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A 17th-Century French Manuscript on Organ Performance William Pruitt Early Music, Vol. 14, No. 2. (May, 1986), pp.

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William Pruitt

A 17th-centuryFrench manuscript on organ

An anonymous manuscript in the Bibliotheque de ]'Arsenal of Paris (F-Pa MS.3042, ff. 100-1 19) contains an essay entitled 'The manner of playing the organ with all the propriety and refinement that is used today in Paris', The publication dates of some of the works with which it is bound, together with dates mentioned in others, make it possible to assign the essay to the latter years of the 17th century. Its companions include a copy of Nivers' Traite de la composition, which was printed in 1667 (Ms.3042,pp. 1-7, ff.8-32), and the Observations on thorough-bass accompaniment included in Nivers' 1689 Motets a voix seule (Ms.3042,ff.8798). Mentioned elsewhere are natural phenomena observed on 2 1 November 168 1 and 15 January 1682. Th.e major part of 'The manner of playing the organ' is in a loose handwriting with many phonetic spellings, little punctuation, and a repetitious presentation of ideas; the last page and a half is in another, neater hand, with some punctuation and better spelling. In the E:nglish translation in the bilingual version of the text given below,' the long sentences have been broken up, in order to facilitate following the explanations. The French terms included in the translation h a v e for the most part, been spelt according to modern usage. The essay discusses the performance of various types of organ music composed in France between . indications, ornaments and 1650 and ~ 1 7 3 0 Tempo fingerings are suggested for each type, together with general remarks on the characteristics of each one. The last part, copied by a second hand, consists primarily of instructions on the proper attitude of the church organist. The works discussed may be divided into three types: homophonic, fugal, and those featuring a solo stop. The first group includes preludes, plein jeux, dialogues, and quatuors. The second is made up of duos and trios in fugal style, while the third has recits, voix humaines, and-described by the second writercornets, tierces, and nazards, all in soprano register, as well as tierce or cromorne, for tenor, and trompefte, chromorne or tierce, for bass. All the principal genres written in the years after Nivers' Premier livre dbrgue (1 665/67) are therefore represented, each type making use of a distinct registration on the organ. Although registration is not discussed here, it is amply covered in prefaces to contemporary organ publications. Briefly, the homophonic works call for full organ (plein jeu), with reeds being added to simple mutation stops for the dialogue. The duo and trio, the only fugal works discussed in the essay, use balanced sonorities on separate keyboards. The writer mentions the trio a deux dessus, whose two upper parts were played on separate manuals, and the bass on the pedals. In pieces using solo stops, the accompaniment was usually allocated to one manual and the solo to another. For works with a tenor solo, it was played with the bass part in the pedal and the upper parts on a second keyboard, as the author mentions. The discussion of ornaments is the most difficult part of the essay to interpret, especially as little is given in the way of illustration. An intriguing mention is made of a compendium of the church tones with examples of cadences including fingering, but unfortunately this work does not seem to have survived. 1 have added examples to clarify the discussion, derived where possible from realizations of ornaments by writers of the period. The essay touches on the major types of ornaments used in France in the 17th and early 18th centuries: the mordent (pincement), trill (tremblement, cadence simple, double cadence), anticipatory appoggiatura (repetition, coulement or port de voix), arpeggio (arpege, 'harpegement'), and the addition of runs (diminutions),coulb and dotting (pointer). It is important to bear in mind that more than one term might be used to describe the same ornament (see, for example, the terms for appoggiatura), that different writers may use the same terms to mean different
E A R L Y M U S I C M A Y 1986

1 Charles Couperin et la fille du peintre, portrait by Claude Lefebvre (Musee. Versailles)



things (agrement could indicate a mordent, or omaments in general), and that one term could be used for several ornaments strung together (as in the various types of cadences exemplified by the writer). While some of the information that the essay contains merely confirms what is already known from other sources (such as the style of performance for different types of pieces), it provides further detail about matters such as the nature of recit, as well as suggesting new possibilities for the interpretation of ornaments. However, it is difficult to know how much importance to attach to it, since the author has not been identified and there are no likely candidates among the organists who published works in the period. Furthermore, some of the instructions run counter to the practice of other organists. The essay is attributed to Nivers by Jean SaintArroman in his Dictionnaire d'interpetation, i (Paris, 1983); the bibliography refers only to 'ms attribue a Nivers', but quotations in the text (for example, under arpegemenr) are clearly derived from this source. Nivers' Premier livre d'orgue contains remarks on the eight

church tones, together with a discussion of performance practice including illustrations of ornaments with fingering, but the terms used are not the same as those in Ms.3042, so it seems unlikely that the latter can be attributed to Nivers. In the light of our present knowledge, it can be concluded only that the essay represents the views of one organist, with comments added by another. David Fuller suggests that the first part of the manuscript may have been taken down by dictation at lessons by a student. This would account for the spelling, lack of punctuation, the redundancy and vagueness. It is obvious from other writers that there was more than one way to perform the music; Gigault, for example, wrote almost exclusively dotted quavers, whereas many others left the addition of dots to the taste of the performer. The realization of ornaments encompassed the widest variation, and the problematical cadences discussed in the essay may be regarded as several ornaments combined. The search for their use by other composers is best served by looking at the music itself, rather than at tables of ornaments. The manner of playing the organ with all the propriety and refinement that is used today in Paris
The Prelude In order to play the prelude in its ultimate perfection, play slowly because it is in preludes that the full force of chords is heard and savoured. They should be played boldly, however. They cannot be played too leisurely, provided the tempo is regular, adding to the beauty and the way in which these pieces are rendered incomparably more 10vely.~ That is what I hope to explain on paper-to the best of my abilitythough it is much easier [to explain] through practice. The organ prelude is played in the same manner as the prelude of the clavecin. That is to say, play apincement in the right or left hand or both together, depending on which one starts first. This is a general rule, that all sorts of pieces should begin with a pincement, even if it is not marked. I am not speaking of those in the body of the piece, for you cannot dispense with playing them. They are marked thus: RI ; that is to say, in both the right hand and the left hand. Here is how it is played: it should be played lightly, quickly, imperceptibly and very short, which means that the pincement consists in grazing [over the note] lightly, as if straying [upon it or being taken by] surprise, without lingering at all or resting on the note. Graze over it, but linger on the neighbouring note that you are to stop on. You should play both of them at the same time, however, though only in grazing and trembling. That is, if rising to C, graze over the B and linger on the C. In descending, do the contrary. [Ex. 11'

