu la r s k ills . cu r r icu lu m developer s . D u r in g t h e d e ve lop m e n t of t r a in in g.

Th e developm en t of t ech n ica l cou r se m a t er ia ls a lso follows a syst em a t ic pr ocedu r e.-D e liv e ry o f tra in in g . r e cu r r i n g t r a i n i n g of i n s t r u ct or s . a n d cu r r icu lu m developer s ca n t h e N a vy a ch ieve u n ifor m t ech n ica l t r a in in g. T h e s ys t e m s a p p r oa ch h a s t h e follow in g a d va n t a ge s : n P r e ve n t s or m in im ize s ove r t r a in in g a n d u n d e r t r a in in g t h r ou gh t h e id e n t ifica t ion of t r a in in g r equ ir em en t s E E n s u r es u n ifor m t r a in in g for a ll p er s on n el a t a ll fa cilit ies t h r ou gh t h e u s e of s t a n d a r d gu id elin es for m a t er ia ls d evelop m en t n E n s u r es u p -t o-d a t e t r a in in g t h r ou gh t h e a n a lys is of t r a in in g m a t er ia ls a n d p r oced u r es n As s es s es over a ll effect iven es s a n d id en t ifies d eficien cies t h r ou gh t h e con t in u ed feed ba ck of a t r a in in g eva lu a t ion p r ogr a m Tr a i n i n g S t a ff All officer a n d en list ed per son n el occu pyin g in s t r u ct or . m a t er ia l a n d equ ipm en t . T h e r e s p on s ib ilit y of t h e in st r u ct or s a n d m a n a ger s of Na vy t r a in in g cou r ses is t o h elp t h e st u den t t o lea r n . s t u d en t s a n d s t a ff. t h eir effor t s a r e a im ed a t t r a in in g t h e st u den t t o do a specific job a n d t o a pply t h e pr in ciples lea r n ed. or cu r r icu lu m d e ve lop e r b ille t s /p os it ion s w it h in t h e N a va l E d u ca t ion and Training Com m a n d the (N AVE D T R AC O M ) m u s t a ssign m en t s. No m a t t er wh a t t h e cou r se is. cou r se developm en t . Ma n a gem en t in volves s ever a l a r ea s of con cer n . 1 -3 ). Th e goa l of t h e s ys t em s a p p r oa ch is t o es t a blis h u n ifor m t r a in in g. a n d s t a ff t r a in in g con d u ct e d a s p a r t of t r a in in g p r e p a r a t ion cu lm in a t e s w it h t h e d e live r y of t r a in in g (fig. com p le t e t r a i n i n g p a t h (s ) a p p r op r i a t e t o t h e i r d u t y O n l y t h r ou g h t h e i n t e n s i v e . D E LIVE R Y OF TR AIN IN G All of t h e a n a lysis. Th e p r im a r y con cer n is t h e s a fet y of t h e An ot h e r con ce r n is t h e e ffe ct ive a n d e con om ica l u s e of in s t r u ct ion a l Ma n a gem en t is con cer n ed wit h t h e fu ll u s e of a ll ed u ca t ion a l a n d 4 . t r a in in g m a n a ge r . Tra i n i n g Ma n a g e m e n t Ma n a gem en t a n d a d m in is t r a t ion a r e t wo im p or t a n t elem en t s of in s t r u ct ion . An im por t a n t pa r t of t h is t r a in in g is givin g t h e st u den t s clea r a n d pr ecise dir ect ion s a n d expla in in g t h e best wa y t o per for m t h e t a sks a ssocia t ed wit h t h eir job. F ig u re 1-3. t r a i n i n g m a n a ger s. E s t a blis h in g in st r u ct ion a l m a n a gem en t a n d a dm in ist r a t ive gu idelin es h elps t o pr even t difficu lt ies a n d solve pr oblem s t h a t develop in a lea r n in g sit u a t ion .

qu a lit yof-life is s u es . a n d cou r s e m a n a ger s. Th e in st r u ct or sh ou ld m a ke wh a t ever a r r a n gem en t s a r e n eeded t o pr ovide fa vor a ble lea r n in g con dit ion s for a ll st u den t s. C ou r s e m a n a ge m e n t in volve s m a n a ge m e n t of t h e in s t r u ct ion a l m a t e r ia ls . coop e r a t ive w or k in g r e la t ion s h ip w it h s t u d e n t s . Th e st u den t s sh ou ld be a ble t o h ea r a n d see t h e in st r u ct or w i t h ou t b e i n g d i s t r a ct e d b y ot h e r a ct i v i t i e s a r ou n d t h e m . s h a r e s F ig u re 1-4. cou r s e m a n a ge m e n t is m u lt ifa ce t e d . dir ect or s. Ma n a gem en t in volves t h e fillin g of billet s. t h e s t a ff. All in st r u ct ion a l oper a t ion s a n d pr ocedu r es a r e t h e in st r u ct or ’s a dm in ist r a t ive r espon sibilit y. To m a ke in st r u ct ion effect ive. Th a t in clu d es a ll equ ipm en t a n d t r a in in g m a t er ia ls. E VALU ATION OF TR AIN IN G E va lu a t ion m a n a gem en t m ea su r es t h e effect iven ess of t h e Na vy’s t r a in in g pr ogr a m s (fig.-Ev a lu a tio n o f tra in in g . m a n a ge m e n t . a n d t h e p h ys ica l p la n t (i. An in st r u ct or m u st est a blish a r e ce p t ive .. fr om t h e com m a n d in g office r t o t h e in s t r u ct or . m a n u a ls. m a n n in g. Th ey sh ou ld a lso m a ke su r e t h e cla ssr oom or la bor a t or y is r ea dy for t h e n ext cla s s of s t u d en t s or for t h e in s t r u ct or ’s u s e t h e followin g d a y. a n d dir ect ives t h a t spell ou t t h e du t ies of t h e sch ool su per visor s. E ve r y m e m b e r of t h e com m a n d . fu r n it u r e). a n d a ft er -h ou r s r ou t in es . T h e i n s t r u ct or m u s t h a v e a sa fet y-con sciou s a t t it u de a n d in st ill in ea ch st u den t sa fe wor k h a bit s a n d a n a wa r en ess of t h e h a za r d s of equ ip m en t a n d m a ch in er y. in st r u ct or s sh ou ld fu lly u se t h e t im e specified for lesson t opics. CN E T es t a blis h es t h e in st r u ct ion s. equ ip m en t . t h ey a r e a m plified by t h e fu n ct ion a l com m a n der s a n d t h e loca l t r a in in g a ct ivit y. I t con s i s t s of cl a s s r oom m a n a g e m e n t a n d cou r s e Cla ssr oom m a n a gem en t is t h e in st r u ct or ’s r espon sibilit y. I n s t r u ct or s s h ou ld b e fa m ilia r w it h t h e or ga n iza t ion a n d m a n a gem en t r espon sibilit ies of t h eir t r a in in g a ct ivit y. As in ever y ot h er com p on en t of t h e t r a in in g s ys t em . bu ild in g. r esou r ce n eeds. a n d su ppor t per son n el in ea ch of t h ese a r ea s.e. 5 . t h e s t u d en t s .t r a in in g fa cilit ies. ot h e r in s t r u ct or s . Th ey s h ou ld r ep or t equ ip m en t in n eed of r ep a ir a n d r equ es t s u p p lies n eed ed t o h elp t h em pr ovide effect ive in st r u ct ion . Th e p r in cip les a n d p r oced u r es t h e in s t r u ct or a d op t s in cla ssr oom m a n a gem en t con t r ibu t e t o t h e su ccess of t h e in st r u ct ion . 1-4).

Th e in st r u ct or is t h e on e wh o m u st sim plify t h e lea r n in g pr ocess for st u den t s of va r ied ba ckgr ou n ds a n d exper ien ces. a n d a t t r it ion or s et ba ck p er cen t a ges m Test in g P r ogr a m s. E xa m p le s in clu d e t h e follow in g: n Reviews of s a fet y. Th e in st r u ct or is t h e on e wh o m u st pr esen t t h e kn owledge a n d skills r equ ir ed t o t r a n s for m s t u d en t s in t o p r oficien t a n d p r od u ct ive m em ber s of t h e op er a t in g for ces . in clu din g t est -it em a n a lysis H E va lu a t ion of in s t r u ct or s in bot h cla s s r oom a n d la bor a t or y s et t in gs ~ Cr it iqu es of cou r s e a n d in s t r u ct or s by t h e s t u d en t s E xt er n a l eva lu a t ion in volves t h e ga t h er in g of feedba ck by in dividu a ls or gr ou ps of in dividu a ls ou t s id e t h e cou r s e. It is a join t effor t t h a t sh ou ld be u sed a s a t ool t o im p r ove t h e t r a in in g p r ovid ed . deliver y of t r a in in g. t h e cou r s e. sin gle lin k in t h e t r a in in g ch a in is t h e in st r u ct or . 6 . Alt h ou gh t h is in for m a t ion is n or m a lly n ot ga t h er ed a s fr equ en t ly a s t h e in t er n a l feedba ck da t a . T h is in for m a t ion is u s e d t o m a k e im p r ove m e n t s t o t r a in in g. t h e m ost essen t ia l. a n d eva lu a t ion of t r a in in g. SUMMARY Th e Na vy t r a in in g syst em is ext r em ely com plex. It in clu des t h e pr epa r a t ion t o t r a in .r espon sibilit y for t h e eva lu a t ion of t r a in in g. In t er n a l eva lu a t ion in volves feedba ck on t h e cou r se of in st r u ct ion on a r egu la r ly sch edu led b a s is . it is a lso u sed t o m a ke im pr ovem en t s t o t h e t r a in in g. Alt h ou gh it r equ ir es coor din a t ion a t a ll levels of t h e Na vy or ga n iza t ion . E va lu a t ion is n or m a lly d ivid ed in t o in t er n a l eva lu a t ion a n d ext er n a l eva lu a t ion .

a s a r esu lt of in st r u ct ion . Th ey pla n t h eir lesson . it is a m ea su r e of t h e ou t com e of lea r n in g. t h ey ca n st a r t t o lea r n t h e a r t of in st r u ct ion . s om e a r t is t s (in s t r u ct or s ) will be m or e effect ive t h a n ot h er s . con du ct pr oper lesson in t r odu ct ion s. in st r u ct ion a l m et h ods. Th es e s p ecific p a r t s of t h e t r a in in g a r e d es ign ed t o h elp t h e begin n in g in s t r u ct or gr a s p t h e ba s ic t ech n iqu es of in s t r u ct ion . It is wh a t st u den t s ca n do. E fficie n t in s t r u ct or s k n ow a n d follow a ll t h e r u le s a n d t e ch n iq u e s of t e a ch in g. t h ou gh . Befor e you ca n do t h a t . Idea lly. Most of u s ea sily r ecogn ize efficien t in st r u ct or s. a m on g ot h er t opics. pr epa r e t h e lea r n in g en vir on m en t . 1981]. t h e m or e you kn ow a n d u n der st a n d a bou t t h e scien ce of t ea ch in g. Th a t . Th e scien ce of t ea ch in g h elp s t h e n ew in s t r u ct or u n d er s t a n d t h e t ech n iqu es a n d a cqu ir e t h e k n owled ge r equ ir ed t o do t h e job. Alt h ou gh a lm ost a n yon e ca n becom e a com pet en t in st r u ct or . D a v i e s d i s cu s s e s t h e con ce p t s of e ffi ci e n cy a n d effect iven es s (I vor K.CHAP TER 2 THE N AVY IN S TRU CTOR IN TROD U CTION Tea ch in g h a s been descr ibed a s bot h a n a r t a n d a scien ce. com m u n ica t ion . is t h e s a m e for a ll of u s --wit h t h e ba s ics . a n d t h e wa ys people lea r n . m ot iva t ion . t o dem on st r a t e t h ey h a ve m et t h e object ives of t h e cou r s e. e ffe ct ive in s t r u ct or s a r e oft e n t h os e w h o s e ize e ve r y op p or t u n it y t o e n h a n ce t h e le a r n in g exper ien ce by bein g m or e cr ea t ive in t h eir u se of t h e r u les a n d t ech n iqu es. Th er efor e. d oes n ot en s u r e t h ey a r e effect ive. T h e a r t of in s t r u ct ion r e a lly ca n n ot b e t a u gh t . t est in g. H ow e ve r . efficien cy is con cer n ed wit h doin g t h in gs r igh t wh ile effect iven ess is doin g t h e r igh t t h in gs. 7 . you m u st kn ow t h e r u les a n d wh en you m a y a ppr opr ia t ely devia t e fr om t h em . Th e scien ce of in st r u ct ion ca n be t a u gh t . a n d u se in s t r u ct ion a l m ed ia m a t er ia l. You d e ve lop it t h r ou gh e xp e r ie n ce a n d lea r n in g wh a t wor ks. h owever . T h is ch a p t e r p r e s e n t s in for m a t ion on t h e ch a r a ct e r i s t i cs or t r a i t s i n s t r u ct or s s h ou l d h a v e a s w e l l a s i n for m a t i on on t h e d u t i e s . Th r ou gh st u dy a n d exper ien ce. Th ey do t h in gs r igh t . a n d con cer n s com m on t o N a vy in st r u ct or s. I n s t r u ct i on a l T ech n i q u e. Da vies . Th e s t a r t in g p la ce. Accor din g t o Da vies. In h is t ext . 22). Th a t is a lso wh y in st r u ct or t r a in in g in clu des a lot of pr a ct ice t e a ch in g a n d t e a ch in g-p e r for m a n ce e xa m in a t ion s . Th e scien ce of t ea ch in g h elps t o expla in wh a t m u st be don e. As wit h a n y a r t . E ffect iven es s in in st r u ct ion is m u ch m or e t h a n ju st doin g t h in gs r igh t . t h e bet t er equ ipped you will be t o develop t h e a r t . h owever . It is con cer n ed wit h t h e wh y a n d h ow of in st r u ct ion . I n s t r u ct i on a l T ech n i q u e [N e w Yor k : M cG r a w -H ill P u b lis h in g Com pa n y. object ives. Th a t is wh y Na vy in st r u ct or t r a in in g in clu des su bject s on t h e pr in ciples of lea r n in g. On ce begin n in g in st r u ct or s lea r n t o u se t h ese t ech n iqu es. som e people will develop in t o t r u ly s u p er ior in s t r u ct or s . you r in st r u ct ion will be bot h efficien t a n d effect ive. you ca n le a r n t o d o t h e r igh t t h in gs r igh t . a sk qu est ion s. r espon sibilit ies.

n ot in dividu a l m em ber s. you wou ld see t h a t t h e y h a ve ce r t a in q u a lit ie s in com m on . On ly t h r ou gh pr a ct ice. a cqu ir in g kn owledge for it s own sa ke is a legit im a t e goa l of ed u ca t ion . Th e for m a l t r a in in g you h a ve r eceived in you r r a t in g cou pled wit h you r a ct u a l w or k e xp e r ie n ce a n d on -t h e -job t r a in in g w ill p r ove in va lu a b le t o you in you r in s t r u ct or a s s ign m en t . F ir st . it will a ls o exp a n d you r k n owled ge of in s t r u ct ion a l t ech n iqu es . h owever . You n eed t o u n der st a n d t h a t you will be con du ct in g t r a in in g t o m eet t h e n eeds of t h e Na vy. E a ch of t h e s e t r a i t s b e l on g s i n on e of t h r e e b r oa d ca t e gor ie s : per son a lit y. or T oge t h e r . t h a t k n owin g t h e s u bject well en ou gh t o d o t h e job you r self is qu it e differ en t fr om kn owin g h ow t o t ea ch ot h er s t o do it .-P ro fe s s i o n a l p re c e p t s . Th ese qu a lit ies pr ovide a list of t r a it s t h a t m a y ser ve a s a set of idea ls t owa r d wh ich y ou m a y w or k a s a n i n s t r u ct or . E du ca t ion does n ot n ecessa r ily h a ve a pr a ct ica l or defin ed goa l. k n ow le d ge . s k ills . a n d a t t it u d es 9 P r od u ce ch a n ge s in b e h a vior _ At t a in s p e cific ob je ct ive s 8 .P R OF E S S ION AL P RECEP TS I f y ou w e r e t o ob s e r v e e ffi ci e n t a n d effect ive’t ive in st r u ct or s. you m u st be t h or ou gh ly fa m ilia r wit h t h e su bject you will be t ea ch in g. Tr a in in g s h ou ld a ccom p lis h a t lea s t t h r ee t h in gs: 9 Develop k n owled ge. t h ese t h r ee ca t egor ies con t a in t h e pr ofession a l qu a lit ies of a n effect ive a n d efficien t in s t r u ct or (fi g . F i g u re 2-1. Th is la t t er a r ea will br in g you you r gr ea t est ch a llen ges a n d r ewa r ds a s a n in st r u ct or . t h e pr im a r y pu r pose of t h e Na vy t r a in in g est a blish m en t is t o pr ovide t h e oper a t ion a l for ces wit h t r a in ed per son n el wh o ca n m a in t a in a h igh degr ee of fleet r ea din ess. Tr a in in g a n d edu ca t ion h a ve m u ch in com m on . r esea r ch . a n d keepin g u p wit h n ew developm en t s ca n you a t t a in t h e va s t s t or e of k n ow le d ge r e q u ir e d in you r r ole a s in s t r u ct or . T h e s e t r a it s a lso pr ovide you wit h a ba sis for selfe v a l u a t i on a n d s e l f-h e l p . You m a y d is cover . K N O WL E D G E You m u st h a ve m a n y t ypes of kn owledge t o be bot h efficien t a n d effect ive a s a n in st r u ct or . bu t n ot of t r a in in g. Ava il you r s e lf of e ve r y oppor t u n it y t o obser ve ot h er in st r u ct or s. Not on ly will t h a t ben efit you in lea r n in g m or e a bou t t h e s u bject m a t t er . a b ilit y. Gen er a lly. As discu ssed in ch a pt er 1. You will n eed t o k n ow fa r m or e a bou t t h e s u bject t h a n you a ct u a lly t ea ch you r s t u d en t s . st u dy. 2 -1 ). bu t t h ey differ in im por t a n t wa ys. you r a ssign m en t t o in st r u ct or du t y in dica t es t h a t you r a r ea “su bject m a t t er exper t ” in you r a r ea of a s s ign m en t .

bu ild t ea m wor k . Th eir skillfu l u se of in flu en ce h elps t h em t o per su a de ot h er s. Th e a r t of in s t r u ct ion you w ill ga in t h r ou gh you r e xp e r ie n ce a n d in t e r a ct ion w it h s t u d e n t s . kn owledge. F or m a l in st r u ct or t r a in in g a n d t h e in for m a t ion in t h is t ext will pr ovide you wit h in for m a t ion on t h e scien ce of t ea ch in g. As a N a vy in s t r u ct or . you will fin d t h a t lea d er s h ip by exa m p le t a k es on a p a r t icu la r ly im por t a n t sign ifica n ce. ot h e r in st r u ct or s. d evelop s u bor d in a t es . t h ey u n d er s t a n d s t u d en t s ’ n eed s . you r a bilit y will gr ow on ly if you m a k e a con s ciou s 9 . t h ey h a ve pr oba bly wor ked ver y h a r d a t bein g “bor n in st r u ct or s a n d lea der s.” Wh ile cer t a in t r a it s m a y set t h ose people a pa r t fr om ot h er s. you m u s t a ls o be a ble t o a p p ly t h em effect ively. skills. t h a t is. I n a d vis in g a n d cou n s elin g. In a pplyin g con cept s t o job sit u a t ion s. y ou r in s t r u ct or s of s t u d e n t s ca n a ls o p r ovid e you w it h va lu a b le in for m a t ion . a lm ost a n yon e ca n becom e a com pet en t in st r u ct or . To h elp s t u d en t s lea r n you n eed t o k n ow s om et h in g a bou t t h eir p r eviou s ed u ca t ion a n d exper ien ce. op t im izin g t h e u s e of r e s ou r ce s . a n d m a in t a in s elf-con t r ol. h owever . d e le ga t in g a u t h or it y. h a s d efin ed a n u m ber of lea der sh ip skills. disciplin in g. a lon g w it h le a d e r s h ip a b ilit y. P r e v i ou s H ow e v e r . m et h ods. a n d beh a vior s t h a t dist in gu ish su per ior Na vy lea der s fr om a ver a ge p e r for m e r s . a n d a t t it u des t h a t will m a ke t h em su ccessfu l. E ver yt h in g you do is u n der scr u t in y. Th a t br in gs u s ba ck on ce a ga in t o discu ssin g t h e scien ce a n d a r t of in st r u ct ion . if you a ssu m e t h a t job exper ien ce a n d for m a l t r a in in g a lon e will pr epa r e you H owever . in t er a ct ion wit h t h e st u den t in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t is you r gr ea t est sou r ce of in for m a t ion . As st a t ed ea r lier in t h is ch a pt er . t h eir kn owledge a n d exper ien ce h elps t h em t o id en t ify p r oblem s . You r ch a lle n ge is t o h e lp s t u d e n t s le a r n --t o le a d t h e m in ga in in g t h e kn owledge. You s h ou ld exem p lify t h e N a vy’s cor e va lu es of in t egr it y. You a r e m ist a ken . you n eed t o kn ow ba sic in st r u ct ion a l st r a t egies a n d t ech n iqu es. s or t t h r ou gh fa ct s . AB ILITY You s h ou ld h a ve t wo ba s ic t yp es of a bilit y: lea d er s h ip a n d in s t r u ct ion a l. is e s s e n t ia l t o you r e fficie n cy a n d effect iven ess a s a n in st r u ct or . Not on ly m u st you in st r u ct in a n efficien t a n d effect ive m a n n er . a n d d ecid e on a p p r op r ia t e cou r s es of a ct ion . F in a lly. effor t t o im p r ove. a n d t h ey bot h h a ve a n d cr ea t e in ot h er s p os it ive a n d r ea lis t ic expect a t ion s. I n s t r u ct ion a l a b ilit y. S om e in d ivid u a ls a r e sa id t o possess “n a t u r a l a bilit y”. a n d bea r in g.” Res ea r ch . S t u d e n t r e cor d s w i l l p r ov i d e s om e of t h e i n for m a t i on y ou n e e d . u p on wh ich t h e N a vy’s lea d er s h ip t r a in in g is ba s ed . a n d t r a in in g a dm in ist r a t or s. a t t it u d e. You s h ou ld con t in u ou s ly s t r ive t o e xp a n d you r k n owled ge in bot h t h e s cien ce a n d a r t of in s t r u ct ion . t h ey a r e “bor n in st r u ct or s” or “bor n lea der s. p r ofes s ion a lis m a n d t r a d it ion . You m u st n ot on ly kn ow t h e pr in ciples. a n d t ech n iqu es of in s t r u ct ion .Th e focu s of t r a in in g is t o pr epa r e in dividu a ls t o per for m t h e du t ies of t h e job t o wh ich t h ey will be a ssign ed. m on it or in g p r ogr e s s a n d r e s u lt s . a n d r ewa r din g. You r a bilit y a s a n in s t r u ct or s h ou ld gr ow wit h exp er ien ce. a p p ea r a n ce. you m u st a lso ser ve a s a r ole m odel in you r m ilit a r y con du ct . E fficien t a n d effect ive in s t r u ct or s h a ve lea d er s h ip s k ills s u ch a s p la n n in g a n d or ga n izin g.

P E R S ON ALITY F or pu r poses of t h is discu ssion . a n d 10 . n ever a llow you r fr u st r a t ion t o sh ow. or con su lt wit h ot h er in st r u ct or s t o fin d a n ot h er a ppr oa ch t o r esolve t h e d ifficu lt y. in t h e m a jor it y of s it u a t ion s . per son a lit y is defin ed a s t h e pa t t er n of collect ive ch a r a ct er . Alt h ou gh you r s t u d e n t s w ill n ot h a ve you r k n owled ge or exp er ien ce. or level of in t ellect . You m u st ca r e a bou t t h e st u den t s you in st r u ct --bu t ca r in g is n ot en ou gh . All of t h e in d ivid u a ls you t r a in s h ou ld feel you h a ve a s in cer e in t er es t in t h eir effor t s t o lea r n . a d m it it. F in d t h e cor r ect a n swer a t t h e ea r liest oppor t u n it y. n Be patient. n Ma in ta in ra p p o rt w ith s tu d e n ts . a n d m en t a l t r a it s of a n in d ivid u a l. is n ever a p p r op r ia t e. t h en pr ovide t h e in for m a t ion t o t h e cla ss a s soon a s pr a ct ica l. Be a wa r e t h a t n ot a ll people lea r n in t h e sa m e wa y or a t t h e sa m e r a t e. t em p er a m en t a l. To be su ccessfu l a s a n in st r u ct or . t a ke a br ea k t o cool off. em ot ion a lly m a t u r e. Alwa ys s h ow a s in cer e in t er es t in a ll of you r s t u d en t s r ega r d les s of t h eir r a ce.t o in st r u ct ot h er s. Do n ot blu ff. Th e u se of sa r ca sm is a n ot h er wa y t o lose t h e r espect of you r st u den t s. At t im es . You m u st be dedica t ed t o t h e Na vy a n d t o h elpin g ot h er s su cceed--bu t dedica t ion is n ot en ou gh . you m u st ga in t h e r espect of you r st u den t s by displa yin g a p r ofes s ion a l a t t it u d e t owa r d ot h er s . 9 Ke e p y o u r re m a rk s p ro fe s s i o n a l a n d a p p ro p ri a t e t o t h e c la s s ro o m . geogr a p h ica l h er it a ge. Sa r ca sm . As w it h m os t p r ofe s s ion s . s t u d e n t s a r e s in ce r e ly t r yin g t o u n der st a n d wh a t is bein g t a u gh t . wh et h er it is dir ect ed a t on e in dividu a l or t h e en t ir e gr ou p. in s t r u ct or s m u s t a d h e r e t o ce r t a in r u le s of con d u ct in t h e per for m a n ce of t h eir du t ies. m en t a lly. You r job is t o fin d a wa y t o h elp t h em . you s h ou ld t h in k of t h em a s bein g p h ys ica lly. If a ll else fa ils. Do n ot u s e pr ofa n it y or obscen it y. = Tre a t s t u d e n t s w i t h re s p e c t . Th e followin g a r e som e of t h e r u les of con du ct you sh ou ld follow: n If y o u d o n o t k n o w a n a n s w e r. You r a bilit y t o be efficien t a s well a s effect ive r equ ir es you t o h a ve all of t h es e qu a lit ies a n d t o wor k a t con t in u a lly im p r ovin g t h em . beh a vior a l. em ot ion a l. Wh ile you m a y ea s ily becom e fr u s t r a t ed wit h a p er s on wh o is h a vin g d ifficu lt y wit h seem in gly sim ple m a t er ia l. You m u st h a ve a gr ea t a m ou n t of kn owledge--bu t kn owledge is n ot en ou gh . qu es t ion s will a r is e t h a t you will n ot be a ble t o a n swer . R e m e m b e r . Rem a in con s t a n t ly a wa r e t h a t st u den t s will be in flu en ced by you r beh a vior a n d t h e exa m ple you set bot h in a n d ou t of t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . Use of pr ofa n e or obscen e la n gu a ge is on e of t h e fa st est wa ys t o lose t h e r espect of you r st u den t s. You m u st h a ve excellen t lea der sh ip a bilit y--bu t lea der sh ip a bilit y is n ot en ou gh .

P E R F O R M AN C E F ig u re 2-2. S t u d en t s h a ve m a n y m ilit a r y d u t ies a n d r es p on s ibilit ies t h a t a ffect t h eir lives . k n owled ge. you fill on e of t h e m ost cr it ica l posit ion s in t h e t r a in in g pr ogr a m . a n d gen u in e d ed ica t ion . p er s on s You r r ole a s a n in s t r u ct or p la ces you in a u n iqu e p os it ion t o id en t ify S in ce you in t er a ct wit h s t u d en t s on a fr equ en t ba s is . RES P ON S IB ILITY TO S TU D EN TS Alt h ou gh you r in s t r u ct ion a l a n d lea d er s h ip r ole in flu en ces s t u d en t s in t h e for m a l t r a in in g en vir on m en t . a p p r oa ch you r job wit h h on es t y. p e r s on a l i n v ol v e m e n t s w i t h fa m i l y m e m b e r s . 2-2). set a good exa m ple for t h em t o follow. be a wa r e t h a t m a n y ot h er in flu en ces a ls o a ffect t h eir p er for m a n ce (fig. a n d ot h e r con ce r n s a ffe ct t h e i r p e r for m a n ce . To t h e gr ea t es t ext en t p os s ible. en t h u s ia s m . you m u st a bide by t h e dir ect ives a n d in st r u ct ion s wit h in you r ch a in of com m a n d.-In flu e n c e s o n s tu d e n t p e rfo rm a n c e . fr i e n d s . Wh a t ever you r t a s k . You r r espon sibilit ies in clu de m a kin g t h e best of you r own t im e a n d t h e st u den t s’ t im e t o develop t h ose s k ills . a n d h elp t h em r es olve con flict s t h a t h in d er t h eir t r a in in g. t h en t a k e s t ep s t o h elp t h em . a n d a t t it u d es es s en t ia l t o effect ive p er for m a n ce. I n a d d it ion . As a Na vy in st r u ct or . You r r espon sibilit y t o you r st u den t s is t o t ea ch effect ively. 11 .IN S TRU CTOR RES P ON S IB ILITIES Wh ile you a r e a ssign ed a s a n in st r u ct or . You a lso m u st exh ibit a n d en for ce pr oper m ilit a r y con du ct a n d disciplin e a t a ll t im es. t r y t o h elp s t u d en t s r es olve con flict s r es u lt in g fr om t h es e va r iou s in flu en ces. ch a n ges in s t u d en t s ’ p er for m a n ce or beh a vior . n ot ice exp er ien cin g con flict .

Th is p ol i cy s t a t e s t h a t s a fe t y a n d s u p e r v i s or y pr ocedu r es sh a ll be m a in t a in ed a t a level t h a t e n s u r e s s a fe t r a i n i n g w h i l e p r ov i d i n g t h e r e a l i s m n e e d e d t o fu l fi l l fl e e t op e r a t i on a l r equ ir em en t s wit h in pr a ct ica l lim it s. R e m e m b e r t o disclose cla ssified in for m a t ion on ly t o pr oper ly clea r ed per son n el wit h a n eed t o kn ow t h e in for m a t ion . t r a in in g m a t er ia ls. Be a wa r e t h a t you r beh a vior oft en h a s gr ea t er im pa ct on st u den t s t h a n do you r wor ds. n I m m ed ia t ely r ep or t a n y s it u a t ion you s u s p ect m a y con s t it u t e a s ecu r it y viola t ion . s t u d en t h a n d ou t s . Never sa y or do a n yt h in g t h a t will d own p la y t h e im p or t a n ce of t h e s ecu r it y of cla s s ified m a t er ia ls . S ecu r it y of cla s s ified m a t er ia ls d em a n d s con s t a n t a t t en t ion by ever yon e in volved . 9 D o n ot in cor p or a t e in t o you r cou r s e m a t e r ia ls a n y in for m a t ion t h a t ca r r ie s a h igh e r secu r it y cla ssifica t ion t h a n t h a t of t h e a ppr oved cu r r icu lu m .RES P ON S IB ILITY F OR TR AIN IN G S AF E TY Sa fet y is a n in t egr a l pa r t of a ll elem en t s of t h e N a va l E du ca t ion a n d Tr a in in g Com m a n d (N A V E D T R A C O M) m ission . RES P ON S IB ILITY F OR S ECU RITY Ma n y N a vy cou r s es con t a in m a t er ia ls t h a t a r e cla s s ified for s ecu r it y p u r p os es . you m u s t be a wa r e of s ever a l r equ ir em en t s : n N e ve r d is cu s s a n y cla s s ifie d m a t e r ia l n ot in t h e a p p r ove d cu r r icu lu m . You h a ve n o gr ea t er r espon sibilit y a s a n in st r u ct or t h a n t h a t r ela t ed t o t h e sa fet y of t h e per son n el you t r a in . You m u st dem on st r a t e pr oper sa fet y pr ocedu r es in a ddit ion t o t ea ch in g t h em . n Never pr esen t or discu ss in for m a t ion t h a t ca r r ies a h igh er secu r it y cla ssifica t ion t h a n t h a t of t h e a ppr oved cu r r icu lu m . I n t ea ch in g cla s s ified in for m a t ion . N AVE D T R AC O M h a s is s u e d p olicy a n d pr ocedu r es t o elim in a t e or r edu ce t h e ch a n ces of m i s h a p s or m i s h a p -r e l a t e d i n j u r i e s t o st u den t s a n d in st r u ct or s du r in g t r a in in g. especia lly t r a in in g sa fet y. As wit h sa fet y. Th is is t r u e in a ll a spect s of t r a in in g. l Ma k e s u r e you ca n a ccou n t for cla s s ified t r a in in g m a t er ia ls or r efer en ces u s ed in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t a t a ll t im es. Th es e p r oce d u r e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o a n a g g r e s s i v e t r a in in g pr ogr a m t h a t pr epa r es n a va l per son n el t o per for m pr ofession a lly in n or m a l a s well a s h igh -r isk a ct ivit ies. Th a t in clu des in for m a t ion in cor p or a t ed in t o you r les s on p la n t h r ou gh p er s on a liza t ion . Never for get t h a t a s a n in st r u ct or you a r ea r ole m odel for you r st u den t s. a n d t est it em s. 12 . you r beh a vior h a s a gr ea t im pa ct u pon you r st u den t s.

you m u st be a wa r e of t h e Na vy’s policy on fr a t er n iza t ion pa r t icu la r ly a s it a p p lies bet ween you a n d you r s t u d en t s . N AVE D T R A 1 3 5 . s u ch in a p p r op r ia t e r e la t ion s h ip s s u b je ct t h e in volve d m e m b e r s t o d is cip lin a r y a ct ion u n d er t h e U n ifor m Cod e of Milit a r y J u s t ice (U CMJ ) wh en t h e a ct ion s or r ela t ion sh ips: (1) a r e pr eju dicia l t o good or der a n d disciplin e. ou t lin ed in t o s p ecific t op ics . a n d M ilit a r y S t a n d a r d 1 3 7 9 D .e. in cr ea s e cou r s e len gt h . s h ip boa r d ) or t r a in in g-u n iqu e equ ip m en t or d ocu m en t a t ion or igin a t in g in t h e Tr a in in g S u p p or t Agen cy’s (n or m a lly a S YS COM) pa r en t m a t er ia l a gen cy t h a t a ffect s cu r r icu lu m . F r a t er n iza t ion is d efin ed a s p er s on a l r ela t ion s h ip s bet ween officer a n d en list ed m em ber s wh ich a r e u n du ly fa m ilia r a n d do n ot r espect differ en ces in r a n k a n d gr a de. t ea ch a bilit y.. Th er efor e. S im ila r r ela t ion s h ip s in volvin g t wo officer s or in volvin g t wo e n l i s t e d m e m b e r s w h e r e a s e n i or -s u b or d i n a t e s u p e r v i s or y r e l a t i on s h i p e x i s t s a r e a l s o in a ppr opr ia t e.RES P ON S IB ILITY F OR CU RRICU LU M Sin ce a r ela t ively sm a ll n u m ber of in st r u ct or s h a ve cu r r icu lu m developm en t du t ies. Ad d it ion a lly. or u r gen t t ype com m a n der -issu ed su bject s. In a ppr opr ia t e con du ct of t h is n a t u r e is t o be a voided a n d. T h e s ou r ce of t h is in for m a t ion is t h e N a v y S ch ool M a n a g em en t M a n u a l . Tech n ica l Ch a n ge. sa fet y. F R AT E R N I ZAT I O N As a n in st r u ct or . A ch a n ge t o a n y cou r s e lea r n in g/t er m in a l object ive. Ch a n ge. All t r a in in g con d u ct ed wit h in a s ch ool. cou r s e len gt h . A t ech n ica l ch a n ge m a yor m a y n ot a ffect in d ivid u a l les s on object ives . or a n y ch a n ge t h a t r equ ir es a d d it ion a l r es ou r ces . I n t e r im C h a n ge . An y d e ficie n cy n ot e d a s a r e s u lt of s u r ve illa n ce r e q u ir e s a ch a n ge t o t h e cu r r icu lu m or t r a in in g. wh en it is fou n d t o exis t . A m od ifica t ion t o t r a in in g m a t er ia ls t h a t DOE S N OT a ffect cou r s e object ives . A m i n or ch a n g e t o cor r e ct e d i t or i a l a n d t y p og r a p h i ca l e r r or s . a lon g wit h d et a iled t r a in in g object ives . A pr ocess t h a t pr ovides on goin g eva lu a t ion of t r a in in g or t r a in in g m a t er ia ls t o e n s u r e con t i n u e d e ffe ct i v e n e s s a n d cu r r e n cy of con t e n t t o m e e t t h e t r a i n i n g r equ ir em en t s. R e vis ion . H ow e ve r . you m a y b e com e in volve d in cu r r icu lu m r evision a n d will a lm ost cer t a in ly be in volved wit h cu r r icu lu m m a in t en a n ce. Su ch r ela t ion sh ips a r e in a ppr opr ia t e a n d a ga in st lon g-st a n din g cu st om a n d t r a d it ion of t h e n a va l s er vice. or r esou r ces. you r a ssign m en t t o su ch du t ies is u n lik ely. bu t DOE S N OT a ffect cou r s e object ives . An y ch a n ge t o t a ct ica l (i. you n eed t o u n d er s t a n d t h e followin g t er m s a n d d efin it ion s a s s ocia t ed wit h t h e m a in t en a n ce of cu r r icu lu m . Su r veilla n ce. or (2) br in g discr edit t o t h e n a va l ser vice. com m a n d s a r e exp ect ed t o t a k e a d m in is t r a t ive or d is cip lin a r y a ct ion a s n eces s a r y t o cor r e ct it . a n in cr ea s e in cou r s e len gt h . 13 . Cu r r icu lu m . Cu r r icu lu m m a in t en a n ce is a n on goin g effor t t o en su r e t h e cou r se cu r r icu lu m is bot h cu r r en t a n d a ccu r a t e . or r equ ir e a d d it ion a l r es ou r ces .

Sexu a l h a r a ssm en t is n ot a joke. You r s u cces s in t h a t r ole will d ep en d u p on you r com m i t m e n t t o d e v e l op i n g t h e p r ofe s s i on a l q u a l i t i e s of a n i n s t r u ct or . Sexu a l h a r a ssm en t is a for m of discr im in a t ion in volvin g u n welcom e sexu a l a dva n ces. S E XU AL H AR AS S ME N T As a N a vy in s t r u ct or . p a y. a n d m od elin g a ppr opr ia t e cor e va lu es a n d st a n da r ds of con du ct . pa r t icu la r ly a s r ega r ds s t u d en t in t er a ct ion s . pa r t icu la r ly wit h r espect t o fr a t er n iza t ion a n d sexu a l h a r a ssm en t . m a k e s u r e you m a in t a in h igh s t a n d a r d s of h on e s t y. W h e n con fr on t e d a b ou t in a p p r op r ia t e beh a vior . Wh ile a ll a r e im p or t a n t . a n d con du ct in dea lin g wit h a ll per son n el r ega r dless of sex. be especia lly ca r efu l in you r per son a l a ssocia t ion s. Sexu a l h a r a ssm en t is u n a ccept a ble con du ct t h a t u n der m in es t h e in t egr it y of t h e in st r u ct or -st u den t r ela t ion sh ip. Th e Na vy h a s a lon gst a n din g policy of z e ro t o le ra n c e of sexu a l h a r a ssm en t . r equ est s for sexu a l fa vor s. or ca r eer n S u bm is s ion t o or r eject ion of s u ch con d u ct by a p er s on is u s ed a s a ba s is for ca r eer or em p loym en t d ecis ion s a ffect in g t h is p er s on n S u ch con d u ct in t e r fe r e s w it h a n in d ivid u a l’s p e r for m a n ce or cr e a t e s a n in t im id a t in g. h os t ile. t h e in st r u ct or is t h e keyst on e of t h e en t ir e pr ogr a m . As a n in s t r u ct or . im pa r t ia lit y. or offen s ive en vir on m en t P r even t ion of s exu a l h a r a s s m en t is t h e r es p on s ibilit y of a ll p er s on n el. As a Na vy in st r u ct or . fu l fi l l i n g y ou r r es p on s ibilit ies for bot h t h e con t en t a n d qu a lit y of t h e cu r r icu lu m you d eliver . a n d ot h er ver ba l or ph ysica l con du ct of a sexu a l n a t u r e wh en t h e followin g occu r s : w S u bm is s ion t o or r eject ion of s u ch con d u ct is m a d e eit h er exp licit ly or im p licit ly a t er m or con d it ion of a p er s on ’s job. will do m or e t h a n a n y ot h er a ct ion t o elim in a t e sexu a l h a r a ssm en t . In so doin g. A p os it ive com m a n d /cla s s r oom clim a t e. wh er e beh a vior is p r ofes s ion a l a n d a p p r op r ia t e a n d wh er e ever yon e u p a n d down t h e ch a in t r ea t s h is or h er su bor din a t es a n d peer s wit h cou r t esy a n d r espect . you pla y a cr it ica l r ole in pr ovidin g ou r oper a t in g for ces wit h per son n el t r a in ed t o m a in t a in a h igh degr ee of fleet r ea din ess. 14 . you a r e in a p a r t icu la r ly im p or t a n t p os it ion t o p r even t s exu a l h a r a s s m en t . in d ivid u a ls oft en s a y t h ey wer e “on ly jok in g” or t h ey “d id n ’t m ea n a n yt h in g by it ”. you will h a ve a fir m fou n da t ion u pon wh ich t o develop specific t ea ch in g skills a n d a ct ively in volve you r st u den t s in t h e lea r n in g pr ocess. Ma k e s u r e you r a ct ion s a n d t h e a ct ion s of you r s t u d en t s s u p p or t t h e N a vy’s p olicy on fr a t er n iza t ion a n d r eflect t h e N a vy’s cor e va lu es .As a n in st r u ct or . Ta k e a n a ct ive r ole in ed u ca t in g you r s t u d en t s on t h e s er iou s n es s of s u ch beh a vior a n d im m ed ia t ely con fr on t a n y con d u ct t h a t m a y b e con s t r u e d a s in a p p r op r ia t e . Th e su ccess of t h e Na vy depen ds t o a gr ea t ext en t on t h e effect iven ess of t h e in st r u ct ion t h a t in dividu a ls r eceive du r in g t r a in in g. in t e gr it y. SUMMARY T h e t ot a l N a vy t r a in in g p r ogr a m in volve s m a n y e le m e n t s . h owever .

Mot iva t ion in volves t h e a ct iva t ion . S im p ly s t a t ed . h a ve s elf-es t eem . t h e st u den t is n ot m ot iva t ed t o beh a ve in t h e m a n n er desir ed by t h e in st r u ct or . Ba sed on Ma slow’s t h eor y. d es ir e for k n owled ge a n d u n d er s t a n d in g. a ch ieve cou r s e object ives . r e l a x e d . St r ict ly spea kin g. a n d es t eem n eed s . in cen t ives. Wh ile st u den t s a r e r espon sible for t h eir own lea r n in g. Th a t m ea n s you pla y a n im por t a n t r ole in gr a t ifyin g t h e n eeds of you r st u den t s. a n d p er s is t en ce of a s p ecified beh a vior . 15 . Ma slow’s h ier a r ch y (fig. Th is ch a pt er pr ovides ba ckgr ou n d in for m a t ion on t h e pr in ciples of m ot iva t ion a n d offer s som e pr a ct ica l t ech n iqu es for in st r u ct or s t o u se in t h e m ot iva t ion of t h eir st u den t s. T h e y n e e d t o fe e l s a fe . Ma slow r efer s t o t h e or der in wh ich t h ey fu lfill t h ose n eeds a s a h ier a r ch y of n eed s . you ca n gr ea t ly en h a n ce t h eir desir e t o lea r n by cr ea t ively u sin g m ot iva t ion a l t ech n iqu es. 3-1) con t a in s a lower level of n eeds. kn own a s deficien cy n eeds. a n d dr ives. look a t t h e m ot iva t ion t h eor y d evelop ed by Abr a h a m H . MOTIVATION THEORY Befor e look in g a t t h e p r in cip les of m ot iva t ion . s a fe t y. H ow t o get st u den t s in t er est ed a n d in volved in t h e lea r n in g p r oces s h a s lon g been on e of t h e gr ea t es t ch a llen ges for in s t r u ct or s . you con t r ol wh a t t a k es p la ce in t h e cla s s r oom or la bor a t or y. D e ficie n cy n e e d s in clu d e p h ys iologica l. k n ow n a s gr ow t h n e e d s . Gr owt h n eed s in clu d e t h e s elf-a ct u a liza t ion . a n d a es t h et ic n eed s . t o pr ovide a ppr opr ia t e in cen t ives for in dividu a l st u den t s t o lea r n . m ot iva t ion is t h e pr ocess of p r om p t in g a p er s on t o lea r n . people a r e dr iven t o sa t isfy u n fu lfilled n eeds in a specific or der . St u den t s a r e m or e likely t o t r y t o sa t isfy t h eir desir e t o kn ow a n d u n der st a n d on ce t h eir ph ysica l a n d psych ologica l n eeds h a ve been m et . In t h e edu ca t ion a l sen se. a n d h a ve a sen se of belon gin g. belon gin gn es s a n d love. Th e im plica t ion s of t h is pa r t icu la r t h eor y t o t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t a r e in t r igu in g. H owever . Ma s low. Th e m a jor it y of you r s t u d en t s will r es p on d t o gen er a l m et h od s of m ot iva t ion . a ll beh a vior is m ot iva t ed . Ma s low’s t h eor y p r op os es t h a t in d ivid u a ls will s eek t o gr a t ify h igh er or d er (gr owt h ) n eed s on ly wh en a ll lower or d er (d eficien cy) n eed s h a ve been r ela t ively well sa t isfied. Gen er a lly. you m u st lea r n t o r ecogn ize t h eir n eeds. d ir ect ion . Th e goa l of in s t r u ct ion is t o m ot iva t e s t u d en t s t o In st r u ct or s som et im e m ist a ken ly believe t h a t a st u den t wh o is n ot p a r t icip a t in g in cla s s r oom a ct ivit ie s or fin is h in g h om e w or k a s s ign m e n t s is n ot m ot iva t e d . a n d a h igh e r le ve l. As t h e in st r u ct or .CHAP TER 3 MOTIVATION IN TROD U CTION Mot iva t in g st u den t s t o lea r n is possibly on e of t h e m ost pon der ed a n d discu ssed a r ea s a m on g p eop le in volved in t h e ed u ca t ion a n d t r a in in g of ot h er s . a n d com for t a b l e (b ot h p h y s i ca l l y a n d p s ych ologica lly).

t h ey a r e m or e lik e ly t o give t h e ir fu ll a t t en t ion t o you r in st r u ct ion . I n t e r e s t r e fe r s t o a p e r s o n ’s v i e w o f a n a c t i v i t y a s wor t h wh ile or en joya ble for it s own s a k e . E m ph a size wh y st u den t s n eed t o lea r n t h e m a t er ia l a n d h ow t h ey will ben efit Wh en fr om the in for m a t ion . As an in st r u ct or . st u den t s u n d er s t a n d t h e n eed t o lea r n . F ig u re 3-1.Ap p lyin g Ma s low’s t h eor y in t h e cla s s r oom m a y b e lim it e d b y you r k n owled ge of t h e s t u d en t s or you r a bilit y t o m eet t h eir n eeds. wit h t h eir t r a in in g. A n eed is u su a lly defin ed a s a deficit or la ck t h a t ca u ses a desir e for sa t isfa ct ion . t h ey la ck som et h in g. T o ge n e r a t e in t e r e s t . ca n m ot iva t e a st u den t t o seek gr ou p a ccept a n ce. t h e lea r n in g p r oces s br ea k s d own on ce a st u den t loses in t er est . In te re s t. Th a t n eed. Th e n eed t o belon g. lea r n t o con t r ol st u den t in t er es t t h r ou gh ou t t h e les s on .-Ma s io w ’s h ie ra rc h y . or dr ive. ca n ca u se t h e st u den t t o beh a ve in a m a n n er t h a t even t u a lly r edu ces t h e n eed a n d r esu lt s in sa t isfa ct ion . You n eed t o be a wa r e of t h os e in flu e n ce s a n d k n ow t h e r esou r ces a va ila ble t o h elp st u den t s in volved in con flict s t h a t in t er fer e Th a t will gr ea t ly in cr ea se you r effect iven ess in m ot iva t in g st u den t s t o lea r n . MO T I VAT I O N P RIN CIP LES Th e k ey p r in cip les t o a p p lyin g m ot iva t ion t h eor y in a t r a in in g s it u a t ion a r e s u m m a r ized b e low : N e e d s a n d D ri v e s . An in s t r u ct or w h o ca p t u r e s s t u d e n t s ’ in t e r e s t d r a w s on t h e ir in t er n a l m ot i v a t i on . 16 . s t a t e t h e p u r p os e of the lesson at it s begin n in g. Wh en st u den t s h a ve a n eed or dr ive. Ch a pt er 2 d is cu s s ed va r iou s in flu en ces t h a t a ffe ct s t u d e n t s i n t h e t r a i n i n g en vir on m en t . for in st a n ce.

st u den t s m u st h a ve a n eed t o a ch ieve a t a cer t a in level. 17 . Th e goa ls of in st r u ct ion com e dir ect ly fr om t h e lea r n in g object ives. At t it u d es con s is t of feelin gs for or a ga in s t p eop le. TECHN IQU ES OF MOTIVATION Alt h ou gh m ot iva t ion is on e of t h e pr im e t a sks of in st r u ct in g. Th e s t u d en t s ’ va lu es .Va l u e s . F or exa m ple. S h owin g a posit ive a t t it u de a bou t t h e su bject you pr esen t ca n ca u se t h e st u den t t o wa n t t o lea r n . t h e cla ssr oom a t m osph er e. a n d u n in volved . you m a y los e con fid en ce a n d en t h u s ia s m . Use t h ese exper ien ces t o st im u la t e in t er est a n d a dd va r iet y t o lea r n in g. a wa r ds. To pr om ot e in t er est . St u den t s h a ve m or e desir e t o lea r n wh en in st r u ct or s sh ow a n in t er est in wh a t t h ey t ea ch . E n su r e t h a t you pr esen t t h e object ives for ea ch block of in st r u ct ion so t h a t st u den t s will u n der st a n d exa ct ly wh a t t h ey a r e expect ed t o be a ble t o do a s a r esu lt of t r a in in g. To m a ke a n effor t t o su cceed. a t t it u d es . a n d t h e per son a lit y of t h e in st r u ct or a n d t h e st u den t a ll a ffect a st u den t ’s m ot iva t ion . in t u r n . A c h i e v e m e n t . it is bot h t h e st u den t ’s a n d t h e in st r u ct or ’s r espon sibilit y. F eed ba ck m a y m a k e t h e d iffer en ce bet ween a s t u d en t ’s feelin gs of s u cces s or F a ilu r e. bu t be s u r e you give r ecogn it ion for p r op er st u den t beh a vior a n d a ch ievem en t s. a n a im . You sh ou ld be open t o st u den t con t r ibu t ion s a n d poin t s of view. As a r esu lt . Recogn izin g good per for m a n ce a n d poin t in g ou t a r ea s t h a t n eed im pr ovem en t con t r ibu t e t o effect ive lea r n in g. You ca n give eit h er or a l or wr it t en feed ba ck . a lon gin g. or select ion a s a dist in gu ish ed gr a du a t e m ot iva t e st u den t s wh o wa n t t o a ch ieve. a lesson on t h e fla g or t h e Code of Con du ct wou ld pr oba bly m ot iva t e a st u den t wh o va lu es pa t r iot ism . a goa l. A la ck of r espon se fr om t h e st u den t s will a ffect t h e qu a lit y of you r in st r u ct ion . A d u ll p r es en t a t ion ca u s es s t u d en t s t o becom e bor ed . Ach ievem en t is a s t r on g d es ir e. P la n m ot iva t ion a l s t r a t egies t o k eep t h e les s on in t er es t in g. Also be su r e t o poin t ou t st u den t er r or s a n d h ow t o cor r ect t h em . Th e lesson su bject . or id ea s . a n d p r eviou s exp er ien ces a ffect t h e n a t u r e a n d a m ou n t of wh a t t h ey lea r n . Give st u den t s det a iled feedba ck wh en t h ey r espon d t o a qu es t ion or p er for m s om e t a s k r ela t ed t o in s t r u ct ion a l object ives . r es t les s . u se a va r iet y of m a t er ia ls wh ile in st r u ct in g. Th e m ot iva t ion you u se m u st fit a st u den t ’s va lu e syst em . In c e n t i v e s . object s . t h e com pet en ce of t h e in st r u ct or . S h o w in te re s t in y o u r s tu d e n ts . Es ta blis h g o a ls . Th e followin g t ech n iqu es will a s s is t you in d evelop in g m ot iva t ion a l s t r a t egies t o u s e wh en in st r u ct in g. E n c o u ra g e p a rt i c i p a t i o n . Alwa ys com m en t fa vor a bly on s u cce s s fu l p e r for m a n ce . Ma k e t h e s u b je c t m a t t e r i n t e re s t i n g . will h a ve a n ega t ive effect on s t u d en t m ot iva t ion . St u den t s h a ve m or e in t er est in a su bject t h a t dea ls wit h goa ls t h ey see a s im por t a n t in t h eir lives. In cen t ives or r ewa r ds ca n st im u la t e m ot iva t ion . In cen t ives su ch a s good gr a des. At t i t u d e s . St u den t s n eed feedba ck wh en t h ey a r e t r yin g t o m eet goa ls. P ro v id e in fo rm a tiv e fe e d ba c k . St u den t s br in g m a n y differ en t exper ien ces t o t h e lea r n in g en vir on m en t . wh ich . or a d es ir ed object ive.