Maniere de toucher lorgue dans toute la proprete et la delicastesse qui est en usage aujourdhy a Paris
Du prelude Pour toucher le prelude duns sa derniene perfection il se doit jouer pavement et fort doucement car ces ycy ou il faut se coutter [s@couterj jouer etgoutter la douceur desicords toutte fois il ce doit toucher hardiment on ne peut le toucher hop doucement pour veu que la messure y soit regullierement observee cela joint au agrement et d la maniene de les faire rend[re] les piece imcomparablement plus belle. Ces ce que jespere exprimer le plus quil me sera posible surle papier ce qui est beaucoup plus facille parla praticque. Le prelude de lorgue ce doit toucher de la mCme manieneque [on touche le prelude du clavessin c'esta dire faire un pincementsoit de la main droite soit de la main gauche ou de toutte les deux en semble selon que les partis commencement des la premiere notte en commancant et c b t une reglegeneralle que touttesorte de piece doive commencer par ce pincement quoi quil ne soit point marqub Je ne parle point de ceux qui sont duns le coups de la piece parce que on ne peut se dispenser de les faire le pincement ce fait et ce marque par cette figure R7. C6st adire soit de la main droitesoit de lagauche voicy comme il cefair il doit Ctrefaitlegerement vivement imperceptiblementet tres courtement ce qui fait la pincement n b t outre chose que de frizer vivement comme par megarde ou surprisesans demeurer dutout ny apuiersur la notte. Frizie mais demeurersur la notte voisineou lon doit sareter il faut pourtant les toucher toute deux en sem ble mais que ce ne soit quen frizant et tramblant cest a dire cy c b t en


montclntsur le ce sol u t il faut frizer le be fa cy etdemeurersur lesol u t et en descendant faire le contraire. Et ensuitte les harpagements tant dans les commancemens de chacque piece que dans les fins de cnaque cadence soit les naturelle du mode soit les empruntee et celle qui ce font a la fin de la piere cZ'st 6 dire toute celle qui ce rencontrent duns le cours de la piece le harpagement ne ce doit faire que quand il lya au moins quatfie partie en semble ou deux ou hois dune seulle main comme dans les accords qui acompagne une basse ou une basse continue a 0oi.s partie plain chant en trio ou une basse qui acompagne un recit car pour l o r d ~ n a ~les r e quahe. 5 et six partie que j'entends ce faire comme il est dit cy dessus dans le prelude p l a ~ n leu dialogues etc. ce doive faire avec les deux mains I1 fait Z'tre tres ezat afaire les harpagemens ou il est dit cy dessus Le ,harpagement ce fait de cette sorte il faut que les quahe partis plus cu moins quand ce neseroit mPme q u e 3. p.[arties]dune main ce toliche lune apres l'autre mais que cela ce face dune manierre prompte vive liee et imperceptible sant lever les mains ny les doist toutte f o ~ sil faut que toute les partles ce distingue duns leurs sons et a m ~ o n i eles unes des autres sant pourtant que cela soit trop 11fautque cela ce face h e s afecte Je veux dire hop lent etlangu~sant vlvement et tres promptement que [on ne sen apersoive point et dune armonie et son Egal. De la maingauche le harpagement ce commance toujours par le doit du pouce en suitte du segond doit qui suit le pouce et en fin du petit ~t dernier voila de la manierre que le harpagement du prelude de l o c p e ce jouee de la main gauche Car il hya quelques diference en cela davec la manierre de celuy du clavesin car au clavesin il commance bien par le pouce mais ensuitte 11 desend aux petit doit et remonte au doit daupres du pouce et en suztte retoume au pouce; quantl a la main droite il commance par le doit qui B t le plus proche du pouce et continue a celuy qui le suit et enfin va aux petit doit e: k t semblable quand a la main droite au harpagemens du clavesin a la reserve que celuy de lorgue comme jay dit aillieurs doit Ptre vif prompte et tres court et net et enfin imperceptible les sons et armonie fort d~stingue quoy que les parties ce face les unes apres les auhes a la reserve du pouce de la m a ~ n g a u c h e et du doit daupres le pouce de la main droite qui commence tout deux ensemble et le reste ce faitquasy commeje dit imperseptzblementet nen nontpas unepratique familiaire croirez t r b a ~ x p ~ ~ r s o nqui nes facilernent que toute les parties ce font en semble pour faire voir avec combien de delicastesse et de substilite on passe et coulle les none, ce qui fait un parfaittement be1 agrernent et donne unegrace aux p,:ece charmante.

.\rpeggio~: and ~ then [play] arpeggios at the beginning of each piece and at the end of each cadence, whether it be the natural one of t h e mode or borrowed, and the one at the end of the piece. The arpeggio should only be played when there are at least four parts together or two or three [notes] in the same hand, like the chords which accompany a bass or a thorough bass in three parts, plainchant in trio, or a bass which accompanies a recit: for the four, five or six parts which I mean are played as explained above in preludes, plein jeu, dialogues, etc. This should be played in both hands. You must be very careful to play arpeggios in the places mentioned above. The arpeggio is played thus: the four parts [or notes] more or less, and three parts in one hand also are played one after the other. But it is played in a punctual manner, lively. connected and imperceptible, without raising the hands or the fingers. Even so, all the parts should be distinguished from each other in tonality and harmony without, however, being too affected. By that I mean not too slow and languid. It should be played very quickly and very punctually, so that it is not noticed and s o that the harmony and notes are equal. In the left hand, the arpeggio begins with the thumb, followed by the second finger to the thumb, and finally by the last, little finger. That is the way the arpeggio of the prelude for the organ is played in the left hand; for there are certain differences between that way and the manner for the clavecin. On the clavecin, begin with the thumb, descend to the little finger and then go up to the finger next to the thumb and continue to the next [finger] and finally to the little finger. This is like the right hand arpeggio o n the clavecin except that it should be fast, punctual and very short-clear and imperceptible-the sounds and harmonies very distinct, though the parts are played one after the other, except for the thumb of the left hand and the second finger of the right hand which begin together. The rest is played as I have said, imperceptibly and so that people who are not familiar with it will easily believe that all the parts are played together. In order to d o that, see how delicately and with how much subtlety the notes are passed over and run together, resulting in a perfectly beautiful ornament and adding grace to a charming piece. [Ex.2]

[An example of wrong interpretation] There is one thing that it is important to guard against and which is the reason why most people do not play the organ correctly. Do not smack your hand [on the keys] when playing the prelude, dialogue, plein jeu, trio, quatuor, etc, and all other sorts of pieces, but especially be careful with regard to these [specifically mentioned]. By'smaclung your hand [on the keys]' I mean when you play [the notes] with vulgarity and in a n unpolished manner, without good manners or delicateness and smoothness in the way you play, but rather in a constrained and jumbled EARLY M U S I C MAY 1986

[Exemple d'une mauvaise interpretation]