In m a n y ca ses. belon gin gn es s . you m a y m ot iva t e s t u d e n t s b y t e llin g t h e m t h e y w ill n e e d t h e in for m a t ion t o u n der st a n d fu t u r e lesson s. P r ovide a lea r n in g-or ien t ed en vir on m en t . a n d let t h em feel t h a t t h ey belon g in you r cla s s r oom . a r ou sin g cu r iosit y. Do ever yt h in g possible t o cr ea t e a n en vir on m en t t h a t en cou r a ges you r s t u d en t s t o lea r n . U s e va r iou s t ech n iqu es t o m ot iva t e st u den t s a n d en cou r a ge self con fiden ce a n d self dir ect ion a t a ll t im es. F ir s t . S t u d en t s u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r a n d r e t a in m or e w h e n t h e y k n ow w h a t t o e xp e ct . s h ow s t u d en t s h ow t h e i n for m a t i on r e l a t e s t o t h e i r ca r eer a d va n cem en t or s om e ot h er n eed. LES S ON IN TROD U CTION U s e m ot iva t ion a t t h e b e gin n in g of a le s s on a s a m e a n s of in t r od u cin g t h e m a t e r ia l. Besides sh owin g t h e n eed for lea r n in g t h e in for m a t ion . a n d es t eem n eed s of t h e s t u d en t s . t h e l e s s on i n t r od u ct i on s h ou l d p r ovid e a r oa d m a p for lea r n in g. h elp fu l feed ba ck a n d h elp t h em s et ch a llen gin g bu t a t t a in a ble goa ls . s a fet y. Give s t u d en t s p os it ive. A P P L YI N G M O T I V A T I O N T E C H N I Q U E S T O I N S T R U C T I O N Th e t ech n iqu es of m ot iva t ion h a ve a p p lica t ion in ea ch p a r t of a les s on p r es en t a t ion : t h e in t r odu ct ion . A clea r in t r od u ct ion ca n con t r ibu t e gr ea t ly t o a les s on by r em ovin g d ou bt s in t h e m in d s of t h e lea r n er s a bou t wh er e t h e lesson is goin g a n d h ow t h ey a r e goin g t o get t h er e. To r ein for ce t h eir d es ir e t o lea r n .You ca n m ot iva t e s t u d e n t s t o le a r n in m a n y d iffe r e n t w a ys . t a k e in t o a ccou n t in dividu a l differ en ces in a bilit y. F or m ost in st r u ct ion a l m et h ods. st im u la t in g in t er est . Tell st u den t s wh a t you will cover or lea ve ou t a n d wh y. G ive t h e s t u d e n t s s p e cific exa m ples. U s e t h e le s s on in t r od u ct ion t o discu ss specific r ea son s wh y st u den t s n eed t o lea r n t h e in for m a t ion you p la n t o p r es en t . t h e pr esen t a t ion . a n d t h e su m m a r y. t h e in t r odu ct ion sh ou ld ser ve a s a con n ect in g lin k bet ween t h e pr esen t lesson a n d pr eviou s lesson s. a n d developin g a specific dir ect ion . You m a y fin d effect ive vis u a l a id s h elp fu l a t t h is p oin t . 18 . ba ckgr ou n d. Lea r n t h eir n a m es a s fa st a s you ca n feelin gs of s u cces s by en cou r a gin g a ch ievem en t a n d a p os it ive s elf con cep t . Th en t r y t o sa t isfy t h e ph ysiologica l. Ta ke a n in t er est in you r st u den t s. Ma k e it p h ys ica lly a n d p s ych ologica lly s a fe. a n d a t t it u des. T h e p u r p os e of t h e in t r odu ct ion is t o m ot iva t e st u den t s t o lea r n by list en in g t o t h e in for m a t ion you will pr esen t in t h e body of t h e lesson . E xp la in h ow you h a ve or ga n ized you r id ea s . M a k e t h e cla s s r oom e n vir on m e n t Dir ect lea r n in g exp er ien ces t owa r d con du cive t o lea r n in g.

LES S ON P R E S E N TATION T o m a in t a in s t u d e n t in t e r e s t . you m u st kn ow exa ct ly wh a t you a r e goin g t o t ea ch a n d h ow you a r e goin g t o t ea ch it . Wh ile h u m or m a y be a p p r op r ia t e. All of t h es e a t t en t ion -get t in g d evices a r e p ot en t ia lly u s efu l d u r in g t h e les s on in t r od u ct ion . n Dir ect s t u d en t t h in k in g a lon g d es ir ed lin es . on e of t h e best m ot iva t or s is t h e u se of t r a in in g a ids. You r pr im a r y con cer n is t o focu s s t u d en t a t t en t ion on t h e s u bject . M a k e s u r e you a r e t h or ou gh ly fa m ilia r wit h t h e m a t er ia l you a r e pr esen t in g. n Tell a s t or y. n S h ow s t u d en t s t h e va lu e of t h e s u bject m a t t er . n S t a t e t h e les s on object ives a n d t h eir s ign ifica n ce. Du r in g t h e pr esen t a t ion . . (H a ve you ever . Th e in t r od u ct ion t o a les s on . keep t h em t o a m in im u m . you m u st dir ect t h em t o t h e su bject of t h e lesson . decide wh ich on es t o u se ba sed solely on t h e su bject a n d t h e st u den t s. n Ou t lin e t h e s cop e of t h e les s on . t o p r ovid e ext r a n eou s in for m a t ion m er ely beca u s e you a r e k n owled gea ble in a p a r t icu la r a r ea . ? Ca n you im a gin e . n Let t h e s t u d en t s k n ow wh a t you exp ect of t h em . or in ciden t s t h a t dist r a ct fr om t h e lesson . H owever . 19 . Aft er you h a ve won t h e a t t en t ion of t h e st u den t s. n As k r h et or ica l qu es t ion s . Kn ow you r lesson pla n a s well a s t h e in for m a t ion in t h e r efer en ces fr om wh ich you will t ea ch . F u r t h er . m u st a ccom plish cer t a in goa ls: n D e ve lop s t u d e n t s ’ in t e r e s t . . To m eet t h e specific object ives of t h e lesson . d on ’t t ell ir r eleva n t st or ies. well–kn own A s t r ik in g q u ot a t ion w ill a r ou s e in t e r e s t . jokes. A s t or y is a n in t er es t in g wa y of in t r od u cin g a les s on . . es p ecia lly wh en it r ela t es t o exp er ien ces s t u d en t s h a ve h a d . n U se st a r t lin g st a t ist ics. A r h et or ica l qu es t ion is on e you d ir ect a t t h e s t u d en t s bu t d o n ot r ea lly expect t h em t o a n swer . n E xp la in t h e m et h od or m et h od s you will u s e. n o m a t t er wh a t for m t h e lesson pla n t a k es. ?) n U s e q u ot a t i on s . you m u s t be ca r efu l n ot t o over t ea ch . d o n ot r e a d a le s s on p la n ve r b a t im . P r es en t t h e m a t er ia l in a logica l s equ en ce begin n in g wit h t h e k n own a n d m ovin g t o t h e u n kn own . t h a t is . i As k over h ea d qu es t ion s .At t en t ion -get t in g m et h od s for begin n in g a les s on : n F ocu s on t h e im por t a n ce of t h e su bject . . Alt h ou gh sligh t va r ia t ion s a n d excu r sion s off t h e m a in lin e of a lesson ca n pr om ot e in t er est . p a r t icu la r ly on e b y a per son . An over h ea d qu es t ion is a n in t er es t -a r ou s in g qu es t ion d ir ect ed t o t h e en t ir e cla ss.

As a n in s t r u ct or . Set r u les ea r ly in t h e cou r se a n d m a in t a in t h em . Ra t h er . a ssess ea ch st u den t ’s a ch ievem en t level. Th os e s t u d en t s wit h a d equ a t e m ot iva t ion s h ou ld t h en be r ea d y t o lea r n . Alt h ou gh you m ot iva t e st u den t s t h r ou g h ou t t h e le s s on . in t ellect u a lly h on es t . Gr a s p ever y op p or t u n it y t o m ot iva t e st u den t s. be p r ofes s ion a l. con t r ol d is t r a ct ion s . lea r n in g st yles. a n d m ot iva t ion a l pa t t er n s t o det er m in e t h e r ea din ess of ea ch st u den t t o lea r n . Give fin a l su m m a r ies a ft e r you h a ve cove r e d a ll of t h e m a in poin t s of t h e lesson . Qu ickly r eviewin g t h e m a in poin t s ca n r efocu s st u den t s a n d h elp t h em r et a in in for m a t ion . Aft er in st r u ct ion begin s. Th e u lt im a t e goa l of in st r u ct ion is t o ca u se st u den t s t o r em a in m ot iva t ed beyon d t h e in st r u ct or ’s in flu en ce a n d a pply wh a t t h ey h a ve lea r n ed on t h e job. As a n in st r u ct or . SUMMARY You m u s t con s t a n t ly m ot iva t e you r s t u d en t s t o lea r n .LESSON st u den t s’ S U MMAR Y a t t en t ion and bu ild to a A les s on s u m m a r y is u s ed t o r eca p t u r e m ot i v a t i on a l cl i m a x . F ollow in g M a s low ’s t h e or y d oe s n ot m e a n you p a m p e r s t u d e n t s in t o le a r n in g. clea n . Set a good exa m ple a t a ll t im es by m a in t a in in g a n ea t . feelin gs. you m u s t fin d wh ich m et h ods a n d devices wor k bes t wit h you r st u den t s in cer t a in sit u a t ion s. Be s en s it ive t o you r s t u d en t s ’ n eed s a n d p r ovid e t h em wit h a p r op er lea r n in g en vir on m en t . t h e su m m a r y is you r la st ch a n ce t o em ph a size h ow im p or t a n t t h e in for m a t ion is t o t h em a s in dividu a ls. You m a y w a n t t o give sh or t or in t er im su m m a r ies a t va r iou s pla ces in a lesson . a n d pr oper per son a l a ppea r a n ce. Welcom e a n d pr ofit fr om t h e eva lu a t ion s of t h e s t u d en t s or ot h er in s t r u ct or s . Avoid a r gu m en t s . it m ea n s you look u pon ea ch st u den t a s a h u m a n bein g wit h cer t a in in h er en t r igh t s a n d 20 . Th e pu r pose of t h e su m m a r y is t o in st ill in st u den t s a desir e t o r et a in a n d u se wh a t t h ey h a ve lea r n ed . a n d be fa ir in a ll you r d ea lin gs wit h s t u d en t s --a bove a ll be con s is t en t . Rem em ber Ma s low’s t h eor y. Be cou r t eou s. a n d a wa r e of you r in flu en ce on st u den t s. u se pr oper t it les wh en a ddr essin g m ilit a r y or civilia n st u den t s.

lea r n s occu r s t h r ou gh T h i s w a y of l e a r n i n g b e gin s e a r ly in p e op le ’s live s a n d la s t s t h r ou gh ou t t h e ir life t im e . WA YS OF LE AR N IN G All learning sh ou ld be m e a n in gfu l.CHAP TER 4 P RIN CIP LES OF LEARN IN G IN TROD U CTION Lea r n in g is a ch a n ge in beh a vior a s a r esu lt of exper ien ce. Th is ch a pt er exa m in es som e pr a ct ica l. Th e object ive of a n y a ct of lea r n in g is t h a t it sh ou ld ser ve u s in t h e fu t u r e. As a Na vy in st r u ct or . I n a t r a in in g en vir on m en t . you m u s t 21 . t im e-pr oven ba sic pr in ciples of lea r n in g a n d you r r espon sibilit ies in u sin g t h em . IMITATION A s i g n i fi ca n t p a r t of w h a t a p e r s on im it a t ion . Th er efor e. you wa n t t h a t ch a n ge t o go beyon d you r in flu en ce in t h e cla s s r oom . for s t u d en t s t o obs er ve ot h er s (p r im a r ily t h e in s t r u ct or ) a n d t o im it a t e t h eir beh a vior is n a t u r a l. Th a t is especia lly t r u e in t h e t ech n ica l t r a in in g fields. you n eed t o u n d er s t a n d h ow s t u d en t s lea r n . Of t h e five d iffer en t wa ys of lea r n in g a d d r e s s e d h e r e . a s t h e in s t r u ct or . You r st u den t s will u se som e com b in a t ion of t h e s e w a ys of lea r n in g in ever y cla ss you t ea ch . T o m a k e le a r n in g a s m ea n in gfu l a s possible. you m u st u n der st a n d wh a t ca u ses lea r n in g t o occu r . To ca u se t h is beh a vior ch a n ge in you r st u den t s. You wa n t you r s t u d en t s t o a p p ly t h eir lea r n in g on t h eir jobs. You r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e w a y s p e op l e l e a r n w i l l a s s i s t y ou i n h e l p i n g y ou r s t u d e n t s l e a r n a n d r et a in t h e in for m a t ion p r es en t ed . n o on e p a r t icu la r wa y is n eces s a r ily bet t er t h a n t h e ot h er s. Lea r n in g t a k es p la ce even wit h ou t d ir ect r ein for cem en t of t h e r ep ea t ed beh a vior .

U se com pa r ison s. Use a ppr opr ia t e qu est ion s t o get t h eir m in ds wor k in g. To h elp st u den t s ga in in sigh t . you n eed t o p r ovid e p os it ive r ein for cem en t t o s t u d en t s for p r op er ly im it a t ed beh a vior . You r goa l is t o t ea ch st u den t s t h e im por t a n ce of a pplyin g 22 . a n d get im m edia t e feedba ck on h ow t o cor r ect er r or s.a lwa ys st r ive t o set t h e pr oper exa m ple beca u se you a r e t h e r ole m odel. t o h elp s t u d en t s m or e ea s ily u n d er s t a n d elect r icit y flowin g in a cir cu it . Addit ion a lly. a n d con t r a st s. Som e in dividu a ls ga in in s igh t m or e r a p id ly t h a n ot h er s . Ma k e s u r e you u s e a s s ocia t ion s t o wh ich a ll s t u d en t s ca n r ela t e. Alt h ou gh t h e m a s t er in g of m os t s k ills r equ ir es t h is wa y of lea r n in g t o s om e d egr ee. It ca n be da n ger ou s t o t h e st u den t s a n d t h e equ ipm en t . r em em ber t h a t you will h a ve st u den t s wit h differ en t exper ien ce levels in you r cla s s . TR IAL AN D ERROR Som et im es r efer r ed t o a s discover y lea r n in g. AS S OCIATION As s ocia t ion is a com p a r is on of p a s t lea r n in g t o a n ew lea r n in g s it u a t ion . it d oes in volve s om e h a za r d s . St u den t s r eceive pr oper su per vision . St u den t s ca n a ch ieve s u cces s s oon er if you s et a p r op er exa m p le for t h em t o im it a t e. TR AN S F E R Tr a n sfer is t h e pr ocess of a p p l yi n g pa st lea r n in g t o n ew bu t som ewh a t sim ila r sit u a t ion s. r ein for cem en t of a ccept a ble per for m a n ce. a n d exa m ples t o r ein for ce you r exp la n a t ion s . T h a t p h e n om e n on r e s u lt s fr om a m e n t a l r eor ga n iza t ion of idea s a n d con cept s r a t h er t h a n fr om sim ple t r ia l a n d er r or . I n d ivid u a l ba ck gr ou n d s a ffect ea ch lea r n er ’s a bilit y t o ga in in s igh t . It ca n a lso becom e fr u st r a t in g if r epea t ed t r ia ls don ’t lea d t o som e su ccess. com pa r ison s. you m igh t com p a r e it t o wa t er flowin g t h r ou gh a p ip e. I t is a m en t a l pr ocess t h a t ser ves a s a r efer en ce poin t for st u den t s. Lea r n in g by in sigh t occu r s wh en t h e lea r n er su dden ly gr a sps t h e wa y elem en t s of a pr oblem sit u a t ion a r e con n e ct e d . Th is pr ocess is im por t a n t in N a vy t ech n ica l t r a in in g beca u se t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t ca n r a r ely du plica t e t h e a ct u a l job en vir on m en t . a s d oes t h e s equ en ce in wh ich you p r es en t ba s ic lea r n in g exp er ien ces . A p r op er exa m p le r ed u ces t h e n u m ber of er r or s s t u d en t s m a k e a n d t h u s h elp s t o d evelop t h eir s elf-con fid en ce. Th in k ba ck t o wh en you lea r n ed h ow t o r id e a bicycle t o h elp you visu a lize som e of t h e h a za r ds of t h is wa y of lea r n in g. E n cou r a ge t h ou gh t r a t h er t h a n r ot e m em or iza t ion by u s in g qu es t ion s t h a t r equ ir e a ssocia t ion s. Th e t er m d es cr ibes a p er s on ’s u n p la n n ed d is cover y of a s olu t ion t o a p r oblem -oft e n r e fe r r e d t o a s t h e “a h -h a ” p h e n om e n on . Lea r n er s ca n con fr on t n ew pr oblem s m or e e a s ily if t h os e n e w p r ob le m s con t a in e le m e n t s s im ila r t o t h os e p r e viou s ly m a s t e r e d . you m u st st im u la t e t h in kin g. F or exa m p le. Alt h ou gh you will h a ve m a n y op p or t u n it ies t o u s e a s s ocia t ion du r in g you r lesson s. Th e Na vy In st r u ct or Tr a in in g Sch ool is a good exa m ple of wh er e t h is wa y of lea r n in g is cu r r en t ly u sed a s st u den t s pr esen t lesson s du r in g per for m a n ce exa m s. INSIGHT In sigh t is t h e u n der st a n din g t h a t t h e wh ole is m or e t h a n t h e su m of t h e pa r t s. con t r a st s. t r ia l a n d er r or is lea r n in g by doin g.

m en t a lly. S in ce lea r n in g is a n a ct ive p r oces s . Rem em ber . a n d em ot ion a lly r ea d y t o lea r n . s elf-con fid en ce. E a ch of t h e s e la w s h a s com m on sen se a p p l i ca t i on s b a s e d on l e s s on s p e op l e h a v e lea r n ed over t h e yea r s. st u den t s wh o h a ve n ot lea r n ed t h e ba sic a pplica t ion of a la w h a ve lit t le ch a n ce of a p p lyin g t h a t la w t o m or e com p lex s it u a t ion s . s o begin you r in s t r u ct ion by p r es en t in g t h e ben efit s of t h e les s on . You r m a st er y of t h ese a p p lica t ion s will gr ea t ly en h a n ce you r a bilit y t o in flu en ce you r st u den t s t o lea r n a n d per for m a t a h igh level. Con t in u e t o r em in d s t u d en t s of t h es e ben efit s t h r ou gh ou t t h e t r a in in g. If possible. I n g e n e r a l . s t u d en t s m u s t h a ve a d equ a t e r est . a n d so for t h . LAW OF EF F ECT An in dividu a l lea r n s best t h ose t h in gs wh ich r esu lt in sa t isfyin g con sequ en ces. On e of t h e m ost ba sic a pplica t ion s is in you r r ela t ion sh ip wit h a du lt st u den t s. F or exa m ple.t h eir lea r n in g on t h e job. Th e N a vy’s d a m a ge con t r ol t ea m t r a in in g is a good exa m ple of h ow t h is t ype of lea r n in g t a kes pla ce. a n d cla s s r oom or la bor a t or y befor e you begin t o t ea ch . You r r e a d in e s s is a n im p or t a n t s t e p in ga in in g t h e con fid e n ce a n d a t t e n t ion of you r s t u d e n t s . F or st u den t s t o be m en t a lly r ea dy t o lea r n . t h ey m u st m a st er cer t a in kn owledge a n d skills a t on e level befor e t h ey ca n lea r n t h ose r equ ir ed a t t h e n ext h igh er level. pr ovide r ea list ic exer cises by u sin g t h e a ct u a l (or t h e sa m e t yp e of) equ ip m en t s t u d en t s will u s e on t h e job. J u st a s st u den t s m u st be r ea dy t o lea r n . St u den t s wh o a r e exh a u st ed or in ill h ea lt h obviou sly ca n n ot lea r n m u ch . P oin t ou t t h e va lu e of t h e t r a in in g in m eet in g t h e n eed s of you r s t u d en t s : s elf-s a t is fa ct ion . Alwa ys pr epa r e you r les s on p la n s . you on ly get on e ch a n ce t o m a k e a fir s t im p r es s ion . Alt h ou gh t h es e a r ea s a r e beyon d you r con t r ol. you m u st be r ea dy t o t ea ch . LAW OF R E AD IN E S S Accor din g t o t h e la w of r ea din ess st u den t s lea r n best wh en t h ey a r e ph ysica lly. Adu lt s wa n t im m ed ia t e ben efit s fr om t r a in in g. t r a in in g m a t er ia ls . you m u s t k n ow h ow t o a d d r es s t h em in you r cla ssr oom . it h a s m a n y pr a ct ica l a pplica t ion s for you in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . im pr oved skills. a n d ph ysica l a bilit y. Begin ea ch lesson wit h a st a t em en t of object ives t o h elp st u den t s 23 . h ea lt h . Sin ce t h e la w of effect h a s a dir ect r ela t ion sh ip t o m ot iva t ion . w e h a v e fi v e a lm os t u n iver s a lly a ccep t ed la ws of lea r n in g. L A WS OF LE AR N IN G La ws a n d pr in ciples of lea r n in g a r e a t t em pt s t o d e fi n e t h e fu n d a m e n t a l con d i t i on s of t h e le a r n in g p r oce s s .

LAW OF E XE R C I S E Th is la w is ba s ed on t h e old m a xim t h a t p r a ct ice m a k es p er fect . C l a r i fy m is u n d er s t a n d in gs a n d er r or s befor e m ovin g on . E ver yon e does n ot lea r n in exa ct ly t h e sa m e wa y or a t t h e sa m e r a t e. you r s t u d en t s m u s t be r ea d y t o lea r n n ew m a t er ia l. Mot iva t e st u den t s by pr ovidin g posit ive r ein for cem en t a s t h ey pr oceed fr om su ccess t o su ccess. I t h a s been p r oven t h a t s t u d en t s lea r n bes t a n d r et a in in for m a t ion lon ger wh en t h ey h a ve m ea n in gfu l p r a ct ice a n d r epet it ion . Bu t t a lkin g will n ever h a ve t h e sa m e im pa ct a s pu t t in g st u den t s in a con t r olled en vir on m en t a n d let t in g t h em exper ien ce t ea r ga s wit h ou t a ga s m a sk. In st r u ct ion t h a t a llows st u den t s t o sit pa ssively in t h e cla ssr oom doesn ’t h a ve m u ch in t en sit y. Th er efor e. LAW OF P R IMACY Ba sed on t h e la w of pr im a cy. Th a t m ea n s t h a t a s a n in st r u ct or . t o t h e st u den t s’ u se of it . in clu din g t h e r ea l t h in g. LAW OF IN TE N S ITY Th e la w of in t en sit y st a t es t h a t a vivid exper ien ce is lea r n ed bet t er a n d r et a in ed lon ger . Th a t is h ow t h e t r a n s fer m et h od of lea r n in g t a kes pla ce. Th a t is t h e ba sis of t h e la w of effect . Ma ke you r in st r u ct ion power fu l en ou gh t o h a ve a st r on g. a n d per son a l exper ien ces t o m a ke lea r n in g com e t o life. you n eed t o follow u pon ever y h om ewor k a ssign m en t .est a blish goa ls. E a ch is su bject t o a va r iet y of n ega t ive a n d posit ive in flu en ces in t h e over a ll pr ocess. Th e key h er e is t h a t t h e pr a ct ice m u st be m ea n in gfu l. st u den t s r et a in in for m a t ion t h ey lea r n for t h e fir st t im e lon ger t h a n t h ey r et a in in for m a t ion t h ey m u st r elea r n . You ca n t a lk a bou t t h e effect s of t ea r ga s a ll da y. Na vy t r a in in g cou r ses a llow a lim it ed a m ou n t of t im e for lea r n in g d o n ot in clu d e t im e for s t u d en t s t o r elea r n im p r op er ly t a u gh t in for m a t ion . ever y la b exer cise. F ACTOR S AF F E CTIN G LE AR N IN G Ma n y fa ct or s a ffect lea r n in g. Un lea r n in g in cor r ect pr ocedu r es (or ba d h a bit s) is a lwa ys m or e d ifficu lt t h a n lea r n in g t h e cor r ect p r oced u r es in t h e begin n in g. Ma ke lea r n in g in t er a ct ive by in it ia t in g a n d con t r ollin g you r s t u d en t s ’ in volvem en t in t h e lea r n in g p r oces s . St u den t s m u st h a ve su per vised pr a ct ice in a pplyin g n ew skills t o r ea ch t h e r equ ir ed level of exp er t is e t o m a s t er cou r s e object ives . f r o m t h e k n o w n t o t h e u n k n o w n . a n d a n y ot h er st u den t a ct ivit ies you a ssign . posit ive effect on you r st u den t s by get t in g t h em a ct ively in volved in t h e les s on . a n a logies. Th a t is In t e n s i t y . p r o c e e d f r o m t h e s i m p l e t o t h e c o m p l e x . M a k e s u r e you t e a ch t h e cor r e ct in for m a t ion a n d p r oce d u r e s t h e fir s t t im e . t h e la w of pr im a cy pla ys a n im por t a n t r ole in Na vy t r a in in g. a n d let t h em kn ow you expect t h em t o m eet t h ose goa ls. Use t h e best in st r u ct ion a l m edia a va ila ble. It is clea r t h a t pr a ct ice lea ds t o im pr ovem en t on ly wh en it is followed by posit ive feedba ck. You 24 . Use exa m ples. Rem em ber . fr om t h e in for m a t ion you t ea ch .

Ta lk t o a n y sea son ed in st r u ct or a n d h e or s h e ca n p r ob a b ly r e ca ll a t le a s t on e s p e cia l s t u d e n t w h o “m a d e it ” in s p it e of m in im a l ba ck gr ou n d or les s -t h a n -a ver a ge a bilit y. or a la ck t h er eof m a n y t im es det er m in es wh et h er or n ot a st u den t m a st er s t h e cou r se object ives. a n exa m in a t ion of sen sor y lea r n in g a n d it s specia l con s id e r a t ion s ca n p r ovid e in s igh t in t o t h e le a r n in g pr ocess. in it ia t es beh a vior . eit h er in t er n a lly or ext er n a lly st im u la t ed. con ver sely. Wh ile we n eed t o r em em ber t h a t occa s ion a l fa ilu r e is h u m a n . a n d. p r ovid e s a p a t h w a y t o lea r n in g. Lit t le d ou bt exis t s t h a t m ot iva t ion . t r y vigor ou sly t o a void fa ilu r e. wh en der a iled. S i g h t i s con s i d e r e d t h e m os t im por t a n t sen se. Wit h t h a t in m in d. a ccou n t in g for a la r ge p e r ce n t a ge of t h e r em a in in g sen sor y lea r n in g ca pa cit y.-S e n s o ry le a rn in g p e rc e n ta g e s .n eed t o be a wa r e of a s m a n y fa ct or s t h a t a ffect lea r n in g a s you ca n . Th e m or e you kn ow. dir ect s it . eit h er sin gu la r ly or in va r iou s com b in a t ion s . THE LE AR N IN G SENSES Sen sor y lea r n in g is t h e fir st t h a t occu r s for a n y h u m a n b e in g. Rem em ber . bu t t h e sign ifica n ce of 25 fr om s eein g F ig u re 4-1. ca n r edu ce or st op it . Ma n y t im es st u den t s wit h t h e h igh est ASVAB scor es do n ot m a ke t h e gr a de wh ile st u den t s wh o m a y h a ve en t er ed you r cou r se wit h a n a ca dem ic wa iver do ver y well. H u m a n s ba sica lly t r y t o su cceed a n d. Most ea r ly lea r n in g com es im it a t in g. H e a r in g is t h e s e con d m os t im p or t a n t s e n s e . it is on e of t h e h a r dest t o get a h a n dle on or t o ch a n n el effect ively. Mot iva t ion . E xper t s differ on specific n u m ber s. and T h e r e for e . E a ch sen se. Mot iva t ion oft en h a s a s m u ch or m or e im pa ct t h a n sch ola st ic a bilit y. MOTIVATION P e r h a p s t h e s in gle m os t im p or t a n t fa ct or in a s t u d e n t ’s e d u ca t ion a l a d va n ce m e n t is m ot iva t ion . t o r ecogn ize a n d a ccom m od a t e s t u d en t s wit h a n y visu a l im pa ir m en t . h owever . S im p le t h in gs lik e wor d s elect ion in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t ca n a dd t o or det r a ct fr om t h e lea r n in g effor t . a ccou n t in g for a s m u ch a s 7 5 p e r ce n t of ou r b a s i c lea r n in g. St u den t s br in g differ en t a bilit ies a n d exper ien ce levels t o t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . t h e bet t er ch a n ce you h a ve of p os it ively in flu en cin g t h e lea r n in g p r oces s . Un for t u n a t ely. It s in flu en ce is a ppa r en t in ch ildr en a s w e w a t ch t h e m g r ow u p . we m u s t d o ever yt h in g p os s ible t o or ga n ize s t u d en t effor t s t owa r d s u cces s . y ou w ou l d b e w i s e t o con s id e r u s in g a p p r op r ia t e vis u a l a id s in you r p r es en t a t ion s .

It h a s been est im a t ed t h a t people r et a in on ly 10 per cen t of wh a t t h ey r ea d. you ca n pu sh st u den t r et en t ion close t o t h e 70 per cen t level. r et en t ion ju m p s t o 50 p er cen t . wit h r es p ect t o s en s or y lea r n in g. a n exp er ien ced en gin eer doesn ’t n eed a t em per a t u r e ga u ge t o det er m in e if a bea r in g is r u n n in g h ot . r et en t ion t a kes a dr a m a t ic lea p for wa r d. Th e sen se of sm ell. Ap p ea l t o t h a t d es ir e for m a t u r it y by h old in g t h em a ccou n t a ble for t h eir 26 . t h e m a jor i t y of y ou r s t u d e n t s s h a r e ce r t a i n com m on ch a r a ct e r i s t i cs . p r es s u r e. Ch ildr en do n ot a ssocia t e t h e wor d “h ot ” wit h a n yt h in g in pa r t icu la r u n t il t h ey a ssocia t e t h e wor d wit h t h eir sen se of t ou ch . wh ich is closely a ssocia t ed wit h t a st e. Alt h ou gh it is n ot n or m a lly iden t ified a s on e of t h e sen ses. Th er efor e. t h e ph en om en on of kin est h esia is a n ext en sion of sen sor y lea r n in g. F or exa m ple. Con s id er if you will. You r speech pa t t er n s a n d volu m e a r e cr it ica l Th e sen se of t ou ch . You ca n n ot r ea lis t ica lly exp ect s t u d en t s in a weld in g cla s s t o h a ve t h e coor d in a t ion t o weld t h e ba ck s id e of a p ip e in t h e over h ea d wh ile u sin g a m ir r or wit h ou t som e pr a ct ice t o develop t h a t skill. Wh en t h ose sen ses a r e com bin ed. h owever . t h e sen se of sm ell is a va lu a ble lea r n in g t ool in cer t a in n a r r ow a pplica t ion s. cla ssr oom lea r n in g fa ct or s. Th r ou gh exper ien ce. is op en t o m a n y in t er p r et a t ion s a n d op in ion s . becom es a m a jor lea r n in g fa ct or wh en com bin ed wit h ot h er sen ses. It is pa r t of ou r h u m a n wa r n in g syst em . wh ile im por t a n t in it self. is ver y st r on g a n d pr im it ive in n a t u r e. F or in s t a n ce. t h e im p or t a n ce of t a s t e t o t h e t r a in in g of cook s a n d ba ker s. You r st u den t s wa n t t o be t r ea t ed a s a d u lt s . Requ ir in g st u den t s t o u se a ll of t h eir sen ses in skill t r a in in g a lon g wit h pr ocedu r a l st eps a n d pr in ciples ca n in cr ea se t h eir r et en t ion t o a s m u ch a s 90 per cen t . Ret en t ion . Th a t m a k es a gr ea t a r gu m en t for in cor p or a t in g a p p r op r ia t e a u diovisu a l m edia in t o you r t ea ch in g. we becom e sen sit ive t o t em p er a t u r e. By a skin g pr oper qu est ion s t o a u gm en t sigh t a n d sou n d t o st im u la t e t h in kin g. elect r icia n s im m edia t ely r ecogn ize t h e sm ell of bu r n in g in su la t ion . 20 per cen t of wh a t t h ey h ea r . you m u s t a ccom m oda t e st u den t s wit h h ea r in g im pa ir m en t s. Th e sen ses of t a st e a n d sm ell m a y n ot seem im por t a n t in Na vy t r a in in g. ju st a s a n exper ien ced d a m a ge con t r ol in ves t iga t or d oes n ’t n eed on e t o d ecid e t h a t t h e t em p er a t u r e of a wa t er t igh t d oor is a bove n or m a l. On e ch a r a ct er ist ic st u den t s sh a r e is t h eir belief in t h eir m a t u r it y. I t m a n ifes t s it s elf in p eop le’s a bilit y t o ba la n ce or m ove wit h coor d in a t ion . Th a t im plies a fa ir degr ee of m a st er y lea r n in g. es p ecia lly in t h e cou n s elin g a n d t u t or in g a r ea s . Th ose sa m e est im a t es t ell u s t h a t wh en som eon e h ea r s a n d sees.s igh t a n d s ou n d t oge t h e r is ove r w h e lm in g. COMMON CH AR ACTE R IS TICS OF S TU D EN TS E ven t h ou gh ea ch in d ivid u a l is d iffer en t in s om e wa y fr om ever y ot h er in d ivid u a l. a n d t en don s t h a t gives people a specia l a wa r en ess of t h eir spa t ia l r ela t ion sh ip wit h t h eir su r r ou n din gs. t h ou gh . Th in k of it a s a sen sor y per cept ion r esidin g in on e’s m u scles. J u s t a s w it h s igh t im p a ir m e n t s . In m a n y ca ses t h ey a r en ’t . join t s. Ot h er s becom e sen sit ive t o t h e sm ell of va r iou s ga ses. Kin est h esia is a ct u a lly a blen d of a ll sen ses wit h psych om ot or a n d per cept u a l s k ills . a n d 30 per cen t of wh a t t h ey see. You r k n ow l e d g e a n d u n d er s t a n d in g of t h es e ch a r a ct er is t ics ca n h elp you m a k e m or e in t elligen t ju d gm en t s a n d d ecis ion s a bou t t r a in in g. Rem em ber . a n d t h e over a ll feel of t h in gs . s t u d en t s d evelop t h eir s k ills t h r ou gh p r a ct ice.

Lea n in g on t h e exper t ise or in sigh t of t h e gift ed or exper ien ced st u den t is ea sy. bu t m er ely t h e s im p le r ecogn it ion for a job well d on e. F a llibilit y is a t r a it we a ll h a ve--ever yon e m a kes m ist a kes. s o d o n ot give t h em a n op p or t u n it y for a d ver s e eva lu a t ion s . Tr ea t a ll st u den t s by t h e sa m e st a n da r ds. a n d a s a du lt s. a r e t h e p h ys ica l d iffer en ces .E m p h a s ize a d u lt le a r n in g a ct i on s . Be s u r e t o r ecogn ize s t u d en t s p r om p t ly a n d t o a d egr ee com m en s u r a t e wit h t h eir effor t . of cou r se. Th e secr et is n ot t o give t h e im pr ession of sh owin g cer t a in st u den t s fa vor ed t r ea t m en t . you m u s t d evelop you r own a p p r oa ch t o r ecogn izin g s p ecia l p er for m a n ce. es p ecia lly you . It h a s been s a id t h a t you r st u den t s don ’t ca r e h ow m u ch you kn ow u n t il t h ey kn ow h ow m u ch you ca r e. Alwa ys give r ecogn it ion t o s t u d en t s wh o r es p on d t o qu es t ion s or con t r ibu t e t o cla s s r oom d is cu s s ion s . a n d t r ea t you r st u den t s wit h r espect . en t h u s ia s m . Mos t s t u d en t s a r e qu ick t o for m op in ion s . Ma ke su r e you h a ve pa t ien ce a n d pr ovide en cou r a gem en t a s st u den t s m ove t h r ou gh t h e va r iou s st a ges of com pet en cy. Th a t ch a r a ct er is t ic pr ovides in st r u ct or s wit h gr ea t oppor t u n it ies t o m ot iva t e st u den t s t o lea r n . t ech n iqu es t h a t dem a n d “h a n ds on ” exper ien ce. ca pit a lize on t h em by t u r n in g t h em in t o p os it ive lea r n in g exp er ien ces . a r e t h os e d ea lin g wit h p h ys ica l p r er equ is it es for t r a in in g. Th e a d a ge t h a t su ccess br eeds su ccess is cer t a in ly t r u e in t h e lea r n in g en vir on m en t . If st u den t s a r e r egu la r ly u n s u cces s fu l. E it h er fa vor in g or pickin g on cer t a in st u den t s degr a des a n in st r u ct or t o t h e st u den t s. St u den t s will a lwa ys eva lu a t e. S in ce t ech n iqu es va r y. N ot h in g ca n s t igm a t ize a n d r em ot iva t e s t u d en t s qu ick er t h a n r idicu le or t h e im plica t ion t h a t t h ey a r e “loser s. besides t h ose for s igh t a n d h ea r in g im p a ir m en t s . You r m a jor con cer n s in t h e a r ea of ph ysica l differ en ces. r equ ir in g ver sa t ilit y a n d in sigh t on you r pa r t . t h e in s t r u ct or . Non e of you r st u den t s com e t o cla ss wa n t in g t o fa il. Th e m ost obviou s. You m u st in st ill selfcon fiden ce in st u den t s by pr ovidin g r ein for cem en t t h a t en cou r a ges fu r t h er lea r n in g. t h ey will becom e fr u s t r a t ed a n d give u p . 27 . You n eed t o be dedica t ed t o doin g you r best t o m a ke ea ch st u den t su ccessfu l in you r cla ss. in t er est ed. Th ey ca n qu ick ly det ect la ck of com p et en ce. Rem em ber t h a t a s a n in st r u ct or so t h a t you don ’t lose pa t ien ce wh en st u den t s m a ke m ist a kes. Wh en m in or fa ilu r es occu r . D e m a n d a n a d u l t l e v e l of w or k fr om e a ch s t u d e n t . a n d en cou r a gin g. Recogn it ion is a ba s ic h u m a n n eed bot h in a n d ou t of t h e cla s s r oom . St u den t s h a ve a h igh r ega r d for in st r u ct or s wh o sh ow a sen se of fa ir pla y. Con ver sely. Th ey a r e m a n y a n d va r ied. Use t h eir ba sic desir e t o su cceed t o it s s t r on ges t a d va n t a ge by s t r ivin g t o h elp t h em m ove fr om s u cces s t o s u cces s . Tr ea t a ll lea r n er s fa ir ly. a n d s in cer it y. a n d t h ey will. Alwa ys be s u p p or t ive. a n d isn ’t wr on g. We a r e n ot t a lkin g a bou t s p ecia l liber t y. An ot h er com m on s t u d en t ch a r a ct er is t ic is t h e a bilit y t o eva lu a t e. we oft en for get t h e difficu lt ies we h a d ga in in g t h ose skills. Most of u s t a ke ou r kn owledge a n d skills for gr a n t ed. Regu la r ly em ph a size t h e la w of effect . IN D IVID U AL D IF F EREN CES We h a ve a lr ea dy t ou ch ed som ewh a t on in dividu a l differ en ces a m on g lea r n er s. be ca r efu l n ot t o give t h e im pr ession of pickin g on or ba dger in g slower st u den t s.” You ca n be m or e em pa t h et ic t owa r d lea r n er s’ d ifficu lt ies by r eflect in g on you r own ea r ly t r ia ls . equ a lly. Wh a t d o s t u d en t s eva lu a t e? E ver yt h in g.

on t h e ot h er h a n d . Th e in t r over t . Alm os t e ve r y cla s s w ill h a ve st u den t s wit h per son a lit ies r a n gin g fr om in t r over t ed t o ext r over t ed. E m ot ion a l d iffe r e n ce s a ls o p la y a m a jor r ole in t r a in in g.” Most will be som ewh er e a r ou n d t h e m iddle of t h e spect r u m . Boys a r e n ot in n a t ely su per ior t o gir ls in qu a n t it a t ive skills. t h e a ver a ge lea r n er . Th eir m a le cou n t er pa r t s. Sin ce you r job is t o keep cou r ses gea r ed t o t h e a ver a ge lea r n er . F a s t lea r n er s ca n becom e cla s s r oom a s s et s if you a p p ea l t o t h eir s u p er ior kn owledge a n d lea der sh ip qu a lit ies. you m u st kn ow a s m u ch a bou t t h e in dividu a ls in t h e cla ss a s possible. Th u s. Tr a in in g is a im ed a t t h e cen t er of ou r t a r get popu la t ion . a fem a le n ever develops r ea son in g skills or becom es in t er est ed in r ea ch in g beyon d a r igh t /wr on g r espon se. 28 . Do n ot con fu s e t h a t wit h a la ck of a p t it u d e or a bilit y. h owever . Wh ile t h e gen der ga p in m a t h em a t ics a ch ievem en t is sm a ll a n d declin in g. Neit h er is “ba d. t h ey lose con fiden ce in t h eir a bilit y t o do well in m a t h . h owever . Gen der bia s h a s m a n y im plica t ion s for t h ose t ea ch in g t ech n ology-r ela t ed cou r ses. Lea r n you r st u den t s’ ph ysica l ca pa bilit ies so t h a t you ca n pr even t t h em fr om in ju r in g t h em selves or ot h er s t u d en t s . t h e r esea r ch discover ed gen der bia s wa s st ill pr eva len t wit h in ou r sch ool syst em s fr om t h e pr e-sch ool t h r ou gh college level. Dr a w t h ese st u den t s in t o cla ss a ct ivit ies by u sin g wh a t ever m ot iva t ion a l t ools you ca n m u s t er wit h ou t givin g t h e a p p ea r a n ce of ba d ger in g. in qu isit iven ess. r ea son in g a bilit y. or m ot iva t in g t h em t owa r d s u cces s . Wh en a fem a le pr ovides a n in cor r ect a n swer . I n T h e A A U W R ep or t : H ow S ch ool s S h or t ch a n ge G i r l s . a r e a d m on is h ed for beh a vior s u ch a s s p ea k in g ou t or a n s wer in g in cor r ect ly.St u den t s com m on ly en t er t h e t r a in in g a r en a wit h ou t a ct u a lly m eet in g est a blish ed pr er equ isit es. Slow lea r n er s r equ ir e you r pa t ien ce a n d u n der st a n din g. a n d in fa ct . t h e gen der ga p in scien ce a r ea s h a s in cr ea sed. F em a les a r e sim ply n ot en cou r a ged t o pa r t icipa t e in cla ssr oom s. gir ls’ m a t h gr a des a r e a s h igh or h igh er t h a n boys. will be s h y a n d n on a ggr es s ive. You m a y h a ve s om e con cer n of los in g con t r ol of t h e cla s s beca u se of t h e ext r over t ’s “t a ke ch a r ge” n a t u r e. Abilit y is som ewh a t sim ila r t o a pt it u de bu t dea ls m or e wit h skills in pr ocessin g in for m a t ion t o a cqu ir e con cept s or t o m a st er ph ysica l sk ills. u s u a lly u n d e r s t a n d in g a n d s p e cia l a t t e n t ion .” Resea r ch h a s sh own t h a t wh en a m a le a n swer s a qu est ion in cor r ect ly. d em on s t r a t in g ou t goin g beh a vior . will r equ ir e T h e e xt r ove r t is s ocia b le a n d ou t s p ok e n . Ma t h con fid en ce h a s a s t r on ger lin k t o m a t h a ch ievem en t t h a n a n y ot h er va r ia ble. Ap t it u d e d ep en d s on t h e st u den t ’s in t elligen ce. Th ose a t t h e ext r em es. a n d ot h er m en t a l t r a it s. oft en for cin g you t o devot e ext r a effor t t owa r d t u t or in g. a r e r ewa r ded for voca l beh a vior in t h e cla ssr oom t h r ou gh ga in in g of t h e t ea ch er ’s a t t en t ion a n d dism issa l of in a ppr opr ia t e beh a vior s wit h t h e old a xiom of “boys will be boys. Th ey ca n ju st a s ea sily t u r n in t o lia bilit ies if ca st a dr ift in a sea of bor edom wh ile wa it in g for t h eir peer s t o ca t ch u p. As gir ls gr ow u p. dia gn osin g specific difficu lt ies. St u dies h a ve sh own t h a t gir ls’ loss of con fiden ce in t h eir m a t h a bilit ies pr ecedes a declin e in a ch ievem en t . St u den t s’ exper ien ces a n d ba ckgr ou n ds a lso pla y m a jor r oles in t h e m a keu p of m ost cla sses. a m bit ion . t h e t ea ch er will give h er t h e r igh t a n swer . As a n in st r u ct or . Most cla sses will be m a de u p of st u den t s wit h widely va r yin g ba ckgr ou n ds. t h e t ea ch er will coa ch t h em t o t h e r igh t a n swer . Mor e s u bt le d iffer en ces exis t in a p t it u d e a n d a bilit y. Gir ls wh o do well in m a t h t en d t o h a ve n on t r a dit ion a l views of gen der r oles. bu t boys a r e likely t o ou t per for m gir ls on st a n da r dized m a t h t es t s . you s h ou ld b e a w a r e of s om e r e s e a r ch r e ce n t ly com p le t e d b y t h e Am e r ica n As s ocia t ion of U n i v e r s i t y W om e n (AAU W ). Lea r n t o r ecogn ize a n d con t r ol t h e beh a vior wit h ou t squ elch in g t h e desir a ble t r a it of wa n t in g t o t a ke a n a ct ive pa r t .