I1 ly6 une chose tres considerable 6 prendregarde et ce qui fait que la plus part ne touche pas proprement de lorgue CZ'st de ne pointplacquer la main en joiiant le prelude le Dialogues le p l a ~ n leu et trio quatuor etc. et tout le reste des auhe piece mais particnlierement il faut faire une hesgrande atention dans celle cy Japelle placquer la main quand on joiiee grossierement et ruticqnement sans politesse n y delicastesse er douceur duns la manierre de toucher mais une manierre contrainte brou~llee etsant

netete ny distintion des acords ny des parh'e ny dans les sons et d a m larmonie placquer les mains n b t autre choses que de les lever trop haut et rudement en jouant et de les laiser retornber et par ecousse et traissaillement ce qui fait que les parties ne sont point bien lieez ou point du tout il faut pour evitter ce tres grand desfaut hamporter seullement les doist de toutte les parties et cela dans toutte sorte de piece que ce puisse btre quand il en bt besoin de la hauteur que le pure necesite le demande pour pourvoir aller dune notte sur une autre notte ou dune touche du clavier sur une autre touche du mbme clavier c b t la mCrne chose cela ce doit faire en coullant simplement les dois sans les lever ny remuer en les detachant vivement doucement et degagement et dune rnanierre qui soit seche subtille plaine de feu et imperceptible car c b t en tout ce cy en quoy consite toute le segret et la beaute et la delicastesse du jeu. I1 faut bien prendregarde 4 ne point trainer la main ny les doist avec longueur et negligence cbst ce quigaste tout encore moins agir avec precepitation sous pretexte danimer son jeu de feu car ces ce qui brouille le jeu et lerend fantasque et carpricieux et sans regle mais il est bon que le jeu ait du feu mais un feu modere et que Ion ce possede entienementsans partagerson espritauqunne autre chose qui puisse distraire car cela demande un unique aplicquation pour y reusir

manner and without clarity or distinctness between the chords or the parts or in the sound and the harmony. 'Smacking the hands' means lifting them too high and too harshly when playing and letting them come down again in a startling and jolting manner,5which means that the parts are not well connected or not connected at all. In order to avoid this great defect, move the fingers only when necessaryand this holds true for every type of piece there is-no higher than is purely necessary in order to go from one note to the next or from one key of the keyboard to another, which is the same thing. This should be done simply by sliding the fingers, detaching them quickly, smoothly and in a wellreleased manner and one which is succinct, subtle, full of fire and imperceptible, but without lifting or agitating the fingers. All this is the secret of the beauty and delicacy of the performance. Be careful not to drag the hand or fingers with languor and negligence as that spoils everything. It is even more important not to act with undue haste on the pretext that you are animating your performance with fire, for this confuses your performance and makes it whimsical and capricious and without order. It is good if your performance possess fire, but it should be a moderate fire. And you should be completely self-possessed, without allowing anything else that can distract enter your mind, for unparalleled self application is necessary in order to succeed.

[Comment pointer]

Another remark that is of the greatest importance is that the prelude should be well dotted. It should be noted that it is this dotting which gives grace to the tempo and beauty and agreeability to the piece. Without it the pieces are flat, without taste or tempo, and appear to be nothing. The manner of placing the fingers gives facility for playing all these ornaments and the method indicated here. Nothing should constrain the hands or fingers, but the most convenient and closest ones must be used. That is, release one [that is playing a note] in order to facilitate engaging another, without ever finding your fingers occupied and inconvenienced by each other. Everything should rather be done with pleasure and ease and very naturally. If that is to be done, all the fingers must be used. The thumb of the right hand and the little [finger]must help to free [the others] and should run over the keyboard without hindrance, and play certain difficult, awkward chords. Finally, a finger that is poised to play a chord should never give place to another finger as it cannot do it. The correct fingers should be placed from the beginning. Otherwise, there is too much space in the harmony and it contributes to [the chord] not being correctly connected. Be careful not to overlap or invert the fingers, whether ascending or descending or in any other situation, for in addition to lacking gracefulness this produces slovenliness in the performance and [too much] space in the harmony. This results in what is called smacking

Une autre remarque de la derniene consequence pour leprelude est de le bien pointer N faut remarquer que ces ce pointement qui donne la grace le mouvernent et la beaute et lagrement aux piece, sans cela les pieces sont plate sant gout ny mouvement et ne paroisse r i m La maniene de placer ces doits donne beaucoup de facilitepour faire tous c b t agremens et la methode marque ycy car il ne faut pas que rien contraine les mains et les doist mais il faut ce servir de ceux qui sont les plus commode et les plus proche C b t 4 dire degager les uns pour faciliter [engagementdes autre sans jarnais ce trouver les doist engages et embarasee les uns dans les autres par auqune contrainte rnais il faut que toutte chose ce face avec plaisir facilite et enfin tout naturellement et pour cela il faut ce servir de tous ces doist, le pouce de la main droite et le petit doit facilite pource de gager et courir sant contrainte sur le clavier et faire de certains accords dificilles et embarassant enfin il ne faut jarnais gun doit qui est poste pour fair un acord cede saplace a un autre doit parce quil ne peut le faire et faut dabord y metre les doist nesaisaire parceque cela donne trop de distance a larmonie et contribuee a ce quelle ne ce liee pas bien. I1 faut bien prendregarde de ne jarnais chevaucherou renverserles doistsoit en montantsoit en decendant ny dans quelque endroit que ce puis btre les uns sur les autres car outre la rnauvaisse grace ces la rnalproprete dujeu que cela produit et la distance de larmonie elle produit encore ce quon apelle placage dans le jeu et quon ne peut jarnais jouer de certaine piece cela les rendant trop dificille et enfin empeche que


Ex.1 Flncement

(c) Nivers, trill and port de voix

mordent B 2 Arpeggios


, ,
'Remain a little longer on the large note after the pulsation (battement)'

Ex 3



r h.
B . 7 Other double cadence
& -

Nivers. ~ o r t d s e volx

B.8 Diminution

'The notes hlth a llttle bar are to be connected the most'

B . 4 (:adence simple

~u.9 Nivers, coule

B . 5 Other cadence simple

B.10 Syncopated 3rd

Eu.6 (,i) Double cadence

(b) sometimes

Ex.11 Parallel 3rds

Ex.12 d'hglebert, chute sur une note

lon r8e touche proprement et a la mode et ces ce qul fait ce traissaillement et ce jeu par ecousse. Le pouce de la main gauche ser naturellement et [on ne peut ce dispenser de sen servir. Voisy dont la rnanlere de pointer le prelude et toutte les autre piece generallernent parlants exemples 8, ou huit croses plus ou rnoin,s qui sois pair faire la premiere n o s e longue cornrne cy il lyavet u n point avec la crose et la suivante fort breve cornrne si cettolt une double croce la suivante longue cornme la premierre et lauh?suivante breve cornrne la segonde ainsi de touttes les autres quand le nombre est impair comme .3. 5. 7. plus ou moins il faut faire la premiere notte breve la segonde longue comrne nous avons dit cy dessus si non que c&stle contraire c b t a dire que la breve ce la segonde ainsy ~ d e toutres les autres fait 1i1 premiere et la long~re et cela duns toutte sorte de plece generallernent parlant tant pair que celle qui sont impair. I1 (.st de la Dernlene Consequence de bien prendregarde quand on touche le prelude plain jeu et dialogue quand ont les pointe ce quil Ize faut jarnais manquer comme je dit s y dessus de ne point faire de repetitions coullement ou port de voix ces la rnesrne chose. Car ii n y a rien de s y dezagreable duns ces jeuxs la et on peut dire que ceux qui le font doive appeller c&stsortes dagremens placage bouziliage e t a sommernent des acords et aux contraire duns le recit

[the keys] in the performance. And you could never play certain pieces as that [approach] makes them too difficult and hinders you from playing properly and in the correct style. This is what leads to the startling, jolting manner of playing. The thumb of the left hand is used in a natural way and cannot be done without. Here is the way to dot the prelude and all the other pieces, generally speaking. Examples: for eight quavers more or less, which are a n evennumber, lengthen the first quaver as if it were dotted and play the following quaver as it it were a ~ e m i q u a v e r The . ~ next [note] is as long as the first and the one after it as short as the second, and so forth for all the others. When there is a n uneven number, for example, three, five or seven, more or less, the first note should be short, the second note long-as we said above-except that [the order] is reversed, that is, the short note is first and the long note second, and s o forth for the others. [Apply this] to all sorts of pieces, generally speaking, for both even and uneven [groups of quavers]. It is of the greatest importance to be sure that in playing the prelude, plein jeu and dialogue, when you dot themwhich you should never neglect to do, as I said aboveEARLY M U S I C MAY 1 9 8 6

paroist dans ceux qui ne le fons pas bien et qui engarde pas les mesure ny la metode marquee ycy. I1 faut tramporter ces doist en touchant le recit dune maniene possee sans jarnois les renverser les uns sur les autres soit aller du haut en bas ou du bas en haut mais ne faire que les couller et tramporter sans jamais les lever et on ne doit jamais voir remuer les dois il doive estre comme atacher tellement quil nya que le bout des dois qui agitsurles touche etcela remarquee toujours en faisant ce coullement etc, ou continuellement afin que le chantsoit continuellement lie ne faisant point cela ckst ce qui perd tout,

time]. In order to play [this ornament], see with how much delicacy and subtlety it should be played. You should therefore lift the finger which restrikes the former note off the key just as soon as you arrive at the following note that you must go to. But it should not be noticed, and these two fingers and these two notes should be connected, but in a clean, brief fashion so that the harmony has no distance [in it], which is apparent [in the playing] of those who do not prepare it well and who respect neither the tempo nor the method given here. EX.^] You should convey the fingers in a sedate manner when playing the recit, without ever inverting them over each other, whether ascending or descending. Simply join them and convey them without ever lifting them. The fingers should never be seen to be agitated. They should seem to be attached [to the keys], so much so that only the tips of the fingers move on the keys. Note that this is always observed when playing this coulement, etc, or throughout so that t h e melody is continually smooth. If that is not done, much is lost.

[Les Ornements]

[Ornaments] The recit is dotted like the prelude-just as we have said for the prelude, with eight quavers or three, five or seven quavers-in the same way without changing anything, unless it is to be very exact in playing it. The trill or cadence should be played evenly, lightly, quickly and for a long time. You will never be blamed for playing it for too long but for too short a time. You should always begin with the note above the one o n which the cadence or trill is to be played. This is most pleasing and serves as the preparation and gives time and space to play the cadence with the vivacity, equality and the duration suitable. But be careful not to ricochet, which is [what happens] when you do not trill evenly. The cadence is usually played with groups of three notes, that is, whenever it is to be played in a natural manner. There are two ways of playing the cadence simple; that is, one is played simply, as we will explain, and the other is played in rising. The [cadence] simple is much more beautiful and savoured more than the other one, unless [the ather one] is played with great propriety and very skilfully, which is very rare-and even so, the first is to be preferred for its natural gentleness. The [cadence] simple is none other than a trill which is delicate, subtle, fast, equal, punctual and full of fire andvery long, and it begins, as I have already said, on the note above the one on which you intend to play the cadence, as if in order to have space to take your time better and to prepare yourself. Its rounding off is [effected] by descending again on the closest neighbouring note either above or below. This is done by playing the same note twice in the same way I explained for the appoggiatura, coulement or repetition, which I explained in the recit. This cadence also often ends on the last note above, for example, E, D, E, E. [Ex.4I7

Le Recit ce pointe comme le prelude nous lavons dit dans le mesme prelude aux noses .8. et 3.5. 7. de la mdsme manierresans y rien changer s y non dktre fort ezat ale faire. Le tremblement ou cadence ce doit faire egallement legerement vivement et tre longuement et on ne blamera jamais dela faire longue mais bien hop courte il la faut toujours commencer a la notte qui est aux dessus de celle ou Ion veut faire la cadence ou tremblement ckst ce qui est fort agreable et sert comme de preparation et donne le tems et lieu a faire la cadence avec la vivacitte legallitte la longualimitte convenable mais il faut prendre garde de ne point faire de ricochet cest a dire quand on ne tremble point egallement. La cadence pour lordinaire ce faitde trois notte en trois notte cest a dire ou il ce doive faire naturellement. I1 ly a deux maniene de faire la cadence simple cest a dire lune qui ce faitsimplement comme nous le dirons et lautre qui ce fait en relevant La simple est beaucoup plus belle et mieux gouttee quenon pas lautre a moins quelle ne soit faite dune grande proprete et fort adroittement ce qui est tres rare et encore prefereton la premierre pour la douceur de son naturel. La simple nest autre chose qun tremblement delicat subtil vist egal pront et plain de feu et tres longs et il ce commence comme je .deja dit ala none aux desus de celle ou on d desein de faire la cadence comme pour avoir lieu de mieux prendre son tems et de sepreparer, et sa cheutte est de retombersur la notte voisine etplus proche soit en montant ou en desendants qui ce fait en refrapant dezix fois de suitre sur la mkme notte avec les mkme qualites que je dit dans le port de voix coullement ou repetitiont que je dit duns le Recit cene cadence ce temine souvent ausy a la demiene notte denhaut exemple m y re. m y my. Lautre cadence simple ce fait de la mkme maniene excepte quapres le tremblement qui ce fait comme ala simple il faut relever