P er s on a l in volvem en t is t h e k ey for t h em . t h ey a lso h a ve differ en t st yles of lea r n in g. a ct ive. Act ive lea r n er s a r e exper im en t er s wh o pr efer t o syst em a t ica lly t r y ou t n ew s k ills . a n d pr oblem -solvin g a ppr oa ch es.” F or exa m ple. You m u st be flexible a n d per cept ive en ou gh t o u se va r iou s t ea ch in g t ech n iqu es t h a t a ppea l t o m or e t h a n on e lea r n in g st yle. At t it u d es u n d ou bt ed ly a ffect per for m a n ce sin ce t h ey in dica t e h ow st u den t s feel a bou t lea r n in g a t a pa r t icu la r t im e. Th ey ver y m u ch like t o be in volved wit h t h e “r ea l t h in g. You e s p e cia lly n e e d t o k n ow a s t u d e n t ’s le a r n in g s t yle w h e n you m u s t p r ovid e r em edia t ion or t u t or in g for a st u den t h a vin g a ca dem ic pr oblem s. T h is ga p in exper ien ce con t in u es in sch ool. a ct ive lea r n er s wou ld s ys t em a t ica lly t r y ou t s ever a l d iffer en t wa ys of op er a t ion . Boys d r op ou t of m a t h a n d s cien ce cou r s es b e ca u s e t h e y ca n n ot d o t h e w or k . On e per son ’s lea r n in g st yle m a y n ot be effect ive for a n ot h er per son . Th ey will h a ve m a n y differ en t r ea son s for a t t en din g t h e cla ss. Th ey cou ld t h en oper a t e t h e pu m p by im it a t in g you r per for m a n ce. Th ey lea r n bes t by im it a t ion a ft er wa t ch in g ot h er s t a k e p a r t in r ole p la yin g a n d s im u la t ion s . st r u ct u r ed exer cises. R ef l ect i v e l ea r n er s lik e t o ob s e r ve a n d r e fle ct (m a k e com p a r is on s a n d con t r a s t s ) b e for e 29 . C on cr e t e le a r n e r s w ou ld p r e fe r t o w a t ch you dem on st r a t e t h e oper a t ion . Th ey r ely h ea vily on t h eir own feelin gs a n d p er s on a l ju d gm en t s .As you a t t em pt t o in cor por a t e st u den t exper ien ces in t o cou r se m a t er ia l. You m u st det ect t h e in dividu a l m ot iva t ion levels in dica t ed by a t t it u des so t h a t you ca n ch a n n el st u den t s’ effor t s t owa r d su ccess. Gir ls m or e oft en opt for scien ce cou r ses su ch a s a dva n ced biology. be a wa r e t h a t m a les a n d fem a les t en d t o h a ve ver y differ en t exper ien ces in t h e m a t h /scien ce a r ea s. wh ile boys will t a ke a dva n ced ch em ist r y a n d p h ys ics . You will a lso see differ en ces in t h e a t t it u des st u den t s br in g in t o t h e cla ssr oom . A ctive learn ers pr efer t o lea r n by becom in g in volved wit h t h e su bject a n d t a kin g a n a ct ive st ep-by-st ep a ppr oa ch . Th ey lea r n best fr om sm a ll gr ou p discu ssion s. ju s t m a r k in g t im e. B oys h a ve m or e ou t -of-s ch ool. s cie n ce -r e la t e d e xp e r ie n ce s t h a n gir ls . a n d a bst r a ct . su ppose you wer e t r yin g t o t ea ch you r s t u d en t s h ow t o op er a t e a fir e p u m p . Usin g t h e exper ien ces a n d ba ckgr ou n ds of st u den t s will in ject a n ot e of r ea lism in t o t r a in in g. Ot h er s will on ly be in t h e cla ss beca u se t h ey h a ve t o be. you n eed t o be a wa r e of t h e fou r ba sic lea r n in g st yles: con cr et e. Th a t in cr ea s es t h e ch a n ces for a ll s t u d en t s t o m a s t er t h e object ives of t h e t r a in in g. w h ile gir ls a b a n d on t h e s e fie ld s e ve n w h e n t h e y a r e per for m in g well. a n d t h ey will r es en t it . S om e m igh t be in d iffer en t . By bein g a wa r e of t h e gen der equ it y issu e. r eflect ive. A t r ia l-a n d -er r or wa y of lea r n in g a p p ea ls t o t h em . you will be a ble t o a void t h e t r a ps of per pet u a t in g gen der bia s in t h e exa m ples you u se in cla ss. Som e will be in t h e cla ss beca u se t h ey wa n t t o be--for a ll t h e r igh t r ea son s. LE AR N IN G S T YL E S J u st a s st u den t s h a ve differ en t wa ys of lea r n in g n ew m a t er ia l. As a n in st r u ct or . To op er a t e t h e fir e p u m p . Most people h a ve a pr efer r ed or dom in a n t st yle of lea r n in g. bu t u se a ll of t h e ba sic lea r n in g st yles t o som e ext en t depen din g u pon t h e sit u a t ion . Con crete learn ers pr efer a n exper ien ce-ba sed a ppr oa ch t o lea r n in g. wh er e on e st u dy sh owed t h a t 79 per cen t of a ll st u den t -a ssist ed s cien ce d em on s t r a t ion s wer e ca r r ied ou t by boys .

you n e e d t o k n ow h ow you ca n h e lp d e cr e a s e t h e for ge t fu ln e s s of you r st u den t s. a s a n in s t r u ct or . H owever . a n d so for t h .a n d s h or t -t er m m em or ies . An ot h er ca u s e of for get t in g is in t er fer en ce. con cr et e. cer t a in a ddr esses. H owever . Abst r a ct lea r n er s like t o fin d t h e “t h eor y” beh in d t h e su bject m a t t er a n d a n a lyze t h e a ppr oa ch t o discover wh a t con cept s a r e in volved. r eflect ive. Th ey wou ld t h en a n a lyze t h eir obs er va t ion s befor e a t t em p t in g t o op er a t e t h e p u m p t h em s elves . we for get t h e t elep h on e n u m ber s we ju s t looked u p a sh or t t im e a go. a n d p r ovid in g t im e for s t u d e n t s t o pr a ct ice wh a t t h ey a r e lea r n in g. t h eor et ica l r ea din g. I n t er fer en ce occu r s wh en t h e m em or y of on e Da t a in t h a t ca t egor y in clu d es S ocia l S ecu r it y n u m ber s . r eflect ive. fr equ en t ly ca lled t elep h on e 30 . Sin ce you r st u den t s won ’t r em em ber fa ct u a l in for m a t ion ver y lon g. Th a t ’s wh y we wr it e d own t elep h on e n u m ber s . S o. Wh a t we for get wit h ea s e is fa ct u a l in for m a t ion . In oper a t in g t h e fir e pu m p. t h ey wou ld pr efer t o r ea d a bou t it s p r in cip les of op er a t ion a n d t o a n a lyze t h e con cep t s in volved in it s op er a t ion befor e a t t em p t in g t o op er a t e it . a n d a ct ive = 90% r et a in ed R E AS ON S F OR F ORGETTIN G You ca n ea sily u n der st a n d t h e pr oblem of for get t in g. Th is is sh own by t h e followin g per cen t a ges: m Ab s t r a ct = 2 0 % r e t a in e d H Abs t r a ct a n d r eflect ive = 50% r et a in ed n Abs t r a ct . n u m ber s. film s . Th ey lea r n bes t fr om lect u r es . To op er a t e t h e fir e p u m p . C on ce n t r a t e on con ce p t b u ild in g b y r e vie w in g fr e q u e n t ly. fa ct u a l in for m a t ion im por t a n t t o da ily fu n ct ion in g goes in t o ou r lon g-t er m m em or y. ca se st u dies. P eop le h a ve bot h lon g. Th a t r es ea r ch fou n d t h a t gr ou p r e t e n t ion of in for m a t ion im p r ove d d r a m a t ica lly w h e n in s t r u ct ion e m p loye d m e t h od s design ed t o in volve m or e t h a n on e lea r n in g st yle. a n d r ea d in g. s h or t or d er cook s wh o r eceive ver ba l or der s fr om wa it er s a n d wa it r esses pla ce t h ose or der s in sh or t -t er m m em or y a n d a s t h ey t ill t h e or der s. a n a lyt ica l a ppr oa ch t o lea r n in g. Reflect ive lea r n er s p r efer t o p la y t h e r ole of t h e im p a r t ia l obs er ver wh ile wa t ch in g ot h er s . Th ey lea r n best fr om lect u r es by exper t s. pla n t h eir lea r n in g a r ou n d con cept u a l ba ses. Give st u den t s a con cept a n d t h e kn owledge of h ow t o r esea r ch a n d r et r ieve fa ct s a b ou t t h a t con ce p t a n d you give t h e m p e r m a n e n t le a r n in g. On e of t h e m ost com m on ca u ses of for get t in g is disu se. Res ea r ch h a s s h own t h a t s t u d en t s lea r n bes t a n d r et a in in for m a t ion lon ger wh en t h ey a r e exp os ed t o lea r n in g s it u a t ion s t h a t in clu d e a ll fou r lea r n in g s t yles . r eflect ive lea r n er s wou ld wa t ch ot h er s op er a t e t h e p u m p a n d r eflect (t h in k ) a bou t t h e d iffer en t wa ys of op er a t ion . p r ovid in g e xa m p le s . p er s on a l id en t ifica t ion n u m ber s for ba n k ca r d s . sin ce we a ll for get a t t im es. a n d con cr et e = 70% r et a in ed n Abs t r a ct . F or exa m p le. so we u su a lly r et a in it . P eople t en d t o for get wh a t t h ey don ’t u s e. for get s t h em . a n d a ct ivit ies t h a t r equ ir e solit a r y t h in kin g. Abstract learn ers r efer a t h eor y-ba sed.d r a w in g con clu s ion s . t oo.

31 . you m u s t u s e t h em on a d a ily ba s is . To t r a n s fer you r k n owled ge a n d s k ills a s a n exp er t in you r field . On ce s t u d en t s h a ve h a d s u fficien t p r a ct ice t o lea r n t h e in for m a t ion a s a con cep t . S t u d en t s h a ve en ou gh bu ilt -in obs t a cles t o lea r n in g wit h ou t you becom in g on e a ls o. I t cou ld occu r wh en ou t d a t ed in for m a t ion s t u d en t s h a ve lea r n ed block s t h eir m em or y of u p d a t ed in for m a t ion . a n d a p p ly t h e p r in cip le s of le a r n in g a n d you w ill b e on you r w a y t o becom in g a m a st er t r a in er .even t h in d er s t h e r eca ll of a n ot h er . SUMMARY You r p r a ct ica l a p p lica t ion of t h e p r in cip les of lea r n in g will h a ve a gr ea t im p a ct on you r st u den t s’ a bilit y t o m a st er cou r se object ives. F or exa m p le. you m u s t u n d er s t a n d wh a t ca u s es s t u d en t s t o lea r n a n d wh a t ca n in t er fer e wit h t h a t lea r n in g. for m er s t u d en t s of F r en ch wh o a r e t r yin g t o lea r n Spa n ish m a y keep r eca llin g a F r en ch wor d wh ile t r yin g t o r em em ber it s Spa n ish cou n t er pa r t . u n d e r s t a n d . Th e gr ea t est h elp you ca n offer is t o m a ke su r e lea r n in g is com plet e a n d con cep t u a l. Kn owin g a bou t t h ese pr in ciples isn ’t en ou gh . L e a r n . t h ey will r et r ieve t h e in for m a t ion m or e ea sily.

CHAP TER 5

EF F ECTIVE COMMU N ICATION S

IN TROD U CTION
Th e a bilit y t o com m u n ica t e effect ively is essen t ia l. Com m u n ica t in g is m or e t h a n spea k in g; it in volves you r en t ir e pr esen ce. H ow you pr esen t you r self h a s a gr ea t dea l of im pa ct on you r st u den t s’ in t er est a n d desir e t o lea r n . As a Na vy in st r u ct or , you m u st be a ble t o com m u n ica t e you r kn owledge, skills, a n d exper ien ces t o t h e st u den t s in or der t o fa cilit a t e t h e lea r n in g pr ocess. H ow you com m u n ica t e oft en h a s m or e im pa ct t h a n t h e con t en t of you r m essa ge. Th e skills a n d t ech n iqu es expla in ed in t h is ch a pt er will a ssist you in st r en gt h en in g you r a bilit y t o com m u n ica t e effect ively. E F F E CTIVE COMMU N ICATION P RIN CIP LES

Th e p u r p os e of effect ive com m u n ica t ion s in a t r a in in g en vir on m en t is t o en s u r e s t u d en t s a ccu r a t e ly u n d e r s t a n d t h e m a t e r ia l p r e s e n t e d b y t h e in s t r u ct or . T h e r e a r e b a s ica lly t w o p r in cip les you n eed t o u n d er s t a n d t h a t h a ve t o d o wit h com m u n ica t in g effect ively: (1) t h e id en t ifica t ion a n d r em ova l of ba r r ier s a n d (2) t h e com m u n ica t ion p r oces s it s elf.

B AR R IE R S TO E F F E CTIVE COMMU N ICATION Th e exis t en ce of cer t a in ba r r ier s i n cr e a s e s t h e p ot e n t i a l for p oor com m u n ica t ion . B y b e in g a w a r e of t h ese ba r r ier s, you ca n r edu ce t h em a n d en h a n ce t h e clea r u n der st a n din g of you r st u den t s.

La c k On e

o f

Co m m o n is the

Core la ck of

E x p e ri e n c e ba r r ier com m on cor e e xp e r ie n ce . You a r e u n likely t o fin d a n y gr ou p in wh ich s t u d e n t s h a v e t h e s a m e com m on cor e e xp e r ie n ce . F or e x a m p l e , i f you s a y t h a t a k iw i t a s t e s lik e a ku m qu a t , st u den t s wh o h a ve t a st ed on e w ou ld h a ve t h e e xp e r ie n ce t o m a k e t h e p r op e r r e la t ion s h ip . 32

H owever , for t h e s t u d en t s wh o h a ve t a s t ed n eit h er , t h e com p a r is on wou ld h a ve n o m ea n in g. To p r even t t h a t p r oblem , d et er m in e s t u d en t exp er ien ce level befor e you p r ep a r e you r les s on . Th en ch eck for u n d er s t a n d in g a s you u s e exa m p les a n d a n a logies wit h you r exp la n a t ion s .

Ov e ru s e Of Ab s t ra c t i o n s Abst r a ct ion s a r e con cept s, idea s, or wor ds t h a t a r e n ot dir ect ly r ela t ed t o t h e su bject bein g discu ssed. To a void con fu sion you sh ou ld spea k in con cr et e t er m s--be specific. Be a wa r e of t h e ba ck gr ou n d a n d exp er ien ce level of you r s t u d en t s a n d u s e a p p r op r ia t e t er m s a n d exa m p les . Rem em ber , you will n or m a lly h a ve m or e exp er ien ce in t h e s u bject m a t t er t h a n a n y of you r st u den t s, so you h a ve t h e r espon sibilit y y of en su r in g u n der st a n din g. Th is r equ ir es t h a t you n ot on ly pr esen t t h e in for m a t ion , bu t a lso t h a t you ch eck t o en su r e t h e st u den t s u n der st a n d exa ct ly wh a t you in t en d ed .

Fear F ea r m a y be on e of t h e gr ea t es t ba r r ier s t o effect ive com m u n ica t ion . Th e fea r of s h owin g ign or a n ce, fea r of disa ppr ova l, fea r of losin g st a t u s, a n d fea r of ju dgm en t a r e com m on ba r r ier s. Ma n y t im es, st u den t s will h a ve a n xiet ies or fea r s a bou t t h eir a bilit ies. St u den t s m a y h esit a t e t o t a ke pa r t in you r discu ssion s beca u se t h ey h a ve a la ck of con fiden ce a n d a r e a fr a id t h ey will a ppea r ign or a n t . Th a t , in t u r n , br in gs a bou t a fea r of ju dgm en t a n d a fea r of losin g st a t u s in fr on t of t h eir peer s. Tr y t o u n der st a n d you r st u den t s’ fea r s. P r ovide a t h r ea t -fr ee lea r n in g en vir on m en t by bein g en cou r a gin g a n d n on ju dgm en t a l of t h e st u den t s. Rem em ber h ow lon g it t ook you t o lea r n you r su bject m a t t er . Ta ke t h e t im e t o r ecogn ize t h e in dividu a l differ en ces in you r st u den t s so t h a t you will k n ow h ow t o m ot iva t e t h em . Sin ce you h a ve con t r ol of t h e cla ss, you m u st dir ect t h e cla ss en er gy in a posit ive dir ect ion . Do n ot a llow fellow s t u d en t s t o m a k e fu n of or exh ibit d is a p p r ova l of a s t r u gglin g s t u d en t . Avoid em ba r r a ssin g a n y of you r st u den t s or offen din g h u m a n va lu es. F ollow t h e ba sic pr in ciple of m ot iva t ion by givin g t h em p os it ive feed ba ck .

E n v i ro n m e n t a l

F a c t o rs

E n vir on m en t a l fa ct or s su ch a s n oise a n d t em per a t u r e m a y in t er fer e wit h t h e com m u n ica t ion pr ocess. Obviou sly, n oise is a ba r r ier t o h ea r in g wh a t is bein g sa id. If st u den t s a r e over ly h ot or cold it m a y be d ifficu lt fr om t h em t o lis t en a t t en t ively. H owever , m or e s u bt le fa ct or s m a y a lso a ffect t h e com m u n ica t ion pr ocess. Th e color of t h e wa lls, u n com for t a ble sea t s, t h e loca t ion of pict u r es or illu st r a t ion s, a n d t h e a r r a n gem en t of st u den t s in r ela t ion t o t h e in st r u ct or m a y a ll becom e ba r r ier s t o effect ive com m u n ica t ion . You s h ou ld con s t a n t ly s t r ive t o id en t ify a n d elim in a t e ba r r ier s t o effect ive com m u n ica t ion . Som e will be obviou s wh ile ot h er s m a ybe ver y difficu lt t o det ect . You r a wa r en ess of ba r r ier s, a lon g w it h a k n ow le d ge of t h e com m u n ica t ion p r oce s s , w ill a s s is t you in com m u n ica t in g effect ively.

33

THE

COMMU N ICATION

P ROCES S

Th e com u n ica t ion pr ocess con sist s of a m essa ge bein g sen t a n d r eceived. Th e m essa ge m a y be ver ba l or n on -ver ba l. Th e sa m e ba sic pr in ciples a pply wh et h er h u m a n s, a n im a ls, ot h er for m s of life, or com bin a t ion s of t h ese a r e in volved. You r ch a llen ge, a s a n in st r u ct or , is t o n ot m er ely com m u n ica t e wit h you r st u den t s--bu t t o com m u n ica t e effect ively. E ffect ive com m u n ica t ion in volves a m essa ge bein g sen t a n d r eceived. Added t o t h is h owever , is t h e elem en t of feed back t o en su r e t h a t t h e m essa ge sen t wa s r eceived exa ct ly a s in t en ded. Th is con cep t m a y be illu s t r a t ed u s in g t h e t h r ee-s t ep com m u n ica t ion s m od el (fig. 5-1).

F ig u re

5-1.-Th re e -s te p

c o m m u n ic a tio n

p ro c e s s .

S e n d i n g Th e Me s s a g e Th er e a r e fou r elem en t s in volved in sen din g a m essa ge. F ir st , a s t h e in st r u ct or (sen der ), you for m u la t e t h e m es s a ge you in t en d t o com m u n ica t e. N ext , you con s id er p os s ible ba r r ier s t h a t m a y a ffect t h e m essa ge. Th is in clu des you r exper ien ce, t h e t er m s you will u se, a n d even you r E xt er n a l ba r r ier s su ch a s n oise m u st a ls o be con s id er ed . Th ir d , you en cod e t h e m es s a ge; t h a t is , you p u t t h e m es s a ge in t o t h e wor d s you wa n t t o u se. La st , you clea r ly com m u n ica t e (sen d) t h e m essa ge. feelin g t owa r d t h e s u bject or t h e s t u d en t s .

R e c e i v i n g Th e Me s s a g e Th er e a r e a lso fou r elem en t s in volved in r eceivin g a m essa ge. Th e st u den t s (r eceiver s) will fir st h ea r a n d/or see t h e m essa ge you sen t . Secon d, t h e m essa ge is a ffect ed by ext er n a l ba r r ier s, P ossible in t er n a l ba r r ier s m a y in clu de t h e s t u d en t s exp er ien ce level, t h eir u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e t er m s u s ed , t h eir a t t it u d e t owa r d t h e m a t er ia l, or t h e wa y t h ey feel a bou t you . Th ir d, you r st u den t s decode t h e m essa ge t h r ou gh t h e u se of m en t a l im a ges. F or in st a n ce, wh en you sa y t h e wor d circu s, t h e r eceiver does n ot “see” t h e let t er s t h a t for m t h e wor d . I n s t ea d , a m en t a l im a ge of s om e s or t a p p ea r s . H ow m a n y differ en t m en t a l im a ges m igh t a r ise a m on g you r st u den t s for t h is on e wor d a lon e? A clown , a if a n y, a n d t h e st u den t s’ own in t er n a l ba r r ier s.

34

S t u d en t s s h ou ld a r r ive for in s t r u ct ion r ea d y t o lea r n . T h e y s h ou ld p a r t icip a t e a n d a s k qu est ion s a s t h ey a r ise. E F F E CTIVE COMMU N ICATION S KILLS AN D TECHN IQU ES Th er e a r e m a n y skills a n d t ech n iqu es you m u st m a st er t o bea n effect ive com m u n ica t or a n d in st r u ct or . To d et er m in e t h is . I t is a n a ct ive p r oce s s of h e a r in g a n d u n d e r s t a n d in g t h a t d e m a n d s con ce n t r a t ion a n d a t t e n t ion . You m u st en su r e t h a t t h e lea r n in g en vir on m en t is fr ee of dist r a ct ion s t h a t m igh t in t er fer e wit h t h e st u den t s’ a bilit y t o list en . a n d s o for t h . F a cia l exp r es s ion s r evea l m u ch of wh a t is h a p p en in g in t h e m in d of a s t u d en t . LISTENING L is t e n in g is on e of ou r m os t im p or t a n t com m u n ica t ion s k ills .bigt op . a t t h is poin t in t h e pr ocess t h er e is n o wa y for you t o det er m in e t h a t a ll of t h e st u den t s r eceived t h e m es s a ge you in t en d ed . h a ve t h e s t u d en t s r es p on d t o or a l qu es t ion s a n d e n cou r a ge t h e m t o a s k q u e s t ion s . St u den t s m u st u n der st a n d t h a t t h ey h a ve r espon sibilit y for t h eir own 35 . a ll t h a t is r equ ir ed is t h a t you u se t h em t o t h eir bes t a d va n t a ge. Be a ler t t o t h e n on -ver ba l beh a vior s of you r s t u d en t s . A st u den t lea n in g sligh t ly for wa r d a n d m a in t a in in g good eye con t a ct wit h you is pr oba bly in t er est ed a n d s in ce r e a b ou t le a r n in g. you m u s t get feed ba ck . p r ovid es es s en t ia l in for m a t ion a bou t you r s u cces s in com m u n ica t in g t h e m es s a ge. To get feed ba ck . Feedback F eed ba ck . F a cia l e xp r e s s ion s a n d b od y m ovem en t s oft en in dica t e wh en st u den t s a r e u n su r e a bou t t h e m ea n in g of you r m essa ge. a cr oba t s . Con ver s ely. a n d you a r e t h e pr im e m ot iva t or in you r cla ssr oom . Clea r ly. eye con t a ct ou t t h e win d ow or s om ep la ce ot h er t h a n t h e fr on t of t h e r oom m a y in dica t e bor edom or la ck of in t er est . wh ich m a y t a k e s ever a l for m s . Th is r equ ir es a ct ive list en in g on t h eir pa r t . t h e s t u d en t s in t er p r et t h e m es s a ge. lea r n in g. Ot h er s . lion s . Lea r n t o det er m in e if st u den t s a r e list en in g by t h e t ype of feedba ck t h ey pr ovide. Ma n y of t h ese skills you a lr ea dy possess. E ffect ive list en in g depen ds on m ot iva t ion . B ot h you a n d you r s t u d en t s h a ve r es p on s ibilit ies in t h e com m u n ica t ion p r oces s . you n eed t o lea r n a n d p r a ct ice. F ou r t h . An a ffi r m a t i v e h e a d n od i n d i ca t e s a p p r ov a l . a g r e e m e n t . You s h ou ld be ca r efu l in a ccep t in g a “yes ” r es p on s e wh en you a s k “Do you u n d er s t a n d ?” Obt a in m ea n in gfu l feed ba ck by a s k in g qu es t ion s t h a t r equ ir e t h e s t u d en t s t o p r ovid e a n s wer s wh ich in dica t e t h a t t h ey in fa ct do u n der st a n d exa ct ly wh a t you in t en ded. A qu izzica l look in dica t es som e m isu n der st a n din g h a s occu r r ed or a qu est ion n eeds t o be a ddr essed. T h e s t u d e n t s ’ n on -ve r b a l b e h a vior s a ls o p r ovid e im p or t a n t clu e s a s t o t h e ir u n d e r s t a n d in g of t h e m a t e r ia l. Ra ised h a n ds a n d r eleva n t qu est ion s a r e su r e sign s t h a t you a r e com m u n ica t in g effect ively. F idget in g in t h e ch a ir or a slou ch ed post u r e m a y a lso bea n in dica t ion of som et h in g ot h er t h a n effect ive list en in g. or u n d er s t a n d in g.

H owever . m a k e cr is p . en u n cia t e. T o b e a good s p e a k e r . wh u t . su ch a s a Sou t h er n dr a wl or a New E n gla n d t wa n g.” R a t e Of S p e e c h As a spea ker . F or ce you r self t o t h in k fa st er so t h a t you ca n spea k fa st er . d is t in ct e n u n cia t ion you r goa l. Avoid sla n g su ch a s jist . n ever com m it gla r in g gr a m m a t ica l er r or s like “h im a n d m e is goin g. Th e n or m a l r a t e of deliver y is 125 t o 150 wor ds per m in u t e.” “I seen . In r eh ea r sa l. excit em en t . A sligh t a ccen t is plea sa n t a n d a dds in t er est a n d per son a lit y t o you r speech . Usin g a t a pe r ecor der . Apply t h e pr in ciple of sh a r pen ed en u n cia t ion n ot on ly in you r cla s s es bu t in or d in a r y con ver s a t ion . It is like a code. t h e on e wh o r eceives t h e m essa ge h a s t o la bor t o ext r a ct t h e pr ecise m ea n in g. p o n d e ro u s ra t e . Ma k e it a h a bit . a s a n in st r u ct or . exa gger a t e you r en u n cia t ion beyon d wh a t is r equ ir ed in n or m a l speech . Ar t i c u l a t i o n Ar t icu la t ion is sim ply u n der st a n da ble speech . Gra m m a r Gr a m m a r con cer n s t h e cor r ect u sa ge of t h e spoken or wr it t en wor d. obs er ve t h e followin g s u gges t ion s : S lo w . or vigor ou s a ct ion . As a r u le. s p ea k fa s t en ou gh t o be in t er est in g yet slow en ou gh t o be u n der st ood. Avoid s lu r r in g a n d m u m blin g. Bu t wh en you m a ke en codin g er r or s. r ecor d t h e s a m e 36 . t a ke a dva n t a ge of a voca l ch a n ge of pa ce t o h old t h e in t er es t of you r a u d ien ce. You ca n a ch ieve good a r t icu la t ion in t wo wa ys. be su r e t h a t people fr om ot h er pa r t s of t h e cou n t r y ca n u n der st a n d you . don ’t t r y t o elim in a t e it --m a ke t h e m ost of it ! It ’s pa r t of you r per son a lit y.” “h e give. St u dies h a ve sh own t h a t spoken wor ds a lon e a ccou n t for on ly seven per cen t of t h e im p a ct of t h e m es s a ge. You r r a t e of speech sh ou ld be gover n ed by t h e com plexit y of t h e t h ou gh t . T h e n p la y b a ck t h e r e cor d in g. Add em ph a sis by eit h er slowin g or speedin g you r r a t e. idea . H owever . S econ d .E F F E CTIVE IN S TRU CTOR D E LIVE R Y TECHN IQU ES Deliver y st yle h a s a m a jor im pa ct on st u den t m ot iva t ion a n d det er m in es t o a gr ea t ext en t h ow well st u den t s list en . p r on u n cia t e. s p ea k clea r ly. ploddin g r a t e t h a t pu t s you r list en er s t o sleep n or r a t t le off wor d s s o r a p id ly t h a t t h ey r u n t oget h er . wa t ch a . Som et im es you r m essa ge n ever com es t h r ou gh exa ct ly r igh t . you sh ou ld n eit h er t a lk a t a slow. git . or em ot ion you a r e com m u n ica t in g. Use a slow r a t e for a deliber a t e or m et h odica l pr esen t a t ion . Use a fa st r a t e for joy. If you h a ve a r egion a l a ccen t . To im p r ove com m on r a t e d ifficu lt ies . I f you r r a t e is s t ill t oo s low. F ir s t . or h a ft a . a ccen t s ylla bles a n d r ep r od u ce con s on a n t a n d vowel s ou n d s in con for m it y wit h t h e a ccep t ed s t a n d a r d --t h e d ict ion a r y. Th e followin g F a ct or s a r e im p or t a n t con s id er a t ion s in you r deliver y of in st r u ct ion . t h e m essa ge com es t h r ou gh clea r ly a n d qu ickly. gon n a . Wh en you u se t h e code cor r ect ly. J u st a s a good ba seba ll pit ch er keeps t h e ba t t er a ler t by ch a n gin g t h e speed of t h e ba ll.” or “it r u n . r ea d a lou d a n d in t er pr et t h e m ea n in g of t h e wor ds by t h e r a t e a t wh ich you s p e a k t h e m .

Recogn ize t h e lis t en er s ’ n eed t o a bs or b id ea s . br ea t h e bet ween . m ea n in g. You m a y u se p a u ses t o ga in h u m or ou s. or in a dequ a t e r eh ea r sa ls u su a lly r esu lt in t oo m a n y pa u ses in t h e spea ker ’s deliver y. H a lt i n g . u s e t h e s a m e t ech n iqu es s u gges t ed for elim in a t in g t oo m a n y p a u s es a n d lea ve ou t t h e “u h s ” a n d “a h s . Th en r eh ea r s e u n t il you r t h ou gh t s a n d wor d s flow sm oot h ly. I n wr it in g. F a s t . P a u s e s . id ea s or p h r a s es .r ea din g select ion a ga in bu t for ce you r self t o u se a fa st er r a t e of speech t o cu t down t h e t ot a l pla yba ck t im e. Begin by r ea d in g a lou d s om et h in g t h a t you lik e. E xpr ess t h e m ea n in g of t h e wor ds ca r efu lly a t t h e r a t e t h a t fit s you r in t er pr et a t ion . P r oper u se of pa u ses gives list en er s a ch a n ce t o a bsor b idea s a n d gives t h e spea ker a ch a n ce t o br ea t h e a n d con cen t r a t e on t h e n ext poin t .” In fle c t i o n In flect ion is a ch a n ge in t h e n or m a l pit ch or t on e of t h e spea ker ’s voice. a n d ot h er pu n ct u a t ion m a r ks. p u n ct u a t ion m a r k s s ep a r a t e t h ou gh t s a n d id ea s a n d give t h e d es ir ed m ea n in g a n d em ph a sis t o wor ds. n ot in t h e m id d le of. Th e followin g s u gges t ion s will h elp you over com e com m on p a u s in g d ifficu lt ies : N o t e n o u g h p a u s e s . Ov e r u s e o f v e r b a l c o n n e c t o r s . c h o p p y ra t e . les s on p r es en t a t ion . p r op er ly p la ced in t h e flow of s p eech . Ta kin g ca r e t o en u n cia t e m or e pr ecisely will gen er a lly slow you r r a t e. F or ce you r s elf t o pa u se bet ween idea s a n d a t per iods. U se t h em a s a voca l m ea n s of pu n ct u a t in g for effect . obser vin g t h e m a r ks of pu n ct u a t ion . Ta k e a d eep br ea t h befor e you begin a s en t en ce. To o m a n y p a u s e s . Ta ke t im e t o m a ke t h em clea r . dr a m a t ic. fa ilu r e t o or ga n ize m a t e r ia l t h or ou gh ly. Too m a n y “u h s ” a n d “a h s ” m a y be d et r im en t a l t o a n ot h er wis e effect ive To im p r ove on t h is d ifficu lt y. n er vou s n es s . Cu r b you r im pa t ien ce t o blu r t ou t idea s. Rea d a lou d. com m a s. S t u d y you r m a t er ia l a n d or ga n ize it on p a p er . pa u ses ser ve t h e sa m e fu n ct ion s t o a la r ge degr ee. or t h ou gh t -pr ovok in g effect s. Tr y t o a dopt t h e a t t it u de of t h e a r t ist wh o m a kes a few br u sh st r okes a n d t h en st eps ba ck t o eva lu a t e t h e r esu lt s. J u st a s m u sica l n ot es becom e m elod y wh en a r r a n ged in d iffer en t r ela t ive p os it ion s on t h e m u s ica l s ca le. you r voice becom es m or e in t er es t in g a n d wor d s m or e m ea n in gfu l wh en you u s e ch a n ges in p it ch . m a c h i n e -g u n d e li v e ry . or la ck of fa m ilia r it y wit h t h e su bject m a t t er . S om et im es a ch op p y r a t e r es u lt s fr om t en s en es s . In spea kin g. F illin g pa u ses wit h m ea n in gless. gu t t u r a l sou n ds gives list en er s t h e im pr ession t h a t you a r e n ot con fiden t of wh a t you a r e sa yin g. P a u ses a lso give em p h a s is . Con cen t r a t e on s p ea k in g com p let e id ea s or s en t en ces . U s in g in flect ion ca n in cr ea s e t h e em p h a s is on cer t a in wor d s . P a u s es . 37 . A la ck of k n ow le d ge of t h e s u b je ct . give t h em t im e t o do so by sa yin g wor ds clea r ly a n d by pa u sin g lon ger bet ween idea s. F or ce you r s elf t o s low d own . a n d t h a t you a r e n ot pr epa r ed t o spea k t o t h em . a n d in t er p r et a t ion t o id ea s . Th or ou gh fa m ilia r it y wit h t h e su bject m a t t er in cr ea ses ver ba l flu en cy. a r e oft en m or e effect ive t h a n wor ds.

in flect ion is a wa y of pu n ct u a t in g speech . p a u s es . p a u s es . It ca n be em ot ion a l. or con vin cin g. m a ke a st a t em en t of fa ct m or e posit ive. it ca n n ot be s et a p a r t d ist in ct ly. Use u pwa r d in flect ion a t t h e en d of a s en t en ce on ly wh en you a s k a qu es t ion or im p ly u n cer t a in t y. t h a t ser ves t o bin d idea s t oget h er a n d t o give u n it y t o t h e t h ou gh t . Tr y t h e followin g s u gges t ion s t o im p r ove in flect ion : R e a d a lo u d a n d c o m m u n i c a t e y o u r e m o t i o n s . or p a t r on izin g. you m u st sh ow you r feelin g a bou t wh a t you sa y. list en er s. it in clu des t h e pr oper pla cem en t of st r ess or em p h a s is on k ey wor d s a n d p h r a s es . As a n in st r u ct or . Wit h ou t in flect ion . you m u s t a w a k e n r e a ct ion s a n d fe e lin gs in you r 38 . Kn owledge of t h e su bject a n d of t h e sequ en ce in wh ich you pla n t o pr esen t idea s will h elp you t o ca lm ly lea d t h e t h ou gh t s of you r a u dien ce. I n flect ion con veys feelin g a n d m ea n in g. Like pa u ses. a n d in fle ct ion . H owever . down wa r d in flect ion wit h in t h e sen t en ce it self gives a sen se of fin a lit y t o t h e t h ou gh t a n d cr ea t es a m en t a l br ea k in t h e list en er s’ t h ou gh t s. t h e a u d ien ce m a y fa ll a s leep . Neit h er will t h ey be con vin ced by t h e cool. of givin g m ea n in g. it ca n pu t t h e qu est ion m a r k a t t h e en d of a qu est ion . F o rc e F or cefu l speech com bin es t h e volu m e or ca r r yin g power of t h e voice wit h t h e dem on st r a t ed vit a lit y. d ow n w a r d in fle ct ion a t t h e e n d of a sen t en ce expr esses con vict ion .Th e followin g exa m ple illu st r a t es h ow in flect ion on differ en t wor ds ch a n ges t h e m ea n in g of a qu es t ion . ges t u r es or vis ible fa cia l exp r es s ion s p r ovid e n o h elp . or of a d d in g em p h a s is . Yet . for ce is a w a y of con veyin g con vict ion . or h elp t o pu t a n excla m a t ion m a r k a t t h e en d of a st r on g st a t em en t . per su a sive. r a is in g you r p it ch (bu t n ot you r volu m e) on t h e u n d er lin ed wor d s . a s in d ica t ed : Wh a t a m I doin g? Wh a t a m I doin g? Wh a t a m I d o i n g ? Wh a t a m I d o i n g ? In flect ion is t h e key t o expr ession of m ood. fu lln es s of t on e (or bod y). u n lik e r a t e. d et a ch ed m a n n er of a s p ea k er wh o is con s is t en t ly ca lm . Use sligh t u pwa r d in flect ion wit h in t h e sen t en ce t o in dica t e t h a t t h e t h ou gh t is n ot yet com plet e. q u ie t . You ca n t h en dr ive h om e a poin t wit h power a n d T o com m u n ica t e . F or ce in volves r a t e. a n d p r op er r egu la t ion of lou d n es s . a n d con vict ion of t h e spea ker . r ea d a lou d a n d com m u n ica t e you r em ot ion s. To pr a ct ice u sin g in flect ion . G e n e r a lly. U s in g in flect ion ca n m ove a n a u d ien ce t o t ea r s or la u gh t er a n d cr ea t e a la s t in g im p r es s ion . List en er s will n ot r espon d t o a spea ker wh o sh ou t s a n d is in sen sit ive t o t h eir feelin gs. p a u s e s . a n d in flect ion p lu s ca r r yin g p ower . U s in g a t a p e r ecor d er is a good wa y t o im p r ove in flect ion beca u s e you m u s t com m u n ica t e em ot ion en t ir ely t h r ou gh you r voice. feelin g a ls o p r od u ces good in flect ion . L ik e r a t e . a n d in flect ion . st r en gt h . H owever . In flect ion is t h e pr in cipa l differ en ce bet ween ju st sa yin g wor ds a n d s p ea k in g id ea s wit h m ea n in g. D o w n w a r d a n d u p w a r d i n fl e c t i o n . S a y t h e qu es t ion t o you r s elf.

Th a t will r esu lt in con vin cin g a n d a u t h or it a t ive pr esen t a t ion s. T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m o n d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h f o r c e h a v e a c c o m p a n y i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f or im p r ove m e n t : L a c k o f v o l u m e . voice. Ma ke a h a bit of con st a n t ly eva lu a t in g E YE CON TACT Th e m ost power fu l elem en t of in st r u ct or pr esen ce in fr on t of a cla ss is dir ect eye con t a ct wit h you r a u dien ce. r a t e. Th r ou gh you r gest u r es. Avoid t h e com m on p it fa ll of 39 . Recor d you r voice so t h a t you ca n h ea r h ow you sou n d t o ot h er s. Wh e n you s p e a k w it h in cr ea s ed volu m e. Th is t im e in t er va l is a p p r op r ia t e for p er s on a l con t a ct wit h ou t bein g over bea r in g or cr ea t in g som e level of discom for t for in dividu a l st u den t s. S econ d . bu t st u dy h ow t h ey u se t h eir voices t o give m ea n in g t o t h eir wor ds a n d em ph a sis t o t h eir idea s. Develop t h e h a bit of pa yin g a t t en t ion t o t h e sou n d of you r own voice so t h a t you ca n ju dge wh et h er you a r e bein g h ea r d . t w o m e t h od s w ill im p r ove a ll a s p e ct s of you r s p e a k in g voice . lis t en clos ely t o p olis h ed spea ker s on t elevision . sh ou t in g. E a ch st u den t s h ou ld h a ve you r d ir ect eye con t a ct s ever a l t im es d u r in g a n in s t r u ct ion a l p er iod . a n d p a u s es . su ch a s popu la r n ewsca st er s. Don ’t t r y t o im it a t e t h em exa ct ly. t h e y w ill m ot iva t e you t o in cr e a s e you r volu m e . T h e n you ca n com m u n ica t e m a in a n d s u bor d in a t e id ea s by s t r es s in g k ey wor d s a n d p h r a s es u s in g volu m e. eye con t a ct . you ca n con vey for ce t o you r list en er s. you per son a lize t h e lesson bein g pr esen t ed a n d st im u la t e t h e desir e for t h em t o list en m or e in t en t ly. P r a ct ice lower in g t h e p it ch of you r voice wit h ou t d r op p in g t h e volu m e. F ir s t . h ow you u se t h e speech fa ct or s list ed in t h is sect ion . Ma k e a n d m a in t a in t h is eye con t a ct for 3 t o 5 s econ d s . lis t en t o you r s elf d a ily a s you in st r u ct a n d ca su a lly con ver se wit h you r con t em por a r ies. D ro p p in g v o lu m e a t e n d o f w o rd s o r s e n te n c e s . S ca n t h e en t ir e cla s s wit h ou t d evelop in g a m ech a n ica l p a t t er n . wild gest u r in g. Bu t you r list en er s will n eit h er h ea r you n or see you u n less you pr oject wor ds a n d a ct ion s wit h a vit a lit y a n d st r en gt h of con vict ion . Rea d a lou d. Dr oppin g volu m e u s u a lly r es u lt s wh en a spea ker in cor r ect ly a ssocia t es a dr op in volu m e wit h down wa r d in flect ion . you will be a ble t o feel you r d ia p h r a gm wor k in g. a n d con cen t r a t e on pr oject in g ever y wor d in a t h ou gh t or idea t o a n im a gin a r y list en er sea t ed in t h e ba ck of t h e r oom . or vu lga r la n gu a ge. s e l e ct s om e on e i n t h e b a ck of t h e r oom a n d con cen t r a t e on m a kin g h im or h er h ea r you .let s ilen ce u n d er lin e t h e s ign ifica n ce of you r wor d s . p it ch . By lookin g dir ect ly in t h e eyes of ea ch of you r st u den t s. m ovem en t . Sin ce t h ese exer cises will m a ke you a wa r e of t h e d is t a n ce in volve d . a n d ch oice of wor ds. To em ph a size m a in poin t s a n d k ey wor ds. Reh ea r se in a n em pt y cla ssr oom a n d spea k t o a n im a gin a r y per son in t h e ba ck of t h e r oom . F or ce is kn owin g wh a t you wa n t t o sa y a n d t h en sa yin g it wit h im p licit fir m n es s a n d u n d en ia ble con fid en ce. F a ilu re to g iv e e m p h a s is to m a in p o in ts o r k e y w o rd s . h ow e ve r . T o i n cr e a s e v ol u m e . F or ce is n ot lou dn ess. you m u st fir st k n ow you r su bject well. Th eir t ech n iqu es of speech m a ke t h em good m odels for st u dy. S P EECH IMP R OVE ME N T T h is ch a p t e r h a s a d d r e s s e d s p e cific w a ys t o cor r e ct com m on d ifficu lt ie s .

As you r s k ill a n d exp er ien ce in cr ea s e. h a n ds. Ma ke su r e t h e im a ge you pr esen t a n d you r body m ovem en t s GESTURES A gest u r e is a n a t u r a l m ovem en t of a n y pa r t of t h e body t h a t con veys a t h ou gh t or em ot ion or r ein for ces or a l expr ession . Sh ow a vigor ou s pu n ch by st r ik in g wit h you r fist . 40 . t h ey s h ou ld a r is e spon t a n eou sly fr om en t h u sia sm a n d con vict ion . P la n you r m ovem en t so t h a t you a r e a t t h e pr oper pla ce a t t h e pr oper t im e. pla n m ovem en t so t h a t you a r e a t t h e m a ch in e wh en it sh ou ld be t u r n ed on . s t r e n gt h e n you r com m u n ica t ion . or st r a in ed. Des cr ip t ive ges t u r es p or t r a y a n object or illu s t r a t e a n a ct ion . sh ow h eigh t by h oldin g you r h a n d a t t h e desir ed level. s h a p e. ges t u r es will a d d t o t h e effect iven ess of you r speech if you r ela x you r sh ou lder s. a n d h a n ds a n d con cen t r a t e on com m u n ica t in g t o t h e a u d ien ce t h e m ea n in g a n d im p or t a n ce of you r id ea s . skilled pa n t om im ic a ct or s ca n t ell com plica t ed st on es in volvin g m a n y ch a r a ct er s H owever . t h r ou gh p h ys ica l m ove m e n t a lon e . Wh en t h e ges t u r e is n a t u r a l. posed. F eed ba ck p r ovid es you wit h t h e op p or t u n it y t o ju d ge you r effect iven es s a n d m a k e n eces s a r y a dju st m en t s a s discu ssed la t er in t h is ch a pt er . or m ovem en t of a n object by im it a t ion . If t h e gest u r e is a r t ificia l. em ph a sizes. sh ow speed by a qu ick sweep of you r a r m . Lea r n t o m odify t h e degr ee of m ovem en t t o m a ke it n a t u r a l a n d m ea n in gfu l. su ch a s a “V” for m ed wit h t wo fin ger s a s a sym bol of vict or y. it det r a ct s r a t h er t h a n r ein for ces . you r m ovem en t will becom e less obviou s a n d m or e m ea n in gfu l. wh en u sin g a n over h ea d pr oject or wit h a t r a n spa r en cy. pla n m ovem en t so t h a t you a r e a t t h e cu r t a in con t r ol poin t a t t h e t im e t h e cu r t a in sh ou ld be open ed. a r m s. U s e you r h a n d s t o s ign a m essa ge. Rega r d les s of you r p er s on a lit y. com m u n ica t in g. P r a ct ice ges t u r es a s a n a t u r a l p a r t of you r s p ea k in g m a n n er . F or exa m ple. wh en you n eed t o open t h e cu r t a in s. An ot h e r im p or t a n t r e a s on for look in g d ir ect ly a t you r s t u d en t s is t o obs er ve t h eir n on ver ba l r ea ct ion s t o you r in s t r u ct ion . a n d fa cia l expr ession s a r e you r pr in cipa l t ools of gest u r e. M a in t a in in g e ffe ct ive e ye con t a ct e n h a n ce s you r cr e d ib ilit y. P a n t om im e a com p lica t ed or h u m or ou s m ovem en t a s you d es cr ibe it . bu t do n ot keep on t h e m ove a ll t h e t im e. Do n ot r em a in glu ed t o on e spot . You r a r m s. Th e ba sic r u le in m ovem en t is m oder a t ion . Des cr ibe t h e s ize. Movem en t is t h e m ot ion of t h e wh ole bod y a s you t r a vel a bou t t h e cla s s r oom . it is effect ive. Movem en t ca n h elp you con vey t h ou gh t s t o you r a u d ien ce. a n d cla r ifies ver ba lly exp r es s ed id ea s . BODY MOVE ME N T B e ca u s e b od y m ove m e n t is s o e a s ily a d a p t a b le for Body m ovem en t is a n im por t a n t pa r t of su ccessfu l com m u n ica t ion . Movem en t a t t r a ct s t h e a t t en t ion of t h e list en er beca u se t h e eye in st in ct ively follows m ovin g object s a n d focu s es on t h em . it r ein for ces. you r a ct ion s wh ile in st r u ct in g m u st r ein for ce r a t h er t h a n con t r a dict you r wor ds.t a lkin g t o t h e ch a lkboa r d or visu a l a id pa n el or t o a n y ot h er t r a in in g a id you m a y be u sin g. You r gest u r es will depen d t o a la r ge ext en t on wh et h er you r per son a lit y is vigor ou s a n d d yn a m ic or ca lm a n d ea s ygoin g.

r em em ber t h a t you a r e n eit h er a wood en s t a t u e n or a clown .F ig u re 5-2. t h e m or e you will in flu en ce you r lis t en er s . F in a lly. F a cia l expr ession is a t ype of gest u r e. su ch a s joy. deject ion . 41 . Th e m or e n a t u r a l you a p p ea r a n d a ct . Th e cla s s r oom is n o p la ce for a p ok er fa ce. t h en u se you r in t en sit y on ly on key idea s. You a r e a h u m a n bein g. a n d poise. Over com e t h is pr oblem by r ela xin g a ll over . F a cia l expr ession s sh ow m a n y feelin gs. you r fa ce m u st sh ow wh a t you a r e feelin g a n d t h in kin g. An ot h er com m on d ifficu lt y is t h e u s e of a con s t a n t ly in t en s e exp r es s ion . To ch a n ge op in ion s or t o in s p ir e or in t er es t p eop le.-B o d y m o v e m e n t a n d g e s tu re s to a v o id . Th e m ost com m on fa u lt in fa cia l expr ession is t h e dea dpa n fa ce t h a t sh ows a t ot a l la ck of expr ession . a n ger . u s u a lly m a n ifest ed by a fr own .

T h e t w o s ou r ce s of sin cer it y a r e a per son a l. a n d plen t y of voca l for ce. e a r n e s t d e s ir e t o con vin ce t h e a u d ien ce of t h e t r u t h a n d va lu e of a n idea . Th e fir st of t h ese sou r ces is idea l beca u se in t en se per son a l belief is n a t u r a l sin cer it y t h a t sh ows in you r ever y wor d or gest u r e. It is belief in you r a bilit y t o per for m a t a sk well. it is t h e wa y you sh ow you r belief in you r su bject ! H ow you sh ow en t h u sia sm is gover n ed by you r per son a lit y. Con fiden ce is a per son a l a t t it u de or feelin g of a ssu r a n ce. E N TH U S IAS M E n t h u s ia s m is t h e ou t wa r d m a n ifes t a t ion of s in cer it y a n d con fid en ce. f r o m t h e s p e a k e r ’s is t h e a p p a r en t p oin t of vie w . you will pr esen t it in a n h on est a n d for t h r igh t m a n n er . F r om t h e s p ea k er ’s st a n dpoin t . Th e fou r s p e cific in d ica t or s of a good s p e a k i n g a t t i t u d e a r e s i n ce r i t y . a n d h u m or . it is n ot ph on y. By sh owin g t h a t you believe in wh a t you sa y. To be con fiden t a n d con t r ol st a ge fr igh t r equ ir es t wo pr er equ isit es: kn owledge of t h e su bject a n d belief in you r a bilit y t o spea k. e m ot i on i n d i ca t e s h ow y ou fe e l a b ou t a l l t h a t s u r r ou n d s y ou --i t At t it u d e s h ow s y ou r a t t i t u d e . you h a ve a m or e su bdu ed n a t u r e. a r a pid r a t e of speech . a n d t h e effect ive u s e of t h e voice a n d body t o r ein for ce a n d em ph a size idea s. It h a s a n em ot ion a l im pa ct on ot h er s. en t h u sia sm . If you kn ow you r t ea ch in g m a t er ia l is va lu a ble. h ea r . on t h e ot h er h a n d.ATTITU D E You r speech r evea ls h ow you feel a b ou t w h a t y ou s a y . If you a r ea vigor ou s a n d dyn a m ic per son . you con vin ce you r st u den t s of t h e im por t a n ce of t h e su bject . Th u s. Sin cer it y. p r op er com bin a t ion of h u m ilit y a n d a u t h or it y. en er get ic m ovem en t . in t en se belief in you r su bject a n d a belief in t h e va lu e of you r su bject t o you r list en er s. con fiden ce. en t h u sia sm is a st r on g per son a l excit em en t or feelin g a bou t a ca u se or a su bject . you will m ove a n d gest u r e wit h less en er gy a n d spea k in m or e m ea su r ed 42 . a n d feel t h a t you believe in wh a t you sa y. fa cia l expr ession s. If. Rem em ber t h a t st u den t s m u st see. Ra t h er . a ffect s t h e wor ds you u se. Th e s econ d s ou r ce is m or e r a t ion a l t h a n em ot ion a l. T h e s e r equ ir em en t s a r e en t ir ely u p t o you t o a ccom p lis h in you r own wa y. You will n ot r ely on gim m ick s or qu es t ion a ble r ea s on in g t o m a k e you r p r e s e n t a t ion look good . Sin cer it y sh ows in a n u m ber of wa ys: dir ect n ess of m a n n er . it is n ot wa vin g of t h e a r m s a n d lea pin g a bou t on t h e pla t for m . You obt a in k n owled ge of a s u bject t h r ou gh B e lie f in you r a b ilit y com e s fr om r e h e a r s a l a n d e xp e r ie n ce . you m a y sh ow en t h u sia sm by br isk. widely-va r yin g in flect ion . r esea r ch a n d st u dy. E n t h u sia sm is n ot sh ou t in g. over dr a m a t ic speech . sweepin g gest u r es. cla r it y of exp la n a t ion .

m a k e m or e u s e of t h e p a u s e for effect . r eleva n t jokes cer t a in ly h a ve a p la ce in good in st r u ct ion . Clea n h u m or is a s Am er ica n a s t h e h ot dog a n d will oft en a ssist st u den t lea r n in g. bu t con fiden t a n d a u t h or it a t ive m a n n er . fr ow n s . Wh en you s ee a s t u d en t ’ fa ce ligh t u p. or sim ply s m ile . You m a y oft e n obs er ve s t u d en t s a t t h e ver y m om en t t h ey ga in n ew k n owled ge. In a ddit ion t o decen cy. St u den t s m a y r esen t h a vin g a cla ssm a t e sin gled ou t . H a vin g a s en s e of h u m or d oes n ot n ecessa r ily im ply a n a bilit y t o t ell fu n n y jokes. you a r e seein g u n der st a n din g t a ke pla ce. 43 . o f com m u n i ca t i on s s k i l l s . y o u r P u zzled a n d wh isper ed qu est ion s bet ween st u den t s in dica t e t h a t y ou h a v e n ot com m u n i ca t e d effect ively. a lt h ou gh t a st efu l. T a k e a d va n t a ge of u n e xp e ct e d h u m or ou s cla ssr oom sit u a t ion s t h a t som et im es a r ise--m a k e a br ief com m en t . a n d m a in t a in a ca lm . in h u m a n . HUMOR You m a y be a sin cer e. Th e st u den t s h a ve u n con sciou sly sh own sign s of a la ck of u n der st a n din g.t on es . S t u d en t s ca n a ls o s en d s ign s of p os i t i v e fe e d b a ck . H u m or sh ows t h a t you a r e. Th e obs er va t ion of t h es e s ign s a n d t h eir on -t h e-s p ot a n a lys is is ca lled feedba ck. plea sa n t . M os t p e op l e l a u g h w h e n s om e on e im p or t a n t is r ecep t ive t o bein g t h e object of good h u m or . Most in st r u ct or s sh ow en t h u sia sm by com bin in g ch a r a ct er ist ics fr om bot h of t h ese st yles. con fiden t . yet st ill la ck t h e h u m or n eeded for effect ive in st r u ct ion . You will u s e for ce on ly on t h e k ey wor d s a n d id ea s . or ver y con ceived. you will seem u n r ea l. Ta ke ca r e n ot t o dir ect h u m or a t a specific per son . F EED B ACK O b s e r v a t i on of y ou r s t u d e n t s p r ovid e s im p or t a n t fe e d b a ck t h a t w i l l h e l p y ou i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e e ffe ct i v e n e s s b r ow s . Th a t a ga in u n der lin es t h e im por t a n ce of m a in t a in in g good eye con t a ct wit h you r st u den t s. lively in t er es t in a ll t h a t goes on a r ou n d you . If you la ck a sen se of h u m or . H u m or d ir e ct e d a t you r s e lf is ve r y e ffe ct ive . ju st a n ot h er h u m a n bein g a n d t h a t you h a ve a wa r m . a ft er a ll. A m or e e ffe ct ive t yp e of h u m or is s p on t a n e ou s h u m or . t h e on ly r u le t o follow in u sin g h u m or is good ju dgm en t . Th is p os it ive feed ba ck is on e of t h e m os t p er s on a lly r ewa r d in g exp er ien ces of a n in s t r u ct or . pa u se. Be su r e you r h u m or is good n a t u r ed a n d ligh t ly don e. a n d en t h u sia st ic in st r u ct or .

” wh ich is u n d er s t a n d a ble. Becom in g skillfu l in t h e a r t of qu est ion in g will in cr ea se you r effect iven ess a s a n in st r u ct or . 44 . t h a t is p r oba bly wh a t you r in s t r u ct or s d id . You ca n s ee t h e s t u d en t s get on ly on e-t h ir d of t h e r espon se t im e in t h ose cla ssr oom s.F e e d b a ck is im p or t a n t b e ca u s e it in d ica t e s h ow you m u s t a d ju s t you r in s t r u ct ion t o com m u n ica t e effect ively. OR AL QU E S TION S F or t wo-wa y com m u n ica t ion t o t a ke pla ce bet ween you a n d t h e st u den t s. Th e gr ea t es t r es ou r ce for en h a n cin g you r cla s s r oom in s t r u ct ion is t h e s t u d en t s t h em s elves . it is cr it ica l t o t h e su ccess of t h e in st r u ct ion a l m ission . t h e in st r u ct or . m or e im por t a n t ly. You ca n defea t t h e wh ole pu r pose of t h e qu est ion in g t ech n iqu e by u sin g it im pr oper ly. s om eon e is t a lk in g t wo-t h ir d s of t h e t im e. t h en you m u st m odify you r in s t r u ct ion a l a p p r oa ch . qu est ion s a r e on ly a s effect ive a s t h e m a n n er in wh ich t h ey a r e u sed. Th r ou gh good qu est ion in g t ech n iqu es. Qu est ion s a dd va r iet y t o a lesson a n d r equ ir e a ct ive st u den t in volvem en t . so m a ke su r e you lea r n h ow t o u se qu est ion s pr oper ly. you ca n develop som e degr ee of skill by s et t in g you r s elf a goa l for im p r ovem en t a n d t h en p r a ct icin g con s t a n t ly. S t u d ies s h ow t h a t in a t yp ica l cla s s r oom . If you don ’t h a ve a n a t u r a l kn a ck for or a l qu est ion in g. im p lem en t ed . Tr a in in g is m ost effect ive a n d lea r n in g m or e per m a n en t wh en t h e st u den t s t a ke a n a ct ive pa r t in t h e pr ocess. E ffect ive u se of qu es t ion s will r es u lt in m or e s t u d en t lea r n in g t h a n a n y ot h er s in gle t ech n iqu e. If t h e st u den t s h a ve obviou sly n ot lea r n ed. You will fin d t h a t you h a ve a n a t u r a l com pu lsion t o “t ell. st u den t lea r n in g. F eed ba ck m a k es t h e lea r n in g p r oces s a n in t er com m u n ica t ion bet ween t h e s t u d en t s a n d t h e in st r u ct or . As a n in st r u ct or . Th e r espon sibilit y of a ct ive cla ss pa r t icipa t ion lies wit h you . or a l qu es t ion in g im p r oves effect iven es s a n d . Wh en p r op er ly p la n n ed . a lwa ys r em em ber t h a t on e pu r pose of qu est ion in g is t o h elp st u den t s get in volved in lea r n in g t h e m a t er ia l a t h a n d . A key poin t t o r em em ber is t h a t t h e in t en t of a qu est ion is t o elicit a r espon se. t h ou gh t -p r ovok in g qu es t ion s t h r ou gh ou t t h e les s on . Avoid over u sin g t h e qu est ion in g t ech n iqu e of a skin g “a r e t h er e a n y qu est ion s?” Th a t does n ot st im u la t e m u ch t h ou gh t or gen er a t e p r od u ct ive cla s s p a r t icip a t ion . Th e u s e of or a l qu es t ion s a llows you t o d et er m in e fr om t im e t o t im e if you a r e m a in t a in in g es s en t ia l com m u n ica t ion . a n d of t h a t t im e. a n d eva lu a t ed . S om e in s t r u ct or s h a ve m a s t er ed t h e t ech n iqu e of t ea ch in g a lesson a lm ost en t ir ely t h r ou gh t h e u se of or a l qu est ion s. H owever . Aft er a ll. t h e in s t r u ct or d oes t wo-t h ir d s of t h e t a lk in g. you m u st u se good. As su ch . Tr y t o decr ea se t h e a m ou n t of on e-wa y com m u n ica t ion in t h e cla ssr oom by a skin g qu est ion s a s m u ch a s you m a ke st a t em en t s. St u den t s n eed t o in t er a ct wit h t h e su bject m a t t er a n d t h e in st r u ct or du r in g t h e lesson s r a t h er t h a n ju st a t t est or per for m a n ce t im e. you ca n in cr ea se a n d im p r ove t h e a m ou n t of s t u d en t r es p on s es beyon d t h e on e-wor d con t r ibu t ion .

it a r ou ses in t er est in t h e su bject m a t t er . To per for m t h ose du t ies effect ively. You m a y fe e l d is s a t is fie d w it h t h e a n s w e r s a n d r e p r im a n d t h e s t u d e n t s for t h e ir la ck of a t t e n t ion a n d u n der st a n din g. it dr ills st u den t s on su bject m a t t er t h ey m u st r eca ll pr ecisely. m a y los e en t h u s ia s m a n d wit h d r a w fr om a ct ive p a r t icip a t ion . Th ir d. S t u d e n t s w h o d o n ot com p r e h e n d t h e t r u e m e a n in g of p oor ly p h r a s e d q u e s t ion s w ill h e s it a t e lon ge r t h a n u s u a l a n d t h e n give u n ce r t a in a n s w e r s . kn owin g t h a t t h ey h a ve a n swer ed u n sa t isfa ct or ily t h r ou gh n o fa u lt of t h eir own . Secon d. level of in st r u ct ion . t h e qu ickest a n d sim plest m ea n s is a ser ies of or a l qu est ion s. va gu e in m ea n in g. a n d k eep it clos ely t ied t o t h e s u bject m a t t er . S t u d en t s m a y va r y gr ea t ly in t h e qu a n t it y a n d qu a lit y of ba ck gr ou n d k n owled ge t h ey h a ve a cqu ir ed t h r ou gh pr eviou s t r a in in g a n d exper ien ce. Or a l qu est ion in g h a s t h r ee ot h er im por t a n t pu r poses: F ir st . You ca n a void fr u st r a t ion s of t h is kin d by pla n n in g you r qu est ion s well in a dva n ce a s well a s ca r efu lly ch oosin g a n d a r r a n gin g wor ds a n d ph r a ses. U s e qu es t ion s t o a ch ieve t h e followin g ben efit s : n Dis cover ea ch s t u d en t ’s in t er es t s . da t a . a n d d ep t h of k n owled ge.P U RP OS ES OF OR AL QU ES TION IN G T h e p r im a r y p u r p os e of or a l q u e s t ion in g is t o s t im u la t e t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h in k . O r a l q u e s t ion in g a ls o p r ovid e s you w it h a p r a ct ica l m e a n s for e s t a b lis h in g t h e le ve l of in s t r u ct ion . Use wor ds t h e s t u d en t s k n ow a n d u n d er s t a n d . As t h e cou r s e p r ogr es s es . u se of in t er r oga t ive. CH AR ACTE R IS TICS OF A GOOD OR AL QU ES TION Qu es t ion s t h a t a r e p oor ly wor d ed . cor r ect gr a m m a r . a n d in t er pr et fa ct s. or a m bigu ou s will fr u s t r a t e bot h you a n d t h e s t u d e n t s . a n d com plet e sen t en ces. Th e st u den t s. a ll of wh ich r equ ir e a h igh ca liber of t h in kin g. a n d cla r it y of m ea n in g. a n d sa fet y p r eca u t ion s. You m u st det er m in e t h e level of a ch ievem en t of t h e s t u d en t s befor e p r oceed in g wit h t h e p r es en t a t ion of n ew s u bject m a t t er . su ch a s cor r ect t er m in ology. a bilit ies . n R e vie w a n d s u m m a r ize im p or t a n t p oin t s . sa ilor s m u st be t r a in ed t o a n a lyze. in t r od u ce n ew t er m s a n d m or e t ech n ica l ph r a seology. u se sim ple wor ds. n Ar ou s e s t u d en t in t er es t in t h e s u bject m a t t er of t h e les s on . Le v e l o f In s t ru c t i o n In a skin g qu est ion s. com pa r e. 45 . N a vy r e q u i r e m e n t s ca l l for p e op l e w h o ca n op e r a t e com p l e x e q u i p m e n t a n d ca r r y ou t t h os e t r ou bles h oot in g a n d m a in t en a n ce p r oced u r es n eed ed t o k eep t h e equ ip m en t op er a t in g a t p ea k per for m a n ce. it focu ses a t t en t ion u pon a pa r t icu la r a r ea of t h e su bject m a t t er . a n d m et h ods. Th e con st r u ct ion of good or a l qu est ion s r equ ir es t h r ee con sider a t ion s. Alt h ou gh you m a y u se a pr et est or a qu est ion n a ir e for t h is pu r pose. n S t im u la t e d is cu s s ion . fu n ct ion s of p a r t s. a n d ch eck t h e effect iven es s of t h e in st r u ct ion . n Tes t s t u d en t s ’ k n owled ge of wh a t t h e les s on h a s cover ed .

As k well-s t a t ed . Ma k e you r qu es t ion s br ief.S. a n d lim it t h em t o on e t h ou gh t . Ma ke s u r e t h e wor d in g of t h e qu es t ion con veys t o t h e s t u d en t s t h e t r u e or in t en d ed m ea n in g. P la n qu est ion s t h a t r equ ir e st u den t s t o t h in k befor e a n swer in g. Secon d. Not e t h e im pr ovem en t in t h ese sa m e qu est ion s wh en t h e in t er r oga t or y wor d or ph r a se is pla ced a t t h e begin n in g: (1) Wh a t a r e t h e t wo sizes of fir eh os e u s ed m os t fr equ en t ly in t h e N a vy? a n d (2) By wh a t m ea n s ca n you d et er m in e wh et h er or n ot exp los ive or t oxic va p or s a r e in a com p a r t m en t ? Cla ri t y o f Me a n i n g Avoid t h e u se of ca t ch or t r ick qu est ion s a s a t ea ch in g device. T YP E S O F O R A L Q U E S T I O N S Use t h em in t h e in t r odu ct ion t o cr ea t e in t er est a n d focu s a t t en t ion on t h e su bject m a t t er a n d du r in g t h e lesson pr esen t a t ion t o en su r e s t u d en t u n d er s t a n d in g. bu t m a y p r ove in effect ive if you u s e t h em t oo oft en . r eeva lu a t e you r qu est ion s in ligh t of h ow t h e st u den t r espon ses con t r ibu t ed t o bet t er lea r n in g. F ir st . bu t “Wh er e a r e s t or m wa r n in gs flown ?” fa ils t o in dica t e wh a t poin t is bein g t est ed. Don ’t u se qu est ion s t h a t give a wa y t h e a n swer or U s e o f In t e rro g a t i v e im m edia t ely wh en you a r e a s k in g a qu es t ion . Th e st u den t s m u st u n der st a n d wh a t you wa n t . t h e st u den t s a r e expect in g a decla r a t ive st a t em en t . t h ou gh t -pr ovokin g a n d in t er est -a r ou sin g qu est ion s a s oft en a s you ch oose. Th en u s e t h em a t t h e en d of t h e p r es en t a t ion for r eview a n d d r ill pu r poses. u n d er cer t a in con d it ion s . F eel fr ee t o a sk fa ct u a l. n ot a qu est ion . Aft er ea ch lesson . “Wh en wa s t h e fir st U . especia lly for begin n er s. Lea r n t o u se or a l qu est ion s t h r ou gh ou t t h e lesson . Ot h er t ypes of qu est ion s m a y ser ve on e or m or e u sefu l pu r poses if u sed spa r in gly. t h a t st u den t s ca n a n swer wit h a sim ple yes or n o. F a c t u a l Qu e s t i o n Th e fa ct u a l qu est ion a sk s for sp ecific in for m a t ion . for exa m ple. r ega r dless of wh et h er t h ey kn ow t h e cor r ect a n swer . n u clea r power ed su bm a r in e bu ilt ?” Alt h ou gh t h e pr im a r y pu r pose of t h e fa ct u a l qu est ion is t o h elp s t u d en t s m em or ize fa ct s .Ask qu est ion s a t t im es t h a t su it you r pr esen t a t ion of cou r se m a t er ia l. h a ve im p or t a n t s econ d a r y 46 . “Wh er e a r e s t or m wa r n in gs flown a boa r d s h ip ?’ is a good qu es t ion . clea r ly u n d er s t ood qu es t ion s in a n or m a l con ver sa t ion a l t on e a s pa r t of t h e lesson . To in clu d e t oo m a n y fa ct or s in a s in gle qu es t ion con fu s es t h e s t u d en t s . Use t h e in t er r oga t or y wor d or ph r a se a t t h e begin n in g of you r qu est ion so t h a t st u den t s kn ow Let ’s con s id er t wo exa m p les wh er e t h is is n ot don e: (1) Th e t wo sizes of fir eh ose m ost fr equ en t ly u sed in t h e Na vy a r e wh a t ? a n d (2) You ca n d et er m in e wh et h er or n ot exp los ive va p or s a r e in a com p a r t m en t by wh a t m ea n s ? Qu est ion s wor ded in t h is wa y h a n dica ps t h e st u den t s in a t lea st t wo wa ys. t h ey ca n n ot iden t ify t h e m ea n in g of t h e qu est ion u n t il t h e fin a l wor ds a r e spoken . it m a y.

T h o u g h t -P r o v o k i n g Q u e s t i o n A t h ou gh t -pr ovokin g qu est ion n or m a lly begin s wit h su ch in t er r oga t or y expr ession s a s “Wh a t is t h e a dva n t a ge of. a n d t o a ssist in det er m in in g t h e level of in st r u ct ion . F or exa m ple. A m u lt iple-a n swer qu est ion gen er a t es a h igh in t er est level a n d im pr oves list en in g skills. 47 . a n d t h e ca n va s s in g qu es t ion . Th a t depen ds u pon you r in t en t ion in a skin g t h e qu est ion . Mu l t i p l e -An s w e r Q u e s t i o n A m u lt iple-a n swer qu est ion is on e t h a t h a s m or e t h a n on e cor r ect a n swer . s u ch a s “Wh y d o you believe t h a t t o be t r u e?” An excessive u se of yes or n o qu est ion s t en ds t o en cou r a ge st u den t s t o gu ess. you cou ld u se a fa ct u a l qu est ion t o a r ou se in t er est .pu r poses.” “Wh y is t h is m et h od con sider ed su per ior t o. a qu est ion in t en ded t o b e fa ct u a l m a y t u r n ou t t o b e t h ou gh t -p r ovok in g. en cou r a gin g st u den t pa r t icipa t ion . if you over est im a t e t h e kn owledge of you r st u den t s. t h ou gh t -p r ovok in g qu es t ion s on k ey les s on p oin t s in a d va n ce. Th e va lu e of t h is t ype of qu est ion is t h a t a s in gle q u e s t ion . “H ow m a n y Na vy sh ips wer e in volved in collision s a t sea du r in g t h e pa st yea r ?” Sin ce t h e qu est ion ca lls for a n exa ct n u m ber . t h ou g h t -p r ov ok i n g . or m u l t i p l e -a n s w e r q u e s t i on m a y a l s o b e on e t h a t i s in t er est -a r ou sin g. a qu es t ion in t en d ed t o be t h ou gh t -p r ovok in g m a y t u r n ou t t o be fa ct u a l. t o focu s a t t en t ion u pon cer t a in pa r t s of t h e su bject m a t t er .” “Wh a t is t h e differ en ce bet ween . Ye s /N o Qu e s t i o n Th e yes or n o qu est ion . As pr eviou sly m en t ion ed. st u den t s will dou bt less a t t em pt t o r eca ll t h e collision s a bou t wh ich t h ey h a ve r ea d or h ea r d. H owever . you a r e n ot in t er est ed in exa ct n u m ber s. a n d ser vin g a s a lea d -in t o ot h er k in d s of qu es t ion s . focu sin g a t t en t ion . Wh en a skin g a n in t er est -a r ou sin g qu est ion . I f you u n d er es t im a t e t h e s t u d en t s ’ k n owled ge. ca lls for a sim ple a n swer --yes or n o. A fa ct u a l . P r e p a r e good . s u p er ficia lly. of cou r se. Th is t ype of qu est ion h a s va lu e in a r ou sin g in t er est . exa ct n a m es of sh ips. t h e lea d in g qu es t ion . lik e a fa ct u a l qu es t ion . It ca n be u sed t o in cr ea se st u den t pa r t icipa t ion or ca u se st u den t s t o t h in k a bou t t h e ot h er st u den t s’ a n swer s.” a n d so for t h . h owever . n ot u pon it s for m or con t en t . cer t a in kin ds of qu est ion s a r e effect ive if u sed occa sion a lly bu t a r e det r im en t a l if u sed fr equ en t ly. In t e re s t -Aro u s i n g Qu e s t i o n An in t er es t -a r ou s in g qu es t ion m a y s ou n d . Typica l of t h ese t ypes of qu est ion s a r e t h e yes or n o qu est ion . You r m a in pu r pose in a sk in g t h e qu es t ion is t o focu s t h e s t u d en t s ’ a t t en t ion a n d get t h em t h in k in g a bou t t h e s u bject you a r e a bou t t o p r es en t .” “ H ow wou ld you solve t h e pr oblem if. or exa ct sit u a t ion s. p r op e r ly u s e d w ill s t im u la t e t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h in k .

em ph a sizin g t h e cor r ect a n swer . in a r ou sin g in t er est . r espon ses. a n d fin a lly. d is cou r a ge a n y r ea l t h in k in g a n d becom e bor in g t o t h e s t u d en t s . a n d in em ph a sizin g a poin t . Gen der bia s h a s a lso pla yed a sign ifica n t r ole in qu est ion in g t ech n iqu es wit h in t h e sch ool syst em . If you a r e t ea ch in g da m a ge con t r ol for in st a n ce. Ca n va ssin g qu est ion s ca n a lso h elp t o det er m in e cla ss level. P r ovide r em edia t ion t o bot h m a les a n d fem a les in coa ch in g t h em t h r ou gh in cor r ect Do n ot s p en d a n in or d in a t e a m ou n t of t im e t a k in g qu es t ion s fr om m a les a lon e. As m en t ion ed ea r lier .Le a d i n g Qu e s t i o n A lea din g qu est ion is on e t h a t su ggest s it s own a n swer . wou ld you ?” or “Th e 40m m gu n is la r ger t h a n t h e 20m m gu n . boys dem a n d m or e a t t en t ion a n d get it . le a d in g q u e s t ion s em ba r r a s s m en t of fa ilu r e in fr on t of t h e cla s s . You ca n a lso u se lea din g qu est ion s t o h elp t h e st u den t t h in k t h e m a t t er t h r ou gh t o t h e r igh t a n swer . q u e s t ion . lea din g qu est ion s h a ve va lu e in focu sin g a t t en t ion . S et t h e s a m e s t a n d a r d s for r es p on d in g t o qu es t ion s a n d en for ce t h em u n ifor m ly. t ea ch er s a r e m or e lik ely t o ca ll on t h em t h a n gir ls. a n d les s s p ecific com m en t s a bou t t h eir p er for m a n ce. a r e d u ct ion in s t e r e ot yp in g. Ca n v a s s i n g Qu e s t i o n Use a ca n va ssin g qu est ion t o det er m in e t h ose wh o a r e fa m ilia r wit h a specific a r ea of su bject m a t t er . a n d in cr e a s e d a ca dem ic a ch ievem en t . Wh en boys ca ll ou t a n swer s. you will ga in cu lt u r a lly-sen sit ive cla ss a n d cu r r icu lu m in clu de m or e fa vor a b le a t t it u d e s t ow a r d ot h e r gr ou p s . K n ow t h a t fe m a l e s m a y b e h e s i t a n t t o r e s p on d t o q u e s t i on s . If you n ot ice st u den t s gr opin g for t h e r igh t a n swer . “You wou ldn ’t sm oke in t h e pa in t locker . for exa m ple. t ea ch er s u su a lly list en wh ile t h e sa m e beh a vior exh ibit ed by gir ls is cor r ect ed. pa u sin g. u s e t h e l e a d i n g q u e s t i on t o h e l p a w k w a r d s t u d e n t s . Th e im plica t ion for you a s a n in st r u ct or is t o be a wa r e t h ese beh a vior s will con t in u e in cla ss u n less you cor r e ct t h e m . b u t b y p r ov i d i n g a s a fe en vir on m en t for a ll you r st u den t s. fewer r em ed ia l com m en t s on t h eir wor k . TE CH N IQU E S OF OR AL QU E S TION IN G T h e AAUA R eport: H ow S ch ool S h ortch an ge Girls wa s a ddr essed ea r lier . Gir ls r eceive les s t ea ch er p r a is e. 48 . you m a y a sk “H ow m a n y of you h a ve been in volved in a n a ct u a l s h ip boa r d fir e?” A s h ow of h a n d s p r ovid e s in for m a t ion a b ou t s t u d en t exp er ien ces t h a t you m a y fin d u s efu l a s you r les s on p r ogr es s es . I t gives you a gr ea t oppor t u n it y t o br in g som e r ea l life exa m ples in t o you r lesson a n d t o pr ovide som e in dividu a l r ecogn it ion for st u den t con t r ibu t ion s. s a v i n g t h e m t h e I f u s e d t oo fr e q u e n t ly. P u t t im e a n d t h ou gh t in t o m a kin g ea ch st ep cou n t in t h e t ea ch in g pr ocess. eva lu a t in g t h e st u den t ’s a n swer . O cca s ion a lly. F i v e S t e p Qu e s t i o n i n g Te c h n i q u e A r ecom m en d ed t ech n iqu e of or a l qu es t ion in g con s is t s of five s t ep s : a s k in g t h e qu es t ion . E ven wh en boys do n ot volu n t eer . isn ’t it ?” If u sed pr oper ly. ca llin g u pon a st u den t . a sk a qu est ion t h a t d ir ect s t h eir a t t en t ion t o in for m a t ion t h ey k n ow bu t h a ve over look ed in a n s wer in g t h e T h a t h a s va lu e w h e n u s e d s k illfu lly b e ca u s e it b u ild s a s t u d e n t ’s con fid e n ce .

con sider bot h t h e d ifficu lt y of t h e qu es t ion a n d t h e in d ivid u a l a bilit ies of s t u d en t s . Do n ot r ep ea t t h e qu es t ion or ch a n ge t h e wor d in g of t h e qu es t ion u n les s n eces s a r y. Th a t a llows t h e r est W h e n y ou of t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e la x a n d n ot for m u la t e a n a n s w e r . Alt h ou gh you m a y n ot ca ll u pon ever y st u den t . Th a t en cou r a ges e a ch member an of t h e cla s s a n swer . I d e n t ifyin g the F ig u re 5-3. Va r y t h e du r a t ion of t h e pa u se depen din g on t h e difficu lt y of t h e qu est ion a n d t h e level of t h e s t u d en t s . St a t e t h e qu est ion clea r ly. Ach ie ve a b a la n ce b e t w e e n ca llin g on volu n t e e r r espon den t s a n d n on volu n t eer s. givin g on e cen t r a l t h ou gh t . Aft er pa u sin g for a r ea son a ble t im e. to for m u l a t e Ma n y i n s t r u ct or s m a k e t h e m i s t a k e of ca llin g on a s t u d en t befor e s t a t in g t h e qu est ion . Aft er a skin g a qu est ion . c a ll o n a s tu d e n t by n a m e t o a n swer t h e qu est ion . T h i s t h i n k i n g p r oce s s e n a b le s s t u d e n t s w h o you d o n ot select t o a n swer t h e qu est ion t im e t o t h in k s o t h a t t h ey m a y a d d t o t h e r e s p on s e . Wh en select in g a per son t o r espon d. r e s p on d e n t b e for e a s k in g t h e qu est ion m a y st a r t le a n d flu st er som e st u den t s so m u ch t h a t t h ey m a y n ot be a ble t o r espon d. S in ce t h e in t en t of qu es t ion in g is t o p r ovok e t h ou gh t . s t a t e t h e q u e s t ion fir s t a n d t h e n p a u s e for a few s econ d s . Allow on ly on e st u den t t o a n swer a t a t im e. bu t en cou r a ge a ll st u den t s t o pa r t icipa t e a n d volu n t eer a n swer s. T h a t s a t is fies a ba s ic s t u d en t n eed for r ecogn it ion . Th a t I f s t u d en t s feel you r ecogn ize t h eir in d ivid u a l effor t s.-F iv e s te p qu e s tio n in g te c h n iqu e . 49 . even if t h ey kn ow t h e a n swer . Con s is t en t ly a s s ign in g a difficu lt qu est ion t o a slower lea r n er will r em ot iva t e t h a t st u den t . a sk t h e qu est ion befor e ca llin g on a p er s on t o a n s wer . t h ey will pu t for t h gr ea t er effor t . Th e n ext s t ep is t o c o m m e n t on t h e give n a n s w e r or a ck n ow le d ge t h e r e s p on s e . Mos t in s t r u ct or s fa il t o p a u s e lon g en ou gh a ft er a s k in g t h eir qu es t ion s .The firs t step in good qu es t ion in g t ech n iqu es is t o s t a t e t h e q u e s t i o n . Spr ea d t h e qu est ion s a r ou n d wit h ou t es t a blis h in g a p r ed ict a ble p a t t er n . by pla cin g t h e in t er r oga t ive wor d a t t h e begin n in g of t h e st a t em en t t o a ler t st u den t s t h a t a qu est ion is com in g. F a st er lea r n er s will dom in a t e t h e cla ss if you d o n ot con t r ol s t u d e n t p a r t icip a t ion . p a u s e t o a llow t h e st u den t s t im e t o t h in k t h r ou gh t h eir a n swer s. Sca t t er in g qu est ion s a lso pr even t s m en t a l loa fin g. let s t u d en t s k n ow you expect t h em t o t a ke a n a ct ive pa r t . A p r ed ict a ble p a t t er n in clu d es ca llin g on s t u d en t s eit h er in a lp h a bet ica l or s ea t in g or d er or ca llin g u p on a s elect few wh os e n a m es you k n ow. Ca llin g on a st u den t t oo qu ickly is a s det r im en t a l a s ca llin g on t h e st u den t befor e a skin g t h e qu est ion . ever yon e w ill b e gin a ct ive ly t h in k in g of a n a n swer .

Avoid t h e t en den cy t o r epea t ea ch a n swer a s t h a t h a s t h e effect of dim in ish in g t h e st u den t ’s r espon se. 9 Som et im es you m a y n eed t o pr om pt a st u den t wh o h a s given a wea k. n Seek fu r t h er cla r ifica t ion wh en a st u den t gives a r espon se t h a t is poor ly or ga n ized. or in com plet e. Th e k ey t o effect ive pr om pt in g is t o begin on a sim ple en ou gh level t h a t t h e st u den t ca n r ela t e t o t h e m a t er ia l. a n d if p os s ible. r efer t o m a t er ia l t h e st u den t a lr ea dy kn ows. Th e fift h a n d la st st ep in t h e pr ocess. Be s u r e t o p r ovid e p os it ive r ein for cem en t for cor r ect a n s wer s .dem a n ds a ca r efu l a n d qu ick m en t a l eva lu a t ion of t h e a n swer for a ccu r a cy a n d com plet en ess. Do n ot over d o t h e r ein for cem en t . Ackn owledge t h e fin a l cor r ect st u den t r espon se in t h e sa m e m a n n er a s if t h e st u den t h a d given t h e cor r ect r espon se t h e fir st t im e. or a n “I don ’t kn ow” r espon se t o you r qu est ion . in cor r ect . Wh en a st u den t gives a n in cor r ect a n s wer . Rem em ber t h a t t h e st u den t ’s a n swer h a s a n im por t a n ce for t h e cla ss a s well a s for you . clu es. 50 . la ckin g in det a il. or va gu en es s in n Use t h e r ever se t ech n iqu e (a n swer in g a qu est ion wit h a qu est ion ) t o get st u den t s t o t h in k. be cr it ica l on ly of t h e a n s wer a n d n ot t h e s t u d en t . Th e s t r en gt h of t h e r ein for cem en t d ep en d s on t h e difficu lt y of t h e qu est ion a sked a n d t h e r ela t ive difficu lt y level for t h e st u den t select ed. a m bigu it y. Th is will en cou r a ge t h e qu iet er s t u d en t s t o r ep ly. bu t a s k t h e s t u d en t t o d o s o.” r ep h r a s e t h e qu es t ion or p r ovid e a n exa m p le t o elim in a t e a n y con fu s ion . Do n ot a llow t h e pr om pt in g t ech n iqu e t o r esu lt in st u den t ba dger in g. s t a t ed in t h e t er m in ology of t h e les s on . A s im p le “cor r ect ” or “t h a n k you ” m a y s u ffice. t h e or igin a l qu est ion . wh ich is opt ion a l. h ea r d by a ll. t h en p r ovid e a p p r op r ia t e r e cogn it ion for that s t u d e n t ’s con t r ib u t ion . In sist t h a t a n swer s be clea r ly spoken . To begin t h e sequ en ce. pr ovide r ein for cem en t by t ellin g t h e s t u d en t wh a t wa s r igh t . ph r a sed in t elligibly. Ot h e r Qu e s t i o n i n g Te c h n i q u e s Th e followin g t ech n iqu es m a y be u s ed in a d d it ion t o or in con ju n ct ion wit h t h e five s t ep qu est ion in g t ech n iqu e. Requ es t cla r ifica t ion wh en you believe t h e st u den t h a s gu essed a t a n a n swer by a skin g t h e st u den t t o ju st ify t h e a n swer . n F ocu s on t h e n on -volu n t eer s t u d en t s . E xa m p le : “W h at else can you ad d ?” I f t h e s t u d en t ’s fir s t a n s wer is “I d on ’t k n ow. a void eye con t a ct wit h t h e a ct ive p a r t icip a n t s wh en a s k in g a qu es t ion . As s ign a qu es t ion t o a s t u d en t wh o d oes n ot h a ve a h a n d r a is ed . Th en a s k p r om p t in g qu es t ion s u n t il t h e s t u d en t ca n give t h e en t ir e cor r ect r esp on se. a t t en t ion . H elp t h e st u den t t o a r r ive a t a cor r ect a n swer by a s k in g qu est ion s t h a t con t a in dir ect h in t s or clu es t o t h e cor r ect a n swer . Do n ot pr ovide t h e st u den t wit h a n y h in t s (pr om pt s). or a d d it ion a l in for m a t ion . a n d pa r t icipa t ion beca u se a ll st u den t s will kn ow you m a y ca ll on t h em r ega r dless of wh et h er t h ey volu n t eer . is t o e m p h a s i z e o r r e p e a t t h e a n s w e r given . Th e qu es t ion s in t h e p r om p t in g s equ en ce d ep en d on t h e s t u d en t ’s p r eviou s r espon se. T h is t e ch n iq u e w ill in cr e a s e cla s s in volvem en t . If t h e in it ia l st u den t r espon se wa s pa r t ia lly cor r ect . P r ovide feedba ck t o t h e r espon der a n d cla ss on t h e qu a lit y of t h e a n swer .

Rem em ber in g a n d a p p l y i n g e ffe ct i v e com m u n i ca t i on a n d or a l q u e s t i on i n g t e ch n i q u e s w i l l i m p r ov e y ou r pr esen t a t ion s a n d a ssist you r st u den t s in lea r n in g t h e m a t er ia l. Th is t ech n iqu e h elps st u den t s t o con sider t h e im plica t ion s of t h eir r espon se wit h in a br oa d er fr a m ewor k by n ot in g r ela t ion s h ip s wit h ot h er t op ics s t u d ied . you give a n im pr ession t o you r cla ss fr om you r a ppea r a n ce. You m u s t b e a n e n t h u s ia s t ic. speech . E xa m ple: Th e st u den t a sk s. a n d over a ll m a n n er ever y t im e you pr esen t a lesson . h a bit s. SUMMARY As a n in st r u ct or . a n d d is cover t h e a n s wer t o t h eir own qu es t ion s . Th is im pr ession h a s a st r on g im pa ct on t h e lea r n in g pr ocess. w h at ord er w ou ld you h ave given ?” n U s e a r e d ir e ct e d q u e s t ion t o in cr e a s e cla s s in volve m e n t a n d p r ovid e r e cogn it ion for st u den t s’ a n swer in g qu est ion s. A r edir ect ed qu est ion occu r s wh en you a ssign a qu est ion a sked by on e st u den t t o a n ot h er m em ber of t h e cla ss for a n swer in g. “Wh y d id th e Ch ief give th at ord er?” T h e in s t r u ct or m igh t r e s p on d . You con t r ol t h e en er gy a n d d yn a m ics of t h e lea r n in g p r oces s . Not e: Never u se t h is t ech n iqu e u n less you kn ow t h e a n swer a n d believe t h e st u den t t o wh om you r edir ect t h e qu es t ion a ls o k n ows t h e a n s wer . 51 . qu est ion s. “If you w ere in th e sam e situ ation . p os it ive m ot iva t or in you r cla s s r oom .m a k e a s s ocia t ion s . n Use t h e t ech n iqu e of r efocu sin g wh en you wa n t t h e st u den t t o r ela t e a cor r ect a n swer t o a n ot h er t opic.

Th e lect u r e m et h od is a n efficien t w a y t o i n t r od u ce a n e w t op i c of study or pr esen t b a ck g r ou n d m a t e r ia l s t u d e n t s n e e d for fu t u r e cla sses. I n m a n y ca ses a com bin a t ion of m et h ods a r e u sed t o in t en sify t h e lea r n in g exper ien ces. In fa ct .CHAP TER 6 IN S TR U CTION AL ME TH OD S INTRODUCTION Th e d efin it ion of in s t r u ct ion a l m et h od s is “a n ed u ca t ion a l a p p r oa ch for t u r n in g k n owled ge in t o lea r n in g. or pr in ciples. a u dien ce size is essen t ia lly u n lim it ed. les s on . con cept s. t h er e is m or e t h a n on e m et h od t o u se in t r a in in g you r st u den t s. As a n in st r u ct or . Likewise. a n d d is cu s s ion . LECTURE T h e l e ct u r e m et h od is an of in s t r u ct ion a l p r e s e n t a t ion in for m a t ion . A lect u r e a llows in st r u ct or s t o p r e s e n t a s u b j e ct t o a l a r g e a u dien ce beca u se t h ey u se n o visu a ls a n d t h er e is n o in t er a ct ion bet ween t h e st u den t s a n d t h e in st r u ct or . lect u r e wit h a u d iovis u a ls . for pu r poses of t h is ch a pt er t h e m et h ods a r e discu ssed a s sequ en ced a bove. A le ct u r e m a y b e pr esen t ed t o t h ou sa n ds of per son s a t a t im e t h r ou gh t h e u se of t h e closed 52 . I t s m a in p u r p os e is t o p r e s e n t a la r ge a m ou n t of in for m a t ion in a s h or t p er iod of t im e. wit h t h e u s e of clos ed -cir cu it t elevision . You h a ve a ll h ea r d t h e old sa yin g t h a t t h er e is m or e t h a n on e wa y t o skin a ca t .” In st r u ct ion a l m et h ods a r e t h e “h ow t o” in t h e deliver y of t r a in in g. d em on s t r a t ion . r ole-p la yin g. you n eed t o u n der st a n d t h e followin g m et h ods a n d you r r espon sibilit ies in u sin g t h em : lect u r e. Th e le s s on m e t h od a n d t h e d e m on s t r a t ion m e t h od a r e t h e t w o m os t com m on ly u s e d in N a vy t r a in in g. ca s e s t u d y. Th e m et h ods u sed in a n y lea r n in g sit u a t ion a r e p r im a r ily d ict a t ed by t h e lea r n in g object ives d ecid ed u p on by t h e cou r s e d evelop er s . H owever .

Ma ke su r e you h a ve a n in -dept h kn owledge of t h e su bject m a t t er . You s im p ly ca n n ot get s om e id ea s a cr os s t o st u den t s wit h ou t t h e u se of visu a l a ids. Th e les s on m et h od in volves exa ct ly wh a t it s n a m e im p lie s --t e a ch in g a le s s on . you will follow a les s on p la n wr it t en by cu r r icu lu m developer s. con cep t s . it in volves t h e u s e of t wo-wa y com m u n ica t ion . you m u s t p r e p a r e p r op e r ly. Th e lesson m et h od is in t er a ct ive in n a t u r e. Sin ce you r expla n a t ion of t h e visu a l a ids will r equ ir e you t o u se effect ive in st r u ct or t ech n iqu es. Wh en u s in g t h e les s on m et h od . if you ca n see t h em . As you lea r n ed in t h e “P r in ciples of Lea r n in g” t opic. R e m e m b e r . decide wh ich on es you will u se. Sin ce t h e lect u r e m et h od depen ds pr im a r ily on st u den t list en in g a n d n ot e-t a kin g skills for t h e t r a n sfer of lea r n in g. t h in k h ow difficu lt a n expla n a t ion of t h e op er a t ion of t h e in t er n a l com bu s t ion en gin e wou ld be wit h ou t t h e u s e of vis u a l a id s . Na vy t r a in in g fr equ en t ly u ses t h is in s t r u ct ion a l m et h od of p r es en t in g in for m a t ion . LECTU RE WI T H AU D IOVIS U ALS A lect u r e wit h a u diovisu a ls in clu des visu a l a n d/or a u dio a ids. LES S ON Th e m os t oft en u s ed m et h od of cla s s r oom in s t r u ct ion wit h in N a vy t r a in in g is t h e les s on m et h od. Sin ce you r a u dien ce will qu ickly get bor ed wit h n o a ct ive pa r t in t h e in st r u ct ion . Th e visu a l a ids you u se ca n r edu ce t h e a m ou n t of expla n a t ion t im e r equ ir ed for st u den t s t o gr a sp con cept s. st r u ct u r es. You r spea kin g skills ca n h elp you over com e s om e of t h e m a jor s h or t com in gs of n o a ct ive s t u d en t p a r t icip a t ion .cir cu it t elevision (CCTV) syst em . t h e on ly fe e d b a ck you w ill ge t is t h e n on ve r b a l com m u n ica t ion s fr om you r a u dien ce. T h a t in clu d e s pr a ct icin g wit h t h e a ct u a l visu a l a ids in t h e pla ce you will be u sin g t h em . P la n you r t im in g of t h e u se of visu a l a ids t o keep t h e st u den t s’ a t t en t ion a n d t o st r ess im por t a n t poin t s. You will in cor por a t e qu est ion s in t o you r lesson t o en cou r a ge st u den t t h in k in g a n d ch eck for u n d er s t a n d in g t h r ou gh ou t t h e les s on . well or ga n ized . a n d t o t h e p oin t . Lect u r es sh ou ld be sh or t . E ven t h ou gh you h a ve a les s on p la n . a n d p r in cip les . Th is m et h od n ot on ly in clu des a u dio/visu a l a id s . m ost lea r n in g t a kes pla ce t h r ou gh t h e sen se of sigh t . a n d t e a ch in g a le s s on in volve s m u ch m or e t h a n ju s t p r es en t in g in for m a t ion . a pply t h e la ws of lea r n in g in you r pr epa r a t ion a n d deliver y. It follows t h en t h a t a ll st u den t s m u st be a ble t o see t h e visu a ls bein g u sed. set clea r -cu t goa ls a n d object ives. you r lect u r e sh ou ld la st n o m or e t h a n 30 m in u t es. you m u st h a ve effect ive spea kin g skills. Th en m en t a lly r eh ea r se t h ose t ech n iqu es a n d pr a ct ice u sin g t h e visu a l a ids u n t il you ca n pr esen t you r lect u r e sm oot h ly. a n d r ela t ion sh ips. As wit h a n y pr esen t a t ion . In pr epa r in g t o deliver a lect u r e. a n d fin d r ea list ic exa m ples a n d a n a logies t o u se wit h you r expla n a t ion s. 53 T h a t m e a n s y ou m u s t h a v e a t h or ou g h . F or exa m ple. wh ich will lim it cla ss size. you m u s t a n t icip a t e s t u d e n t q u e s t ion s . Wh e n you u s e t h e le ct u r e w it h a u d iovis u a ls .

Rem em ber t h e la ws of r ea d in es s a n d e ffe ct a s you p r e p a r e you r s t u d e n t s for le a r n in g. b u t it s im por t a n ce ca n n ot be over em ph a sized. you m u st cr ea t e in t er est in you r t opic a n d est a blish wh y st u den t s n eed t o pa y a t t en t ion a n d lea r n t h e m a t er ia l. Less t h a n five pr esen t s a pr oblem in gen er a t in g m ea n in gfu l B e s id e s t h e cla s s p a r t icip a t ion . You h a ve s p ecific r es p on s ibilit ies for ea ch elem en t . T h e in t r od u ct ion on ly r e p r e s e n t s s m a ll a m ou n t of t h e t im e s p e n t in a le s s on . E xp la in t h e object ives of t h e les s on a n d s t r es s t h e im p or t a n ce of t h e s t u d en t s ’ bein g a ble t o m a s t er t h em . I f you ca n h e lp st u den t s see h ow t h ey will ben efit fr om you r t r a in in g. Th en es t a blis h gr ou n d r u les by p r ovid in g s t u d en t s wit h a n over view of wh a t you exp ect of t h em a n d h ow you will con d u ct t h e les s on . Sin ce you on ly get on e ch a n ce t o m a ke a fir st im pr ession . T h e le s s on m e t h od in volve s t h e u se of t r a in in g a ids t o su ppor t a n d cla r ify t h e m a in t ea ch in g p oin t s of you r p r es en t a t ion . You r u s e of a u d iovis u a ls wit h t h e les s on m et h od d ict a t es a lim it ed cla ss size of bet ween 5 a n d 40 st u den t s. a s k q u e s t i on s t h a t r e q u i r e s t u d e n t s t o a n a lyze a n d e va lu a t e wh ile con ce p t s a n d p r i n ci p l e s r e fe r r in g to the a u d iovis u a l m a t er ia ls . Use t h e In t r odu ct ion t o get t h e a t t en t ion of a n d t o m ot iva t e ever y st u den t in you r cla ss. Rega r dless of t h e t ech n iqu es u sed. a n d pr a ct ice. Get t h e st u den t s t o sh a r e exper ien ces t h a t sh ow wh y t h ey n eed t o lea r n t h e m a t er ia l. Ask qu est ion s t o br ea k down ba r r ier s ea r ly in t h e t r a in in g session . La s t . m a k e a s m oot h t r a n s it ion in t o you r p r es en t a t ion . St u den t s will for m t h eir fir st im pr ession of you du r in g you r in t r odu ct ion . m or e t h a n 40 st u den t s p r e s e n t s t h e p r ob l e m of k e e p i n g s t u d e n t s a ct ive ly in volve d in t h e lesson . t h e lesson m et h od in volves t h r ee ba sic elem en t s: t h e in t r od u ct ion .u n der st a n din g of t h e su bject m a t t er . 54 . Beca u se t h e lesson m et h od of in st r u ct in g is ver sa t ile. p r es en t a t ion . F ollow t h e s a m e pr ocedu r es u sed in t h e lect u r e wit h a u d iovis u a ls m et h od : p r ep a r e. To st r en gt h en t h e effect of t r a in in g a i d s . a n d r eview or s u m m a r y. In t h e i n t ro d u c t i o n . m a ke a good on e. Th a t h elps t o est a blish t h eir r espon sibilit y for lea r n in g. it m a y em ploy m a n y differ en t in st r u ct or t ech n iqu es. M ot iva t ion is t h e k e y. p r ob l e m of p oor vis ib ilit y of t r a in in g a ids. Begin by in t r odu cin g you r self a n d t ellin g a bou t you r b a ck gr ou n d e xp e r ie n ce w it h t h e t op ic. p la n t h e t im in g of t h eir u se. you give t h em r ea son t o pa y a t t en t ion a n d lea r n .

a n d m ost oft en u sed. r ein for ce im p or t a n t p oin t s (sa fet y. Th e st u den t in volvem en t bu ilds t ea m wor k a n d h elp s s t u d en t s u n d er s t a n d t h eir r es p on s ibilit y t owa r d lea r n in g. As you u se t h is m a t er ia l in you r t ea ch in g. Go over t h e m a in discu ssion poin t s of you r lesson . con cept s. Don ’t get bogged down in d is cu s s ion s t h a t d o n ot r e la t e d ir e ct ly t o t h e le s s on ob je ct ive s . et c). en cou r a ge d is cu s s ion s a n d n ot e t a k in g. st eps of pr ocedu r e. As a Na vy In st r u ct or . m et h od of in st r u ct ion for t ea ch in g skill-t ype su bject s is t h e d em on s t r a t ion m et h od . in st ea d u se t h e posit ive a spect s of a ct ive st u den t in volvem en t . Th e lesson pla n ou t lin es t h e lea r n in g object ives a n d pr ovides a ll t h e t ech n ica l su ppor t you n eed for you r pr esen t a t ion . m a k in g a s s ocia t ion s t o p r eviou s ly lea r n ed in for m a t ion . Ma n y t im es. m ove fr om t h e kn own t o t h e u n k n ow n . C on t r ol t h e p a ce of t h e in s t r u ct ion s o t h a t you will h a ve en ou gh t im e t o p r op er ly clos e you r les s on . r esist t h e t em pt a t ion t o lect u r e. D E MON S TR ATION S TEP or ph ysica l. a n d t h e r espon sibilit ies of t h e st u den t s. Ma ke effect ive u se of t h e t r a in in g t im e a llot t ed. You m u st pr esen t ot h er kin ds of ba ckgr ou n d kn owledge by a ct u a l d em on s t r a t ion s con d u ct ed in la bor a t or ies . don ’t t r y t o r et ea ch it . t h e t r a in in g a ids will pr om pt st u den t qu est ion s t h a t ca n lea d t o a cla ss discu ssion . D E MON S TR ATION Th e ba sic. Act ively in volve you r st u den t s t h r ou gh ou t t h e pr esen t a t ion . Th e lesson m et h od is t h e m ost flexible a n d per h a ps t h e m ost u sefu l of a ll t h e m et h ods in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . F in ish you r lesson st r on gly wit h posit ive st a t em en t s a bou t t h e im por t a n ce of t h e t opic. Cla r ify a n d cor r ect m iscon cept ion s a n d er r or s so t h a t st u den t s don ’t lea ve t h e cla ss wit h poor u n der st a n din g. In t h e r eview or s u m m a r y . Ask qu est ion s t h a t h elp st u den t s m en t a lly r eview wh a t h a s been t a u gh t . Begin t ea ch in g t h e n ew in for m a t ion a t a level t h a t st u den t s ca n u n der st a n d. n ot on ly fr om t h e in st r u ct or ’s viewpoin t bu t ” fr om t h e viewpoin t of t h e gr ou p it self. Use exa m ples a n d a n a logies t o a ppea l t o differ en t lea r n in g st yles a n d t o r ein for ce t h e lea r n in g pr ocess. Th e les s on m et h od d evelop s m or e posit ive a t t it u des a n d pr ovides m ot iva t ion . Ask qu es t ion s . U s e t r a in in g a id s a t a ppr opr ia t e t im es t o su ppor t expla n a t ion s a n d t o st im u la t e a n d m a in t a in st u den t in t er est .Th e p r e s e n t a t i o n is t h e pa r t of t h e lesson in wh ich you t ea ch t h e lesson object ives. is a body ofc b a ck gr ou n d k n ow le d ge s t u d e n t s m u s t k n ow t o p e r for m t h e s k ill p r op e r ly. p la n gr ou p exer cis es . T h i s m e t h od a l w a y s i n cl u d e s a d e m on s t r a t i on s t e p a n d a per for m a n ce st ep a n d a llows you t o u se ot h er st eps a s n eeded. You ca n b e s t t e a ch s om e k in d s of b a ck gr ou n d k n owled ge in a s t a n d a r d cla s s r oom wit h a d equ a t e p r ovis ion s for com for t a ble s ea t in g a n d for t h e displa y of t r a in in g a ids. a pply t h e la w of pr im a cy. r eca p t h e in for m a t ion t a u gh t in t h e p r es en t a t ion . k eep in m in d t h a t you h a ve a lim it ed a m ou n t of t im e t o t ea ch ea ch lesson . I t cover s a ll of t h e s t ep s you r s t u d en t s n eed t o lea r n a s k ill in a n e ffe ct ive le a r n in g s e q u e n ce . Tea ch in for m a t ion in a logica l s equ en ce. Wh ile you wa n t t o en cou r a ge d is cu s s ion s . it s r ela t ion sh ip t o t h e job. Rela t ed t o ever y Na vy skill. As you r s t u d en t s r es p on d . m en t a l 55 . Th e u s e of qu es t ion s a n d vis u a l a id s con t r ibu t es t o m a xim u m cla s s a ct ivit y a n d bet t er m a in t a in s st u den t a t t en t ion .