comme par exemple sur le fa-my Je releve le re et le m y comme double crosse et ensultte je retom be surle re ne le frapant qune fois cest ungrande perfection de bien faire cetre cadence et de la faire bien longue et u n tres grand defaut de la faire courte cette meme cadence ce f a t aussy en relevani et demeurantsur la notte relevee La Double Cadence ce fait vivement et particullierement tres distinquement faisant parler touttes les notte et egallement et vitternent et bien nettement. Voisy comme elle ce fait elle ce prend une guarte 6 de souxs du lieu ou la main droitte ou la gauche ce trouve et on fait une diminuction de double croce en montant jusqtle au lieu ou lon itoit auparavants et ensuitte on fait un tremblement simple a la notte qui odesouxs de celle ou lon est comnlancants pourtant ale fairesur la none ou Ion estcommeje dit aillieisrs et en suitte on fait Iautre tremblement exemple je fais le premier tremblement sur re u t le segont sur le m y re qui est une notte aux desus dupremier et en suitte on releve le u t re m y sur le quel ont demeure le u t re ce doire faire double croce comme nous avon:i dit duns la simple elle ce fait encore quelque fois avec le seul premier tremblement et tombant simplement s u i la none qui est odesoux quen sest en desendant et quand on monte a celle qui est odesvs en rebattant deux fois la m i m e notte comme nous avons dit duns la simple. I1 ne faut jamais sareter quand on na u n fois commance afaire la double cadence si non sur les tremblemens. I1 ly enna ausy quelque z u n s qui aprez avoir coulle les diminutions de la double cadence commence leur tremblement sur le fa my. et puis revienne faire ce luy de m y re mais il faut couler apres avoirfait celuy de fa my, il fautcouller le re afin davoir lieu de cepreparer a faire le tremblement m y re et en suitte on retombesur le ce sol u t et on le rebat deux fois de la maniere que nous avonsdit dans la simple oubien selon que le damande le pasage si cest en montcznt le m y m y deux fois. Je ~dit duns m o n petit recueil des tons de leglise les dois dont ont ce sertpour totte les cadence et la maniere de les conduire avec les demo~.ztrationsde chacque cadence. Qu~zndaux double crosse elle ce doive faire plus viste que les n o s e ~ n a i non s pas avec la precepitation quelle vont naturellement elle CI? doivent faire avec grande moderation toutes foix dune manierre pleine de feu mais il en faut banir la precipitation et faire en sorte que touttes les none parle net et egallement et c& cequi ne ce peut faire alants cy viste et la mesure nen est pas rnoins bien gardee et la piece en paroist bien davantage et est plus agreable remarquees que il n y ci que duns la rnuszque de lorgue ou intmnlantalle que tout ce cy doit itre observe japellegenerallement parlant de tous ces agrements dont nous avons parle comme pointement et autre non pas que je dise que cela ne ce face point d a m la musique vocalle mais cest quelle ne ce pratique pas de la sorte comme par exemple dans la vocalle on rie pointe jamais les nosse mazs elle se font egallement ainsy des autres.

The other cadence simple is played in the same way except that after the trill, which is played as in the [first] [cadence] szmple, you must rise again, for example, up to F. I go u p again o n the D and the E, played as semiquavers, and then I go back down to the D, striking it only once. This is a great perfection, playing this cadence well, and to play it for a good long time. It is a great defect to play it briefly. This same cadence is also played by going u p and remaining o n t h e upper note. [Ex.5I8 The double cadence is played quickly and especially v e v distinctly, making all the notes speak very equally, fast and very clearly. Here is the way it is played: it is started a 4th below the place where the left or right hand is and you play a run of semiquavers, rising to the place where you were before. Then you play a simple trill on the note which is below the one you are starting on-yet playing it o n the note where you are, as I said elsewhere. Next, you play the other trill. For example, I play the first trill o n D-C, the second [trill] o n E-D, which is one note above the first, and then you rise again o n C-D-E, which you linger on. The C-D should be semiquavers, as we said for the [cadence] simple. It is also played sometimes using only the first trill and simply going down to the note which is below, when it is descending: and when it is ascending to the one above, you strike the same note twice, as we said with reference to the cadence simple. You should never stop once you have started playing the double cadence other than for the trills. [Ex.6I9 There are also some who, after having connected the runs of the double cadence, begin their trill o n F-E, and then come back to play the one on E-D. But you should play a coule after having played the one o n F-E. You should connect the D in order to have space to prepare to play the trill o n E-D. Then you descend again to the C and strike it twice in the way we mentioned for the cadence simple. Or, following the requirements of the passage, if you are rising. [play] E-E twice. (Ex.7)'O I explained in my little compendium of the church tones the fingers that are used for all the cadences and the way to employ them, with examples for each cadence. As for the semiquavers they should be played faster than the quavers, but not as rapidly as normal. They should be played with great moderation, but even so in a manner full of fire, but you must banish rapidity and play so that all the notes speak clearly and equally. This cannot be done [if you are] going s o fast. [Even if you are not playing them as fast,] the tempo is kept just as well and the piece appears to much greater advantage and is more pleasing. Note that it is only in music for the organ or instruments that all this is to b e observed. I am speaking about all these ornaments we have mentioned such as dotting and the others. Not that I am saying that this is not used in vocal music, but that it is not performed in the same way. For example, in vocal music, you never dot the quavers; they are sung evenly like the others.



Du Trio
L e trio ce touche hardzment mais fort lenternent et on ne peut aller trop doucement le principal du trio est de le blen polnter rnais il fazlt que ce pointement ce face avecgrand feu etgrande hardiesse car cestla pzece que londoit davantage metre en mouvementet il n y a que le pointement qui face cela le reste nes qun moien pour le fatre ainsi on ne peut dont pas hop le pointer pour veu que Ion ne leve point les doist mais que lon les trarnporte comme nous lavons dit dans le recit avec les mesme precautions et coulemenretc. qui cy doivent fatre comme on les fait dans le Recit ce cy ne paroist rien cest pourtant le tout et le plus dificille il faut @tretres exat 6 bien faire les tremblemens marquee et ce resouvenir toujours de corn,nancer comme nous avons dit duns le prelude des la premzerre nottt. en cornmanrant a faire un pincement de toutes les partie quoyqutl ne sois point marque cest lordre generalle. I1 faut fare une grande atention a bien pointer et couller etc. mai:: particullierement a pointer toujours de la mesme force car cela est de la dernierre consequence afin de maintenir la piece duns toutre sa suztte de la mPme force dont on la commancee sans cede mentir Car sans cela la piece changera deface elle naura plus le rn@n;,e m ouvement et faira que la piece et le chant paroistront plat et sunt ame et cela fait m@me que agissant de la sorte on a beaucoup davantage de facilite ala jouer car pour la faire comme nour: avons dit ont est oblige duller doucernent et cest ce qui donne le rnoien de bien le jouer et deprendregarde ci ce que Ion fait et de ne rien obmetre il faut necesairement ce coutter avec plaisir comme dun? ce recit ce cy est pour les trio a deux dessus particullierement exepte la basse de quoy que celuy a 3 partie ce face tout de rn@rne pedalle qui ce joue en partie comrne les deux autre dessus et avec autant de proprete rnais ces ce qui est tres dificilles et zl faut avoir une praricque et u n uzage tout a fait surprenant ce qui ne ce renctmtra quasy lamais ou il faut avoir eu une tresgrande exercices on en jouee quelque fois avec la pedalle a 3 mais cela nest rien aux pnx de celuy dont je parle.