sh ow t h e cor r ect wa y t o per for m t h e st eps t h e fir st t im e you dem on st r a t e t h em . con fu s ion . Get t in g s t u d en t s t o r et a in t h e cor r ect n om en cla t u r e r equ ir es m or e t h a n ju s t m en t ion in g t h e n a m e. Th e followin g s u gges t ion s s h ou ld p r ove h elpfu l: — List t h e n a m es of pa r t s. Rep ea t d ifficu lt op er a t ion s . Ca ll ea ch pa r t of a t r a in in g a id by it s pr oper n a m e ea ch t im e you ca ll a t t en t ion t o it . n Ch eck st u den t com pr eh en sion ca r efu lly. 56 . Do n ot h u r r y. — Refer st u den t s t o a n y a va ila ble ch a r t t h a t sh ows t h e pa r t s a n d n a m es of pa r t s. P a u s e br iefly a ft er ea ch op er a t ion t o obs er ve s t u d en t r ea ct ion a n d t o ch eck s t u d en t com p r eh en s ion . Wa t ch t h e cla ss for r ea ct ion s in dica t in g la ck of a t t en t ion . pr ocedu r a l st eps. sa fet y pr eca u t ion s. Alwa ys p r oceed fr om sim ple t o com plex in logica l sequ en ce. In st ea d. develop pr oper a t t it u des. Riggin g a s a fet y lin e. a n d t h e lik e. su ch a s don n in g a n oxygen br ea t h in g a ppa r a t u s (OBA). U s e t h e followin g t ech n iqu es wh en givin g a n a ct u a l d e m on s t r a t ion : n P os it ion t h e s t u d en t s a n d t r a in in g a id s p r op er ly. — Con du ct a t er m in ology dr ill on t h e pa r t s of t h e t r a in in g a id wh ile t h e a id is a ssem bled or d is a s s em bled . you will a lwa ys pr ovide a dem on st r a t ion st ep a n d a p e r for m a n ce s t e p . pr esen t t h e t ellin g a n d doin g sim u lt a n eou sly.To pr esen t ba ckgr ou n d kn owledge a n d develop pr oper a t t it u des. n S h ow a n d e x p l a i n t h e op e r a t i on s . bu t d o n ot d ep en d s olely u p on vis u a l obs er va t ion s . Wh en t ea ch in g sk ills. R E P E TITION S TE P S Wh en u sin g t h e dem on st r a t ion m et h od. u n der lyin g pr in ciples. a n d t h e desir e t o exer cise econ om y of t im e a n d effor t . you w ill in clu d e on e or m or e r e p e t it ion s t e p s b e t w e e n t h e d em on s t r a t ion s t ep a n d t h e p er for m a n ce s t ep . a s k a n a s s is t a n t in s t r u ct or or a well-coa ch ed s t u d en t t o h elp you . va r y you r u se of t h e lea r n in g t ech n iqu es d is cu s s ed in ea r lier ch a p t er s . d on n in g a s a fet y m a s k . Ask t h e a ssist a n t t o st a n d so t h a t t h e cla ss m a y see wh a t h e or sh e is doin g. Th en dir ect t h e a ssist a n t in per for m in g t h e a ct ivit y wh ile you obser ve t h e r ea ct ion of t h e st u den t s. Rem em ber t h e la w of p r im a cy wh en p er for m in g t h e d em on s t r a t ion s t ep . Alon g wit h t ea ch in g a skill. n Obs er ve s a fet y p r eca u t ion s . G e n e r a lly. ~ Give pr oper a t t en t ion t o t er m in ology. Wh en ever possible. bu t you h a ve n ot wa st ed t h e t im e. su ch a s t h e desir e t o per for m sa fely. in wh ich a d is t in ct ion bet ween r igh t a n d left is im p or t a n t . I f you d ir ect t h e s t u d en t s t o ga t h er a r ou n d a wor kt a ble or a t r a in in g a id. a n d s o on . or t a ggin g a n elect r ic ca ble m a y t a ke a few m or e secon ds. a s a p p r op r ia t e. Ask qu est ion s du r in g t h e dem on st r a t ion st ep t h a t r equ ir e t h e st u den t s t o r eca ll n om en cla t u r e. or d ou bt . m a ke su r e ever y st u den t h a s a n u n obst r u ct ed view. P e r for m t h e op e r a t ion s in s t e p -b y-s t e p or d e r . Ma ke cer t a in t h e st u den t s u n der st a n d t h e fir st st ep befor e you p r oceed t o t h e s econ d . you will n ot n or m a lly em ph a size speed in per for m in g oper a t ion s or in m ovin g fr om on e oper a t ion t o a n ot h er in t h e dem on st r a t ion st ep. you h a ve im pr essed t h e st u den t s wit h t h e im por t a n ce of exer cisin g ext r em e ca r e in dea lin g wit h p ot en t ia lly d a n ger ou s equ ip m en t .

r est a t in g t h e pr ocedu r e a n d t h e im p or t a n t s a fe t y fa ct or s a s you p e r for m t h e s t e p s . som e skills in volve visu a l sign a lin g in wh ich speed is im por t a n t . You m a y n eed t o in clu d e m or e t h a n on e in s t r u ct or r ep et it ion s t ep . a n d sa fet y. t h e m os t im p or t a n t bein g t h e com p lexit y of t h e s k ill. F or exa m p le. Rela t ed t ech n iqu es of in s t r u ct ion a r e a s follows : n I n t r od u ce t h e s t ep p r op er ly. a n d a ccu r a cy. give st u den t s a n oppor t u n it y t o a sk qu est ion s a t t h e con clu sion of t h e in st r u ct or r ep et it ion s t ep . con ser va t ion of m a t er ia ls. In t ea ch in g a m en t a l skill in volvin g com p u t a t ion . Alwa ys con sider t h e a bilit y of t h e st u den t s t o a cqu ir e t h e skill a n d t h e a m ou n t of t im e a va ila ble for t r a in in g. speed. Th is s t ep will m ot iva t e t h e st u den t s by pr ovin g t h a t t h ey ca n do t h e job wit h t h e in st r u ct ion given . It will sh ow you t h ose a r ea s of in s t r u ct ion you n eed t o s t r en gt h en . r est a t in g t h e pr ocedu r e a n d t h e im p or t a n t s a fet y fa ct or s a s t h e s t u d en t p er for m s t h e s t ep s . n Avoid a n y a ct ivit y t h a t m igh t br ea k t h e con t in u it y of you r p er for m a n ce. Ot h er skills m a y in volve ea se of m a n ipu la t ion . Also con sider t h e n a t u r e of t h e skill. F ou r r epet it ion st eps u sed wit h good r esu lt s in Na vy sch ools a r e descr ibed in t h e followin g p a r a gr a p h s : In s tru c to r re p e titio n s te p Wh en u sin g t h is st ep. t h e m or e com plex t h e skill. select a st u den t t o r epea t t h e job. n Ca ll u p on a s t u d en t fr om t h e a ver a ge lea r n er gr ou p t o p er for m t h e job. r a t h er t h a n t h e in s t r u ct or . 57 . On e of t h e a dva n t a ges of t h is st ep over a n in st r u ct or r epet it ion st ep is t h e gr ea t a m ou n t of s t u d en t in t er es t gen er a t ed wh en a s t u d en t . a h igh er s t a n d a r d m a y ca u s e m a n y s t u d en t s t o feel t h e goa l is im p os s ible t o r ea ch . As a gen er a l r u le. d is cu s s ion or q u e s t ion s d u r in g t h is s t e p m a y d is t r a ct you a s w e ll a s t h e s t u d e n t s . Th e p r op er d egr ee of speed is t h e st a n da r d speed you expect t h e m a jor it y of st u den t s t o a t t a in by t h e en d of t h e sch edu led pr a ct ice per iod. a n d a ccu r a cy. T h is s t e p h a s t w o im p or t a n t p u r p os e s : t o s h ow con t in u it y (h ow t h e p r oce d u r a l s t e p s follow e a ch ot h e r u n d e r a ct u a l oper a t in g con dit ion s). Mot iva t e t h e s t u d en t s t o p a y clos e a t t en t ion by exp la in in g t h e n a t u r e of t h e st ep a n d wh a t t h e select ed st u den t m u st do. Rela t ed t ech n iqu es of in st r u ct ion a r e a s follows: n I n t r od u ce t h e s t ep p r op er ly. speed. t h e gr ea t er t h e n eed for r epet it ion st eps. a n d t o set st a n da r ds of ea se. Alwa ys u s e n ew va lu es (n ot t h ose u sed in you r dem on st r a t ion st ep) in t h e pr oblem t h e st u den t will solve. n P er for m t h e job wit h t h e pr oper degr ee of ea se. A lower st a n da r d m a y fa il t o ch a llen ge t h e a ver a ge a n d fa st lea r n er s . p er for m s t h e job.In decidin g h ow m a n y a n d wh a t kin ds of r epet it ion st eps you sh ou ld in clu de. r epea t t h e job wit h ou t n ot icea ble in t er r u pt ion s. S tu d e n t re p e titio n s te p In t h e st u den t r epet it ion st ep. F or exa m ple. s et u p t h e p r oblem a s p a r t of t h e in t r od u ct ion . Th e ot h er st u den t s will pu t t h em selves in t h e select ed st u den t ’s pla ce a n d per for m t h e job m en t a lly. con sider sever a l elem en t s . Mot iva t e t h e s t u d en t s t o p a y clos e a t t en t ion by exp la in in g t h e n a t u r e of t h e st ep a n d by st r essin g t h e pr im a r y a n d secon da r y va lu es. H owever . St r ea m lin e you r or a l exp la n a t ion s t o t h e p oin t t h a t t h ey d o n ot h in d er you r p er for m a n ce.

F or su bsequ en t r epet it ion s. Use t h is s t e p for t e a ch in g s im p le a n d n on da n ger ou s ph ysica l sk ills. Th es e d ir ect ion s s h ou ld in clu d e wh er e t o st a n d. Cor r ect er r or s . 9 Cor r ect er r or s . P e r for m t h e job p r op e r ly. Use t h e t ech n iqu m discu ssed in t h e sect ion on t h e dem on st r a t ion st ep. a n d t h e n eed for st u den t s t o h old a n d m a n ipu la t e t r a in in g a ids (if a n y a r e u sed) so t h a t you ca n ea sily see ea ch st u den t ’s wor k. Gro u p p e rfo rm a n c e re p e t i t i o n s t e p Wh en u sin g t h e gr ou p p er for m a n ce r ep et it ion s t ep . bu t d o s o in a con s t r u ct ive fa s h ion . 58 . Rem em ber t h a t t h is is a r epet it ion s t ep on ly. Give t h e st u den t a n oppor t u n it y t o cor r ect h is or h er own er r or s befor e ca llin g u pon ot h er st u den t s t o h elp. d em on s t r a t e t h e cor r ect m ovem en t s . sen din g sem a ph or e. To u s e t h is s t ep . Cover or a lly t h e gen er a l p la n . exp la in t h e m ovem en t s or oper a t ion s a s you per for m t h em . on e s t e p a t a t im e . Ca ll a t t en t ion t o er r or s . a n d per for m in g t h e m a n u a l of a r m s. a n d t h en r equ ir e t h e st u den t s t o r epea t t h e m ovem en t s cor r ect ly. you m u s t be a ble t o r ea dily see t h e st u den t s’ m ovem en t s a n d t h ey m u s t be a ble t o s ee you r s . Wh en t h e s t u d en t h a s com p let ed t h e job p r ovid e p os it ive r ein for cem en t a n d fe e d b a ck . on e st ep a t a t im e.H Give t h e s elect ed s t u d en t a d equ a t e d ir ect ion s . Avoid t h e u se of m ech a n ica l gu id a n ce. S t r es s t h e n eed for clos e obser va t ion a n d exa ct im it a t ion . r ep ea t t h e job s lowly. you m a y u se br iefer dir ect ion s. w h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s ob s e r v e a n d im it a t e you . on e s t ep a t a t im e. Als o u s e it t o t ea ch m e n t a l s k i l l s . a n d h ow t o h old a n d m a n ipu la t e t r a in in g a ids. Th e posit ion sh ou ld pr ovide a n u n obst r u ct ed lin e of vision bot h for you a n d for s t u d en t s . t h e n eed for t h e st u den t s t o keep in st ep wit h a n d n ot t o get a h ea d of you . I t d oes n ot t a k e t h e p la ce of t h e p er for m a n ce s t ep . T h e followin g a r e r ela t ed t ech n iqu es of in st r u ct ion : P osit ion t h e st u den t s pr oper ly. su ch a s k n ot t yin g. Rem em ber t h a t t h e s elect ed s t u d en t is u n der som e degr ee of m en t a l pr essu r e. Dir ect t h e st u den t in t h e u se of a n y ot h er t ech n iqu es t h a t wou ld ben efit t h e cla ss. s u ch a s s ol v i n g m a t h e m a t ica l or m a n eu ver in g p r ob le m s or fillin g in for m s . d u r in g wh ich s t u d en t s p r a ct ice in d ivid u a lly u n t il t h ey h a ve a t t a in ed t h e r equ ir ed s t a n d a r d s of p r oficien cy. F or t h e fir s t r ep et it ion . I n t r od u ce t h e s t ep p r op er ly. wh a t t o do.

t h ey a r e st ill st u den t s. visu a l sign a lin g.Co a c h -P u p i l re p e t i t i o n s t e p Th e Coa ch -pu pil r epet it ion st ep r equ ir es you t o divide st u den t s in t o sm a ll gr ou ps. r et ea ch a s n ecessa r y. a n d t h e specific du t ies of t h e coa ch P E R F OR MAN CE S TEP Th e per for m a n ce st ep is t h e st ep in wh ich t h e st u den t s pr a ct ice u n der su per vision u n t il t h ey h a ve a t t a in ed t h e r equ ir ed p r oficien cy. Th is st ep is pa r t icu la r ly u sefu l in im pa r t in g skills in wh ich per for m a n ce in volve s p ot e n t ia l d a n ge r t o p e r s on n e l or e q u ip m e n t . You u s e a job s h eet wit h t h is r ep et it ion s t ep . Th a t in clu d es defin it e a n swer s t o qu est ion s of wh a t t h ey m u st do a n d wh en . t h e t e r m a p p lica t ion or su p erv ised a p p lica t ion m a y be u sed t o iden t ify t h e a ct ivit y in wh ich t h e st u den t s a r e en ga ged. r a dio code r eceivin g) in volve speed a n d a ccu r a cy. C on s e q u e n t ly. or pr a ct iced? Tell t h e st u den t s exa ct ly wh a t t h ey m u st do. a n d give a ll n eces s a r y pr elim in a r y a n d pu pil. Th e a pplica t ion of su ch skills con sist s of st u den t s pr a ct icin g a pr ocedu r e u n t il t h ey r ea ch t h e r equ ir ed st a n da r ds of ea se a n d pr ecision . Th e a pplica t ion of t h ese skills con sist s of st u den t s pr a ct icin g u n t il t h ey r ea ch t h e r equ ir ed p r oficien cy in s p eed a n d a ccu r a cy. Som e skills (kn ot t yin g. eva lu a t e t h e r esu lt s. Th e per for m a n ce st ep in volves m a n y kin ds of a pplica t ion . Th e followin g a r e r ela t ed t ech n iqu es of in s t r u ct ion : n I n t r od u ce t h e s t ep p r op er ly. If a gr ou p con s is t s of t wo s t u d en t s . n M a in t a in a d e q u a t e s u p e r vis ion . t h e t im e a llowed ea ch pu pil t o pr a ct ice. a n d wh y t h ey will p er for m t h e r equ ir ed wor k . s u p p lem en t or a l in s t r u ct ion s wit h in s t r u ct ion s h eet s --job s h eet s for ph ysica l skills a n d pr oblem sh eet s for m en t a l skills. h ow. fir in g s m a ll a r m s or t r ou b le s h oot in g e le ct r on ics e q u ip m e n t . t h e st u den t s a pply wh a t t h ey h a ve p r e viou s ly le a r n e d a s a r e s u lt of t h e p r e ce d in g d e m on s t r a t ion s . m a ch in er y r epa ir ) r esu lt in a fin ish ed pr odu ct . F or com p lex s k ills . speed is n ot im por t a n t . for e xa m p le . Du r in g t h is st ep. As s em ble t h e s t u d en t s in on e gr ou p . a n d keep r ecor ds. Ot h er skills (t ypin g. or ga n ize t h e s t u d en t s in t o wor k in g gr ou p s . weldin g. -WH AT m u st be m a de. wh er e. t h ey r ever se posit ion s. don e. You m u st br ief t h e s t u d en t s on t h e a p p lica t ion a ct ivit y. on e (a s t h e p u p il) p er for m s t h e job wh ile t h e ot h er (a s t h e coa ch ) ch ecks t h e “pu pil’s” per for m a n ce. Br oa dly spea kin g. t h e per for m a n ce st ep in volves sever a l in st r u ct or du t ies. n P osit ion t h e sm a ll gr ou p s p r op er ly. s u p er vis e t h e a ct ivit y. Aft er t h e pu pil h a s a cqu ir ed a cer t a in degr ee of pr oficien cy. Th e followin g in st r u ct ion a l t ech n iqu es ela bor a t e on t h es e d u t ies : n Give t h e s t u d en t s a clea r u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e wor k r equ ir ed of t h em . Ma k e a pr elim in a r y ch eck t o en su r e t h a t a ll gr ou p s a r e in t h eir a ssign ed posit ion s a n d t h a t t h e coa ch a n d pu pil r ela t ion sh ip is bein g obser ved. Nor m a lly. Alt h ou gh t h eor et ica lly t h e coa ch es a r e a ct in g in t h e ca pa cit y of a ssist a n t in st r u ct or s. in st r u ct ion s. I n clu d e t h e loca t ion of e a ch coa ch a n d p u p il gr ou p in t h e t r a in in g a r ea . 59 . Ma in t a in close su per vision over a ll gr ou ps t o en su r e t h e st u den t s a r e obser vin g sa fet y r u les a n d r egu la t ion s a n d a r e m a kin g good u se of t h e a va ila ble t im e.

la bor a t or y. h elp t h e st u den t get st a r t ed on t h e r igh t pa t h . a n d even r epr im a n d. n E va lu a t e t h e r e s u lt s . is design ed t o 60 . t o k n ow t h e ir p r ogr e s s . a specified t im e lim it . Tea ch st u den t s t o be self-r elia n t . t h er efor e. Ma k e s u r e s t u d en t s follow t h e cor r ect p r oced u r a l s t ep s . a n d d evelop good wor k h a bit s . bla m e. k eep s om e p r ogr es s r ecor d s . . I t is p a r t icu la r ly u s efu l in t ea ch in g t h e d evelop m en t of lea d er s h ip or cou n selin g skills. or a specific da t e for wor k com plet ion . s u ch a s t h os e p er for m ed by p er s on n el in s u p er vis or y or a d m in is t r a t ive billet s . obser ve good h ou sekeepin g r u les. If Sever a l st u den t s a ppea r t o be h a vin g t h e sa m e difficu lt y. . z Rein st r u ct t h e st u den t s wh en n ecessa r y. wor k sh op . or oper a t in g s pa ce. z P r ovid e a d e q u a t e s u p e r vis ion . obser ve sa fet y pr eca u t ion s. Ma n y N a vy jobs .WH Y sh ou ld t h e r equ ir ed wor k be don e? E xpla in h ow t h e wor k will a ffect t h e m ission of t h eir u n it a n d t h e Na vy a s well a s t h eir fu t u r e ca r eer .-WH E N s h ou ld t h e r equ ir ed wor k be d on e? Give s p ecific p er iod s in t h e cla s s s ch ed u le. O n e k in d is s p e cia lize d a n d p e r t a in s t o t h e occu pa t ion a l specia lt y. Th e r ole-pla yin g m et h od. t h e sim u la t ed sit u a t ion is pr efer a ble beca u se in st r u ct or s ca n n ot e a n d cor r ect st u den t er r or s. or degr ee of pr oficien cy r equ ir ed. degr ee of n ea t n ess. Th e ot h er k in d is sk ill in h u m a n r ela t ion s. s u ch a s fa i l u r e t o g e t t h e job d on e . bu t if a st u den t get s st u ck a t som e poin t . a n d fr equ en t ly a d vis e t h e s t u d en t s of t h eir p r ogr es s . or give p er for m a n ce t es t s a t p er iod ic in t er va ls a n d r ecor d t h e r es u lt s . dissa t isfa ct ion . D e t e r m in e w h e t h e r or n ot t h e s t u d e n t s h a ve m e t t h e r e q u ir e d p er for m a n ce cr it er ia . it is a lso u sed in t h e t r a in in g of skills su ch a s da r n a ge con t r ol wh er e t r a in in g sim u la t or s a r e u sed t o cr ea t e “r ea l life” sim u la t ion s. a n d t o b e r e cogn ize d b y t h os e in a u t h or it y ove r t h e m . ROLE P L A YI N G Role pla yin g r equ ir es t h e st u den t s t o a ssu m e a ct ive r oles in a sim u la t ed sit u a t ion followed by a gr ou p discu ssion . Th e pr a ct ice m a y in volve t h e h a n dlin g of a ct u a l h u m a n r ela t ion s sit u a t ion s du r in g on -t h e-job t r a in in g or pr a ct ice in h a n dlin g sim u la t ed h u m a n r ela t ion s in a sch ool. P r ovid e feed ba ck t o s t u d en t s r ega r d in g t h eir p er for m a n ce in or d er t o r ein for ce d es ir ed beh a vior s a n d cor r ect a r ea s t h a t n eed im p r ovem en t . Keep a r ecor d of t h e da y-t o-da y pr ogr ess of st u den t s. E ven wh en t h e cu r r icu lu m d oes n ot s p ecify gr a d ed a p p lica t ion s . t a ke a dva n t a ge of a va ila ble t im e. D o n ot ove r look t h e la w of e ffe ct . H owever . E n cou r a ge w h ole s om e com p et it ion . r equ ir e t wo d iffer en t k in d s of s k ill. s Ma in t a in r equ ir ed pr ogr ess r ecor ds. F r om a t r a in in g st a n dpoin t . E r r or s m a de in a r ea l life s it u a t ion u s u a lly r e s u lt in s e r iou s con s e q u e n ce s . .WH E RE sh ou ld t h e r equ ir ed wor k be don e? Tell st u den t s wh et h er it is t o be don e in cla ssr oom . S t u d e n t s n a t u r a lly w a n t t o s u cce e d . P er son n el ca n a cqu ir e t h is la t t er sk ill on ly t h r ou gh pr a ct ice.H OW s h ou ld t h e r equ ir ed wor k be d on e? E xp la in t h e p r oced u r es t o follow a s well a s t h e st yle of wor k. ca ll t h em a side a n d r ein st r u ct t h em a s a gr ou p.

it s t im u la t e s e ve r y s t u d e n t t o t h in k con s t r u ct ively. I t a ls o en cou r a ges s t u d en t s t o s h a r e t h eir p er s on a l exp er ien ces a n d k n owled ge wit h t h eir cla ssm a t es a n d t o con t r ibu t e idea s a s a m ea n s of solvin g pr oblem s. You m a y a lso pr esen t ca se st u dies t h r ou gh t h e u se of pict u r es. Th en select st u den t s t o pla y t h e pa r t s of t h e pr in cipa l ch a r a ct er s a n d give t h em a sh or t t im e t o t h in k t h r ou gh wh a t t h ey a r e goin g t o sa y a n d d o. I n it ia t in g d is cu s s ion a n d ch a n n elin g s t u d en t s ’ t h in k in g a n d r es p on s es a lon g p r ed et er m in ed lin es is ca lled “d ir ect ed d is cu s s ion . Dir ect ed discu ssion is oft en u sed in t r a in in g t h a t is con du ct ed for t h e pu r pose of developin g fa vor a ble a t t it u des t owa r d a su bject or sit u a t ion .” Th is m et h od is u sefu l in t ea ch in g skills su ch a s pr oblem s olvin g a n d u n d er s t a n d in g ca u s e-a n d -effect r ela t ion s h ip s . h ow t h ey r ea ct ed. wh ich ca n be h yp ot h et ica l or r ea l. F in a lly. Aft er p r es en t in g t h e ca s e s t u d y. U s e d a lon e or in com b in a t ion w it h ot h e r m e t h od s . S u cces s fu l r ole-p la yin g p r ovid es a ch a n ce for ever y s t u d en t t o t a k e p a r t in t h e les s on . N ext . fir st descr ibe t h e sit u a t ion . d ivid e t h e cla s s in t o gr ou p s t o a n a lyze wh y or h ow t h e in ciden t h a ppen ed a n d h ow it ca n be pr even t ed in t h e fu t u r e. let t h e s t u d en t s en a ct t h e s it u a t ion . CAS E S TU D Y Wh en u sin g t h e ca se st u dy m et h od. t h a t s t u d en t s ca n com p let ely d evelop t h eir h u m a n r ela t ion s s k ills on ly t h r ou gh exp er ien ce. m a ke su r e t h e sea t in g a r r a n gem en t a llows a ll pa r t icipa n t s t o h a ve eye con t a ct wit h ea ch ot h er . To u se t h is m et h od. Wh en t h a t is you r pu r pose. a llow t h e gr ou p t o a n a lyze t h e en a ct m en t . h ow t h ey felt . a n d a ir cr a ft ca su a lt ies a ll m a ke good ca se st u dies. u n d er you r d ir ect ion . You will n or m a lly pr esen t t h e cla ss wit h a ca se st u dy in pr in t ed for m . or ca su a lt ies a n d h ow t h ey ca n be pr even t ed in t h e fu t u r e. D IS CU S S ION Th e discu ssion is a n a ct ivit y in wh ich people t a lk t oget h er t o sh a r e in for m a t ion a bou t a t opic or pr oblem or t o seek possible a va ila ble eviden ce or a solu t ion . U s e it t o h elp s t u d en t s id en t ify s a fet y viola t ion s t h a t h a ve led t o in ciden t s. Th is n ecessa r ily lim it s cla ss size. Collis ion s a t s ea . or or a l p r es en t a t ion s .im pa r t h u m a n r ela t ion s skills wit h ou t t h e r isk in h er en t in t r a in in g by ot h er m et h ods. film s. a n d h ow t h ey m igh t h a ve r ea ct ed differ en t ly. focu s t h e a t t en t ion of t h e st u den t s u pon a specific ca se. Th is m et h od in volves a n in t er ch a n ge of id ea s by t h e s t u d en t s wh ile you p r ovid e gu id a n ce. I t pr ovides vivid exper ien ces bot h for t h e pa r t icipa n t s a n d for t h e obser ver s. h owever . a cciden t s. Wh en you u se discu ssion . flood in g. r ole-pla yin g. Rem em ber . H elp t h em t o eva lu a t e wh a t t h e ch a r a ct er s sa id a n d did. P r oper pla n n in g a n d or ga n iza t ion a r e you r keys t o get t in g r esu lt s in u sin g t h is m et h od of in st r u ct ion . dir ect ed discu ssion 61 . Th e m a in object ive of a ca s e s t u d y is for s t u d en t s t o lea r n fr om exp er ien ce a n d d evelop p r ob le m s olvin g s k ills . gr ou n d in g. H a ve ea ch gr ou p br iefly expla in t h eir con clu sion s so t h a t t h e cla ss ca n lea r n if m or e t h a n on e cor r ect a lt er n a t ive exist s. fir es .

T h e s u cce s s of d i r e ct e d d is cu s s ion d ep en d s t o a la r ge ext en t on you r lea der sh ip. A com bin a t ion of m et h od s a llows you t o a d d va r iet y t o r ea ch t h e d iver s e gr ou p of s t u d en t s you m a y h a ve.” cer t a in ly a pplies in t h e t r a in in g a r en a . You r s k ill a n d flexibilit y in u s in g t h e d iffer en t m et h od s will be t h e det er m in in g fa ct or in h ow effect ive t h e t r a in in g is in a ccom plish in g t h e object ives of t h e cou r se of in st r u ct ion . I do a n d I u n der st a n d. the su ccess of a discu ssion depen ds on ca r e fu l p la n n in g. a n d pr a ct ice. As in p r eviou s m e t h od s d i s cu s s e d . 62 . St r ive for m a xim u m st u den t in volve m e n t . You ca n n ever lea r n t oo m u ch a bou t t r a in in g. SUMMARY E ver y cou r s e you t ea ch will r equ ir e you t o im p a r t k n owled ge t o. You r goa l in u sin g t h e discu ssion m et h od is t o a ct ively in volve you r st u den t s in t h e lea r n in g pr ocess. I see a n d I r em em ber . Th e old Ch in ese pr over b.g i v e s s t u d e n t s m or e fr e e d om t o e x p r e s s t h e i r op i n i on s . I n t ea ch in g t h os e k n owled ge a n d s k ills you m a y u s e d iffer en t in s t r u ct ion a l m et h od s . Th e lea r n in g object ives det er m in e t h e pr im a r y m et h od you will u se in a given t r a in in g set t in g. a n d d evelop t h e s k ills of you r st u den t s. “I h ea r a n d I for get . Th a t r equ ir es r esea r ch . Rem em ber t h a t som e elem en t s in clu d e d ot h e r of in t h e ever y of discu ssion m et h od a r e m et h od in st r u ct ion except for a st r a igh t lect u r e. As a N a vy in s t r u ct or . obser va t ion . you m u s t be com p et en t t o u s e ea ch of t h e m et h od s d ict a t ed for you r pa r t icu la r cou r ses. Con st a n t ly st r ive for im pr ovem en t a n d m a st er y.

Object ives pr ovide dir ect ion for in st r u ct ion . con cen t r a t es on t h e cogn it ive a n d p s ych om ot or d om a in s beca u s e of t h eir a p p lica t ion t o N a vy t r a in in g. O b je ct i v e s p r ov i d e t h e fou n d a t i on u p on w h i ch cou r s e cu r r icu lu m is bu ilt a s well a s t h e r oa d m a p for t h e deliver y of cou r se con t en t . is ba s ed on t h e a s s u m p t ion t h a t lea r n in g ou t com es ca n best be descr ibed a s ch a n ges in st u den t beh a vior . Kn o w l e d g e (Level 1) Kn owled ge is d efin ed a s t h e r em em ber in g of p r eviou s ly lea r n ed in for m a t ion . T h e “Ta xon om y of E du ca t ion a l Object ives. E XAMP LE : S t a t e t h e t h r ee elem en t s of lea r n in g object ives . THE COGN ITIVE D OMAIN Th e cogn it ive dom a in con t a in s t h e followin g six m a jor ca t egor ies. 63 . Kn owledge r epr esen t s t h e lowest level of le a r n in g ou t com e s in t h e cogn it ive d om a in . An ob je ct ive d e s cr ib e s a n in t en ded r esu lt of in st r u ct ion . Th e exa m ple given in ea ch ca t egor y illu st r a t es t h e level of u n der st a n din g t h e st u den t sh ou ld be a ble t o dem on st r a t e a s a r es u lt of t h e in s t r u ct ion p r ovid ed . Th ey defin e wh a t you will t ea ch a n d h ow you will m ea s u r e s t u d en t a ccom p lis h m en t of lea r n in g object ives . O b je ct ive s a t t h is le ve l r e q u ir e s t u d e n t s t o d em on s t r a t e t h eir k n owled ge of t h e s u bject . (2 ) t h e a ffe ct ive . elem en t s . I n a ddit ion t o h a vin g a kn owledge of t h e pu r poses of object ives. All t h a t is in volved is t h e r eca ll of t h e a ppr opr ia t e in for m a t ion . you m u st h a ve a n u n der st a n din g of t h e cla s s ifica t ion s .CHAP TER 7 LEARN IN G OB J ECTIVES INTRODUCTION Wh a t a r e lea r n in g object ives ? Wh y a r e lea r n in g object ives u s ed ’? P er h a p s you h a ve a s k ed you r self t h ese or ver y sim ila r qu est ion s. Th is cla s s ifica t ion s ys t em . An object ive is a descr ipt ion of a per for m a n ce you wa n t s t u d e n t s t o d e m on s t r a t e b e for e you con s id e r t h e m com p e t e n t .” wa s developed t o h elp iden t ify a n d defin e in st r u ct ion a l object ives . LE AR N IN G OB J E CTIVE CLAS S IF ICATION I n s t r u ct i on a l ob je ct i v e s a r e b r oa d l y cl a s s i fi e d a s k n ow l e d g e or s k i l l ob je ct i v e s . Th e t a xon om y is divided in t o t h r ee m a in pa r t s T h is ch a p t e r or d om a in s : (1 ) t h e cogn it ive . a n d (3 ) t h e p s ych om ot or . a n d t yp es of lea r n in g object ives . bu t n ot t h eir u n d er s t a n d in g of it . a n d con ve y in s t r u ct ion a l in t e n t . gu idelin es for t est in g.

E XAMP LE : E xp la in t h e u s e of or a l qu es t ion s in a les s on in t r od u ct ion . Wh en u sin g t h e object ives in t h is dom a in . p r oblem s olvin g. Th es e lea r n in g ou t com es a r e m or e com plex t h a n sim ple r eca ll of in for m a t ion a n d r epr esen t t h e lowest level of u n der st a n din g. E XAM P L E : D e m on s t r a t e e ffe ct ive com m u n ica t ion s k ills a n d t e ch n iq u e s . E XAM P L E : D is t in gu is h b e t w e e n a p p r op r ia t e a n d in a p p r op r ia t e m ot iva t ion t ech n iqu es. a n d e n vir on m e n t t o d e live r in st r u ct ion . Syn t h esis st r esses cr ea t ive beh a vior t h a t com bin es m a n y p a r t s in t o a m ea n in gfu l wh ole. Lea r n in g ou t com es of t h is ca t egor y con t a in elem en t s of a ll t h e ot h er cogn it ive ca t egor ies in a ddit ion t o va lu e ju dgm en t s. An a ly s i s (Level 4) An a lys is is t h e a b ilit y t o s e p a r a t e m a t e r ia l in t o it s com p on e n t p a r t s t o a r r ive a t a n u n der st a n din g of it s or ga n iza t ion a l st r u ct u r e. E XAM P L E : E v a l u a t e t h e e ffe ct i v e n e s s of a n ot h e r i n s t r u ct or ’s p e r for m a n ce . E v a lu a t i o n (Level 6) E va lu a t ion in volves t h e a bilit y t o ju d ge t h e va lu e of m a t er ia l ba s ed on d efin ed cr it er ia . or t r ou bles h oot in g s k ills n or m a lly r equ ir e t h is level of u n d er s t a n d in g. m a t e r ia ls . E XAM P L E : P r e p a r e s e lf. you m u st m a ke su r e t h ey a r e r ea list ic. Ap p l i c a t i o n (Level 3) Ap p lica t ion is t h e a bilit y t o a p p ly lea r n in g in n ew a n d con cr et e wa ys . Lea r n in g ou t com es t h a t in volve decision m a k in g. An a lysis r equ ir es a h igh er level of u n der st a n din g t h a n eit h er com p r eh en s ion or a p p lica t ion . You m u st 64 . Th is ca t egor y r epr esen t s t h e h igh est level of u n der st a n din g wit h in t h e cogn it ive dom a in . Ap p lica t ion d iffer s r om com pr eh en sion in t h a t a pplica t ion sh ows t h a t a st u den t ca n u se (a pply) lea r n in g cor r ect ly.C o m p r e h e n s i o n (Level 2) Com p r eh en s ion is d efin ed a s t h e a bilit y t o gr a s p t h e m ea n in g of m a t er ia l. S y n th e s is (Level 5) Syn t h esis r efer s t o t h e a bilit y t o r ea son fr om t h e gen er a l t o t h e pa r t icu la r .

m ea su r e wh a t you t h in k t h ey a r e m ea su r in g. THE P S YC H O M O T O R D OMAIN I n N a vy t r a in in g a la r ge p er cen t a ge of cou r s e object ives a r e a s s ocia t ed wit h t h e cogn it ive d om a in wh ile a r ela t ively s m a ll p er cen t a ge a r e a s s ocia t ed wit h t h e a ffect ive d om a in . t h e N a vy p la ces a gr ea t d ea l of em p h a s is on lea r n in g ou t com e s of t h e p s ych om ot or d om a in . Th ey a cqu ir e som e sk ills by t r yin g som et h in g u n t il t h ey h it u pon a sa t isfa ct or y (t h ou gh n ot n ecessa r ily cor r ect ) solu t ion or ou t com e. you m u st st r ive t o cr ea t e r ea list ic lea r n in g sit u a t ion s t h a t will en a ble st u den t s t o “t r a n sfer ” t h a t lea r n in g t o t h eir a ct u a l job. Th e object ives sh ow st u den t s wh a t t h ey a r e expect ed t o lea r n fr om in st r u ct ion . Th os e ou t com es a llow you t o p r ovid e in s t r u ct ion in a d efin ed s equ en ce. p r in cip les . you r em em ber . ba sic pr ocedu r es. a s defin ed by t h e lea r n in g object ives. St u den t s a ccom plish m u ch of t h eir skill lea r n in g by im it a t in g beh a vior s t h ey obser ve in ot h er s. Beca u s e of t h e n a t u r e of t ech n ica l t r a in in g. I n t h e ch a p t er on “P r in cip les of Lea r n in g. TH E AF F E CTIVE D OMAIN Th e a ffect ive dom a in defin es lea r n in g ou t com es a ssocia t ed wit h em ot ion s a n d feelin gs. or con cept s (level t h r ee of t h e cogn it ive dom a in ). is a pplyin g pa st lea r n in g in n ew wa ys. You ca n n ot a lwa ys pr ovide st u den t s wit h sk ill t r a in in g on a ct u a l equ ipm en t s. m et h ods. t h e in st r u ct or . you pr esen t fa ct s.m a k e s u r e t h ey r eflect a n a ccu r a t e in d ica t ion of t h e d es ir ed lea r n in g ou t com es a n d . be ca r efu l n ot t o go in t o t oo m u ch det a il.” you r ea d a bou t t h e wa ys p eop le lea r n . t r a n sfer . Wh ile n on e of t h ese wa ys a r e u n iqu e t o a n y on e dom a in . is t o cover in for m a t ion a t t h e kn owledge level. a t t it u d es . Th e ca t egor ies of t h e p s ych om ot or d om a in a r e a s follows : 65 . Th e r espon sibilit y for en su r in g lea r n in g ou t com es fa lls la r gely t o you . t r ia l a n d er r or . in fa ct . a ssocia t ion . If t h e in t en d ed ou t com e of in s t r u ct ion is for t h e s t u d en t t o be a ble t o “a p p ly” t h eor y. a t t it u de. T h e n you ca n m e a s u r e you r s t u d e n t s ’ a ccom p lis h m e n t of t h os e ob je ct ive s (b y t es t in g) befor e t ea ch in g h igh er levels of in for m a t ion . a n d in t er est t owa r d t h e su bject . a n d a p p r ecia t ion . Nor ca n you m ea su r e st u den t com pr eh en sion by a skin g “r eca ll” level qu est ion s. a n d in sigh t . Th e object ives t ell t h e in st r u ct or a t wh a t “level” t o pr esen t in for m a t ion . Th ey in clu ded im it a t ion . Th u s. don ’t m a ke t h e cr it ica l er r or of pr esen t in g in for m a t ion on ly a t t h e kn owledge level. im it a t ion . t r ia l a n d er r or . In t h is dom a in we a r e n ot on ly in t er est ed in a “cor r ect r espon se” bu t a lso in det er m in in g t h e st u den t ’s feelin g. a n d t e r m in ology. a s in t er es t . if t h e pu r pose is t o t ea ch st u den t s t o a pply t h e in for m a t ion pr esen t ed. Dom a in s in volve a “h ier a r ch y” of lea r n in g ou t com es . Th u s. Con ver sely. Tr a n sfer . su ch Mea s u r in g t h e a ccom p lis h m en t of object ives in t h e a ffect ive dom a in is gen er a lly m or e difficu lt t h a n in t h e ot h er dom a in s. t h en object ives m u st developed a n d t a u gh t a t t h a t level. You ca n n ot m ea su r e level t h r ee ou t com es by level on e object ives. If t h e pu r pose of a t opic. a n d t r a n sfer a r e closely a ssocia t ed wit h t h e p s ych om ot or d om a in .

E XAMP LE : U se t h e ch a lk boa r d/visu a l a ids pa n el a s in st r u ct ion a l m edia . You s h ou ld exp ect m u ch m or e of a st u den t in t h e wa y of pr oficien t per for m a n ce a t level fou r t h a n a t level t wo. Gu i d e d R e s p o n s e (Level 3) Th is level in volves t h e ea r ly st a ges of lea r n in g a com plex skill. It in volves t h e st u den t s’ lea r n in g fr om sen sor y st im u la t ion (a wa r en ess of a sigh t . bu t a r e less com plex t h a n t h e n ext h igh er level. m u st a ccom plish t h e desir ed t r a in in g ou t com es of t h e lea r n in g object ives. you . s ou n d . It in clu des lea r n in g t h r ou gh im it a t ion a n d t r ia l a n d er r or . P er cep t ion of cu es s er ves a s a n im p or t a n t p r er equ is it e for t h is level. a n d em ot ion a l set (willin gn ess t o a ct ). we m u st poin t ou t t h a t t h is exa m ple object ive cou ld a pply equ a lly a s well t o levels t wo a n d t h r ee a s it does t o level fou r . you wou ld m ea s u r e s t u d en t a ccom p lis h m en t of t h e object ive d iffer en t ly. Th is ca t egor y in clu d es m en t a l s et (m en t a l r ea din ess t o a ct ). You expect t h e st u den t t o be a ble t o p er for m t h es e s k ills wit h s om e d egr ee of con fid en ce a n d p r oficien cy. Obviou sly. E XAM P L E : C h oos e a p p r op r ia t e color e d m a r k e r s for le t t e r in g ch a r t s . h owever . Me c h a n i s m (Level 4) Th is level con cer n s per for m a n ce skills of wh ich t h e lea r n ed r espon ses a r e m or e pr a ct iced t h a n in t h e pr eviou s level. 66 . ph ysica l set (ph ysica l r ea din ess t o a ct ). Wh ile t h a t is specifica lly y t h e r espon sibilit y of cu r r icu lu m developer s. or s cen t ) a n d fr om r ecogn it ion of t h e s t im u lu s (id en t ifica t ion of t h e object . Th a t is wh y you n eed t o u n der st a n d t h e in t en ded level of t h e in st r u ct ion a n d t h e lea r n in g ou t com es expect ed a s a r esu lt of t h a t in st r u ct ion . E XAMP LE : Dis p la y p r op er s t u d en t beh a vior in a lea r n in g en vir on m en t . NOTE : Befor e goin g on t o t h e n ext level.P e rc e p t i o n (Level 1) P er cept ion con cer n s t h e st u den t s’ u se of t h eir sen sor y or ga n s t o obt a in cu es t h a t gu ide t h eir m ot or a ct ivit y. E XAMP LE : Displa y pr oper in st r u ct or beh a vior s in a t r a in in g en vir on m en t . s ou n d . S e t (Level 2) S et r efer s t o t h e s t u d en t ’s bein g r ea d y t o p er for m a p a r t icu la r a ct ion . or scen t ) t o per for m cer t a in a ct ion s. Adequ a cy of per for m a n ce is n or m a lly ju dged by a n ot h er per son or by t h e u se of defin ed cr it er ia . t h e in st r u ct or .

L e a r n in g ou t com e s a t t h is le ve l e m p h a s ize cr e a t ivit y in r e s p on d in g t o a p a r t icu la r sit u a t ion or sp ecific p r oblem . LE AR N IN G OB J E CTIVE E LE ME N TS Lea r n in g object ives a r e com p os ed of t h r ee elem en t s : t o wh a t d egr ee of p r oficien cy. t h e beh a vior . a n d t h e st a n da r d. E XAMP LE : Develop a lt er n a t ive s t r a t egies for d eliver in g in s t r u ct ion . Tr a n sfer lea r n in g is a ssocia t ed wit h t h is level in t h a t st u den t s u se pr eviou sly lea r n ed skills t o per for m n ew bu t r ela t ed t a sks. (4) ch eckin g t h e com pr eh en siven ess of ob je ct ive s . Th e exa m ple object ive u sed in level six m igh t be m or e a p p r op r ia t e t o a n e va lu a t ion p r ogr a m for e xp e r ie n ce d in s t r u ct or s t h a n t o s t u d e n t s in a n in st r u ct or t r a in in g cou r se. u n der wh a t con dit ion s. (3) defin in g object ives in t h e m ost r eleva n t t er m s. a n d (5 ) com m u n ica t in g t o ot h e r s t h e n a t u r e a n d le ve l of in t e n d e d le a r n in g ou t com e s . E a ch d om a in is s u bd ivid ed in t o ca t egor ies a r r a n ged in h ier a r ch ica l or der fr om sim ple t o com plex.Co m p le x Ov e rt R e s p o n s e (Level 5) At t h is level wit h in t h e dom a in . A d a p t a t i o n (L e ve l 6 ) Ada pt a t ion con cer n h igh ly developed skills. N OTE : You a r e m or e lik ely t o fin d beh a vior s a t levels s ix a n d s even ou t s id e of t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t beca u se of t h eir com plexit y. E XAMP LE : Ad a p t you r in s t r u ct ion a l s t yle t o t h e a p p r op r ia t e level of t h e s t u d en t s . you sh ou ld expect t h e st u den t t o dem on st r a t e a h igh degr ee of p r oficie n cy. Th is level in clu d es h igh ly coor d in a t ed m ot or a ct ivit ies . E XAM P L E : D e m on s t r a t e t h e p r oce d u r e for d is a r m in g live or d in a n ce . a n d 67 . t h e con d it ion . Ori g i n a t i o n (Level 7) O r igin a t ion r e fe r s t o a s t u d e n t ’s a b ilit y for n e w a n d cr e a t ive p e r for m a n ce a ft e r h a vin g d evelop ed s k ill. T h e “T a x on om y of E d u ca t i on a l O b je ct i v e s ” p r ov i d e s a t h r e e -d om a i n s y s t e m for t h e cla ssifica t ion of in st r u ct ion a l object ives . Th ese elem en t s defin e wh a t t h e st u den t will be a ble t o do. (2) s t a t in g object ives a t t h e p r op er level for t h e d efin ed lea r n in g ou t com e. Th ese ca t egor ies a id in (1) iden t ifyin g object ives for a n in s t r u ct ion a l u n it .

. .” a n d “r ea lize. su ch a s “u n der st a n d. . . I n s om e in s t a n ces . . L e a r n in g ob je ct ive s s h ou ld con t a in on ly ve r b s t h a t e xp r e s s a ct ive . given a list of . . . in a da m a ge con t r ol wet t r a in er . T h e p e r for m a n ce -or ie n t e d ve r b . Com m on ly. .” “kn ow. . Th is elem en t m a y a ls o d efin e t h e d egr ee of in t er a ct ion wit h t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t t h a t t h e lea r n er m a y exp ect . a n d t h e ph r a se “t h e t h r ee elem en t s of a lea r n in g object ive” is t h e object . t h e ph r a se: “U p on s u cce s s fu l com p le t ion of t h is t opic. THE CON D ITION E LE ME N T Th e con d it ion ba s ica lly d efin es a id in g a n d lim it in g fa ct or s im p os ed u p on t h e s t u d en t in s a t is fyin g t h e p er for m a n ce r equ ir em en t s of t h e object ive. or d em on s t r a t ion of a n a t t it u d e. object ives m a y con t a in n o a id in g or lim it in g fa ct or s .” in t r od u ces lea r n in g object ive s t a t em en t s . Th e followin g a r e s om e exa m p les of con d it ion s : 68 . Th e st u den t is a lwa ys t h e su bject . You m u st be a ble t o obser ve t h e beh a vior a n d t o m ea su r e wh a t t h e st u den t m u st do t o dem on st r a t e a ccom plish m en t of t h e object ive. (2) p er for m a n ceor ien t ed ver b. Th e object sh ou ld in clu de a ll m odifier s n eeded t o defin e wh a t t h e st u den t will be a ct in g u pon . Wh en a t opic list s sever a l lea r n in g object ives. . . wit h ou t t h e u se of r efer en ces . “st a t e” is t h e a ct ion ver b. con s id e r t h e follow in g ob je ct ive : “U p on s u cce s s fu l com p le t ion of t h is t op ic. t h e st u den t will be a ble t o .” Th e “st u den t ” is t h e su bject . im m e d ia t e ly follow s t h e in t r od u ct or y st a t em en t a n d expr esses t h e st u den t per for m a n ce r equ ir ed t o dem on st r a t e a ch ievem en t of t h e ob je ct ive . . t h e con d it ion e le m e n t p r ovid e s a cle a r e r u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e lea r n in g ou t com e d efin ed by t h e object ive. Th e s ign ifica n t p a r t s of t h e beh a vior elem en t a r e t h e (1) s u bject . . . a ccom p lis h m en t of a s k ill. Th e object ive s h ou ld n ot in clu d e con d it ion s t h a t a r e n ot legit im a t e t r a in in g con cer n s. . or t h e con d it ion s of p er for m a n ce m a y be obviou s . p r ovid ed wit h a Mod el X ca lcu la t or .TH E B E H AVIOR E LE ME N T Th e beh a vior defin es wh a t t h e lea r n er sh ou ld be a ble t o do a s a n ou t com e of t r a in in g. t h e st u den t will be a ble t o st a t e t h e t h r ee elem en t s of a lea r n in g object ive.” a s t h ey a r e open t o in t er pr et a t ion a n d ca n be m ea su r ed in m a n y differ en t wa ys. . or “a ct ion ” ve r b . . Wh e n com b in e d w it h t h e b e h a vior e le m e n t . . t h e in t r odu ct or y st a t em en t a ppea r s on ce wit h a ll of t h e object ives gr ou p ed ben ea t h it . m e a s u r a b le per for m a n ce. F or e xa m p le . It m a y in clu d e a p p lica t ion of k n owled ge. Th is elem en t of t h e object ive a lwa ys specifies st u den t per for m a n ce. You m a y en cou n t er object ives t h a t con t a in s ever a l con d it ion s or n on e a t a ll. Th e object of a beh a vior elem en t is a wor d or ph r a se t h a t den ot es wh a t is a ct ed u pon . . . a n d (3) object . On e of t h e m a jor con cer n s in Na vy t r a in in g is t o en su r e t h a t t h e con dit ion s of t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t a p p r oa ch t h os e of r ea l life. Object ives sh ou ld n ot con t a in ver bs t h a t a r e va gu e. . .

. a r e cou r s e. CON S TRU CTION OF LE AR N IN G OB J E CTIVE S Alt h ou gh t h e w r it in g of le a r n in g ob je ct ive s is n ot d ifficu lt . Th e CLOs ser ve a s a gu ide for lea r n in g a n d a s a gu ide for t ea ch in g. Developer s m u st det er m in e t h e desir ed lea r n in g ou t com es a n d t h e con dit ion s u n der wh ich t h e s t u d e n t m u s t p e r for m . . As wit h t h e con dit ion elem en t . . A t er m in a l object ive is a s p ecific s t a t em en t of t h e p er for m a n ce expect ed fr om a st u den t a s t h e r esu lt of t r a in in g. Th e t yp es you a r e m os t lik ely t o fin d . Th ey a lso ser ve a s a gu id e for t h e in s t r u ct or in m e a s u r in g s t u d e n t p e r for m a n ce a n d in d u p lica t in g job r equ ir em en t s in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . . con dit ion (s) u n der wh ich it is t o be exh ibit ed. wh et h er t h e st a n da r d elem en t a ppea r s in t h e object ive depen ds on h ow cr it ica l it is t o det er m in in g t h e st u den t s’ a ccom plish m en t of t h e object ive. a n d en a blin g object ives. T L O s s u p p or t cou r s e le a r n in g ob je ct ive s . Aft er t h a t . 40 wor ds per m in u t e.THE S TAN D AR D E LE ME N T Th e s t a n d a r d s p ecifies t h e cr it er ia t h e s t u d en t s ’ p er for m a n ce m u s t m eet . t h e st a n da r d is a ssu m ed t o be 100 per cen t . plu s or m in u s on e gr a m . TOs dir ect ly su ppor t t h e cou r se m ission st a t em en t . . . a n d t h e st a n da r d t o wh ich it will be per for m ed. a n d s t a n d a r d s for k n owled ge a n d s k ills s t u d en t s m u s t a cqu ir e a s a r es u lt of s a t is fa ct or ily com p let in g t h e t op ic. If you m u st m ea su r e st u den t a ccom plish m en t a ga in st som e cr it er ia . a ccu r a cy. h owever . t opic. T h e y s t a t e p er for m a n ce (beh a vior s ). T op ic L e a r n in g O b je ct ive s (T L O s ). t er m in a l. it ca n p r e s e n t a ch a lle n ge . Cou r se Lea r n in g Object ives (CLOs). CLOs r eflect t h e specific skills a n d kn owledge r equ ir ed in a job. T YP E S O F L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S Th er e a r e sever a l t ypes of object ives you m a y en cou n t er du e t o differ en t t er m in ology bet ween va r iou s d evelop m en t a p p r oa ch es . E xa m ples of st a n da r ds a r e a s follows: . T h e y m u s t a l s o d e ci d e h ow t o d e t e r m i n e w h e n a s t u d e n t h a s R e m e m b e r t h e follow in g in for m a t ion a b ou t t h e con s t r u ct ion of sa t isfa ct or ily m et t h e t r a in in g r equ ir em en t . in clu d in g k n owled ge a n d s k ills t h a t s u p p or t a t er m in a l object ive. S t a n d a r d s a r e n or m a lly d efin ed a s t im e. t h e in for m a t ion is con ver t ed in t o wor ds 69 . . t h e con dit ion (s) u n der wh ich it is t o be exh ibit ed. s p eed . qu a n t it y. con d it ion s . An en a blin g object ive is a s p ecific s t a t em en t of t h e beh a vior t o be exh ibit ed. t h en t h e lea r n in g object ive will in clu de t h e st a n da r d elem en t . If n ot in clu ded. a n d t h e st a n da r d t o wh ich it will be p er for m ed . E n a blin g Object ives (E Os ). wit h ou t er r or . or s om e ot h er qu a n t ifia ble m ea s u r em en t . . E n a blin g object ives con t a in con d it ion s a n d s t a n d a r d s a p p r op r ia t e t o t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . Ter m in a l Object ives (TOs ). t h a t con vey t h e m essa ge. It expr esses t h e beh a vior t o be exh ibit ed.

m en t a l skills. Th ey will t ell t h e st u den t s exa ct ly wh a t t h ey will be expect ed t o do. n Mea su r e cu r r en t in a ser ies cir cu it u sin g t h e Model XX M u l t i m e t e r . a n d t h e cr it er ia of a ccep t a ble p er for m a n ce: n St a t e Oh m ’s La w for det er m in in g volt a ge in a ser ies cir cu it fr om m em or y. n Th e st u den t is a lwa ys t h e su bject of t h e beh a vior a l st a t em en t . 9 Mea su r e cu r r en t in a ser ies cir cu it u sin g t h e Model XX Mu lt im et er . Wh e n t h e C O N D I T I O N s t a t e m e n t s a r e a d d e d . t h e s t u d en t will be a ble t o: n (Kn owled ge) S t a t e Oh m ’s La w for d et er m in in g volt a ge in a s er ies cir cu it . t h e a id in g or lim it in g fa ct or s t o per for m a n ce will be k n own : ~ St a t e Oh m ’s La w for det er m in in g volt a ge in a ser ies cir cu it fr om m e m or y . U p on com p let ion of t h is t op ic. P r oblem s m u s t be s olved a ccu r a t e t o t wo d ecim a l p oin t s . u n der wh a t con dit ion s. You will be a ble t o det er m in e if t r a in in g is pr odu cin g s t u d en t s wit h t h e k n owled ge a n d s k ills t h ey n eed t o p er for m t h e jobs t o wh ich t h ey will be a ssign ed. 9 S olve for a n u n k n own va lu e in a s er ies cir cu it wh en p r ovid ed wit h t wo k n own va lu es . E S olve for a n u n k n own va lu e in a s er ies cir cu it w h e n p r ovd e d w it h t w o k n ow n va lu e s . n (P h ysica l Sk ill) Mea su r e cu r r en t in a ser ies cir cu it . a ccu r a cy. Th e beh a vior a l st a t em en t will a ls o con t a in a p er for m a n ce-or ien t ed ver b a n d a n object . Th ey a r e u su a lly expr essed a s t im e. you a r e in a u n iqu e posit ion . ~ St a n da r ds descr ibe t h e cr it er ia of a ccept a ble per for m a n ce. (Th e st a n da r d of 100 per cen t is im plied). M e a s u r e m e n t s m u s t b e w it h in p lu s or m in u s on e m illia m p of t h os e s p e cifie d on M a in t e n a n ce C a r e 1 -2 -3 . Th ese st a t em en t s a ll in dica t e WH AT t h e st u den t is expect ed t o be a ble t o do a s a r esu lt of t r a in in g. Th ese exa m ples illu st r a t e t h e developm en t of lea r n in g object ives in t en ded t o m ea su r e va r iou s levels of s t u d en t a ch ievem en t . As a n in st r u ct or . t h e followin g t h r ee beh a vior a l st a t em en t s per t a in t o t h e sa m e su bject bu t a r e wr it t en t o det er m in e va r iou s lea r n in g ou t com e s . n (Men t a l Sk ill) Solve for a n u n k n own va lu e in a ser ies cir cu it . F or exa m ple. Th ese object ives a ll con t a in t h e sa m e elem en t s bu t a r e wr it t en t o det er m in e differ en t levels of u n der st a n din g or a ch ievem en t . You s h ou ld r e m e m b e r a n d a p p ly t h e k n ow le d ge for w h ich lea r n in g object ives a r e wr it t en s o t h a t you ca n a ch ieve s p ecific lea r n in g ou t com es . Lea r n in g object ives of Na vy t r a in in g cou r ses n or m a lly fa ll in t o t h e ca t egor ies of kn owledge. 70 . or qu a lit y. Wh en t h e S TAN DARD is a d d ed t o t h es e s t a t em en t s . Th e la ck of a st a t ed st a n da r d im plies t h a t 100 per cen t a ccu r a cy is r equ ir ed. t h e object ives will be com p let e. n M os t ob je ct ive s d e s cr ib e con d it ion s t h a t a id or lim it p e r for m a n ce .lea r n in g object ives: n Lea r n in g object ives in dica t e wh a t t h e st u den t will be a ble t o do a s a r esu lt of t r a in in g. or ph ysica l skills.

a n d con s t r u ct ion of lea r n in g object ives will cla r ify you r r ole in con d u ct in g t r a in in g a n d s t r en gt h en you r effect iven es s in d eliver in g t r a in in g.SUMMARY Lea r n in g object ives p r ovid e t h e fou n d a t ion u p on wh ich cou r s e cu r r icu lu m is bu ilt . I n s t r u ct ion a l ob je ct ive s a r e b r oa d ly cla s s ifie d a s k n ow le d ge a n d s k ill ob je ct ive s . elem en t s . 71 . You r k n owled ge of t h e cla s s ifica t ion . Th ey d efin e wh a t you t ea ch a n d p r ovid e t h e ba s is for m ea s u r em en t of s t u d en t a ccom p lis h m en t . t yp es . T h e s e cla ssifica t ion s a r e divided in t o levels of lea r n in g wit h in t h e cogn it ive a n d psych om ot or dom a in s.

A r eca ll t es t it em r equ ir es s t u d en t s t o r es p on d fr om m em or y in s t e a d of s e le ct in g t h e r e s p on s e fr om t w o or m or e a lt e r n a t ive s . t h ou gh n ot iden t ica l t o. a n d st a n da r ds specified in t h e object ives will det er m in e t h e level of lea r n in g t est ed. t h e lea r n in g levels defin ed in Ch a pt er 7. st u den t s r em em ber a n d r es p on d exa ct ly a s t a u gh t . fa ct s . fa ct s . kn owledge a n d per for m a n ce. You n eed t o kn ow h ow st u den t s will u se t h is m a t er ia l in t h e job so t h a t you ca n t est t h e m a t er ia l t o t h a t level. Aft e r cu r r icu lu m h a s been va lida t ed. a n d a n a lysis of t est s a n d t est it em s. a n d t h e like. pr in ciples. con dit ion s. You w ill fill a cr it ica l r ole in t h e t e s t in g p r ogr a m for t h e cou r s e s you in s t r u ct . wh et h er or n ot t h e s t u d en t h a s lea r n ed t h e m a t er ia l. r u les. m et h ods. Th a t is a r ecogn it ion t est it em if t h e st u den t h a s been t a u gh t t h a t specific in for m a t ion du r in g t r a in in g. You will be con cer n ed wit h t wo m et h ods of t est in g. R e c a ll. Na vy t r a in in g u ses five levels of lea r n in g wh ich a r e ba sed on . L is t in g t h e s t e p s of a m a in t en a n ce pr ocedu r e a n d a n swer in g a com plet ion qu est ion by la belin g pa r t s on a dia gr a m a r e 72 . Recogn it ion is t h e p r oces s of ver ba t im id en t ifica t ion of s p ecific t er m s . t h a t is . Th is ch a pt er focu ses pr im a r ily on t h e in for m a t ion you will n eed t o d evelop k n owled ge t es t it em s . m e t h od s . St u den t s select fr om t wo or m or e a lt er n a t ives t o iden t ify t h e in for m a t ion . P er for m a n ce t est s m ea su r e skill a cqu isit ion by h a vin g t h e st u den t dem on st r a t e s p ecific beh a vior s d efin ed by t h e lea r n in g object ives . developm en t of a ddit ion a l t est it em s. pr esen t ed du r in g t r a in in g. Test s a r e given t o det er m in e if a st u den t ca n dem on st r a t e. in s om e m ea s u r a ble wa y. K N O WL E D G E T E S T I T E M D E V E L O P M E N T Th e beh a vior . object s. R e ca ll is t h e ve r b a t im r e m e m b e r in g of s p e cific t e r m s .CHAP TER 8 TE S TIN G INTRODUCTION Na vy sch ools u se t est s t o det er m in e wh et h er or n ot a st u den t h a s su fficien t kn owledge or skill t o m eet t h e r equ ir em en t s es t a blis h ed by t h e lea r n in g object ives . a ch ievem en t of t h e object ives . Th e p h ilos op h y u n d er lyin g N a vy t es t in g is ba s ed on t h e a ch ievem en t of lea r n in g object ives. pr ocedu r es. a n d t h e like. a t est it em m a y a sk t h e st u den t s t o iden t ify a pa r t icu la r swit ch on a piece of equ ipm en t by m a t ch in g it s n a m e t o a dia gr a m of t h e swit ch . To cor r ect ly a n swer a r eca ll t est it em . pr ocedu r es. Kn owledge t est s m ea su r e a ch ievem en t of object ives t h r ou gh t h e u se of t est it em s wr it t en a t t h e a ppr opr ia t e lea r n in g level. F or exa m ple. r u le s . Defin it ion s a n d exa m ples of t h e five lea r n in g levels a r e a s follows: R e c o g n i t i o n . pr in ciples. cou r se per son n el (pr im a r ily in st r u ct or s) a r e r espon sible for t h e developm en t of a ddit ion a l ver sion s of t est s.

Ap p lica t ion in volves t h e a bilit y t o u s e a cqu ir ed k n owled ge in a job-r ela t ed sit u a t ion . exp la in in g. a n d det a ils r equ ir ed for t h e st u den t s t o cor r ect ly a n swer t h e qu est ion wit h ou t r equ ir in g t h em t o r efer t o t h e a lt er n a t ives. You m u s t u s e d iffer en t p r oblem s or cir cu it s fr om t h e on es you u s ed in cla s s t o d evelop a p p lica t ion qu es t ion s . bes t (eva lu a t ion ). U s e t h e followin g gu idelin es a s a ch ecklist t o m a ke su r e you pr oper ly wr it e m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em st em s: n In clu de a ll in for m a t ion . con dit ion s. Com p r eh en s ion is u n d er s t a n d in g wh a t wa s t a u gh t r a t h er t h a n s im p ly Co m p re h e n s i o n .exa m ples of r eca ll t est it em s. t est it em for m s a n d for m a t s. or su m m a r izin g in for m a t ion . t h is t ype of t est it em con t a in s fou r a lt er n a t ives. Alwa ys t est r eca ll wit h closed book t est s. Ma ke on e of t h e a lt er n a t ives t h e cor r ect a n swer t o t h e t est it em a n d a ll of t h e ot h er s pla u sible a lt er n a t ives. m e m or izin g t h e w or d s . a n d st a n da r ds. I t ca n be d em on s t r a t ed by in t er p r et in g. Use it t o t est a ll levels of kn owledge except r eca ll. you ca n u se m or e or less t h a n fou r . You m a y u se five t ypes of kn owledge t est it em s: m u lt iple-ch oice. T h e q u e s t ion w ou ld r e q u ir e t h e s t u d e n t t o k n ow or det er m in e wh ich opt ion s wou ld m eet t h e object ive (a n a lysis) a n d wh ich sin gle opt ion wou ld be M U L T I P L E -C H O I C E TES T ITEM D E VE LOP ME N T Th e m u lt iple-ch oice it em is t h e m ost ver sa t ile of t h e five t ypes of t est it em s. con sider a qu est ion t h a t a sks t h e st u den t t o select t h e best a p p r oa ch t o m eet a s t a t ed object ive. focu s on t h e lea r n in g level bein g t est ed a n d wr it e t h e t est it em s t o t h a t level. F or exa m ple. Th e m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em con sist s of (1) a st em con t a in in g t h e pr oblem st a t em en t a n d (2) a list of possible a n swer s (a lt er n a t ives). Th e followin g sect ion s pr esen t gu idelin es for st em con st r u ct ion . m a t ch in g. a n d essa y. depen din g on t h e n a t u r e of t h e con t en t bein g t est ed. a n d com m on er r or s in it em con st r u ct ion . Com p r eh en s ion r equ ir es you t o pa r a ph r a se t h e m a t er ia l pr esen t ed in t h e it em r a t h er t h a n t a kin g it wor d for wor d fr om t h e t ext . a lt er n a t ive con st r u ct ion . Ap p l i c a t i o n . a ssu m pt ion s. In developin g kn owledge t est it em s. Ste m Co n s t ru c t i o n A ca r d in a l r u le in t es t it em d evelop m en t is t o com m u n ica t e effect ively. Applica t ion qu est ion s r equ ir e st u den t s t o dem on st r a t e kn owledge t h r ou gh m en t a l skill exer cises su ch a s solvin g a com pu t a t ion a l pr oblem or det er m in in g r esist a n ce va lu es fr om cir cu it d ia gr a m s . t r a n s la t in g. t r u e-fa lse. cr it er ia . Wh en m ea su r in g t h e st u den t s’ u n der st a n din g of a n object ive. An a lys is in volves t h e u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e elem en t s of d a t a a n d An a l y s i s /E v a l u a t i o n . E va lu a t ion in volves t h e ju dgm en t of t h e va lu e or t h e effect iven ess of pr ocedu r es or solu t ion s ba sed on da t a . As k in g a s t u d en t t o exp la in h ow a d evice wor k s is a n exa m p le of a com p r eh en s ion it em . com plet ion . ot h er wise you a r e n ot t est in g t h e st u den t s’ a bilit y t o r em em ber in for m a t ion . Typica lly. 73 . r e la t ion s h ip s a m on g t h e d a t a t h a t m a k e t h e m e a n in g of in for m a t ion e xp licit . h owever . you m u s t a void t h e u s e of ver ba t im r eca ll or r ecogn it ion t yp es of it em s .

You m a y pr epa r e a lt er n a t ives ba sed on h ow st u den t s m igh t in cor r ect ly m a n ipu la t e t er m s. Om it in for m a t ion n ot essen t ia l t o t h e in t er pr et a t ion of a t est it em . In clu de wor ds. Alt e rn a t i v e Co n s t ru c t i o n You m u st exer cise ca r e wh en design in g t h e a lt er n a t ives for m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em s. Th e difficu lt y of t h e it em will depen d la r gely u pon t h e a lt er n a t ives. Test on ly on e idea or cen t r a l t h ou gh t . Avoid t h e u s e of m or e t h a n on e com p let ion p os it ion . ph r a ses. u n a m bigu ou s wor din g so t h a t on ly on e a n swer is cor r ect . If t h e t est it em u ses a n illu st r a t ion on a sepa r a t e illu st r a t ion for m . Ma ke su r e t h e a lt er n a t ives a r e pla u sible a n d fit well wit h t h e st em .g. h igh ligh t it (in ca ps or u n der lin ed) so t h a t t h e st u den t will n ot ice it a n d in t er pr et t h e it em cor r ect ly. a n d so on . ~ Ma k e a ll a lt er n a t ives a p p r oxim a t ely t h e s a m e len gt h a n d of t h e s a m e com p lexit y. a n d t h e like. Use t h e qu est ion for m over t h e in com plet e st a t em en t for m except wh en it wou ld m a ke t h e t est it em gr a m m a t ica lly clu m sy or difficu lt t o u n der st a n d. P osit ion t h e com plet ion of a n in com plet e st a t em en t t est it em n ea r or a t t h e en d of t h e st em .P h r a se t h e st em posit ively. r efer t o t h e illu st r a t ion in t h e st em by figu r e n u m ber . A good r u le is t o develop a lt er n a t ives ba s ed u p on com m on m is con cep t ion s by s t u d en t s a n d in exp er ien ced job in cu m ben t s . t h a t per t a in t o a ll a lt er n a t ives r a t h er t h a n r epea t in g t h em in t h e a lt er n a t ive. n Use a lt er n a t ives t h a t a r e m ea n in gfu l a n d n ot su bject t o a u t om a t ic elim in a t ion beca u se t h ey a r e ir r eleva n t or u n r ela t ed t o t h e qu es t ion . n U s e clos ely r ela t ed a lt er n a t ives . n Do n ot u s e t h e wor d s “a lwa ys ” or “n ever .” n Do n ot u s e a lt er n a t ives of “a ll of t h e a bove” a n d “n on e of t h e a bove. “c” is t r u e if “a ” a n d “b” a r e fa lse). If you m u st u se a n ega t ive. U s e com p let e s en t en ces for t es t it em s in t h e for m of qu es t ion s a n d en d t h em wit h a qu est ion m a r k . sym bols. Th e m or e closely r ela t ed t h e a lt er n a t ives a r e. t h e m or e difficu lt it is for st u den t s t o select t h e cor r ect a n swer . Obs er ve t h e followin g r equ ir em en t s in d evelop in g m u lt ip le-ch oice a lt er n a t ives : n I n clu d e on ly on e cor r e ct a n s w e r .. An a ddit ion a l r u le is t o look a t t h e cor r ect a n swer a n d det er m in e h ow you m a y m a ke it in cor r ect . n Do n ot u s e in t er r ela t ed a n s wer s (e. ~ Use t er m s wit h wh ich st u den t s a r e fa m ilia r or t h a t you ca n expla in wit h in t h e lim it s of t h e t est it em . U se clea r . 74 .

Avoid u s in g n ega t ive wor d in g. in ca ps or u n der lin ed). a closed-st em ) a n d t h e a lt er n a t ives a r e com plet e sen t en ces. begin ea ch a lt er n a t ive wit h a lower ca se let t er (except for pr oper n ou n s) a n d en d it wit h a per iod. Ra n dom ly select t h e posit ion of t h e cor r ect a n swer a m on g t h e a lt er n a t ives t o a void a n y pa t t er n s t h a t m a y bia s t h e t est . P u n ct u a t e a lt er n a t ives t o con for m gr a m m a t ica lly wit h t h e st r u ct u r e of t h e it em st em . Th e followin g is a n exa m p le of a com p let e s t a t em en t for m a t : E XAM P L E : Wh ich of t h e follow in g a ct ion s is r e q u ir e d t o r e m ove a h in ge d t yp e 2 m od u le on t h e MTRE Mk 7 Mod 2/4? (a ) Dis con n ect p la t es fr om t h e t yp e 2 m od u le. I n it e m s t h a t in volve n u m e r ica l a n s w e r s . if you m u s t u s e n ega t ive wor d in g. Mu l t i p l e -C h o i c e S t e m F o r m a t s You will u se t wo for m a t s t o con st r u ct t h e st em of m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em s. Th e com plet e st a t em en t for m a t h a s t h e a dva n t a ge of for cin g you t o st a t e t h e pr oblem clea r ly in t h e st em . m a k e t h e w or d i n g of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s gr a m m a t ica lly r ela t ed t o t h a t of t h e it em st em . (c) Rem ove a ll Typ e 3 m od u les a n d con n ect or s . A disa dva n t a ge is t h a t it m a y r equ ir e len gt h ier r espon ses. H owever . begin ea ch a lt er n a t ive wit h a ca pit a l let t er a n d en d ea ch on e wit h a per iod.e.. If t h e st em is a qu est ion (i.. (d ) Rot a t e h old d own cla m p s t o a ver t ica l p os it ion .g. You m a y wr it e closed st em it em s a s a com plet e st a t em en t or in com plet e s t a t em en t . a r r a n ge t h e a lt e r n a t ive s in a s ce n d in g or d es cen d in g or d er . begin ea ch a lt er n a t ive wit h a ca pit a l let t er a n d u se n o en d pu n ct u a t ion . I f t h e s t em is a qu es t ion a n d t h e a lt er n a t ives a r e in com p let e s en t en ces . h igh ligh t it (e. st a t em en t for m a t : T h e follow in g is a n e xa m p le of a n in com p le t e 75 . (b) In ser t “T” h a n dle in t o qu ick r elea se fa st en er s. Closed st em for m a t . W i t h t h e i n com p l e t e s e n t e n ce t e s t i t e m . If t h e st em is a n in com plet e sen t en ce (open -st em ) wit h t h e r espon se posit ion a t t h e en d of t h e st em . It a lso r edu ces t h e possibilit y of givin g st u den t s gr a m m a t ica l clu es. t h e closed a n d t h e op en .

E XAM P L E : T h e s e t t i n g of t h e AN /AB C -3 Q fl i p -fl op . Th is pa r t icu la r for m a t is st r a igh t for wa r d a n d t h e ea siest t o develop. Open st em for m a t . Th a t m a y r esu lt in illogica l a n d u n r ela t ed a lt er n a t ives. (c) beside. Alt h ou gh in com plet e-st a t em en t st em s a r e t ypica lly ea sier t o wr it e t h a n com plet e st a t em en t st em s. Gen er a lly. St a n da r d F or m a t . Th is for m a t u ses a n open -en ded st em . i n d i ca t e s t h a t in t en t -t o-fir e h a s been en er gized . Mu lt i p le -Ch o i c e Te s t It e m F o rm a t s You m a y con st r u ct a m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em eit h er a s a qu est ion or a n in com plet e st a t em en t u sin g t h e stan d ard or except for m a t s . t h ey m a y ca u se you t o a void t h in kin g a bou t t h e qu est ion befor e you develop t h e a lt er n a t ives. n ot a t t h e en d of t h e st em . (b) below. E XAM P L E : Wh e n cr im p in g b ot h a s t r a n d e d a n d a s olid w ir e in t h e s a m e con t a ct . . t h e ea s ier it is for s t u d en t s t o s elect t h e cor r ect a lt er n a t ive. wh ich is a n in com plet e st a t em en t wit h t h e r es p on s e p os it ion a t t h e en d of t h e s t a t em en t . t h e les s s im ila r a lt er n a t ives a r e in con t en t . t h e solid wir e’s posit ion in r ela t ion t o t h e st r a n ded wir e is (a ) a bove. u se t h em spa r in gly. 76 . Th e followin g is a n exa m p le of a n op en s t em t es t it em . Use it wh en you on ly wa n t st u den t s t o select t h e cor r ect a n swer fr om t h e fou r a lt er n a t ives pr ovided. . (a ) B 4 3 (b ) C 2 1 (C ) C 2 4 (d ) D 3 2 Wh e n w r it t e n a s a n in com p le t e s t a t e m e n t . Alt h ou gh t h is for m of t est it em is t ypica lly ea sier t o wr it e t h a n com plet e st a t em en t st em s. T h e y e n cou r a ge lift in g of t e s t it e m s ver ba t im fr om t h e m a t er ia l a n d en cou r a ge s t u d en t s t o m em or ize a n s wer s . (d ) d ia gon a l. E a ch a lt er n a t ive p r ovid es a logica l con clu sion t o t h e st em . t h e com p le t ion p os it ion a p p e a r s w it h in t h e st a t em en t .

77 . (b ) F u r n is h e s p ow e r t o M AR D AN . w h a t s u p p lie s volt a ge s for TVC posit ion sen sor t r a ck in g? (a ) Min u s 20 VDC p r ecis ion p ower s u p p ly. Th er e a r e sever a l com m on er r or s t h a t you n eed t o a void wh en developin g m u lt iple-ch oice t est it em s . E xcept F or m a t . op e r a t ion s . (d ) M is s ile com m a n d m od u le . (b) S elf-t es t DC r efer en ce p ower s u p p ly.E XAM P L E : D u r in g t h e s ys t e m ve r ifica t ion t e s t . (c) A r ep la cem en t gyr os cop e m ou n t ed t o t h e s t a ble p la t for m . (d ) A p la t for m s t em m ou n t ed t o t h e bed p la t e. (c) T VC p os it ion s e n s or AC /D C con ve r t e r . (c) F u n ct ion s a s a r u n n in g t im e m et er . (d) P r ovid e s s t a t ic t e s t in g of M AR D AN . (b) A velocit y m et er m ou n t ed t o t h e p la t for m . Th is for m a t r equ ir es st u den t s t o r ecogn ize wh ich a lt er n a t ives a r e cor r ect a n d t o select t h e on e t h a t is in cor r ect . Lis t ed below a r e fou r exa m p les of com m on er r or s : Do NOT u se sim ila r wor din g in bot h t h e st em a n d ONLY t h e cor r ect a lt er n a t ive.P . Th is pr a ct ice oft en cu es t h e cor r ect a n s wer . E xa m p le of a n in a p p r op r ia t e t es t it em : (er r or u n d er lin ed ): Wh a t is t h e p u r p os e of t h e MARDAN m a in t en a n ce t es t s et ? (a ) M on it or s t h e C . Alwa ys ca pit a lize or u n der lin e t h e wor d “E XCE P T” in t h e st em . U se t h e “E XCE P T” for m a t spa r in gly. E XAMP LE : A specific t or qu in g pa t t er n a n d a ssocia t ed t or qu e va lu es ca n be fou n d in t h e S I N S t ech n ica l m a n u a l for a ll of t h e followin g a s s e m b lie s or com p on e n t s E XC E P T (a ) An a zim u t h syn ch r o a ssem bly m ou n t ed t o t h e st em . Use t h e except for m a t wh en t h r ee or m or e equ a lly cor r ect a lt er n a t ives a n swer t h e qu est ion . It su ggest s t h e cor r ect a n swer . Do NOT st a t e t h e cor r ect a lt er n a t ive in gr ea t er det a il t h a n t h e ot h er a lt er n a t ives.

A s t u d e n t w h o d oe s n ot k n ow t h e cor r e ct a n s w e r h a s a 5 0 -p e r ce n t ch a n ce of U s e t r u e-fa ls e it em s t o t es t r ecogn it ion . A m a jor dr a wba ck t o t h e t r u e-fa lse it em is t h a t it is su scept ible t o gu essin g. Do N OT u s e a lt er n a t ives t h a t a r e in clu d ed in ot h er a lt er n a t ives . E xa m p le of a n in a p p r op r ia t e it em (er r or u n d er lin ed ): Wh a t is t h e fin a l s t ep in p er for m in g p os t m a in t en a n ce ch eck s ? (a ) Secu r e t h e fr on t pa n el t o t h e ch a ssis. 78 . (d) P ower fr om t h e sh ip con t r ol cen t er m a y be pr esen t in MCC sin ce it on ly goes t h r ou gh the SHIP J P. t h ey r edu ce t h e n u m ber of r ea list ic a lt er n a t ives fr om t h r ee t o on e. for t h e p r es s u r iza t ion /com p en s a t ion blow va lve t o r oll fr om sh u t t o open ? (a ) 1 t o 3 (b ) 1 t o 4 (C) 4 t o 6 (d ) 9 t o 11 T R U E -F A L S E TES T ITEM D E VE LOP ME N T Th e t r u e-fa lse it em is a t wo-r espon se m u lt iple-ch oice it em . (b) Th e MCC equ ip m en t is fu r n is h ed p ower fr om N AV via t h e MS R. (b) Ma k e s u r e t h e fr on t p a n el is s ecu r e. a lt er n a t ives 1 a n d 2 h a ve t h e sa m e m ea n in g. (c) Set m a n u a l t est swit ch t o “OF F . It elim in a t es t h em a s u sefu l a lt er n a t ives a n d sim plifies t h e ch oice. in s econ d s .” (d ) Rer u n t h e d ia gn os t ic t es t s . E xa m p le of a n in a p p r op r ia t e it em (er r or u n d er lin ed ): Wh a t is t h e op er a t in g t im e. Do NOT u se t wo or m or e a lt er n a t ives t h a t h a ve t h e sa m e m ea n in g. wh ich of t h e followin g st a t em en t s is t r u e? (a ) All p ower is los t t o t h e MCC equ ip m en t . In t h e followin g exa m ple. Th u s.E xa m p le of a n in a p p r op r ia t e it em (er r or u n d er lin ed ): Wh en a ll wea pon power is r em oved fr om t h e P IP . Use it on ly wh en on e pla u sible a lt er n a t ive t o a n it em exist s. a lt er n a t ive 2 in clu d es a lt er n a t ive 1. com p r eh en s ion . r espon din g cor r ect ly t o t h e it em . (c) Th e DCCs h a ve h ea t er p ower a p p lied . t h en so is a lt er n a t ive 1. If a lt er n a t ive 2 is cor r ect . I n t h e followin g exa m p le.

m a k e a fa ls e s t a t em en t con s is t en t wit h a t yp ica l m is con cep t ion . On e colu m n con t a in s t h e qu est ion s or pr oblem s t o be a n swer ed a n d t h e ot h er colu m n con sist s of t h e a n swer s. Use t h e followin g gu idelin es wh en wr it in g t h e t r u e-fa lse t est it em .” E XAM P L E : (T R U E /F AL S E ) Wh e n p la cin g t h e C A in s t ow a ge . a ll. n Keep it em s sh or t .a p p lica t ion . g. a . n Wh en p os s ible. n Ma ke su r e t h e st a t em en t is clea r ly t r u e or fa lse.. m a y. n ever . a lwa ys. Ma t ch in g t est it em s a r e idea lly su it ed for t est in g r ecogn it ion bu t m a y a lso t est com pr eh en sion Te s t It e m F o rm a t Th e m a t ch in g t est it em con sist s of a st em a n d t wo colu m n s list ed below t h e st em . St u den t s pa ir t h e elem en t s in ea ch list a n d r ecor d t h e a n swer . you m u s t m a ke su r e t h e CA t em per a t u r e is n or m a l befor e secu r in g h ea t er p ow e r . n P la ce t h e T R U E /F AL S E id e n t ifica t ion b e for e t h e it e m . Th e st em pr ovides dir ect ion s on h ow t h e st u den t m u st m a t ch t h e it em s in t h e t wo colu m n s. u s e p os it ive s t a t em en t s t o m in im ize con fu s ion . Wr it e t h e st em a s a dir ect st a t em en t a n d la bel t h e t wo a lt er n a t ives “t r u e” or “fa lse. n M a k e t h e s t a t e m e n t con cis e a n d cle a r . or eva lu a t ion . n Do n ot u se specific det er m in er s (e. M a k e s u r e t h e p r op os it ion t h a t m a k e s t h e MATCH IN G TE S T ITE M D E VE LOP ME N T Th e s t a n d a r d m a t ch in g for m a t con s is t s of t wo lis t s con t a in in g r ela t ed wor d s . a n d a p p lica t ion . St u den t s m u st m a t ch elem en t s on on e list wit h a ssocia t ed elem en t s on t h e ot h er list ba sed on specific in st r u ct ion s. n on e. or sym bols. st a t em en t t r u e or fa lse is eviden t . n Wh en p os s ible. Tr u e b. Lon g it em s a r e h a r der t o r ea d a n d m or e difficu lt t o ju dge t r u e or fa lse. Tru e -F a ls e Te s t It e m F o rm a t Th e t r u e-fa lse it em for m a t is st r a igh t for wa r d. n Do N OT lift t est it em s ver ba t im fr om t h e cu r r icu lu m . p h r a s es . som et im es). F a ls e Tru e -F a ls e Te s t It e m Co n s t ru c t i o n Obs er ve t h e followin g r u les for con s t r u ct in g t r u e-fa ls e it em s : n I n clu d e a ll r eleva n t in for m a t ion a n d con d it ion s r equ ir ed for t h e s t u d en t s t o cor r ect ly a n swer t h e it em in t h e descr ipt ive st a t em en t . 79 .

You m a y u se a let t er in colu m n B on ce. COMP LE TION TES T ITEM D E VE LOP ME N T Th e com plet ion t est it em is a fr ee r espon se t ype of it em in wh ich t h e st u den t m u st su pply t h e m issin g in for m a t ion fr om m em or y. in t h e a n swer list . sym bols. m or e t h a n on ce. Wr it e t h e let t er r epr esen t in g you r a n swer in t h e bla n k t o t h e left of ea ch sign a l in colu m n A. Wh en fea sible. Th a t h elps t o pr even t elim in a t ion of u n r ela t ed a n swer s. fr om m em or y. Th a t elim in a t es t h e possibilit y of gu essin g. a n d so on . Specify in t h e dir ect ion s h ow oft en st u den t s m a y u se t h e a n swer s. or n ot a t a ll. codes. Com p let ion it em s a r e ea s y t o con s t r u ct . a r r a n ge t h e a n swer s a ccor din g t o som e syst em (e. a r r a n ge n u m er ica l a n s wer s in a s cen d in g or d es cen d in g or d er ). You will fin d t h em u sefu l in sit u a t ion s in wh ich 80 . Ma ke a ll a n swer s r ela t e t o t h e qu est ion .E XAMP LE : Usin g t h e F CDs in OP XXXX. sh or t ph r a ses. u se sin gle wor ds. a n d t h e like. You m a y m a k e t h e com plet ion it em a list in g t est it em in wh ich t h e st u den t m u st su pply t h e r equ ir ed list of pa r t n a m es. Wh en possible. Te s t It e m Co n s t ru c t i o n U se t h e followin g gu idelin es wh en con st r u ct in g m a t ch in g t est it em s: Clea r ly specify in t h e st em (dir ect ion s) h ow t h e st u den t s a r e t o m a t ch t h e qu est ion a n d t h e a n swer .. m a t ch t h e cir cu it elem en t list ed in colu m n B t o t h e sign a l it gen er a t es in (colu m n A). P la ce a n s wer s in t h e r igh t -h a n d colu m n .g. An a dva n t a ge of t h e com plet ion it em over t h e m u lt iple-ch oice or t h e t r u e-fa lse t ypes is t h a t it r equ ir es m or e t h a n sim ple r ecogn it ion of in for m a t ion . P la ce opt ion s on t h e sa m e pa ge. Alwa ys p la ce t h e qu es t ion s in t h e left -h a n d colu m n . pr ocedu r a l st eps. St u den t s sh ou ld n ot h a ve t o t u r n ba ck a n d for t h for t h e a n swer . n u m ber s.

t er m . . Th is t ype of t est it em m a y be expr essed in qu est ion or st a t em en t for m . E XAM P L E O F S T AT E M E N T F O R M : I n t h e s p a ce b e low . n n n Ma ke su r e t h e m issin g segm en t of t h e in com plet e st a t em en t it em is im por t a n t .st u den t s m u st wr it e a com pu t a t ion a l equ a t ion . U s e a d ir e ct q u e s t ion t o t e s t for com p r e h e n s ion of t e ch n ica l t e r m s or k n ow le d ge of defin it ion s. E XAM P L E : T h e s t a t ion clock a n d t im e d is p la y t e s t s ch e ck t h e p e r for m a n ce of t h e in dividu a l st a ges of t h e r egist er design a t ed . Te s t It e m F o rm a t You ca n con st r u ct com plet ion it em s u sin g t h r ee ba sic for m a t s: n S t u d en t s s u p p ly t h e wor d or p h r a s e t h a t com p let es t h e s t a t em en t . n n P r ovide su fficien t spa ce on t h e a n swer sh eet for st u den t s t o en t er t h eir r espon se. do n ot om it t oo m a n y wor ds or t h e st a t em en t will becom e u n clea r a n d for ce st u den t s t o gu ess. st eps. E XAMP LE : Wh a t is t h e n a m e of t h e u n it t h a t d et ect s a n gu la r m ot ion a n d s u p p lies a n ou t pu t t h r ou gh p r ecession ? n Th e st u den t su pplies a list of pr ocedu r es. 81 . In in com plet e st a t em en t it em s. for m u la or s im ila r r es p on s e t o a qu es t ion . a n d so for t h . lis t in or d e r t h e s t e p s for p la cin g t h e GA in s t owa ge. fr om m em or y. . E XAMP LE OF A QU E S TI ON F ORM: Wh a t a r e t h e s t ep s for p er for m in g a MARDAN m a in t en a n ce t est ? Te s t It e m Co n s t ru c t i o n U s e t h e followin g gu id elin es wh en con s t r u ct in g com p let ion it em s : n Wor d t h e t e s t it e m cle a r ly a n d com p r e h e n s ive ly e n ou gh t o a llow a s t u d e n t w h o is k n owled gea ble in t h e s u bject a r ea t o a n s wer cor r ect ly. It em s wit h t h e r espon se posit ion n ea r t h e begin n in g a r e h a r der t o r ea d a n d t a ke lon ger t o a n swer . Th e d is a d va n t a ge is t h a t it is m or e d ifficu lt t o s cor e a n d m u s t be a ccom p a n ied by gr a din g cr it er ia . In in com plet e st a t em en t s. list pa r t n a m es a n d fu n ct ion s. m a ke su r e t h e r espon se posit ion a ppea r s n ea r or a t t h e en d of t h e st em . a n d t h e lik e. defin e t er m s. su ch a s a key elem en t of a pr ocess or a piece of equ ipm en t . n Th e s t u d en t p r ovid es a d efin it ion .

You r d is cu s s ion s h ou ld in clu d e d es cr ip t ion s of t h e m a jor com p on en t s of ea ch s ys t em . Te s t It e m Co n s t ru c t i o n Th e followin g a r e exa m ples of t ypes of in for m a t ion for wh ich you m igh t wa n t t o u se essa y t est it em s: n A com p a r is on or con t r a s t of it em s a n d p r oced u r es . n I llu s t r a t ion (s k et ch ) of p r in cip les lea r n ed . E XAM P L E : C om p a r e t h e g a s t u r b i n e a n d t h e 1 2 0 0 P S I p r op u l s i on p l a n t s . Te s t It e m F o rm a t You ca n u s e a n e s s a y q u e s t i on t o a s s e s s l e a r n i n g of a com p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e b od y of in for m a t ion . Do n ot u se t h em t o t est r eca ll. pla ce lim it s on t h e r espon se by iden t ifyin g t h e m a jor poin t s t h e st u den t s sh ou ld a ddr ess. H a ve s u bject m a t t er exper t s det er m in e t h e a ccept a ble a n swer s. u n less on ly on e ba sic r espon se is possible t o a given qu est ion or r equ ir em en t . If possible. Th e essa y it em m u st be scor ed by a n in dividu a l kn owledgea ble in t h e su bject a r ea . Th e disa dva n t a ge t o essa y t est it em s is t h a t t h ey a r e t im e-con su m in g a n d difficu lt t o scor e. n Rela t ion s h ip s s u ch a s ca u s es a n d effect s . Use t h e followin g gu idelin es for for m a t t in g t h e essa y t est it em : 9 m St a t e clea r ly a n d pr ecisely wh a t t ype of r espon se is r equ ir ed. E S S AY TE S T ITE M D E VE LOP ME N T Th e es s a y t es t it em r equ ir es t h e s t u d en t t o a n s wer a qu es t ion wit h a n or igin a l wr it t en r espon se. 82 . a void givin g gr a m m a t ica l cu es or ot h er cu es t o t h e cor r ect a n swer . n Develop gr a d in g cr it er ia t h a t lis t s a ll a ccep t a ble a n s wer s t o t h e t es t it em . In a ddit ion . t h e len gt h of t h e r espon se r equ ir ed. n S t a t em en t of p u r p os e in t h e s elect ion of a m et h od or t ech n iqu e. E ssa y t est s in volve a r ela t ively s u bject ive s cor in g p r oces s s in ce m a n y fa ct or s m a y en t er in t o t h e cor r ect n es s of a r espon se. n A d ecis ion for or a ga in s t s ys t em or equ ip m en t op er a t ion . n Cr it icis m of t h e a d equ a cy or cor r ect n es s of a d ia gr a m or p r oced u r e. a s well a s in dividu a l elem en t s wit h in t h a t body. n Avoid u sin g st a t em en t s t a k en dir ect ly fr om t h e cu r r icu lu m . P a r t ia l cr edit will be given . or t im e st u den t s m a y spen d on t h e r espon se.n Do n ot m a ke t h e cor r ect a n swer a “givea wa y” wor d t h a t cou ld be gu essed by st u den t s wh o do n ot r ea lly kn ow t h e in for m a t ion . Use com pr eh en sion essa y t est it em s for t est in g t h e st u den t ’s a bilit y t o or ga n ize da t a a n d expr ess t h ou gh t s clea r ly in wr it in g.

a n d for m u lt ip le ch oice it em s . Te s t It e m An a ly s i s Aft er t h e t est it em s h a ve been r eviewed for con t en t va lidit y a n d a dm in ist er ed t o t h e st u den t s. H a ve t ech n ica lly qu a lified S ME s p er for m t h e va lid a t ion p r oces s . Ma ke su r e it pr om ot es object ive scor in g of t h e t est it em by est a blish in g a st a n da r d a n swer fr om wh ich t o ju dge a ll ot h er s. 83 . is t h e it em a clos ed -book it em ? n I f t h e k n owled ge bein g t es t ed is n or m a lly look ed u p d u r in g p er for m a n ce of on -t h e-job t a sk(s). or com p r eh en s ion of t h e k n owled ge bein g t es t ed is r equ ir ed for com p et en t p er for m a n ce on t h e job. Mo d e l An s w e r o r Gra d i n g Cri t e ri a Th e essa y t est it em m u st a lso con t a in a m odel a n swer you will u se t o gr a de t h e qu est ion . or em er gen cy pr ocedu r es. is t h e it em a n open -book it em a n d is t h e essen t ia l r efer en ce m a t er ia l su pplied? n Ar e a ll wor d s s p elled cor r ect ly? I s t h e gr a m m a r cor r ect ? n Does t h e it em m eet for m a t con s t r u ct ion gu id elin es ? If t h e a n swer t o a n y of t h e pr ecedin g va lida t ion cr it er ia is NO. cor r ect t h e discr epa n cy a n d r eva lida t e t h e t est it em . Ma ke su r e it iden t ifies h ow m u ch ea ch it em or pa r t of a n it em is wor t h . a n d befor e you a ct u a lly a ssem ble t h e t est . va lida t e t h e con t en t of t h e it em s. n O b s e r va t ion fr om illu s t r a t ion or op e r a t ion . n E va lu a t ion of t h e a p p r op r ia t en es s of a p r oced u r e or t ech n iqu e. Va li d a t i o n Of Te s t It e m s On ce you h a ve con st r u ct ed t h e t est it em s. d ifficu lt y. a n d t h a t t h e it em s a dh er e t o t h e gu idelin es pr esen t ed in t h e pr ecedin g p a r a gr a p h s . st a t ist ics will be kept by t h e cou r se per son n el t o com plet e t h e va lida t ion pr ocess.n Discu ssion of pr im a r y. Th e in d ivid u a ls va lida t in g t h e t est it em sh ou ld a n swer t h e followin g qu est ion s: n I s t h e it em t ech n ica lly a ccu r a t e a n d is t h e cor r ect r es p on s e k eyed ? n I s t h e it em wr it t en t o m ea s u r e t h e object ive? n Does t h e it em m ea s u r e a k n owled ge cr it ica l t o t h e t a s k a s s ocia t ed wit h t h e object ive? n I s t h e it em wr it t en t o t h e a p p r op r ia t e lea r n in g level? n I f r ecogn it ion . r eca ll. n E xp la n a t ion or d e fin it ion of t a s k s . t h a t t h ey m ea su r e t h e object ive. a lt er n a t e. effect iven es s of a lt er n a t ives . t h en it sh ou ld be a ppr oved for u se. Obs er ve t h e followin g gu id elin es in d evelop in g a m od el a n s wer : 9 n n Ma ke su r e t h e gr a din g cr it er ia iden t ifies a ll of t h e essen t ia l in for m a t ion a kn owledgea ble st u den t sh ou ld be a ble t o su pply. If t h e it em m eet s t h e va lida t ion cr it er ia . Ma ke su r e t h ey a r e t ech n ica lly a n d gr a m m a t ica lly a ccu r a t e. Th ese st a t ist ics in clu d e d is cr im in a t ion .

n A fin a l pr odu ct per for m a n ce t est in volves com pa r in g t h e st u den t ’s effor t s t o a n a ccept a ble com p le t e d e xa m p le . Th er efor e. in a d d it ion t o N AVE DTRA 135. F or t h e a s s es s m en t t o be a ccu r a t e. Th e eva lu a t ion is s u p p or t ed by ch ecklist s or r a t in g sca les. D e ve lop m e n t of p e r for m a n ce t e s t s ca n b e ve r y in volve d . or a com bin a t ion of bot h . a n d st u den t s a r e a ble t o exper ien ce fir st h a n d t h e ben efit s a n d lim it a t ion s of ea ch . per for m a n ce t est in g will con st it u t e a sign ifica n t por t ion of t h e t est in g for m a n y cou r ses. n S k ill object ives t o be p er for m a n ce t es t ed a r e id en t ified a n d r a t ed a s t o t h eir r ela t ive im por t a n ce in m ea su r in g st u den t a t t a in m en t of t h e r ela t ed job skills. Som e per for m a n ce t est s r equ ir e a com bin a t ion of bot h pr ocess a n d pr odu ct m ea s u r em en t . SUMMARY As s es s in g a s t u d en t ’s m a s t er y of object ives in a k n owled ge t es t or s k ill a cqu is it ion in a p er for m a n ce t es t is a n a t u r a l p r ogr es s ion in t h e lea r n in g p r oces s . is t o t ea ch s t u d en t s t o per for m skills n eeded on t h eir job. P er for m a n ce t est s in clu de t h e followin g con sider a t ion s: n P er for m a n ce t es t s a r e s im u la t ed wor k s it u a t ion s in wh ich s t u d en t s d em on s t r a t e t h eir a bilit y t o com p let e p r oced u r es . t est it em s sh ou ld be dir ect ly r ela t ed t o t h e level of lea r n in g you wa n t t o m ea su r e a n d t h ey s h ou ld be va lid a t ed a n d a n a lyzed by s u bject m a t t er exp er t s . N AVE DTRA 130 a n d N AVE DTRA 131 p r ovid e d et a iled in for m a t ion a bou t t h e d evelop m en t of p er for m a n ce t es t s a n d t h eir elem en t s . Th e d evelop m en t s t ep s a r e es s en t ia lly t h e s a m e for bot h t yp es wit h t h e excep t ion of t h e fin a l eva lu a t ion device. Two t yp es of p er for m a n ce t es t s a r e u s ed t o m ea s u r e s k ill a ch ievem en t : p r oces s a n d p r od u ct . I n s t r u ct or Tr a in in g S ch ool u ses bot h t ypes of t est s.Cu r r icu lu m d evelop m en t m a n u a ls N AVE DTRA 130 a n d 131. a s r eflect ed in t h e lea r n in g object ives . n E va lu a t ion of p er for m a n ce u s u a lly in volves t h e d et a iled obs er va t ion a n d cr it iqu e of a s t u d en t ’s p er for m a n ce by a t r a in ed eva lu a t or or in s t r u ct or . Object ives t h a t r equ ir e t h e dem on st r a t ion of obser va ble skills a r e t est ed by per for m a n ce t est s. con t a in a d d it ion a l in for m a t ion on t es t s a n d t es t -it em a n a lys is . P E R F OR MAN CE TE S T D E VE LOP ME N T Th e goa l of m a n y cou r s es . P e r for m a n ce t e s t s con s is t of a sim u la t ed wor k sit u a t ion in wh ich t h e st u den t per for m s a t a sk ba sed on a skill object ive. 9 Th e per for m a n ce is obser ved a n d eva lu a t ed u n der t h e con dit ion s a n d st a n da r ds set for t h in t h e lea r n in g object ives. 84 . p r od u ce a p r od u ct .

CHAP TER 9 COU R S E MATE R IALS INTRODUCTION Cou r s e m a t er ia ls a r e t h e t ools u s ed t o la y t h e fou n d a t ion . FRONT MATTE R Th e fr on t m a t t er of a les s on p la n p r ovid es es s en t ia l in for m a t ion r ega r d in g t h e cou r s e of in st r u ct ion . Cou r se m a t er ia ls in clu de lesson pla n s. LE S S ON P LAN S T h e l e s s on p l a n i s t h e m os t i m p or t a n t d ocu m e n t a v a i l a b l e t o y ou a s a n i n s t r u ct or . a n d con s t r u ct t h e br id ge over wh ich you r s t u d en t s m u s t p a s s t o a t t a in t h e k n owled ge a n d s k ills defin ed by t h e object ives of t h e cou r se. a r e t h e pr im a r y m a t er ia ls you will u se in pr esen t in g in st r u ct ion . it is t h e blu epr in t t h a t en su r es in st r u ct ion is pr esen t ed in pr oper sequ en ce a n d t o t h e d ep t h r equ ir ed by t h e object ives . t h e m a jor elem en t s a r e com m on t o m os t les s on p la n s you will u s e. You m u s t r e a d a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h is in for m a t ion t o com p ly w it h t h e cou r s e d evelop er ’s in t en t r ega r d in g in s t r u ct ion . You m u st be pr oficien t in t h e u se of a ll cou r se m a t er ia ls t o con du ct effect ive in st r u ct ion . in st r u ct ion sh eet s. Th ese t h r ee. H owever . LE S S ON TOP ICS Th e les s on t op ics a r e t h e d ocu m en t s fr om wh ich you con d u ct ea ch les s on . a n d in st r u ct ion a l m edia . Th e les s on p la n a ccom p lis h es t h e followin g: n E n s u r es you h a ve con s id er ed a ll fa ct or s n eces s a r y t o con d u ct a s a fe a n d effect ive les s on n Gu id es you in con d u ct in g les s on a ct ivit ies n H elps you m a in t a in a con st a n t ch eck on you r a ct ivit ies a n d you r st u den t s’ pr ogr ess n S t a n d a r d ize s in s t r u ct ion n In for m s t r a in in g m a n a ger s of wh a t is bein g t a u gh t T h e for m a t of le s s on p la n s d iffe r s s om e w h a t d e p e n d in g on h ow t h e y w e r e d e ve lop e d . p r ep a r e t h e fr a m ewor k . Th ey in clu d e r equ ir ed in s t r u ct or p r ep a r a t ion a n d a n ou t lin e of t h e in s t r u ct ion . Specifica lly. h owever . Th e les s on t op ic con s is t s of 85 .