The trio
The trio is played boldly but very slowly and cannot go too leisurely. The principle of the trio is to dot properly, but this dotting must be done with great fire and great boldness, for this is the piece that must be made to move along more, and only dotting does that. The rest is only a means for doing this. Thus, you cannot dot too much, provided you d o not lift the fingers, but rather convey them as we said for the recit, with the same precautions and connection, etc. [They] must be played here as in the recit. This seems to be of n o consequence, yet it is everything and the most difficult thing. You must be very exact in correctly playing the trills that are marked and always to remember to begin as we said in connection with the prelude, beginning with a mordent o n the first note in all the parts, even if it is not marked. That is a general rule. Be very careful to dot properly and to join [the notes], etc. but especially to dot always with the same values, for there is no denying that this is of the highest importance for maintaining the remainder of the piece with the same values with which it began. For without that, the piece will change appearance, it will not have the same tempo, and the piece and the melody will seem flat and without spirit. Also, following these instructions, it is much easier to play, for in order to play as we have said, you are obliged to go leisurely and that is what makes it possible to play well and to be attentive to what you are doing and not to leave out anything. You must listen to yourself with pleasure, as for the recit. This is especially true for the trio a deux dessus, although the [trio] a trois parties is played in the same way except for the bass in the pedal which is played o n [its separate] keyboard like the two upper parts; it is played just as cleanly, but this is very difficult and a surprising amount of experience and practice is required. This is almost never met with. Or it is necessary to have had a great deal of training. It is sometimes played with the pedal [for the trio] a trois [parties], but it is nothing compared with the one I am spealung about.

La voix humaine
St] jouee beaucoup plus doucement que le Trio car son jeu doit etre tres lent apeu pres comme on chante avec les mesme concj'ictions que nous jouons le recit exepte quelle va plus doucement que le Recit

The voix humaine

is played much more leisurely than the trio, for it must be very slow, rather like singing with the same conditions that we [gave for] playing the recit, except that it goes at a more leisurely [pace] than the recit.

Du Duo
Lc' Duo ce touchegayment hardirnent et tres legerement et dune maniene vive plaine de feu et pour y bien reusir il faut observer a bien detacher ces doist en lui tant de ne les point lever n y trener mais les tramporter tout dune piece avec la main et quil n y ait que le bout des doist que agisse quand on en abesoin et ce la dune manierre seche et imperceptible ne faisant que les couller en les transportant il faut faire des coulles ou port de voix comme duns le

The duo
The d u o is played gaily, boldly, very lightly, and in a lively manner full of fire. In order to succeed in this, one must be careful to detach the fingers properly, as well as not to lift them or drag them, but to convey them all together with the hand. Only the tips of the fingers should move when necessary. Do this in a succinct and imperceptible manner, only sliding them along in conveying them [from one note to EARLY M U S I C MAY 1986

Recit je veux dire toucher la notte voisine de celle ou lon veut aller en coullant comme nous lavons dit dans le Recit cest a dire ces certain rebatement deux fois de la m h e notte avec la m h e netete et de terite que le son paroise sec vif et net etpour donner le modelle comme on joue le recit ala reserve que la Duo ce joiie plus viste. I 1 faut etremementpointer le duo car ces en cela ou estsa beaute. Cest ausy don le Duo ausy bien que dans le recit ou toute les cadence ce zequtte [s'execute] avec plaisit: Le pincementse fait ausy dabor atoute les partie en commangant la premiere notte il faut etre fort ezat a faire tousles tremblemens et pincemens marquees. I1fautfaire ensorte que toutte les nottesonnenetet quilny ait au qun brouillement de son il vaux mieux aller plus doucement on en est jamais blamk

another]. Play the coules and appoggiaturas as in the recit. I mean, play the neighbouring note of the one you are going to, joining [the notes] as we said for the recit, that is, these special restrikings of the same note twice, with the same clarity and dexterity, so that the sound is succinct, lively and clear. To give a model [for the duo], it is played like the recit, except that the duo is played faster. The duo should be extremely dotted, for its beauty consists of this. It is also in the duo as well as in the recit that all the cadences are performed with pleasure. The mordent is also played at the beginning in all the parts, beginning with the first note. You should be very careful to play all the trills and mordents marked. See to it that all the notes sound clearly and that there is no jumbling of the sound. It would be better to go at a more leisurely pace; you are never criticized for that. The plein jeu The plain jeu is played like the prelude and dialogues, except that the plain jeu on the positif is played v e v lightly, fastidiously and very quickly. The grand jeu [is played] very solemnly, like the prelude. Plainchant The plainchant is played in several ways: in the bass, the tenor, the alto and the soprano. The most common and usual way is to play in four parts with the pedal, or in three. As for the one in four parts, the pedal follows the little finger of the left hand [which plays the chant]. The other parts play the accompaniment according to the rules. In this type, in the trio and the other [ways of playing the chant], you must use the dotting that we mentioned for the prelude, coulements, appoggiaturas, repeated notes and arpeggios; the various 3 r d ~ :coulb, syncopated and ordinary [3rds]: trills and mordents. And do not forget those [mordents] played first in the beginning, right from the first note, the cleanness of the coulements and the trills as in the recit. The plainchant in trio is played with one part [the chant] in the left hand. [It is played] with the same cleanness, clearness and vivaciousness as in the recit, [using] coulements, trills and mordents. In fact, it is a pure recit in the bass. Note that when the plainchant rises rather high, you should play an octave lower; then return above, going back down whenever you see the melody is going too high. It is an ornament to do that even when you are not obliged to for this reason, but rather in order to diversify [your performance]. Be sure that in the runs that are sometimes played-for example, between one note and another one at the interval of a 5th-they be played clearly and distinctly, so that all [the notes] speak without half of them being rushed over.

Du plein jeu L~ plein jeu ce jocke de la m ~ m m e aniene que le prelude et dialogues ala reserve que le plain jeu du positif ce joiiee fort legerement et pointillieusement et tres vivement Le grand jeu tres gravement comme on fait le prelude.
Du Plain chants
Le plainchant ce joiiee de plusieurs manierre savoir ala basse ala taille haute contre et odesus mais lordinaire et leplus commun est de la joiier a quatre partie avec la pedalle et en trio quand a celuy de quatre parties la pedalle suit le petit doit de la main gauche les autre partie font les accompagnement selon les regles mais il faut observersoit dans celuy la ou dans le trio etles autre le pointement que nous avons dit dans le prelude le coullement ou port devoix ou rebattement le harpagemen les tierce varies coulles et par cincope et les ordinaire les tremblement et pincement sans oublier ceux qui ce font dabor en commanpant des la premierre notte la proprete du coullement et des tremblement comme a recit. Le plainchant en trio ce jouee a une partie de la main gauche avec la mPme proprete netete et vivacite coullement trambiement et pincement que lon fait dans le recit en efet ce nest qun pur recit ala pincement que [onfait dans le recit en efet ce nest qun pur recit ala basse il faut en core observer que quand le plain chant monte un peu haut il faut reprendre a loptave [octave/ den bas et ensuitte retourne en haut et redesendre dam toutte les ocations ou [on voit que le chants monte hop haut cela fait mesrne un agrement de le faire sans y etre oblige parce motif mais pour diversifier il faut faire en sorte que les diminutions que lon fait quelque fois dune notte par exemple a un Stelune quintel que cela soit fait netet distintque tout parle sans en manger la moitie, Les acompagnemens qui ce font de la main droitte pour lordinaire on y met 2. et 3. partie en semble on doit dont dabord en commancans et toujours particullierement quand ylya 3 partie comme des sisieme avec une tierce de la mesme main ou une quinte et 6 tierce et a la quarte, faire les coulles comme nous avons au recit,