You p r ovid e r ein for cem en t a n d feed ba ck t o ea ch s t u d en t by p oin t in g ou t s t u d en t er r or s a n d su ggest in g h ow t o cor r ect t h em . you m u s t s h ow you r ow n m ot iva t ion a n d en t h u s ia s m t owa r d t h e in for m a t ion . st a t e t h e lea r n in g object ives. P r oper ly pr epa r ed a n d t a u gh t . t h e in t r od u ct ion bu ild s em ot ion a l in volvem en t . F r om t h e s t u d en t s ’ p er s p ect ive. You eva lu a t e t h e st u den t s’ per for m a n ce a s t h ey per for m t h e s k ill. You r eview t h e les s on t o r ein for ce lea r n in g a n d t o get To get t h is feedba ck . Th e elem en t s a n d in st r u ct or a ct ion s a r e a s follows: n I n t r od u ct i on n P r e s e n t a t i on n R e vie w a n d s u m m a r y n Ap p l i ca t i on n As s i g n m e n t In t r o d u c t i o n Th e in t r odu ct ion is on e of t h e m ost cr u cia l elem en t s of t h e lesson . It is wh en you t ea ch a n d ot h er wise expla in t h e object ives of t h e lesson . R e v i e w a n d S u m m a ry T h e r e vie w a n d s u m m a r y e le m e n t of t h e le s s on p r ovid e s you w it h a n op p or t u n it y t o su m m a r ize t h e t opic’s m a jor poin t s. Du r in g t h e in t r odu ct ion .live ba sic elem en t s. t h e pr esen t a t ion ser ves t o bu ild s t u d en t u n d er s t a n d in g of fa ct s . m a ke m ot iva t in g st a t em en t s. P re s e n t a t i o n Th e pr esen t a t ion elem en t is t h e m a in body of t h e lesson . bu ild s a s en s e of p u r p os e. a r ou s es in t er es t . As a pa r t of t h e m ot iva t in g st a t em en t . you sh ou ld expla in wh y t h e st u den t s n eed t o lea r n t h e m a t er ia l a n d h ow t h ey will a pply it on t h e job. a n d focu s es a t t en t ion on t h e s u bject m a t t er . a n d p r in cip les . Th e a pplica t ion elem en t is u sed wit h t opics t ea ch in g a 86 . p r om ot es m ot iva t ion . Ap p l i c a t i o n Th is elem en t en a bles t h e s t u d en t t o a p p ly t h e k n owled ge t o a p h ys ica l or m en t a l s k ill. skill. you m u st a sk va lu a ble feed ba ck on wh a t lea r n in g h a s t a k en p la ce. qu est ion s t h a t r equ ir e you r st u den t s t o t h in k a n d t o r espon d beyon d t h e r eca ll level of lea r n in g. p r oced u r es . Besides t ellin g s t u d e n t s h ow a n d w h y t h e le s s on is im p or t a n t . a n d get feedba ck a bou t t h eir kn owledge a n d skill. You m u st h a ve a com plet e u n der st a n din g of ea ch elem en t a n d it s pu r pose in t h e les s on t op ic t o be a ble t o t ea ch t h e k n owled ge a n d s k ills id en t ified by t h e lea r n in g ob je ct ive s . I t a llows st u den t s t o pr a ct ice t h eir skills. you in t r odu ce you r self a n d t h e t opic. u se t h e m a t er ia l t h ey h a ve lea r n ed. a n d p r ovid e a t op ic over view. r u les .

descr ipt ion s. Also a dd n ot es t o in dica t e wh en you wa n t t o st r ess a poin t . a n d fu n ct ion s. wa ves t r a vel t h r ou gh a ir . Use t h em a s a pa r t of you r p er s on a liza t ion of ea ch les s on . U s e ca r efu lly wr it t en qu es t ion s . p er s on a liza t ion p r ovid es t h e in for m a t ion you n eed t o m a k e t h e in s t r u ct ion u n iqu ely you r s wit h ou t d evia t in g fr om t h e a p p r oved cou r s e of in s t r u ct ion . S t e p s o f P e rs o n a li z a t i o n Wh en p er s on a lizin g t h e les s on p la n . bu t you r cla ss h a s difficu lt y u n der st a n din g t h a t con cept . E x a m p l e s a n d An a l o g i e s . Cou r se r efer en ce m a t er ia ls pr ovide t h is in for m a t ion . well-p la n n ed vis u a l a id s . S u b je c t Ma t t e r D e t a i l. r ela t e a per son a l exper ien ce. s u p p or t m a in p oin t s of t h e le s s on p la n b y F or exa m p le. fa ct s. It a lso ser ves t o in cr ea se st u den t in t er est a n d m ot iva t ion . Th en per h a ps a n a n a logy su ch a s “it is sim ila r t o t h e wa y r ipples t r a vel a ft er a st on e is dr opped in wa t er ” will h elp t h em u n der st a n d. n P er son a lize t h e lesson pla n . U s e t h is t yp e of in for m a t ion t o p r ovid e t ech n ica l d a t a s u ch a s pu r poses. n Obser ve a qu a lified in st r u ct or ’s pr esen t a t ion of t h e lesson a n d discu ss it wit h h im or h er b e for e p e r s on a lizin g t h e t op ic. follow t h es e s p ecific s t ep s : n Rea d t h e lea r n in g object ives t o obt a in a n u n der st a n din g of wh a t t h e object ives a r e t r yin g t o a ch i e v e . or a d d it ion a l s t u d en t /in s t r u ct or a ct ivit ies t o en h a n ce t h e les s on . By u n der st a n din g t h e r equ ir em en t s of t h e object ives. you ca n 87 . Rela t e you r own on -t h e-job exp er ien ces t o t h e les s on t o in cr ea s e s t u d en t in t er es t . Rela t in g you r p er s on a l exp er ien ces h a s t h e p os it ive effect of r ein for cin g t h e pr a ct ica l a pplica t ion of t h e m a t er ia l.As s i g n m e n t You u se t h e a ssign m en t elem en t t o pr ovide st u den t s wit h pr a ct ice of t h e lesson in for m a t ion or pr epa r e t h em for t h e n ext lesson . P e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s . In s t ru c t i o n a l Te c h n i q u e s . or u se a n exa m ple or a n a logy. Wh e n p os s ib le . Ad d you r L e s s on p l a n ow n p e r s on a l i z a t i on t o t a i l or t h e l e s s on p l a n t o y ou r s t y l e of t e a ch i n g . Ty p e s o f P e rs o n a li z a t i o n P er s on a liza t ion in clu d es a d d in g s u bject m a t t er d et a il n eed ed t o cover t h e t op ic d is cu s s ion poin t s t o t h e r equ ir ed dept h . n Res ea r ch t h e r efer en ce m a t er ia ls t o obt a in s u bject m a t t er d et a il n eed ed t o s u p p or t t h e m a jor d is cu s s ion p oin t s . s u p p os e you r les s on is on t h e wa y s ou n d exa m ples a n d a n a logies t o sim plify t h e con cept s or idea s bein g t a u gh t . n Rea d t h r ou gh t h e en t ir e les s on p la n t o ga in a n u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e con t en t s . L E S S O N P L A N P E R S O N A L I ZA T I O N You will be p r ovid ed wit h t h e a p p r oved les s on p la n for t h e cou r s e you in s t r u ct . oper a t ion s.

E a ch a ssign m en t s h eet is divided in t o fou r sect ion s: t h e in t r odu ct ion . in for m a t ion . or a lea r n in g a ct ivit y t h ey m u st u n der t a ke. u se in st r u ct ion sh eet s t o pr ovide st u den t s wit h in for m a t ion or dir ect ion s t h ey n eed t o com plet e a pa r t icu la r cou r se of st u dy. To p i c Le a rn i n g Ob je c t i v e s Th e a ssign m en t sh eet list s t h e t opic lea r n in g object ives. a n d t h e st u dy qu est ion s. t h e t opic lea r n in g object ives. Th e les s on p la n p r ovid es you wit h t h e n eces s a r y s u p p or t t o effect ively t ea ch a ll r equ ir ed in for m a t ion . Assign m en t sh eet s sim plify t h e st u den t s’ sea r ch for r eleva n t da t a a n d dir ect t h eir effor t s t o t h e p r op er s ou r ce. in st r u ct ion s for a t a sk. r efer en ce docu m en t s. p r oblem . Th e s h eet s m a y d ir ect s t u d en t s t o in for m a t ion con t a in ed in va r iou s m a n u a ls . t h e st u dy a ssign m en t . figu r e. Stu dy As s i g n m e n t Th e st u dy a ssign m en t t ells t h e st u den t s wh a t t h ey m u st do t o com plet e t h e a ssign m en t . pa ge. You ca n u se t h em t o con vey t o st u den t s cer t a in det a iled in for m a t ion . 88 . In t r o d u c t i o n Th e in t r od u ct ion p r ovid es in for m a t ion on t h e p u r p os e of t h e t op ic. wh ich a r e iden t ica l t o t h e object ives in t h e a pplica ble lesson pla n . If it r equ ir es som e ot h er a ct ivit y. or . Wh en a cou r s e r equ ir es a la r ge n u m ber of in s t r u ct ion s h eet s . R e vie w you r le s s on p la n p e r s on a liza t ion for com plet en ess a n d a ccu r a cy ea ch t im e you t ea ch . You m a y u se six t ypes of in st r u ct ion sh eet s: a ssign m en t .pu t in t o you r own wor ds t h e in for m a t ion t h a t will h elp you pr esen t t h e lesson . If t h e a ssign m en t r equ ir es st u den t s t o r ea d t h e r efer en ce m a t er ia l. t h ey a r e n or m a lly com bin ed in t o a d ocu m en t k n own a s a t r a in ee gu id e. ot h er in st r u ct ion sh eet s. dia gr a m . it iden t ifies t h e pa r a gr a ph . S t u d y Qu e s t i o n s St u dy qu est ion s h elp st u den t s com pr eh en d t h eir a ssign m en t a n d ch eck t h eir a bilit y t o a pply t h e in for m a t ion . job. in som e ca ses. 9-1 ) a r e design ed t o dir ect t h e st u dy or h om ewor k effor t s of a st u den t . a n d dia gr a m n u m ber s. n U p d a t e p e r s on a liza t ion a s n e ce s s a r y. it gives st u den t s dir ect ion s for com plet in g t h e a ct ivit y. AS S IGN ME N T S HEETS Assign m en t sh eet s (fig. IN S TRU CTION S HEETS In a ddit ion t o t h e lesson pla n . a n d ou t lin e.

i. St a t e t h a t t h e AN/BRR-6 con sist s of t h e followin g m a jor fu n ct ion a l a r ea s. b. St a t e t h e secu r it y r equ ir em en t s for t h e AN/BRR-6 t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. n om en cla t u r e. F ig u re 9-1. St a t e t h e fu n ct ion s of t h e AN/BRR-6. P H YSICAL. j. (S h e e t 1 o f 3) 89 . AND INTE RF ACE DE SCRIP TION OF TH E AN/BRR-6 INTRODUCTION Th is lesson will sh ow h ow t h e AN/BRR-6 oper a t es a n d it s effect on t h e syst em a s a wh ole. TOP IC LE ARNING OBJ E CTIVE S Upon su ccessfu l com plet ion of t h is t opic. 5. ph ysica l a ppea r a n ce. r efer en ce design a t or s. In clu de n a m es. loca t ion s.TRAINE E GUIDE ASSIGNME NT SH E E T 4-1-2-1 GE NE RAL. Descr ibe a ll m a jor a n d a ssocia t ed com pon en t s of t h e AN/BRR-6 t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. g h. you will be a ble t o: 1. St a t e t h e oper a t ion a l ch a r a ct er ist ics a n d ca pa bilit ies of t h e AN/BRR-6 t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. l. a. Towed Bu oy TB-17/BRR-6 (Ba n gor ) or Towed Bu oy TB-18A/BRR-6 (Kin gs Ba y) Receiver Gr ou p OR-197/BRR-6 Specia l P u r pose E lect r ica l Ca ble Assem bly CX-13053/BRR-6 Bu oy Cr a dle MT-4905/BRR-6 Reelin g Ma ch in e RL-275/BRR-6 Sen sor Gr ou p OA-8906/BRR-6 Bu oy Door Sen sin g Swit ch Bu oy Con t r ol In dica t or C-0256A/BRR-6 An t en n a Con t r ol In dica t or C-10257/BRR-6 Bu oy Dept h Con t r ol In dica t or C-10258A/BRR-6 Rela y Assem bly RE -1115/BRR-6 In t er con n ect in g Box J -3461/BRR-6 Towed Ar r a y Con t r ol In dica t or P a n el 3. 6. k. Ex a m p le As s ig n m e n t S h e e t. Defin e t h e a bbr evia t ion s a n d t er m s u sed wit h t h e AN/BRR-6 t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. 4. d. f. F UNCTIONAL. e. In clu de t h e fu n ct ion of ea ch t o su ppor t n or m a l oper a t ion s. A-111-4251 SH E E T 1 of 3 2. a n d con st r u ct ion fea t u r es. m. c.

Reelin g Ma ch in e RL-275/BRR-6 f. Ex a m p le As s ig n m e n t S h e e t. Rela y Assem bly RE -1115/BRR-6 l. Towed Bu oy TB-17/BRR-6 (Ba n gor ) or Towed Bu oy TB-18A/BRR-6 (Kin gs Ba y) b. Bu oy Door Sen sin g Swit ch h . In t er con n ect in g Box J -3461/BRR-6 m . Specia l P u r pose E lect r ica l Ca ble Assem bly CX-13053/BRR-6 d. In clu de n a m es. a . Bu oy Cr a dle MT-4905/BRR-6 e. An t en n a Con t r ol In dica t or C-10257/BRR-6 j. Reelin g Ma ch in e RL-275/BRR-6 f. P ower sou r ces b. Specia l P u r pose E lect r ica l Ca ble Assem bly CX-13053/BRR-6 d. Bu oy Con t r ol In dica t or C-10256A/BRR-6 i. Ou t pu t sign a ls F ig u re 9-1. r efer en ce design a t or s. In pu t sign a ls c. Descr ibe t h e con t r ols a n d in dica t or s dir ect ly a ssocia t ed wit h t h e AN/BRR-6 t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. a . An t en n a Con t r ol In dica t or C-10257/BRR-6 j. Bu oy Dept h Con t r ol In dica t or C-10258A/BRR-6 k. (S h e e t 2 o f 3) 90 . In t er con n ect in g Box J -3461/BRR-6 m . con dit ion s. color s. Bu oy Dept h Con t r ol In dica t or C-10258A/BRR-6 k. Bu oy Con t r ol In dica t or C-10256A/BRR-6 i. In clu de sign a l flow. a n d in dica t ion s. Towed Bu oy TB-17/BRR-6 (Ba n gor ) or Towed Bu oy TB-18A/BRR-6 (Kin gs Ba y) b. Rela y Assem bly RE -I115/BRR-6 l. 8. Sen sor Gr ou p OA-8906/BRR-6 g. Receiver Gr ou p OR-197/BRR-6 c. Receiver Gr ou p OR-197/BRR-6 c. Sen sor Gr ou p OA-8906/BRR-6 g. Towed Ar r a y Con t r ol In dica t or P a n el 9. a n d fu n ct ion s. Descr ibe h ow t h e AN/BRR-6 wor ks (fu n ct ion a l oper a t ion ) t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. Bu oy Door Sen sin g Swit ch h . loca t ion s. sequ en t ia l oper a t ion . Towed Ar r a y Con t r ol In dica t or P a n el A-111-4251 Sh eet 2 of 3 7. Descr ibe t h e fu n ct ion a l in t er fa ce bet ween t h e AN/BRR-6 a n d r ela t ed ext er n a l equ ipm en t s t o su ppor t a ll oper a t ion s a n d pr even t ive m a in t en a n ce. posit ion s. Bu oy Cr a dle MT-4905/BRR-6 e.TRAINE E GUIDE ASSIGNME NT 4-1-2-1 a .

1-2. Wh a t is t h e fr equ en cy r a n ge of t h e BRR-6? 3. Wh a t does F OMM m ea n ? 10. 18. Wh a t is t h e m a xim u m speed for la u n ch in g a bu oy? 5. St u dy NAVSE A S9SSB-X9-SSM-900/(U)726V6P 3B13 (SSM V76P 3B13). 17. glossa r y. pa r a gr a ph 1-1. H ow m u ch ca ble does ea ch ca ble h a ve? 9. Wh a t is t h e m in im u m dept h for la u n ch in g a bu oy’? 8. 5-1. Wh ich u n it s of t h e BRR-6 a r e loca t ed in t h e IRR? Wh ich u n it s of t h e BRR-6 a r e loca t ed in t h e Com m a n d a n d Con t r ol Cen t er ? H ow m a n y a n t en n a s a r e a ssocia t ed wit h t h e Towed Bu oy? Wh a t is t h e pu r pose of t h e Dept h a n d Dest r u ct Ca n ist er ? Wh er e is it loca t ed? Wh ich u n it con t r ols a ll t h e bu oy elect r on ics? H ow close t o t h e su r fa ce m u st t h e bu oy be befor e Un it 10 ca n t a ke over dept h con t r ol? H ow does Un it 9 (Towed Bu oy An t en n a Con t r ol Un it ) com m u n ica t e wit h t h e bu oy elect r on ics’? Wh er e a r e t h e t ow ca ble cu t t er s loca t ed? Wh er e does t h e BRR-6 r eceive it s 115 va c 60 H z power fr om ? Do t h e n a viga t ion cen t er sign a ls go t h r ou gh t h e AIS ca bin et in t h e IRR? F OR TR AIN IN G U S E ON LY F ig u re 9-1. (S h e e t 3 o f 3) 91 . 13. H ow m a n y bu oys a r e a ssocia t ed wit h ea ch BRR-6? 7. St u dy E E 125-F A-MMF -010/E 110-BRR-6. 16. H ow m a n y u n it s com pr ise t h e BRR-6? 2.TRAINE E GUIDE ASSIGNME NT 4-1-2-1 STUDY ASSIGNME NT A-111-4251 Sh eet 3 of 3 1. pa r a gr a ph s 1-1. 1-2. 2. Sh ip H a n dlin g. Wh a t is t h e m a xim u m speed a llowa ble for t owin g t h e bu oys’? 4. 14. 19. 01637-11. F OMM Tech n ica l Ma n u a l Su ppor t Volu m e for Ra dio Receivin g Set AN/BRR-6. Volu m e 1. STUDY QUE STIONS 1. t a bles 1-1 a n d 2-1 t h r ou gh 2-7.12. a n d E m er gen cy Syst em s Oper a t in g In st r u ct ion s. 15.1 t h r ou gh 1-2. a n d figu r es 2-1 t h r ou gh 2-8. 12. 11. H a bit a bilit y. Ex a m p le As s ig n m e n t S h e e t. a n d 5-3. a n d 1-3 t h r ou gh I-6. Is it good pr a ct ice t o st r ea m t h e bu oya n t ca ble a n d fly a bu oy a t t h e sa m e t im e? 6.

E a ch in for m a t ion s h eet con t a in s t h r ee s ect ion s : t h e in t r od u ct ion . 9-3) pr ovide in for m a t ion r ela t ed t o su bject m a t t er con t a in ed in t ext s or r efer en ces r equ ir ed for t h e cou r s e bu t n ot r ea d ily a va ila ble t o s t u d en t s . a n d in for m a t ion . Re fe re n c e s Th e r efer en ces sect ion con sist s of a list in g of a ll pu blica t ion s u sed t o develop t h e in for m a t ion . a n d com p let e t it le. volu m e. Th e job sh eet is m a de u p of fou r sect ion s: t h e in t r od u ct ion . 9-4) dir ect t h e st u den t s in t h e st ep-by-st ep per for m a n ce of a pr a ct ica l t a sk t h ey will en cou n t er in t h eir job a ssign m en t . a s a p p lica ble. E a ch r efer en ce fu lly id en t ifies t h e d ocu m en t by n u m ber . illu st r a t ion t o elim in a t e t h e n eed for t h e st u den t t o copy su ch in for m a t ion du r in g t h e lesson . p a r t . 9-2) p r ovid e s t u d en t s wit h illu s t r a t ive m a t er ia l or wit h m a t er ia l t o su ppor t ot h er in st r u ct ion sh eet s.D IAGR AM S HEETS Th ey pr ovide t h e st u den t wit h a dia gr a m . r equ ir ed equ ip m en t . In fo r m a t i o n Th e in for m a t ion s ect ion is wr it t en t o a level con s is t en t wit h t h e cou r s e con t en t . 92 . J OB S H E E TS J ob sh eet s (fig. r efer en ces . J ob sh eet s pr ovide a m ea n s for st u den t s t o a pply t h e k n ow le d ge t h e y ob t a in d u r in g in s t r u ct ion t h r ou gh t h e u s e of t e ch n ica l d ocu m e n t a t ion in per for m in g t h e t a sk ju st a s t h ey wou ld on t h e job. sch em a t ic. or Dia gr a m s h eet s (fig. r efer en ces . Refer en ce is m a d e t o in for m a t ion in t ech n ica l m a n u a ls or ot h er a p p r oved p u blica t ion s . In t r o d u c t i o n Th e in t r od u ct ion p r ovid es a gen er a l exp la n a t ion of h ow or wh y a n u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e cover ed m a t er ia l ben efit s t h e s t u d en t s . a n d job s t ep s . IN F OR MATION S HEETS In for m a t ion sh eet s (fig.

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1. Th is in for m a t ion sh eet is design ed t o pr ovide you wit h a n u n der st a n din g of Na vy policy r ega r din g tra ining sa fety, 2. Th is in for m a t ion sh eet cover s “Tr a in in g Tim e Ou t ” pr ocedu r es t h a t a r e t o be u sed du r in g t h e con du ct of t h is cou r se. B. RE F E RE N CE S 1. CNE TINST 1500.20 ser ies, Sa fet y P r ocedu r es for Con du ct in g Tr a in in g in Ar du ou s or P ot en t ia lly H igh Risk Act ivit ies

C.

INF ORMATION 1. Th e m ission of t h e Na vy dict a t es t h e n eed for a n a ggr essive t r a in in g pr ogr a m t o pr epa r e per son n el t o per for m pr ofession a lly a n d com pet en t ly in m a n y h igh r isk a ct ivit ies u n der diver se a n d possible a dver se con dit ion s. P ot en t ia lly h igh r isk t r a in in g in clu des, bu t is n ot lim it ed t o, t r a in in g r equ ir in g exposu r e t o pot en t ia lly h a za r dou s con dit ion s in volvin g t h e en vir on m en t (wa t er en t r y, t em per a t u r e ext r em e-), a t m osph er e (fir e figh t in g, u se of solven t s), explosives (wea pon s), elect r ica l m ech a n ica l or h ydr a u lic t r a in in g devices or equ ipm en t s. It is t h e policy of t h e Ch ief of Na va l E du ca t ion a n d Tr a in in g (CNE T) t o pr ovide r equ ir ed t r a in in g u n der con t r olled con dit ion s, wit h in pr a ct ica l a n d r ea list ic lim it s, t o obt a in desir ed t r a in in g ou t com es wh ile m a in t a in in g t h e m a xim u m m a r gin of sa fet y, In clu ded in t h is policy is t h e r equ ir em en t t h a t in t h e even t a t r a in ee is a ppr eh en sive of h is per son a l sa fet y wh ile u n der goin g t r a in in g, t h a t con cer n sh a ll be addressed. An y t im e a t r a in ee or In st r u ct or h a s a ppr eh en sion con cer n in g h is per son a l sa fet y or t h a t of a n ot h er , h e sh a ll ver ba lly sign a l “TRAINING TIME OUT” t o st op t h e exer cise a n d r eceive r ovide a ddit ion a l in st r u ct ion a s a ppr opr ia t e in a ccor da n ce wit h CNE INST 1500.0 ser ies.

2.

3. TRAINING TIME OUT (TTO)

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TRAINE E GUIDE J OB SH E E T 9-1-5 P LANNING INSP E CTION STE P S A. In t r odu ct ion

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Un der wa t er h u ll in spect ion r equ ir es a t h or ou gh kn owledge of t h e com pon en t s a n d con dit ion s pecu lia r t o u n der wa t er oper a t ion s. Th is J ob Sh eet will a llow you t o pr a ct ice t h e st ep-by-st ep pr ocedu r es r equ ir ed t o con du ct u n der wa t er h u ll in spect ion s. A m a jor ben efit of t h is exer cise is t h a t you will h a ve t h e oppor t u n it y t o m a ke t h e sa m e decision s t h a t will be r equ ir ed t o per for m t h is t a sk in you r du t y a ssign m en t . B. E qu ipm en t Th e followin g equ ipm en t is r equ ir ed: 1. Open cir cu it SCUBA ou t fit . 2. 12" r u le 3. Ten din g lin es 4. H u ll in spect ion r epor t 5. Un der wa t er ligh t s (n igh t dives) 6. Ch em -lit e; on e per bu ddy t ea m (n igh t dives) C. Refer en ces 1. NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l, a n d Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l, Volu m e 2 2. Un der wa t er Sh ip H u sba n dr y Ma n u a ls, S0600-AA-010 ser ies 3. U. S. Na vy Divin g Ma n u a l, Volu m e 1 D. Sa fet y P r eca u t ion s: Review TTO pr ocedu r es in t h e Sa fet y/H a za r d Awa r en ess Not ice. E . J ob St eps. Th e followin g job st eps a pply: 1. At Divin g su per visor ’s dir ect ion , dr ess in open cir cu it SCUBA followin g sa fet y ch ecklist in t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l Vol. 2, pa ge 3-2. 2. At Divin g su per visor ’s dir ect ion , m a ke pr oper wa t er en t r y. Review sa fet y ch ecklist in t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l, Vol. 2, pa ge 3-3, befor e en t er in g wa t er . 3. At Divin g su per visor ’s dir ect ion , descen d on cr a ft a n d m a ke a n u n da -wa t er in spect ion of t h e cr a ft ’s h u ll. Review sa fet y ch ecklist in t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l, Vol. 2, pa ge 4-5 befor e en t er in g wa t er . , Bot t om Tim e 4. Upon su r fa cin g, sou n d off, “Ma xim u m Dept h t h is in for m a t ion will r esu lt in a fa ilin g gr a de for t h is J ob Sh eet . 5. At Divin g su per visor ’s dir ect ion , m a ke pr oper wa t er exit . 6. Awa it fu r t h er in st r u ct ion s fr om Divin g su per visor . 7. Com plet e a n u n der wa t er h u ll in spect ion r epor t (on e per bu ddy t ea m ). 8. Two per cen t will be dedu ct ed for ea ch lin e pu ll sign a l n ot given or given in cor r ect ly. F . Self Test Qu est ion s: Not e: To be developed. .” F a ilu r e t o r epor t

F i g u re 9-4.-E x a m p le J o b S h e e t . 95

a s a pplica ble. E a ch sh eet pr ovides a clea r st a t em en t of t h e pr oblem . a n d t h e d ir ect ion s a n d p r oced u r es for t h e s olu t ion t o t h e p r oblem . a n d pa r t . 9-5) pr esen t pr a ct ica l pr oblem s r equ ir in g a n a lysis a n d decision m a kin g sim ila r t o t h ose en cou n t er ed on t h e job. volu m e. 96 . OU TLIN E S HEETS Ou t lin e sh eet s (fig. t h e con dit ion s a n d pa r a m et er s a ffect in g t h e p r oblem . Th e ou t lin e sh eet a llows st u den t s t o follow t h e pr ogr ess of a t opic. I t is a ls o a n effect ive wa y t o h elp s t u d en t s lea r n t o pr oblem solve a n d t o h elp t h em ga in pr a ct ice in a pplyin g t h eir kn owledge t o pr a ct ica l sit u a t ion s. Re fe re n c e s Th e r efer en ces s ect ion lis t s a ll p u blica t ion s s t u d en t s n eed t o p er for m t h e job s t ep p or t ion . P ROB LEM S HEETS P r oblem sh eet s (fig. Th e pr oblem sh eet is a n effect ive m ea n s of em ph a sizin g t h e fu n da m en t a ls of logica l t h in k in g. n u m ber . 9-6) pr ovide a n ou t lin e of t h e m a jor discu ssion poin t s of t h e t opic. S elf-t es t qu es t ion s p r ovid e s t u d en t s wit h a s elf-eva lu a t ion of t h eir p er for m a n ce or com p r eh en s ion of t h a t job s t ep . Equipment Th e equ ip m en t s ect ion p r ovid es a com p let e lis t in g of a ll equ ip m en t t h e s t u d en t s n eed s t o a ccom plish t h e job.In t ro d u c t i o n Th e in t r od u ct ion clea r ly a n d con cis ely d es cr ibes t h e p u r p os e of t h e job s h eet a n d exp la in s wh a t ben efit s st u den t s ca n expect . J o b S te p s Th e job s t ep s lis t s t ep -by-s t ep p r oced u r es for p er for m in g a job. E a ch r efer en ce is iden t ified by t it le.

Usin g t h e da t a pr ovided below. E xist in g: 3. (S h e e t 1 o f 4) 97 . 5. P ROBLE M 1. P r a ct ice Tim e: a . b. Receivcd: N/A 4. Test It em : P a ssin g t est scor e is 63. F OR TR AIN IN G U S E ON LY F ig u re 9-5. New: # b. Cla ss No: 041 2. B. Test in g Sch edu le a . 6. INTRODUCTION Th e a bilit y t o eva lu a t e st u den t a n d gr ou p per for m a n ce is developed by pr a ct ice. Test : a . Da y of t h e week: Wedn esda y. Th e pu r pose of P r oblem Sh eet s B000-1-24-2 t h r ou gh 1-24-10 is t o pr ovide da t a for you r con sider a t ion a n d a llow you t o det er m in e wh y per for m a n ce wa s poor . Prerequisite Skills: A check of the tra ining ba ckground of the cla ss revea led tha t the students ca me to cla ss h a vin g m a st er ed su ppor t in g object ives in pr eviou s lesson s. Am ou n t of t im e sin ce la st t est : On e week. Sch edu led: N/A b. you will on ly h a ve t h e da t a in It em s 1-5 a n d t h e in for m a t ion in t h e ch a r t below t o det er m in e t est it em qu a lit y.-Ex a m p le P ro ble m S h e e t. dia gn ose t h e pr oba ble ca u se(s) of poor gr ou p per for m a n ce. Test qu est ion s a n d object ives will n ot be a va ila ble t o you for a n a lysis t o det er m in e t est it em qu a lit y.TRAINE E GUIDE A-012-0011 RE V A SH E E T 1 of 4 P ROBLE M SH E E T B000-1-24-2 DIAGNOSING GROUP P E RF ORMANCE A.

2.TRAINE E GUIDE P ROBLE M SH E E T B000-1-24-2 A-012-001 1 RE V A SH E E T 2 of 4 TE ST ITE M MISSE D BY CLASS NO.3 1.041 1 STUDE NT 1 STUDE NT 2 STUDE NT 3 STUDE NT 4 STUDE NT 5 STUDE NT 6 STUDE NT 7 STUDE NT 8 STUDE NT 9 STUDE NT 10 x x x 2 3 x 4 5 6 x 7 8 9 x 10 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x TE ST ITE M(S) 1. 8 9 10 OBJ E CTIVE SUP P ORTE D 1.2 1.1 1.4 1. 7.-Ex a m p le P ro ble m S h e e t. (S h e e t 2 o f 4) 98 .5 F OR TRAIN IN G U S E ON LY F ig u re 9-5.3 4. 5 6.

(S h e e t 3 o f 4) 99 . 1 STUDE NT 1 STUDE NT 2 STUDE NT 3 STUDE NT 4 STUDE NT 5 STUDE NT 6 STUDE NT 7 STUDE NT 8 STUDE NT 9 STUDE NT 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F ig u re 9-5. In st r u ct ion : a. Da t a : N /A A-012-0011 RE V A SH E E T 3 of 4 F r om t h is in st r u ct or ’s pr eviou s cla ss on sa m e t est a s Cla ss No._ 1 STUDE NT 1 STUDE NT 2 STUDE NT 3 STUDE NT 4 STUDE NT 5 STUDE NT 6 STUDE NT 7 STUDE NT 8 STUDE NT 9 STUDE NT 10 F r om a n ot h er in st r u ct or ’s cla ss on t h e sa m e t est .-Ex a m p le P ro ble m S h e e t.TRAINE E GUIDE P ROBLE M SH E E T B000-1-24-2 7.

In cor r ect An swer Key: 2. 1. 041.-Ex a m p le P ro ble m S h e e t. In su fficien t P r a ct ice: 3.TRAINE E GUIDE P ROBLE M SH E E T B000-1-24-2 A-012-0011 RE V A SH E E T 4 of 4 C. La ck of P r er equ isit e Skills: 5. (S h e e t 4 o f 4) 100 . P ROBABLE CAUSE (S) P u t a ch eck m a r k beside t h e pr oba ble ca u se(s) of t h e poor gr ou p per for m a n ce of cla ss No. P oor Test Sch edu lin g: 4. P oor Test It em s: 6. P oor In st r u ct ion : F OR TRAIN IN G U S E ON LY F ig u re 9-5.

AP P LY t h e sa fet y pr eca u t ion s a ssocia t ed wit h u n der wa t er h u ll in spect ion s in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e U. a n d t h e NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l. Volu m e 2. DE SCRIBE t h e st a ges of gr owt h com m on ly fou n d on u n der wa t er h u lls in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l. P la n n in g for a Dive 7. Use Repa ir Sa fet y Ch ecklist 8.4 7. a n d t h e P a in t Det er ior a t ion Ra t in g Sca le. In t h is t opic. Ch a pt er 081. in a ccor da n ce wit h NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l a n d Wa t er bor n e Un der wa t er H u ll Clea n in g of Su r fa ce Sh ips. B.1 7. Sh ip H u ll Com pon en t s 3. Su m m a r y a n d Review 11.2 IDE NTIF Y t h e com pon en t s of t h e sh ip’s h u ll in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l. P er for m Un der wa t er H u ll In spect ion 9. you will be t a u gh t t h e com pon en t s t o be. a n d t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l.-Ex a m p le o u tlin e s h e e t 101 . F ou lin g Ra t in g Sca les 5. Assignment F ig u re 9-6. 7.7 C.TRAINE E GUIDE OUTLINE SH E E T 9-1-1 UNDE RWATE R H ULL INSP E CTION A. Ch a pt er 081. Ch a pt er 081. E n a blin g Object ives: 7. D ES CRIB E t h e fou lin g a r ea s of h u lls in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l. I n t r o d u c t i o n A-433-00 Un der wa t er h u ll in spect ion in volves t h e exa m in a t ion of t h e ext er ior u n der wa t er h u ll a n d com pon en t s t o det er m in e t h e con dit ion a n d n eeds for m a in t en a n ce a n d r epa ir . P RE P ARE t h e sh ip’s h u ll in spect ion r epor t in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e Divin g Tr a in in g Standards. S TATE t h e gen er a l con t en t s of t h e F ou lin g Ra t in g Sca le. Wa t er bor n e Un der wa t er H u ll Clea n in g of Su r fa ce Sh ips. Wa t er bor n e Un der wa t er H u ll Clea n in g of Su r fa ce Sh ips. Volu m e 1. Na vy Divin g Ma n u a l. Volu m e 2. a n d t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l. Volu m e 2. Volu m e 2. St a ges of Sea Gr owt h 4. Cr it ica l F ou lin g Ar ea s 6. P E RF ORM u n der wa t er h u ll in spect ion s by da y in a ccor da n ce wit h t h e NAVSH IP S Tech n ica l Ma n u a l a n d Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l. Ch a pt er 081. t h e Un der wa t er Wor k Tech n iqu es Ma n u a l. Topic Ou t lin e 1. Volu m e 2.5 7.6 7. in spect ed a n d t h e pr ocedu r es for in spect ion . H u ll In spect ion Repor t 10.3 7. Wa t er bor n e Un der wa t er H u ll Clea n in g of Su r fa ce Sh ips. S. In t r odu ct ion 2.

or p ie ce of e q u ip m e n t t h a t w ill a s s is t s t u d e n t u n der st a n din g a n d expedit e lea r n in g. m ock u p . Ut ilizin g t h e sen se of s igh t in p a r a llel wit h h ea r in g cr ea t es m or e effect ive in s t r u ct ion a n d gr ea t er r et en t ion of in for m a t ion by t h e st u den t s. I MM is a s p ecia lly p r ep a r ed ch a r t . u n less t h e st u den t s h a ve seen on e.IN S TR U CTION AL ME D IA MATE R IAL S om e N a vy in st r u ct or s t h in k of in s t r u ct ion a l m edia m a t er ia l (MMM) a s bein g s yn on ym ou s wit h video t a pes. or s er ies of ch a r t s . s t u d en t s n eed t o see t h e sext a n t or a m odel of it t o su pplem en t you r descr ipt ion . F ocu s t h e a t t en t ion a n d con cen t r a t ion of t h e en t ir e gr ou p on t h e s p ecific p a r t you a r e t ea ch in g a bou t . bu t t h eir cu r iosit y will be a r ou sed im m edia t ely by t h e displa y of a r ifle. illu s t r a t ion . a n d s t ill ot h er s con s id er I MM t o be s ou r ces of en t er t a in m en t . you wou ld h a ve difficu lt y m a kin g st u den t s u n der st a n d t h e fu n ct ion s a n d r ela t ion sh ips of t h e pa r t s wit h ou t t h e u se of a wor k in g m od el. A sim ila r r ea ct ion occu r s in a t r a in in g s it u a t ion wh en a s t u d en t feels t h e in s t r u ct ion is of d efin it e va lu e. cu t a wa y. p r od u ces a ccu r a t e in t er p r et a t ion s . I MM br in gs s u bject s in t o p er s p ect ive. St u den t s m a y h a ve pr oblem s u n der st a n din g t h e pr oper r ela t ion sh ips of t h e va r iou s pa r t s of a n object fr om a ver ba l expla n a t ion on ly. Use IMM t h a t will ca pt u r e you r st u den t s’ a t t en t ion a n d con t in u e t o h old t h eir a t t en t ion a s t h e lesson pr ogr esses. a n d a id s in t h e u n d er s t a n d in g of r ela t ion s h ip s . or ca r bin e. In c re a s e s S tu d e n t In te re s t a n d Mo tiv a tio n I M M is fa r m or e e ffe ct ive in a t t r a ct in g a t t e n t ion a n d cr e a t in g in t e r e s t t h a n a ve r b a l descr ipt ion given wit h ou t t h e u se of a n a id. m ot ion p ict u r e . r e cor d in g. s lid e p ict u r e. Sh owin g is oft en ea sier t h a n t ellin g. Ou r m in ds t en d t o con cen t r a t e on t h e t h in g u pon wh ich ou r eyes a r e focu sed (sen se of sigh t ). To for m a m or e com p let e u n d er s t a n d in g. Alt h ou gh you m igh t descr ibe in det a il a piece of n a viga t ion equ ipm en t . pist ol. Ot h er s t h in k IMM is a n in st r u ct or cr u t ch t o r elieve t h e bu r den of t ea ch in g. t h ey m a y develop a com p let ely wr on g id ea a bou t it . St u den t s m a y n ot be a t t r a ct ed by a descr ipt ion of t h e va r iou s t ypes of sm a ll a r m s. In c re a s e s S t u d e n t U n d e rs t a n d i n g It is possible a n d qu it e pr oba ble for a gr ou p of st u den t s t o for m en t ir ely differ en t idea s a bou t t h e sa m e t h in g a s a r esu lt of a ver ba l descr ipt ion . In t h e ca se of t h e sext a n t . Th e sa t isfia ct ion of h a vin g don e a job well is a feelin g fa m ilia r t o ever yon e. p os t er . vid eo t a p e. Mor e s p ecifica lly. J u s t wh a t is I MM? I t is a n y d evice or p iece of equ ip m en t t h a t is u s ed t o h elp t h e s t u d en t u n d er s t a n d a n d lea r n . Th e 102 . P U RP OS ES OF IN S TR U CTION AL ME D IA MATE R IAL Th e m ost im por t a n t pu r pose of IMM is t o in cr ea se st u den t u n der st a n din g. a n d m ot iva t ion a n d t o pr ovide u n ifor m it y in t r a in in g. su ch a s a sext a n t . m od e l. Ot h er im por t a n t pu r poses a r e t o in cr ea se st u den t r et en t ion . in t er est . sh ot gu n .

St u den t s ca n r eca ll t h e m en t a l im a ges cr ea t ed by pict u r es a n d m odels m or e ea sily beca u se of t h eir in cr ea sed in t er est a t t h e t im e of r ecept ion . y ou m u s t k n ow w h a t con t r ol a u t h or i t y (C C A). I M M u s e s t h e m u lt ip le -s e n s e a p p r oa ch t o le a r n in g t o in cr e a s e r e t e n t ion . In c re a s e s S t u d e n t R e t e n t i o n Most of people for get wh a t t h ey h ea r in a r ela t ively sh or t t im e a n d h a ve difficu lt y r eca llin g t h e in for m a t ion a ccu r a t ely. All I M M s s h ou ld b e a ccu r a t e . On t h e ot h er h a n d. or a video t a pe sh own wit h you r expla n a t ion will m a ke a fixed im pr ession on st u den t s t h a t is ea sier t o r eca ll. T h e follow in g in for m a t ion s u p p or t s t h e im p or t a n ce of u s in g t h e s en s e of s igh t in lea r n in g: S T U D E N T S W I L L R E T AI N 1 0 % O F W H AT T H E Y R E AD 2 0 % O F W H AT T H E Y H E AR 3 0 % O F W H AT T H E Y S E E 5 0 % O F W H AT T H E Y S E E AN D H E AR In c re a s e s U n i fo rm i t y o f Tra i n i n g In cla ssr oom sit u a t ion s in wh ich t h e in st r u ct or u ses n o a ids. U s e of 103 . Th e u se of st a n da r dized t r a in in g a id s m a k es t h e p r esen t a t ion s m or e u n ifor m .st u den t a ch ieves a sen se of per son a l sa t isfa ct ion fr om t h e lea r n in g a n d feels m ot iva t ed t o lea r n m or e . t h in gs t h ey see m a ke a m or e la st in g im pr ession a n d h elp t h em t o r eca ll t h e object or pr ocess m or e a ccu r a t ely. a n d n ecessa r y. a s a cl a s s r oom i n s t r u ct or . I n d ivid u a l in s t r u ct or s or t r a in in g s it es s h ou ld n ot d evelop t h eir own I MM wit h ou t t h e a p p r ova l of t h e cu r r icu lu m H ow e v e r . ch a r a ct e r is t ics I M M s s h ou ld h a ve . CH AR ACTE R IS TICS All IMMs m u st h a ve cer t a in ch a r a ct er ist ics t o be effect ive a n d t o su ppor t t h e pu r poses for u s in g t h em . H owever . You ca n a ch ie ve m ot iva t ion e a r ly in a cou r s e of in s t r u ct ion b y u s in g I M M . visible. Wh ile s om e in s t r u ct or s m a y exp r es s t h em s elves flu en t ly. st u den t lea r n in g depen ds on t h e p r es en t a t ion m et h od . a n a ct u a l en gin e. Ac c u r a t e F ir s t a n d for e m os t . Cou r s e d evelop er s p r ovid e I MMs for es t a blis h ed cou r s es . Th e a ver a ge st u den t will ea sily for get you r ver ba l expla n a t ion of h ow a n in t er n a l com bu st ion en gin e oper a t es. St u den t s h a ve a gr ea t er in t er est in t h e r ea list ic a n d con cr et e t h a n in t h e sym bolic a n d a bst r a ct . a m odel. sim ple. vis u a l a id s m u s t a ccu r a t e ly d e p ict t h e in s t r u ct ion a l in t e n t . T h e con t in u ed u s e of I MM t o m a k e t h e in s t r u ct ion con cr et e a n d m ea n in gfu l will s u s t a in s t u d en t in t er est a n d m ot iva t ion . You ca n t h e n r e cogn ize a n I M M ’s s h or t com in gs a n d r e com m e n d ch a n ge s t h r ou gh t h e p r op e r ch a in of com m a n d . ot h er s m a y be som ewh a t in a r t icu la t e a lt h ou gh t h ey kn ow t h eir su bject well.

Vi s i b le Th e IMM m u st be visible for a ll st u den t s fr om a ll a r ea s in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . I t m u s t m e e t on e or m or e of t h e p u r p os es for u s in g I MM. S im p le Th e sim plest ver sion t h a t will do t h e job is best . On e of t h e gr ea t es t d is t r a ct ion s in t h e cla s s r oom is a n in s t r u ct or wh o 104 . r e m ove it fr om s igh t . Rea d a bilit y a lso depen ds on t h e spa cin g bet ween wor ds a n d lin es. sim ple) will be of n o va lu e u n less a ll st u den t s ca n see a ll a s p ect s of you r vis u a l a id . Ma k e p r op er p r ep a r a t ion s for t h e u se of IMMs so t h a t you ca n det ect possible pr oblem s a n d m a ke a lt er n a t e pla n s if r equ ir ed. Ma k e s u r e a ll n eed ed s u p p or t in g equ ip m en t is a va ila ble a n d wor k in g. Or ga n ize t h e I MMs in t h e p r op er s equ en ce. Th e t ech n iqu es d is cu s s ed in t h is s ect ion p r ovid e clea r -cu t gu id elin es for u s in g in st r u ct ion a l m edia m a t er ia ls. r ea d a ble. As a gen er a l r u le. You ca n n ot a d equ a t ely expla in a wa y in a ccu r a cies--st u den t s r em em ber wh a t t h ey see m or e t h a n wh a t t h ey h ea r . wh ich sh ou ld be u n ifor m a n d a ppr opr ia t e t o t h e size of t h e let t er in g. a n d in a u s ea ble con d it ion . Th e t wo pr ecedin g ch a r a ct er ist ics (a ccu r a t e. n on e of t h e ot h er ch a r a ct er is t ics will m a t t er . Ne ce ssary T h e I M M m u s t s u p p or t s p e cific le a r n in g ob je ct ive s . U s e t h e I M M a s n a t u r a lly a s p os s ible. com for t a ble r ea din g fr om t h e ba ck of a 32-foot lon g r oom r equ ir es let t er in g a t lea st 2 in ch es h igh . D U RIN G THE LES S ON Displa y t h e IMM in a t im ely m a n n er a t t h e poin t ca lled for in you r lesson pla n . Aft e r u s in g it t o s u p p or t you r le s s on . B E F OR E TH E LE S S ON Refer t o you r lesson pla n t o det er m in e exa ct ly wh a t IMM you n eed t o su ppor t ea ch lesson . Dir ect t h e st u den t s’ a t t en t ion t o specific por t ion s of t h e IMM eit h er ver ba lly or by u sin g a poin t er wh wn n ecessa r y. Th e u s e of bold block let t er s bes t en s u r es r ea d a bilit y. you m u st pla n in a dva n ce exa ct ly h ow it is goin g t o fit in t o you r les s on . If you r I MM is n ot a ccu r a t e. Do n ot u s e I MM a s a t im e filler ju s t beca u s e it is a va ila ble. You ca n est im a t e t h e size of let t er in g st u den t s ca n ea sily see. U S E O F I MM Wh en you a r e goin g t o u se IMM. Visu a l a ids t h a t con t a in u n n ecessa r y da t a con fu s e s t u d en t s a n d m a y a r ou s e t h eir cu r ios it y in a d ir ect ion con t r a r y t o t h e on e in t en d ed .ou t d a t ed or in cor r ect vis u a ls d efea t s t h e p u r p os e of d is p la yin g I MM. Obt a in t h e IMMs you n eed a n d t h en pr eview ea ch on e you pla n t o u se t o en su r e it is com plet e.

Use a poin t er t o dir ect st u den t a t t en t ion t o specific in for m a t ion on t h e scr een . You ca n . Tra n s p a re n c i e s Alt h ou gh t r a n s p a r e n cie s a r e e a s y t o u s e . dim t h e ligh t s sligh t ly if you wa n t . F or best visibilit y. or ga n ized con dit ion . defa ced. If you fin d m issin g. Du r in g you r in st r u ct ion . Ch eck for visibilit y fr om a ll a r ea s of t h e cla ssr oom . S li d e s Wh en you a r e goin g t o u se slides t o su ppor t you r lesson . H owever . AF TE R TH E LE S S ON You h a ve a r es p on s ibilit y t o you r fellow s t a ff m em ber s t o r et u r n a ll I MMs t o t h e p r op er st or a ge a r ea in a n or der ly. Th is sect ion pr ovides su ggest ion s on t ech n iqu es t o con sider wh en u sin g t h e IMM. displa y slides a s ca lled for in you r lesson pla n . t r a n s p a r en cy on t h e gla s s befor e t u r n in g on t h e p r oject or . Mea s u r e t h e r equ ir ed h eigh t of t h e scr een a n d t h e dist a n ce of t h e pr oject or fr om t h e scr een .fu m bles a r ou n d wit h t h e visu a l a ids. Wh en you fin ish you r expla n a t ion . Du r in g cla ss. in for m t h e p r op er p er s on s t o in it ia t e a ct ion t o cor r ect a n y d is cr ep a n cies . A da r ken ed r oom cr ea t es a n a t m osph er e in wh ich people sit ba ck a n d list en pa ssively. Be su r e t o p os it ion t h e over h ea d p r oject or s o t h a t ever yon e ca n s ee t h e t r a n s p a r en cies . Keep you r t r a n s p a r en cies in focu s . IN S TR U CTION AL TECHN IQU ES Th e in s t r u ct ion a l t ech n iqu es you em p loy in t h e u s e of I MM ca n gr ea t ly a d d t o or d is t r a ct fr om t h eir effect iven ess. or br oken it em s. Th a t a llows you t o becom e fa m ilia r wit h t h e op er a t in g con t r ols a n d ch a r a ct er is t ics of t h e s lid e p r oject or a n d t h e p h ys ica l s et u p of t h e cla s s r oom . fir st en su r e a ll slides a r e in t h e ca r ou sel in t h e pr oper sequ en ce. t r a n spa r en cies. P r eview in t h e cla ssr oom wh er e you will t ea ch u s in g t h e s lid e p r oject or you will u s e d u r in g t h e les s on . a n d n ot ba ckwa r ds. Be ca u t iou s n ot t o block t h e pr oject or im a ge. m a n y of t h e s a m e in s t r u ct ion a l t ech n iqu es u s ed for s lid es a ls o a p p ly t o Ver ify cor r ect n es s befor e goin g in t o t h e cla s s r oom t o t ea ch . pla ce t h e pr oject ion scr een in a cor n er of t h e r oom a n d a n gle it t owa r d t h e cen t er . Th en pu t a piece of m a skin g t a pe on t h e floor so t h a t you ca n qu ickly pu t t h e pr oject or in t h e cor r ect posit ion befor e t h e cla ss begin s. m ove on t o t h e n ext slide or t u r n t h e pr oject or bu lb off. h owever . m a n y in s t r u ct or s h a ve p r ob le m s u s in g t h e m effect ively. d on ’t t u r n off t h e ligh t s . fa ce t h e cla ss wh ile t a lkin g. bu t don ’t st a n d in fr on t of t h e scr een . P r eview t h e en t ir e slide r u n t o ver ify cor r ect n ess befor e goin g in t o t h e cla ssr oom t o t ea ch . P la ce t h e Wh en sh owin g t h e t r a n spa r en cy. E xpla in ea ch slide a s you sh ow it . block off u n n ecessa r y det a il wit h a piece of pa per or a ca r d. Becom e fa m ilia r wit h t h e oper a t ion of t h e over h ea d pr oject or a n d t h e ph ysica l set u p of t h e cla ssr oom . r igh t side u p. 105 . S in ce t r a n s p a r en cies ca n be s een in a r egu la r ly ligh t ed r oom .