As for the accompaniment played in the right hand, there are usually two or three parts together. When you begin you

I1 faut ce resouvenir de bien pratiquer le tierce sincopee car ces la leurs lieu les tierce coulleer et les ordinaire et les sisieme semblablement I1 faut remarquerpour reglegeneralle que les deux mains duns le plain chant je veux dire toutte les partie ne doive j a m a ~ saller par de semblable mouvement cest un souverain segret pour eviter la surprise de faire defaut acord comme deux optave deux quinte desuitte etc il faut dont que quand la basse monte que le desus desende et pour bien faire les partie ce doivent aprocher le plus proches les zunes des autres qui les posible sans pour rant ce mesler les unes duns les autre car la prudence demande quand il sont pamop proche que lon se lo~gneces cequi est fort facille puisque les regles nous en donne il faut &re ycy fort ezat abien pratiquer ceque nous avons dit duns le prelude touchant le placage pour les harpagemens et couller et cadence sozt de la main gauche soit a'e la main droitte et que tout cela soit fait dune grande proprt.tte car ces duns le plein chant ou tout cela parois bien acause que toutle mondesy entend lepointement y estfortecentlel comme nous ['avons dit duns le plain chant a quatre partie les Regles du plain chant soit a quatre partie ou a trois partie sont toute les mesme et ainsy elle sont les mesme qui servent 6 acompagner en partie tout ce qui ly a de particullier ce sont de certains chifre ewtraordinaire a la mode ditalie mais il sont toujours marque et les ordinaire ne le sontpas parce que nu1 nes capable dacompagner cy ne l e s , ~ o s sde e parfaittem et couranmentpar coeursant y penserce sera lt'grand usage qui luy donnera cela et unepraticque ou il soit bien rompu et il n y aura seul que le tresgrands ewercise qui luy est fazra les poseder.

should always play c o u l b at the beginning, as we mentioned for the recit, especially when there are three parts, like intervals of a 6th with a 3rd in the same hand, or a 5th and a 3rd or 4th. You must remember to use the syncopated 3rd as this is the place for it, [and also] the coule o n intervals of a 3rd and the ordinary 3rd; similarly for 6 t h ~ Note . that as a general rule both hands playing the plainchant-I mean by that all the parts-should never go in the same direction. It is a supreme secret that in order to avoid surprising by playing wrong harmonies such as parallel octaves or 5ths, etc, you should have the soprano descend when the bass rises, and in order to play well the parts must be as close to each other as possible-although they should not be mixed up with one another, for prudence requires that when they are too close they should be spread out. This is very easy, for we give the rules. Be careful to d o what we have said for the prelude concerning smacking [your hands on the keys] in the arpeggios, c o u l b and cadences, whether they be in the left or right hand. And all this must be done with great cleanness as it is in the plainchant that all this appears to best advantage, since everyone hears it. Dotting is very essential there, as we have said for four-part plainchant. The rules for three-part or four-part plainchant are the same. Thus [the rules] that serve for accompanying in all parts are the same. The only unusual thing is that there are certain special numbers in the Italian style, but they are always marked. The usual [intervals] are not marked, for no one is capable of accompanying until h e knows them all by heart, perfectly and readily, without [having to] think about them. It is great experience that leads to that, when he is well used to it; only much training will enable him to master them. The basse de trompette, chromorne, and the tierce The basse de trompette, chromorne and tierce are played in the same way. The accompaniment is played as for the plainchant in trio. The basse is played with the cleanness, clarity and very great vivaciousness of the recit, except that the basse is played very boldly and very lightly and quickly-but cleanly and distinctly, as for the recit. For this is nothing other than a recit in the bass which is played faster and more boldly and [with] great[er] fire. But observe the same precautions as for the recit. There is one thing I forgot to mention with the trio, but since it is something that applies to all sorts of pieces it c a n be found here. That is, when there are several [successive] choral 3rds, that is to say. 3rds that are to be played in sequence by the same hand, they should be mingled one after the other. That is, play one 3rd with a coule, another with a syncopation, and another as an ordinary [3rd] [exx.9-1 I ] . 3rds played together are little ornaments which greatly embellish and vary a piece. The coule, as I say elsewhere, is realized by playing the note inside the 3rd in order to reach the note making the 3rd with delicacy and speed, playing it in a gentle manner as well as
E A R L Y M U S I C MAY 1986

De la Basse de Trompette et du chromorne e t de Tierce

La I~asse de Trompette chromorne et tierce ce touche dela mesme s o r e 18?s acompagnement sen font tout comme ceux du plain chant en tricl la basse ce joue avec la proprete netete et tres grande de vlvacz,re du recit excepte que ces basse ce jouee fort hardiment et tres legerement et vivement mais netement et distintement comme on fait le recit car ce nes autre chose qun recit ala basse qui estjoue plus viste et plus hardiment etgrand feu mais il faut y garder les mesmt. precautions que duns le recit Je me suis oublie de dire une chose duns le trio mais comme ces une chose qui sert duns toute sorte a'e jeux on peut le trover duns ce [leu ycy qui est quand ylya plusiel~rstierces par acord cest a dire qui ce doive faire dune seule main clesuitte elle ce doive meslanger les unes apres les autres c6st 6 dire faire une tierce en coullant lautre comme par cincope et lautre a lordinaire la 3ce en semble ce sont dk pens agrement qui o m e b~?aucoup la piece et divercifie Couller comme je dif ailleurs nest autre chose que de passer avec delicastesse et vitesse doucernent duns la maniere de le f a i ~ e et proprement avec la distinti'on de toute les notte sur la notte qui est au milieu de la 3ce pour galngner la notte qui forme la 3ce cela ce doit faire fort adroztr,?mentet imperceptiblement il faut tout fois que les 3, sons


des 3. notte ce face entendre avecgrande distintion et netement et tres vivement. Celle qui ce fait par cincope cest a dire faire les notte lune apres lautre sans couller celle du milieu mais il fautque cette cincopesoit prompte et que cela ne languist ny ne traine point et mesme il ne faut quasy pas pour ysy parler que cela paroise beaucoup quoy pourtant quil soit nesaisaire que cela paroise mais cestpour faire voir avec quelle delicastesse promtitude legerete imperceptible quil faut que cela ce face quand a la 3ce ordinaire elle ce fait en touchant les deux none dela 3ce ensemble tout ce cy ce fait semblablement sur toute les 6e.