You m u st t u r n it in t o a lea r n in g exp er ien ce by in t r od u cin g a n d s u m m a r izin g t h e film /t a p e for t h e s t u d en t s . B y r e cor d in g in for m a t ion on n e w s p r in t d u r in g a cla s s d is cu s s ion . It is a power fu l t ool wh en u sed well. bu t bor in g a n d a wa st e of t im e wh en u sed poor ly. Usin g n ewspr in t a lso a llows you t o m a in t a in you r posit ion in fr on t of t h e st u den t s wit h ou t h a vin g t o t u r n a wa y fr om t h em t o wr it e. a n d m ot iva t ion . or or ga n ize in for m a t ion con t r ibu t ed by t h e cla ss a s a lesson t a kes pla ce. you ca n t u r n pa ges over t o r evea l t h e n ew in for m a t ion a s t h e lesson pr ogr esses. F i l m s /Vi d e o T a p e s Mot ion p ict u r es .Be su r e t o m ove t h e pr oject or wh en you h a ve com plet ed sh owin g t h e t r a n spa r en cies. Th e followin g t ech n iqu es will in cr ea se you r effect iven ess in u sin g n ewspr in t : n Add t a bs t o h elp you t u r n pa ges wh en u sin g t h e ea sel. N e w s p ri n t An d Wa ll Ch a rt s Newspr in t is a n ot h er widely u sed flexible visu a l a id. Wh en u sin g n ewspr in t pr epa r ed in a dva n ce. you ca n in cr e a s e cla s s p a r t icip a t ion . P la cin g t h ese qu est ion s on t h e visu a l a ids pa n el or ea sel ch a r t fu r t h er focu ses st u den t a t t en t ion t o t h e m a in t h r u s t . m a ke su r e you h a ve h a d a m ple pr a ct ice befor e con du ct in g t h e cla ss. T h a t click in g t h e p r oject or off a n d on exces s ively. b e com e com p le t e ly k n owled gea ble of a ll equ ip m en t con t r ols a n d ch eck for clea r vis ibilit y fr om a ll s ea t in g a r ea s . Don ’t lea ve t h e m a ch in e in fr on t of t h e cla ss u n less it is in u se it becom es a dist r a ct ion a n d a ba r r ier bet ween you a n d t h e lea r n er s . 106 . You m u st view t h e en t ir e m ot ion pict u r e befor e cla ss t o en su r e you a r e a wa r e of it s in t en t a n d a ll k ey in for m a t ion con t a in ed in it . E P en cil you r n ot es in ligh t ly on t h e n ews p r in t befor e you begin t h e n Use br igh t ly color ed felt t ip m a r ker s t o wr it e in t h e wor ds. Th a t a llows you t o h a ve in for m a t ion n ea t ly a r r a n ged a n d spelled cor r ect ly befor e t h e cla ss begin s. Develop qu es t ion s for s t u d en t s t o a n s wer a ft er viewin g t h e film /t a pe. H a vin g st u den t s wa t ch t h e film /t a pe is n ot en ou gh . D on ’t b e T u r n off t h e p r oje ct or w h e n fin is h e d . Wh ile p r e vie w in g. s t u d en t in t er es t . D on ’t le a ve a b a r e ligh t p r oje ct e d on t h e s cr e e n . p r ep a r e or d evelop n ews p r in t in a dva n ce. Wh en pr epa r ed in a dva n ce a n d a t t a ch ed t o a n ea sel. u sin g n ewspr in t in a spon t a n eou s m a n n er m a y h in der you r a bilit y t o in st r u ct . Befor e you begin s h owin g t h e film /t a p e t o you r cla s s . p r es en t a ct ion a n d ca n r ecr ea t e r ea l or im a gin ed sit u a t ion s. illu st r a t e. Th e film of t h e US S Fran k lin . en su r es t h e cla ss is n ot left h a n gin g or dist r a ct ed by a bla n k scr een . wh ich you ca n s h ow u s in g film s or vid eo t a p es . n U se da r k color s for let t er in g n U s e va r iou s color s t o en h a n ce you r wor k a n d d is t in gu is h bet ween in for m a t ion l e s s on . wh ich h a s been a r ou n d sin ce 1945. you ca n u se it effect ively t o r ecor d. U sin g m ot ion pict u r es in you r cla ssr oom is n ot t h e sa m e a s h a vin g you r st u den t s wa t ch a m ovie. is s t ill s h own t o m a k e a vivid p oin t a bou t t h e im p or t a n ce of a ll-h a n d s d a m a ge con t r ol t r a in in g. In t h e Na vy cla ssr oom . F ollow u p t h e film /t a p e wit h a d is cu s s ion of a n s wer s t o t h e qu est ion s. If you a r ea slow wr it er or poor speller . I f you t h in k it will h in d er you . in t r od u ce it by t ellin g t h e s t u d en t s s p e cifica lly w h a t t o look for .

Mo c k u p s a n d S i m u l a t o r s Models. Ma k e t it les a n d la bels of su fficien t h eigh t for ever yon e in t h e cla ss t o see t h em . Som e m odels a r e solid a n d sh ow on ly t h e ou t lin e of t h e object t h ey por t r a y. a n d la bels a s a p p r op r ia t e. a n d s h op s . la bs . pr oject a n im a ge fr om a n opa qu e pr oject or on t h e post er boa r d. or pr ovide bet t er in st r u ct ion t h a n t h e a ct u a l equ ipm en t . t oo d a n ger ou s . Th ey ca n s a ve t im e a n d r ed u ce h a za r d s wh ile p r ovid in g h a n d s -on exp er ien ce. or d ia gr a m s . S in ce t h ey a r e a va ila ble in m os t cla s s r oom s . To m a ke a wa ll ch a r t . Th e m od el in t r od u ces a ccu r a t e a n d a u t h en t ic r ea lism in t o t h e lea r n in g sit u a t ion . you m a y ea sily displa y in for m a t ion on t h em u sin g post er boa r d wit h m a gn et s a t t a ch ed. t h ey ea sily a dh er e t o m ost visu a l a ids pa n els. a n d n ot e t a kin g. A sim u la t or is a n y device t h a t h a s t h e for m . D on ’t clu t t e r t h e w a lls w it h t oo m u ch in for m a t ion . displa y you r n ewspr in t in a cor n er of t h e r oom or by t a pin g it t o t h e side wa lls. You ca n u se pr ofession a lly pr epa r ed ch a r t s or m a ke t h em you r self. You ca n r efer t o n ews p r in t a t a la t er d a t e a s a r eview (s u ch a s a n a gen d a ). At t h e ver y lea s t . t h ey pr ovide a n ot h er for m of lea r n in g r ein for cem en t . en cou r a gin g cla ss in volvem en t . n ews p r in t t o p r even t d is t r a ct ion s . d efin it ion s . or d ifficu lt t o obt a in . sou n d. You n or m a lly u s e t h em wh en t h ey a r e sa fer . By a t t a ch in g m a gn et ic st r ips on t h e ba ck. wh ile ot h er s a r e wor kin g m odels (m ock u p s ). You ca n u s e t h e ch a l k b oa r d /VAP w h e n t e a ch i n g a l m os t a n y k n ow l e d g e s u b je ct . S in ce m os t ch a lkboa r ds a n d VAP s h a ve a m et a l ba ckin g. A m odel m a y be a n en la r gem en t . Mock u p s a r e t h r ee-d im en s ion a l wor k in g m od els . Th ey a r e ver sa t ile in t h e cla ssr oom a n d ea sy t o displa y on post er boa r d clips or t h e ea sel. t h ey a r e a n excellen t t ool for r ecor din g st u den t r espon ses. Th ey a r e r ela t ively ea sy t o pr epa r e. or t h e a ct u a l six. T h e 107 . P la ce in for m a t ion you h a ve a lr ea d y cover ed in t h e ba ck of t h e r oom for s t u d en t s t o r eview d u r in g t h e ir b r e a k . t r a ce t h e ou t lin e a n d t h en a p p ly color s . S im u la t or s a llow t h e s t u d en t s t o ga in “h a n d s -on ” exp er ien ce. Th eir flexibilit y a llows you t o a da pt t h em t o a lm ost a n y in s t r u ct ion a l n eed . a r edu ct ion . a n d sim u la t or s m a ke good sen se for m a n y t r a in in g a pplica t ion s. You ca n a lso u se wa ll ch a r t s. Som e exa m ples a r e da m a ge con t r ol wet t r a in er s. less cost ly. d r a win gs . Th ey a r e pr oba bly t h e m ost fr equ en t ly u sed visu a l t r a in in g a ids. F or fu t u r e r efer en ce. p r oblem s . fligh t sim u la t or s. Ch a lk b o a rd /Vi s u a l Ai d s Panel Two ver y im p or t a n t vis u a l a id s a r e t h e ch a lk boa r d a n d vis u a l a id s p a n el (VAP ). m ocku ps. Sim u la t or s pr ovide a r ea list ic set t in g a n d per m it a h igh degr ee of t r a n sfer of lea r n in g wh en t h e st u den t s swit ch t o t h e a ct u a l equ ipm en t . a n d t h ose m a de of h ea vy post er boa r d m a t er ia l la st a lon g t im e. t h ey ca n h elp you illu st r a t e a n d exp la in t h in gs t h a t ot h er wis e wou ld be d ifficu lt or d a n ger ou s .m Lea ve t h e bot t om t h ir d of you r sh eet s bla n k t o en a ble t h e st u den t s in t h e ba ck of t h e cla ss t o see t h e en t ir e sh eet . a n d even t h e a ppea r a n ce of t h e a ct u a l equ ip m en t . You m a y u se t h em a t a n y t im e du r in g a les s on t o d is p la y t er m s . t it les . U s e t h em for t r a in in g or t es t in g in p la ce of a r ea l object t h a t is t oo cos t ly. a n d su bm a r in e con t r ol sim u la t or s. a t t h e m ost . A sca le m odel r epr esen t s a n exa ct r epr odu ct ion of t h e or igin a l. R e m ove a ll u n n e ce s s a r y Mo d e l s . exa m p les .

P r a ct ice t o en su r e t h e in for m a t ion will fit in sm oot h ly wit h t h e lesson . Wr it e a com m en t or dr a w a por t ion of a dia gr a m on t h e boa r d. u s e s om e t yp e of d r a w in g a id t o k e e p t h e d r a win g a s n ea t a s p os s ible. k eep you r a r m s t r a igh t wh ile poin t in g.) for t h e ch a lk boa r d /VAP p or t ion of t h e les s on a n d p la ce t h em in t h e cla s s r oom . a n d you los e eye con t a ct . con d e n s e r . Develop ch a lkboa r d/VAP wor k logica lly. Use color wit h r es t r a in t a n d on ly t o em p h a s ize k ey in for m a t ion . Wh e n p r e p a r in g a ch a lk b oa r d /VAP d r a w in g. Use t h e h a n d n ea r est t h e object you poin t ou t in st ea d of a llowin g you r a r m t o cr oss you r body. Besides u sin g n ea t a n d legible pen m a n sh ip. com p on en t a t a t im e a n d gr a d u a lly lea d in g t h em t o t h e com p let ed cycle s u p p or t s t h e la w of p r im a cy. m a ke su r e you u se cor r ect spellin g a n d gr a m m a r . bu t m a y discr edit you . Keep a ll wr it in g or dr a win gs du r in g t h e lesson br ief a n d t o t h e poin t . Use t em pla t es (sh a pes cu t fr om post er boa r d) t h a t you ca n t r a ce on t o t h e ch a lk boa r d /VAP if you p la n t o u s e t h e d r a win g oft en . p r oced u r es . P a u s e fr equ en t ly t o m a in t a in s t u d en t a t t en t ion . St a n d t o on e side t o pr even t obst r u ct in g t h e st u den t s’ view. u se lesson pla n n ot es or 3 x 5 ca r ds t h a t cor r espon d wit h wh a t you pla n t o wr it e on t h e boa r d. Det er m in e wh a t pa r t s of t h e lesson a r e im por t a n t en ou gh t o em ph a size wit h boa r d wor k a n d will h elp st u den t s m eet t h e object ives. You m igh t u s e com p a s s es for d r a win g cir cles a n d r u ler s or Tsqu a r es for dr a win g st r a igh t lin es. I t a ls o d evelop s bet t er u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e r ela t ion s h ip s of t h e com p on en t s . a n d a void t a lkin g t o t h e ch a lkboa r d/VAP . Wh en you p la n t o u s e t h e ch a lk boa r d or VAP . In for m a t ion s h ou ld clea r ly r ela t e t o t h e object ives of t h e les s on . Wr it e in st r a igh t lin es. Th is t ech n iqu e p r om ot es good eye con t a ct a n d en cou r a ges cla s s p a r t icip a t ion . F or exa m ple. s t u d en t s h a ve d ifficu lt y u n d er s t a n d in g you r wor d s . i n for m a t i on s t e p -b y -s t e p a n d i n t h e m os t l og i ca l s e q u e n ce . Ch eck for cor r ect s p ellin g a n d gr a m m a r d u r in g p r a ct ice. 108 . er a s er . Sequ en ce t h e wor k so t h e r ela t ion sh ip of ea ch n ew it em t o t h e pr eviou s is r ea dily a ppa r en t . I f u s in g a p oin t er t o d r a w a t t en t ion t o a p oin t or d r a win g. et c. Develop con cep t s . Wh en you t a lk t o t h e boa r d . Th en t u r n t o t h e cla ss t o s olicit in p u t a n d gen er a t e d is cu s s ion a bou t t h e in for m a t ion . Als o d et er m in e t h e a m ou n t of t im e t h e boa r d wor k will t a ke a n d h ow it will look wh en fin ish ed. P r olon ged wr it in g or d r a win g d is r u p t s t h e flow of t h e les s on a n d m a y ca u s e t h e s t u d en t s t o becom e d is t r a ct ed or bor ed. Th a t will h elp you bu ild con fid en ce in u s in g t h e boa r d a n d r ed u ce t h e a m ou n t of t im e you s p en d er a s in g a n d r ewr it in g or r ed r a win g in for m a t ion . To en s u r e p r op er s p ellin g a n d gr a m m a r . a dr a win g t o illu st r a t e t h e oper a t ion of a ba sic st ea m cycle wou ld con sist of a boiler . E xpla in wh a t you a r e doin g a n d ch eck for st u den t r ea ct ion . you n eed t o t a k e s ever a l s t ep s befor e you r pr esen t a t ion . Con sider t h e poin t er a s a n ext en sion of you r a r m . poin t er . Ga t h er a ll m a t er ia ls r equ ir ed (ch a lk or m a r k er s . s t r a igh t edges. d ia gr a m s a n d ot h er U s e t h e ch a l k b oa r d /VAP in for m a t ion t o develop on e poin t a t a t im e a n d pr ogr ess fr om t h e sim ple t o t h e com plex. a n d n e ce s s a r y s t e a m lin e s . Be s u r e t o clea n t h e ch a lkboa r d/VAP befor e u sin g it . p u m p s .ch a lk boa r d /VAP is es s en t ia l wh en you a r e t ea ch in g m en t a l s k ills in volvin g com p u t a t ion s a n d ca lcu la t ion s . Ad d it ion a lly ch eck t h e d r a win g or wr it in g fr om t h e s t u d en t s ’ viewp oin t . I n t r od u cin g t h e s t u d e n t s t o on e t u r b in e . In cor r ect spellin g a n d poor gr a m m a r a r e n ot on ly det r im en t a l t o t h e st u den t s. Avoid t h e n a t u r a l t en den cy t o wr it e in eit h er a n u ph ill or down h ill lin e.

Du r in g you r pr esen t a t ion . you m u st be fa m ilia r wit h t h e m a t er ia ls r equ ir ed t o t ea ch t h e cou r s e of in s t r u ct ion . As wit h ot h er for m s of I MM. a n d t r a n s p a r e n cie s t o a d d in t e r e s t a s w e ll a s t o s u p p lem en t ver ba l exp la n a t ion s . T h e p r op e r u s e of a ll cou r s e m a t e r ia ls w ill gr e a t ly e n h a n ce you r effect iven ess a s a n in st r u ct or . er a s e or cover t h e ch a lk boa r d /VAP wor k a s s oon a s you fin is h t h e p r es en t a t ion t o p r even t it fr om becom in g a dist r a ct ion . you s h ou ld a void wa lk in g in fr on t of d is p la yed in for m a t ion wh en ever p os s ible. You ca n u s e film s . 109 . bu t t h ey ca n n ot t a k e t h e p la ce of effect ive in s t r u ct ion . keep t h e boa r d a s clea n a s possible. A clu t t er ed boa r d wit h sca t t er ed. P u t t h e er a ser ba ck in t h e du st t r a y wh en you fin ish m a kin g you r poin t . P os t er s a n d n ews p r in t m a k e d is cu s s ion s m or e r ea lis t ic a n d in t e r e s t in g. a n d follow p r op er t ech n iqu es wh en u s in g t h es e m a t er ia ls in t h e le a r n in g e n vir on m e n t . M od e ls . pr epa r e t h e m a t er ia ls in a dva n ce. R e m e m b e r . Als o. s lid e s . U s e in s t r u ct ion s h e e t s t o r e in for ce you r le s s on p r e s e n t a t ion s a n d t o p r ovid e s t u d e n t s w it h t h e le a r n in g op p or t u n it ie s p r ovid e d b y t h e s e m a t er ia ls. E r a se a ll in for m a t ion you a r e n ot u sin g. Th e effect ive u se of IMM is n ot lim it ed t o a n y on e ph a se of t h e in st r u ct in g-lea r n in g pr ocess. I M M give m ea n in g t o t h e in s t r u ct ion . m ock u p s or s im u la t or s e n h a n ce d e m on s t r a t ion s . You m u s t u s e t h e a p p r oved les s on p la n a n d p er s on a lize it t o cover a ll d is cu s s ion p oin t s e xa ct ly a s you in t e n d . SUMMARY To be a n effect ive in st r u ct or . vid e o t a p e s . pr a ct ice you r u s e of t h e m a t er ia ls . Wh en u sin g in st r u ct ion a l m edia m a t er ia ls. u n r ela t ed m a t er ia ls h in der s you r pr esen t a t ion a n d st u den t u n der st a n din g. Do n ot ca u s e a d is t r a ct ion by ca r r yin g it a r ou n d .

A pr elim in a r y m eet in g wit h t h e eva lu a t or a ids in t h e pr epa r a t ion s t o con du ct t h e eva lu a t ion . Rem em ber . Wh e t h e r t h e e va lu a t ion is s ch e d u le d or u n s ch ed u led . you sh ou ld welcom e ever y oppor t u n it y t o be eva lu a t ed by ot h er s. As a n in st r u ct or . Tr a in ed in st r u ct or eva lu a t or s fr om t h e com m a n d con d u ct eva lu a t ion s t o en s u r e t h e in s t r u ct or u s es t h e m os t effect ive t ech n iqu es t o a ccom p lis h t r a in in g. Th a t will pr even t you fr om h a vin g t o in t er r u pt t h e lesson beca u se you for got t o pr oper ly pla n a n d p r ep a r e. eva lu a t ion is for t h e pu r pose of im pr ovin g t h e You s h ou ld n ot ch a n ge you r t ea ch in g s t yle ju s t beca u s e you a r e bein g eva lu a t ed . a n d t h a t a ll t r a in in g equ ipm en t is a va ila ble a n d in wor kin g or der . t wo t yp es of in s t r u ct or eva lu a t ion s a r e con d u ct ed . An swer a n y qu est ion s t h ey m a y h a ve. E a ch m e t h od of eva lu a t ion h a s it s a dva n t a ges a n d disa dva n t a ges. F ollow t h ese st eps ea ch t im e you in st r u ct . t h a t t h e cla s s r oom or la bor a t or y is p r ep a r ed . beca u s e you a r e a lwa ys bein g eva lu a t ed wh en you 110 . t r a in in g pr ovided. wh ich ca n r esu lt in a m or e r ea list ic a ppr a isa l of t h e in st r u ct ion . you s h ou ld n ever s wit ch fr om you r u s u a l p er for m a n ce for t h e ben efit of t h e P R E P AR IN G F OR E VALU ATION In pr epa r in g t o t ea ch . Th r ou gh t h is eva lu a t ion pr ocess. An u n s ch ed u led eva lu a t ion p er m it s t h e eva lu a t or t o obs er ve t h e in s t r u ct or in a n or m a l m ode. P er s on n el con s id er ed t o be s u bject m a t t er exp er t s (S ME s ) in t h e a r ea of in s t r u ct ion con d u ct eva lu a t ion s t o en s u r e t h e su bject m a t t er qu a lifica t ion s of t h e in st r u ct or . Ba s ica lly. a n d pr ovide t h em wit h a n y m a t er ia ls t h ey m a y n eed t o con du ct t h e eva lu a t ion . e va lu a t or .CHAP TER 10 IN S TR U CTOR E VALU ATION INTRODUCTION E va lu a t ion of in st r u ct or s a n d cu r r icu lu m for t h e pu r pose of im pr ovin g t h e qu a lit y of t r a in in g is a n on goin g pr ocess. It m a y a lso a llow t h e in st r u ct or t im e t o pr epa r e a “sh ow” t h a t is n ot t ypica l of u su a l per for m a n ce. A sch edu led eva lu a t ion a llows t h e in st r u ct or t o pr epa r e for t h e eva lu a t ion . View t h e eva lu a t ion p r oces s a s a n op p or t u n it y t o ga t h er in for m a t ion t h a t will h elp you becom e m or e effect ive a s a n in st r u ct or . E va lu a t ion s m a y b e con d u ct e d on a s ch e d u le d or u n s ch e d u le d b a s is . Th e dr a wba ck t o a n u n sch edu led eva lu a t ion is t h a t it m a y ca u se a n in exper ien ced in st r u ct or t o feel t h r ea t en ed a n d t h u s t o fa il t o p e r for m a s w e ll a s u s u a l. you will r eceive feedba ck on you r st r en gt h s a s well a s t h ose a r ea s in wh ich you m a y n eed im pr ovem en t . Alwa ys be p r ep a r ed for a n eva lu a t ion . t h a t you h a ve p r ep a r ed you r s elf for t h e les s on . a lwa ys en su r e t h a t you r in st r u ct ion a l m a t er ia ls a r e r ea dy.

CLAS S R OOM E VALU ATION F ACTOR S F a m ilia r it y wit h cla s s r oom eva lu a t ion fa ct or s will gr ea t ly ben efit you in p r es en t in g you r les s on s . Th ese a r e t h e C l a s s r o o m In s t ru c t o r E v a lu a t i o n Ch e c k li s t a n d t h e La b o ra t o ry In s t ru c t o r E v a lu a t i o n Ch e c k li s t . Th e followin g in for m a t ion p r es en t s t h os e fa ct or s t h e eva lu a t or will u s e t o ju d ge you r p er for m a n ce a n d h ow you s h ou ld con d u ct you r in s t r u ct ion t o m eet t h a t cr it er ia . You n eed t o kn ow h ow t h e eva lu a t ion pr ocess wor ks a n d wh a t t h e eva lu a t or s will look for d u r in g t h e eva lu a t ion . m ot iva t in g m a n n er t o pr epa r e t h e st u den t s t o lea r n . LES S ON IN TROD U CTION You m u s t p r es en t it in a n in t er es t in g a n d Th e in t r od u ct ion s et s t h e s t a ge for t h e les s on . Th e followin g in for m a t ion p r ovid es t h e F a ct or s u s ed in t h e eva lu a t ion of you r in t r od u ct ion : 111 .in st r u ct --by you r st u den t s. I t will a ls o bu ild you r con fid en ce beca u s e you will k n ow wh a t is exp ect ed of you . E VALU ATION CH E CKLIS TS E va lu a t or s u se t wo sepa r a t e ch ecklist s in eva lu a t in g in st r u ct ion . Th e Cla s s r oom I n s t r u ct or E va lu a t ion Ch eck lis t is d ivid ed in t o fou r m a jor ca t egor ies : n INTRODUCTION n P R E S E N T AT I O N n I N S T R U C T O R -S T U D E N T I N T E R AC T I O N n SU MMARY Th e La bor a t or y I n s t r u ct or E va lu a t ion Ch eck lis t is d ivid ed in t o t h r ee m a jor ca t egor ies : n INSTRUCTOR P E R F O R M AN C E n STUDENT P E R F O R M AN C E n F AC I L I T I E S N OTE : E v a lu a t o rs p a y c lo s e a t t e n t i o n t o s t u d e n t s a fe t y a n d s a fe i n s t ru c t i o n a l p ra c tic e s in th e la bo ra to ry . T h is k n ow le d ge w ill h e lp you r e fin e you r in st r u ct ion a l t ech n iqu es.

bu t sh ou ld a lso be t h e st u den t s’ object ives. 112 — . n I n for m s t u d en t s h ow t h ey will be a ble t o u s e t h e in for m a t ion a n d ben efit fr om it . Mo t i v a t e S t u d e n t s To D o Th e i r B e s t n Mot iva t e t h e st u den t s t o t a ke pr ide in t h eir wor k a n d t o do t h eir best . Sim ply r ea din g or h a vin g t h e st u den t s r ea d t h ese object ives is n ot a d equ a t e. n Ch eck wit h t h e s t u d en t s t o d et er m in e t h eir d egr ee of u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e object ives . n Ma k e t h e s t u d en t s feel a t ea s e a bou t a s k in g qu es t ion s wh en t h ey d o n ot u n d er s t a n d s om e t h in g. or d is p la y it in s om e ot h er m a n n er . wh er e a p p lica ble. n P r esen t t h e in t r odu ct ion in a n in t er est in g m a n n er . Th is r equ ir es t h a t you t o be kn owledgea ble of m a t er ia l t h a t h a s been pr eviou sly cover ed in t h e cou r se a n d wh a t will be cover ed in fu t u r e lesson s. In t ro d u c e S e lf n I f you a r e m eet in g wit h t h e s t u d en t s for t h e fir s t t im e.D i s p la y Co u rs e N a m e a n d To p i c Ti t le n Wr it e t h is in for m a t ion on t h e boa r d . Ma k e t h e expla n a t ion on a posit ive n ot e r a t h er t h a n st r essin g pu n ish m en t . ~ Tell t h e s t u d en t s t o a s k qu es t ion s a n d t o get in volved . n E xpla in h ow ea ch object ive a pplies t o wh a t t h e st u den t s a r e a bou t t o lea r n a n d wh a t t h e s t u d en t s m u s t d o t o a ccom p lis h t h e object ive. On e p er s on a l exp er ien ce is gen er a lly a d equ a t e for t h e in t r od u ct ion . E x p la i n Th e Im p o rt a n c e o f S a t i s fa c t o ry P e rfo rm a n c e n S t r es s t o t h e s t u d en t s h ow im p or t a n t it is for t h em t o a ch ieve t h e object ives . S tre w th e Im p o rta n c e o f S a fe ty m Ad d r es s s a fet y a t t h e begin n in g of ea ch les s on . n P r ovide per son a l exper ien ces t h a t en h a n ce t h e lesson a n d a r e dir ect ly r ela t ed t o t h e t opic a n d/or object ives. Ex p la in Ho w th e Ma te ria l F its In to th e Ov e ra ll Co u rs e n E xpla in t h e im por t a n ce of t h e m a t er ia l n ot on ly t o t h e cou r se bu t t o t h e st u den t s’ fu t u r e jobs in t h e fleet . p r ovid e ba ck gr ou n d in for m a t ion a bou t you r self t o est a blish cr edibilit y y wit h t h e st u den t s. E x p la i n Ob je c t i v e s 9 E xpla in t o t h e st u den t s t h a t t h e object ives a r e n ot ju st for t h e lesson .

t h a t is . D o N OT R e a d F ro m Th e Le s s o n P la n n Wh en you m u st r ea d a n im por t a n t poin t . 113 . Lin k m a t er ia l pr eviou sly t a u gh t wit h t h e pr esen t m a t er ia l. Do n ot om it or skip m a t er ia l. Cla s s ro o m An d Ma t e ri a ls Are R e a d y F o r Tra i n i n g m Ma k e s u r e t h e cla s s r oom is p h ys ica lly r ea d y for t h e s t u d en t t o r eceive t r a in in g. E xces s ive r ea d in g fr om a les s on p la n m a y in d ica t e a la ck of p r ep a r a t ion or con fu s ion wit h t h e su bject m a t t er . a n d ch a r t s a r e a ccu r a t e a n d in good w or k in g con d it ion . IB M a k e s u r e y o u h a v e t h e a p p r o v a l o f y o u r c o u r s e s u p e r v i s o r o r s o m e o t h e r com m a n d -d es ign a t ed a u t h or it y for you r p er s on a liza t ion . l Ch a in m a t er ia l (t h a t is. Co v e r Ma jo r D i s c u s s i o n P o i n t s n F ollow t h e t ea ch in g poin t s a s a ppr oved in t h e lesson pla n . n U s e t h e les s on p la n a s a gu id e. Wh ile per son a l ch a r a ct er ist ics will va r y bet ween in st r u ct or s. Sim ply h igh ligh t in g t h e exist in g m a t er ia l is n ot en ou gh . a lso t ea ch it for em ph a sis. sea t in g a r r a n gem en t s a r e a dequ a t e. t ie it t oget h er ) in a m ea n in gfu l m a n n er . In fo rm a t i o n Te c h n i c a lly Ac c u ra t e m E n s u r e t h e t ech n ica l a ccu r a cy of in for m a t ion you p r es en t . t r a in in g equ ipm en t is in good wor kin g con dit ion a n d a va ila ble a s r equ ir ed. Th e eva lu a t or will ju d ge you r p r es en t a t ion ba s ed on t h e followin g fa ct or s : Le s s o n P la n P e rs o n a li z a t i o n n P er s on a lize ever y les s on . slides. m a t er ia ls su ch a s t r a n spa r en cies. or lin k t h e pr esen t m a t er ia l wit h wh a t will be t a u gh t la t er . On ly a n eva lu a t or wh o is a su bject m a t t er exper t in t h e a r ea of in st r u ct ion will com plet e t h is ca t egor y.LE S S ON P R E S E N TATION Th e pr esen t a t ion dea ls wit h h ow well you a r e pr epa r ed t o t ea ch a n d h ow well you deliver t h e m a t er ia l. N OT a s a book t o be r ea d t o t h e s t u d en t s . Tr a n sit ion s sign a l t o t h e st u den t s t h a t you a r e pr ogr essin g t o a n ew poin t . ever yon e ca n u se sever a l t ools of t h e t r a d e t o en h a n ce t h e effect iven es s of t h e les s on . Tra n s i t i o n An d Ch a i n Ma t e ri a l E ffe c t i v e ly l U s e t r a n s i t i on s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a l l ow y ou t o m ov e t h r ou g h t h e l e s s on s m oot h l y .

U s e Qu e s t i o n i n g Te c h n i q u e s E ffe c t i v e ly n U s e qu es t ion s t o get s t u d en t s in volved in t h e les s on . n P h r a se qu est ion s clea r ly a n d con cisely. l U s e s e v e r a l d i ffe r e n t t y p e s of q u e s t i on s a n d q u e s t i on i n g t e ch n i q u e s d u r i n g y ou r pr esen t a t ion . n As k qu es t ion s t h a t p r om ot e t h ou gh t a n d d is cu s s ion . n As k qu es t ion s t h a t a r e n ot t oo s im p le or t oo com p lex. n Allow a dequ a t e t im e for st u den t s t o r espon d, a n d m a ke su r e you a llow t h em t o com plet e t h eir r espon se. n Give com p let e a n d a ccu r a t e a n s wer s t o qu es t ion s a s k ed by t h e s t u d en t s . s Ma in t a in psych ologica l sa fet y in t h e cla ssr oom . Never em ba r r a ss a st u den t wh o gives a n in cor r ect a n swer . Th a t discou r a ges fu r t h er pa r t icipa t ion . n D o n ot a n s w e r you r ow n q u e s t ion s . Wh en a sk in g qu est ion s, m a k e su r e t h ey a ccom plish you r pu r pose for a sk in g t h em . Ma n y excellen t r ea son s exist for u sin g qu est ion s. Th ey in volve t h e st u den t s in t h e lea r n in g pr ocess a n d p r ovid e feed ba ck on s t u d en t com p r eh en s ion of t h e s u bject m a t t er . Th ey a ls o a llow you t o r e s olve a r e a s of con fu s ion a n d d e t e r m in e s t u d e n t a ccom p lis h m e n t of le a r n in g ob je ct ive s . P ro p e rly u s e d , qu e s tio n in g te c h n iqu e s a re o n e o f th e m o s t p o w e rfu l to o ls a v a ila ble to y o u a s a n in s tru c to r.

U s e Tra i n i n g Ai d s E ffe c t i v e ly n E ffect ively u se t r a n spa r en cies, wa ll ch a r t s, m ovies, film s, slides, a n d t h e like, t o r eceive t h e fu ll ben efit fr om t h em . n Ma k e t h e t r a in in g a id vis ible t o a ll s t u d en t s .

Ma i n t a i n P ro p e r E y e Co n t a c t n M a in t a in e ye con t a ct w it h s t u d e n t s t o h old t h e ir a t t e n t ion a n d t o ga t h e r n on ve r b a l feedba ck fr om t h em . 9 Avoid excessive r ea din g fr om t h e lesson pla n or t a lkin g t o t h e boa r d. As a gen er a l r u le, you s h ou ld t a lk on ly wh en look in g a t t h e s t u d en t s .

D i s p la y

En th u siasm

n S h ow a p os it ive a n d en t h u s ia s t ic a t t it u d e t owa r d t h e s u bject . n U se en t h u sia sm t o m a in t a in st u den t in t er est .

114

U s e Ge s t u r e s E ffe c t i v e ly l U s e ges t u r es t o s t r es s a p oin t . n U s e ges t u r es t h a t a r e n a t u r a l a n d a p p r op r ia t e t o t h e les s on .

Ma i n t a i n A P o s i t i v e , P ro fe s s i o n a l At t i t u d e n S h ow a s in cer e con cer n for s t u d en t com p r eh en s ion . s t u d en t s , or u s e p r ofa n it y or off-color r em a r k s . N ever displa y cyn icism , in t im ida t e

n P r oject p r ofes s ion a lis m by p r es en t in g a s m a r t , con cis e, a n d m ea n in gfu l p r es en t a t ion .

U s e Ti m e E ffe c t i v e ly n S t a y on t im e t h r ou gh ou t t h e les s on . Th a t s h ows you a r e well p r ep a r ed . n F ollow t h e in s t r u ct ion a l t im e a llowed in t h e a p p r oved cu r r icu lu m .

Av o i d

D i s t ra c t i n g

Ma n n e ri s m s

~ Avoid dist r a ct in g beh a vior s, su ch a s pla yin g wit h a m a r ker or poin t er , st ickin g you r h a n ds in you r pocket s, or u sin g gest u r es excessively.

U s e Co m m u n i c a t i o n S k i lls E ffe c t i v e ly n Ma k e s u r e you r voice is r ea s on a bly p lea s a n t (qu a lit y), ea s ily u n d er s t ood (in t elligibilit y), a n d expr esses differ en ces in m ea n in g (va r iet y). Qu a lit y in clu des n ot on ly t h e sou n d of t h e voice bu t t h e feelin gs pr oject ed wh en you spea k. In t elligibilit y r efer s t o clea r a r t icu la t ion , cor r e ct p r on u n cia t ion , a n d t h e u s e of cor r e ct gr a m m a r . Va r ie t y in clu d e s t h e u s e of va r ia t ion in r a t e, volu m e, for ce, a n d p it ch of you r s p eech .

Ma i n t a i n

F le x i b i li t y

n Be op en t o d is cu s s ion s t h a t en h a n ce t h e les s on bu t d o n ot los e s igh t of t h e les s on . n Offer t o m eet st u den t s ou t side t h e cla ssr oom t o discu ss t h eir t h ou gh t s wh en t oo m u ch t im e is bein g spen t in a r ea s n ot r ela t ed t o t h e lesson .

U s e P e rs o n a l E x p e ri e n c e s An d E x a m p le s n U s e p er s on a l exp er ien ces t h a t a r e r ela t ed t o t h e s u bject . n U s e exa m p les t h r ou gh ou t t h e les s on .

E x p la i n Ma t e ri a l Cle a rly n E xpla in t h e m a t er ia l a t a level t h e st u den t s ca n u n der st a n d. n I f s t u d en t s a p p ea r t o be con fu s ed , t h en you s h ou ld exp la in t h e m a t er ia l in a d iffer en t m a n n er .

115

I N S T R U C T O R -S T U D E N T

IN TE R ACTION

Th is a r ea d ea ls wit h you r effect iven es s in k eep in g t h e s t u d en t s in volved in t h e lea r n in g p r oces s . I t a ls o h a s t o d o wit h you r a bilit y t o m a n a ge t h e in s t r u ct or -s t u d en t in t er a ct ion s . n E s t a blis h a n d m a in t a in s t u d en t a t t en t ion . n E n cou r a ge s t u d e n t p a r t icip a t ion . 9 C h e ck for s t u d e n t com p r e h e n s ion . n E st a blish a n d m a in t a in pr op er in st r u ct or -st u den t r ela t ion sh ip. n St r ess t h e im por t a n ce of t h e in dividu a l st u den t wh ile r em a in in g clea r ly in con t r ol of t h e cla ss.

LESSON

S U MMAR Y

Th e lesson su m m a r y is u sed t o r eca p t h e m a jor discu ssion poin t s of t h e lesson a n d t o en su r e t h a t t h e st u den t s u n der st a n d t h e su bject m a t t er you h a ve pr esen t ed.

S u m m a ri z e Le a rn i n g Ob je c t i v e s ~ Sin ce t h e object ives a r e wh a t t h e st u den t is t r yin g t o a ccom plish , r est a t e or pa r a ph r a se t h e object ives a n d discu ss t h eir r ela t ion sh ip t o t h e lesson m a t er ia l.

S u m m a ri z e Le s s o n P ro p e rly n S u m m a r ize t h e m a t er ia l in t h e les s on a t lea s t on ce t o en s u r e s t u d en t u n d er s t a n d in g, I n s om e ca s e s , you m a y n e e d t o s u m m a r ize m or e t h a n on ce . Wh e n or h ow oft e n t h e su m m a r y is con du ct ed is n ot t h e issu e; r a t h er , did you su m m a r ize a n d wa s t h e su m m a r y effect ive? ~ S u m m a r ize t h e m a jor t ea ch in g p oin t s of t h e les s on . n Wh en s u m m a r izin g a t t h e en d of a les s on , u s e t h e m a jor t ea ch in g p oin t s a n d object ives a s a n ou t lin e for t h e su m m a r y. n U s e s u m m a r i e s t o m a i n t a i n con t i n u i t y w i t h i n a l e s s on or t o e m p h a s i z e a r e a s of im p or t a n ce .

Ch e c k S t u d e n t U n d e rs t a n d i n g n As k qu es t ion s t h a t h elp d et er m in e if t h e s t u d en t s u n d er s t a n d t h e m a t er ia l. n E n s u r e q u e s t ion s r e q u ir e s t u d e n t s t o r e s p on d a t t h e le a r n in g le ve l r e q u ir e d b y t h e ob je ct ive s . n As k t h ou gh t -p r ovok in g qu es t ion s r ela t ed t o t h e object ive(s ).

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E m p h a s i z e S a fe t y ~ St r ess sa fet y in t h e in t r odu ct ion . pr esen t a t ion . n Rela t e t h e object ives t o t h e job s h eet (s ). n Th e la bor a t or y a r ea is clea n a n d fr ee of s a fet y h a za r d s . 9 E qu ip m en t . Som e of t h ese fa ct or s a r e ver y sim ila r t o t h ose u sed in t h e cla ssr oom . Th e la bor a t or y ch ecklist is u sed t o eva lu a t e t h e in st r u ct or . You m u st en su r e t h a t sa fet y is st r essed a n d sa fet y pr ocedu r es a dh er ed t o. you m a y wa n t t o p r ovid e p a r t ia lly fin is h ed or com p let ed p r oject s for t h e s t u d en t s t o exa m in e. 117 . R e v i e w S a fe t y /s a n i t a t i o n P ro c e d u re s At t h e begin n in g of t h e la b you s h ou ld r eview t h e followin g p r oced u r es a s a p p r op r ia t e: n T r a in in g T im e O u t (T T O ). Wo rk S p a c e s /s t a t i o n s R e a d y F o r Cla s s P r ior t o t h e st a r t of t h e la bor a t or y session you sh ou ld en su r e t h a t : n E a ch wor k s t a t ion is fu lly equ ip p ed . n P er s on n el a n d equ ip m en t s a fet y p r oced u r es .I n s t r u ct ion a l m a t er ia ls a r e a va ila ble a n d in u s a ble con d it ion . Ot h er s a r e specific t o la bor a t or y in st r u ct ion . . t h e st u den t s. LAB OR ATOR Y E VALU ATION F ACTOR S As wit h cla ssr oom eva lu a t ion fa ct or s. t ools a n d m a t er ia l a r e r ea d y for u s e. n I n a d d it ion t o exp la in in g t h e object ives . INSTRUCTOR P E R F OR MAN CE Th e L a b or a t or y I n s t r u ct or E v a l u a t i on C h eck l i s t con t a in s t h e followin g fa ct or s con cer n in g in s t r u ct or p e r for m a n ce . you m u st be fa m ilia r wit h t h e eva lu a t ion fa ct or s u sed t o eva lu a t e la bor a t or y in s t r u ct ion . E x p la i n Th e Ob je c t i v e s n E n s u r e s t u d en t s u n d er s t a n d t h e object ives a n d a ll s a fet y r ela t ed con s id er a t ion s . n Tell t h e st u den t s if t h e la bor a t or y session is a t est . Sa fet y is fr equ en t ly of gr ea t er con cer n in t h e la bor a t or y t h a n in t h e cla ssr oom . a n d t h e fa cilit ies. a n d su m m a r y wh en sa fet y is a fa ct or in t h e lesson .

~ S a n it a t ion a n d h a za r d ou s wa s t e d is p os a l. = P r ovide a ssist a n ce on ly a s r equ ir ed. R e c o g n i z e In d i v i d u a l S t u d e n t D i ffe re n c e s n Do n ot com p a r e a n y s t u d en t ’s p er for m a n ce wit h t h a t of ot h er s t u d en t s . As s i s t S t u d e n t s As N e c e s s a r y n p r ovid e a n en vir on m en t for you r s t u d en t s t o lea r n by d oin g. l I f t h e la bor a t or y ext en d s beyon d on e t r a in in g d a y. bu t d o n ot d o t h eir wor k for t h em . R e v i e w In s t ru c t i o n a l Ma t e ri a ls . n D e p e n d in g u p on t h e t yp e of t r a in in g. E n su r e t h e st u den t s kn ow wh a t in st r u ct ion a l m a t er ia ls a r e a va ila ble a n d h ow t o u se t h em . R e la t e Cla s s ro o m In s t ru c t i o n To La b o ra t o ry P e rfo rm a n c e n E xp la in t o you r s t u d en t s h ow t h e in for m a t ion p r es en t ed in t h e cla s s r oom r ela t es t o t h e la b or a t or y a p p lica t ion . H owever . Is s u e To o ls An d Ma t e ri a ls n If t ools a n d/or m a t er ia ls m u st be issu ed. en su r e t h a t you expla in t h e pr ocedu r es for issu e a n d t u r n -in . n Wh en con du ct in g a dem on st r a t ion . 118 —. n Ch eck for s t u d en t u n d er s t a n d in g of t h e a s s ign m en t . you s h ou ld r eview t h e a p p r op r ia t e p r oced u r es a t t h e begin n in g of ea ch d a y. It wou ld n ot be a ppr opr ia t e t o h a ve st u den t s a id ot h er st u den t s wh en sa fet y is in volved. m a ke su r e a ll t h e st u den t s ca n see t h e dem on st r a t ion . you m u st be pa r t icu la r ly wa t ch fu l t o en su r e t h a t pr oper pr ocedu r es a r e bein g followed. As s is t t h em a s n eces s a r y. n Keep wor k a r ea s fr ee fr om u n n eces s a r y clu t t er wit h t ools or m a t er ia ls . . 9 You m u s t a lwa ys follow s a fet y p r oced u r es a n d m a y wa n t t o d em on s t r a t e t h e p r oced u r es for t h e st u den t s. it m a y b e a p p r op r ia t e t o u s e m or e ca p a b le or exper ien ced st u den t s t o a ssist ot h er st u den t s. E m p h a s ize s a fet y a t t h e a p p r op r ia t e p oin t s of t h e d em on s t r a t ion . E m p h a s i z e S a fe t y n E xpla in sa fet y pr eca u t ion s a n d closely m on it or st u den t s t o en su r e com plia n ce wit h sa fet y p r oce d u r e s . n T h or ou gh ly e xp la in t h e job s h e e t (s ).

n Use qu est ion s t o ch eck for st u den t u n der st a n din g. n P r ovid e a s s is t a n ce t o s t u d en t s wh o a r e exp er ien cin g d ifficu lt ies wh ich m a y p r even t t h em fr om com plet in g t h e a ssign m en t . n E n s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d en t s a r e u s in g t h e job s h eet (s ) a n d r ela t ed in s t r u ct ion a l m a t er ia ls cor r ect ly. P ro v i d e R e la t e d In s t ru c t i o n Wh e n N e e d e d n You sh ou ld pr ovide in st r u ct ion wh en it is n eeded in or der for t h e st u den t s t o a ccom plish t h e object ives. As k Th o u g h t P ro v o k i n g Qu e s t i o n s n Use t h ou gh t pr ovokin g qu est ion s t o ca u se t h e st u den t s t o t h in k a bou t wh a t t h ey a r e doin g a n d wh y t h ey a r e doin g it . Ma n a g e Ti m e E ffe c t i v e ly n E n su r e you r st u den t s a r e pr ogr essin g t h r ou gh t h e a ssign m en t in a n a ppr opr ia t e per iod of t im e. Cri t i q u e /R e v i e w Th e La b o ra t o ry S e s s i o n n Con d u ct a cr it iqu e of t h e t r a in in g s es s ion by em p h a s izin g t h e object ives a n d h ow t h ey wer e a ccom plish ed. qu est ion s a r e effect ive in h elpin g s t u d en t s wh o a r e exp er ien cin g d ifficu lt ies . Le s s o n P la n P e rs o n a li z a t i o n n You r les s on p la n p er s on a liza t ion m u s t be cu r r en t a n d com p let e. st u den t s a r e obser ved beca u se t h eir per for m a n ce pr ovides im por t a n t in for m a t ion on t h e qu a lit y a n d sa fet y of t h e t r a in in g. Also. n U s e you r les s on p la n t o en s u r e t h a t you cover a ll object ives a n d m a jor t ea ch in g p oin t s . n E n cou r a ge s t u d en t s t o d o t h eir bes t .n Ma in t a in p a t ien ce wit h s t u d en t s t h a t a r e exp er ien cin g d ifficu lt y. STUDENT P E R F OR MAN CE In a ddit ion t o eva lu a t in g you r per for m a n ce. Ch e c k S t u d e n t P ro g re s s An d U n d e rs t a n d i n g u Mon it or s t u d en t s t o en s u r e t h ey a r e p r ogr es s in g t h r ou gh t h e a s s ign m en t . Th e followin g F a ct or s a r e u sed in t h is a r ea : 119 .

Mon it or t h e s t u d en t s t o en s u r e t h ey follow t h e p r e s cr ib e d p r oce d u r e s . a n d st u den t lea r n in g. P a rt i c i p a t e d In Th e Cri t i q u e /R e v i e w s E n cou r a ge st u d en t p a r t icip a t ion . As k t h em qu es t ion s a n d in vit e t h em t o a s k qu est ion s. F ACILITIE S Th e fin a l a r ea of t h e la bor a t or y eva lu a t ion ch eck lis t is t h e fa cilit ies . n S t u d en t s s h ou ld com p let e t h e a s s ign m en t cor r ect ly.Ap p e a re d To U n d e rs t a n d Th e As s i g n m e n t n St u den t s sh ou ld be a ble t o in depen den t ly st a r t t h e a ssign m en t a ft er you h a ve pr ovided t h e n ecessa r y in st r u ct ion s. en su r e t h a t a ll equ ipm en t sa fet y devices a r e in pla ce a n d in good con dit ion . n S t u d en t s s h ou ld be a ble t o com p let e t h e a s s ign m en t wit h ou t fr equ en t ly h a vin g t o a s k qu es t ion s or r equ es t you r a s s is t a n ce. Th e con d it ion of t h e t r a in in g fa cilit ies a r e vit a lly im por t a n t t o sa fet y. Ch eck t o en su r e t h a t sa fet y pr eca u t ion s a r e pr oper ly post ed. n Mon it or you r s t u d en t s t o en s u r e t h ey a r e p r ogr es s in g t h r ou gh t h e a s s ign m en t wit h ou t d i ffi cu l t y . You sh ou ld en su r e t h a t t h e ligh t in g a n d ven t ila t ion a r e a dequ a t e. S o u g h t H e lp Wh e n N e e d e d n You r s t u d en t s s h ou ld be en cou r a ged t o r equ es t you r a s s is t a n ce wh en it is r equ ir ed . u n sa fe con dit ion pr ior t o con du ct in g t r a in in g. Rep or t a n d en s u r e cor r ect ion of a n y 120 . Sa fet y is t h e n u m ber on e con cer n in t h e t r a in in g en vir on m en t . Alwa ys ch eck t h e fa cilit ies pr ior t o u se a n d en su r in g t h a t t h ey a r e r ea dy. U s e d In s t ru c t i o n a l Ma t e ri a l n You sh ou ld en su r e t h a t t h e st u den t s a r e cor r ect ly u sin g a ll of t h e in st r u ct ion a l m a t er ia ls p r ov i d e d . F in a lly. You m a y u s e t h e r ed ir ect ed qu es t ion in g t ech n iqu e t o en cou r a ge s t u d en t p a r t icip a t ion . E qu ipm en t a n d t ools m u st be pr oper ly m a in t a in ed a n d pr epa r ed for t h e t r a in in g session . qu a lit y of life. Ob s e rv e d S a fe t y /S a n i t a ry P re c a u t i o n s l S t u d en t s s h ou ld obs er ve a ll a p p lica ble p r eca u t ion s .

S U MMARY I n s t r u ct or e va lu a t ion is a n im p or t a n t a s p e ct of t h e N a vy t r a in in g p r ogr a m . I n bot h s it u a t ion s . You m a y a lso be in volved in t h e eva lu a t ion of ot h er s . a n d t h a t of you r p eer s . Alon g w it h eva lu a t ion of cu r r icu lu m a n d a ll ot h er elem en t s of t h e over a ll p r ogr a m . 121 . in s t r u ct or eva lu a t ion con t r ibu t es sign ifica n t ly t o t h e im pr ovem en t of t r a in in g. m or e efficien t a n d effect ive. You will be eva lu a t ed in t h e per for m a n ce of you r du t ies a s a n in st r u ct or . u s e t h es e op p or t u n it ies t o lea r n n ew wa ys of m a k in g you r in s t r u ct ion .

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