neatly, with all the notes distinct. This must be done skilfully and imperceptibly. Even so, the three sounds of the three notes must be heard very distinctly, clearly and vividly. EX.^] [The 3rd] that is syncopated is played one note after the other, without connecting the one in the middle. But this syncopation must be punctual. It must not drag or be listless. It should almost not be noticeable, though it is necessary that it be apparent. [I say this] to show with what delicacy, punctuality, lightness and imperceptibility it must be played. [ E X . ~ O As ] ' ~ for the ordinary 3rd, its two notes are played together. All this is played similarly for all the 6ths.I3 The tierce and chromome en taille

De la Tierce e t chromorne e n Taille

La tierce et chromome en taille sont des piece qui sont dune aces dificilles exeqution a cause de la situation de certains acord dificilles par leur situation et duns la maniere deles faire carpour lordinaire [on napas toujours le grand usage de la main gauche comme deceluy de la droitte outre quelle nes presque jamais a beaucoup pres de la force et delicatesse et vivacitte de la droitte ainsy toute ces basse ce jode semblable au recit de cromome sans auqun diference car cela doit etre ausy tendre duns son chant et touche au sy proprement que le recitpuis quil est veritablement un vray recit de la taiNe et tout les mtme agremens du recit sy doive faire avec la m h e proprete et lenteur que nous avons dit sans y rien changer quoy que dans les tierce et chromome entaille on ne regard pas abeaucoup presgarde a la mesure comme on fait dans le recit car pour lordinaire on le laisse aller a ce laisserflatter loraille et on ne fait nu1 atention syl fautainsy parlerala mesurquand aux acompagnement il ce sont semblable manier que nous avons dit duns le plain chant en trio ces la ou [on ale tems deles bien faire parce que les basse vont tres lentement aisy on peut bien faire les uns et les autre.

The tierce and chromome en taille are pieces that are difficult to play because of the way certain difficult chords are situated and because of the way they are to be played. For usually the left hand is not as well trained as the right hand, and moreover it is almost never [able to play] with nearly as much force, delicateness and promptness as the right hand. Thus all these bass solos are played like the recit de chromome, without any difference, for it should be as tender in its melody and played as correctly as the recit. So it is actually a true recit in the tenor and all the same ornaments as for the recit must be played with the same cleanness and slow tempo that we have mentioned, without changing anything. In the tierces and chromomes en taille, however, you do not maintain as steady a tempo as in the recit, for usually you play it freely so that it flatters the ear, and you do not pay attention, we might say, to the tempo. As for the accompaniment, it is like we have described for the plainchant in trio. Here you have time to play [the accompaniment] well as the bass parts move very slowly, thus each of [the voices] can be played well.
[Second handwriting]

[Dewtieme Ecriture]
I1 faut jouer le comet fort viste et vivement sans pointer et le dessus de tierce il ne le faut pas jouer si preste et on le peut pointer mais pour le dessus de nazard il le faut jouer gravement et agreablemmt et sur tout distinctement et mesme le comet sans le precipiter ny le brouiller I1 faut prendregarde aussi au service de leglise quise fait et qui se dit et aux mysteres qui sy pratiquent et aux petites et aux grandes feste les plus solemnelles comme quand le St Sacrement est expose et apres levelation de la Ste. hostie, il fautsans doute que les pieces soientplusgraves et non pointprecipitees etqui ayentdu recueillement et qui attirent les ames a devotion et qui excitent le coeur a louer dim Interieurement; leglise representant le ciel visible; et comme dans le ciel en voyant dieu on chante ses louanges et les anges et les Saints: de mesme les chrestiens doiventfaire la mesme chose en voyant dieu parla foy duns le Tres St Sacrement de lautel et ainsy il faut que les organistes fassent leur possible pour inciter le peuple a benir dieu ladmirer et ladorer par leur beau jeu pour ce qui est des autres grandes festes comme pasque pentecoste

The comet should be played very fast and quickly without dotting. The dessus de tierce should not be played as nimbly, and you can dot it. But the dessus de nazard should be played solemnly and pleasantly, and above all, distinctly. The comet [is played] in the same manner, without rushing it or jumbling. You should also take into account the church service that is going on, that is being said-the mystery associated with it, the high feasts of the most solemn type such as when the Holy Sacrament is shown and after the elevation of the Host. [At these moments] the pieces should be more solemn and not hurried, and [they should be] more contemplative, drawing souls to devotion and inciting the heart to praise God inwardly. The church represents heaven [made] visible. Just as in heaven when God is seen one sings his praises [and the praises ofl the angels and saints, similarly, Christians must do the same in seeing God through faith in the Holy Sacrament of the altar. Thus organists should do all they can


lascerjsion, noel lassomption et les autres festes de la bonne vierge comme ce sont des festes et des mysteres de joye on ne scavroit jouer ,rap gayement et cependant modestement qui sente touiours I'Eglise et non point la comedie ou lopera La Magnificat aussy et le te deum et les Offertes Et sur tout que l'zntentzon de l'organiste quantl11touche I'ogue durant leservice divin nesoztpurementque pour c-hunter les louanges de dieu et que tout son genie et tout le talent que dieu luy a donne ne soit applique quabien louer dieu e t a exciter les autres a le bien louer et que si la quelque talent plus particulier que ne peuvent pas avoir les autres quil sen humilie davantage et quil en rende de plusgrandesgraces a dieu bien loin de sen orgueillir et de mespriser les autre a quoy manquent et peschent grandement plusieurs organistes quz ne jouent que pour se fare admirer et attirer les applaudissemens du monde et lagloire qui ne doit et ne devroit estre attribuee qua dieu seul,

to incite people to bless God, to admire and adore him. [This they do] through the beauty of their playing. As for high feasts such as Easter, Pentecost, Christmas, Assumption and the other feasts of the Virgin, these are feasts and mysteries of joy and you cannot play too gaily-although [with a] modesty that is always conscious [that it is] the church and not the Comedie or the opera. [The same is true for] the Magnificat, the Te Deum and Offertories. Above all, the intention of the organist when he plays the organ during the divine service should be to sing purely God's praises. All the genius and talent which God has given him should be dedicated to praising God and inciting others to praise him. If he has some particular talent that others do not, he should feel all the more humble and should thankGod all the more. [He should not] be proud or despise others who lack [such talent]. Several organists sin greatly as they play only in order to be admired and to attract the applause of the world and the glory which is-and should only be-for God alone.

WillilzmPruitt obtained his PhD in music history from the Univtvsity of Pittsburgh in 1969, since w h e n he has taught American studies a t the University of Paris. He has studied the organ with Jean Langlais.
'The orlginal French text was included In my article 'Un traite d'interpretation du xviie siecle', L'Orgue, clii (Oct. 1974),pp.99-1 12. 'Th,? question of the interpretation of the terms used to indicate tempo and the style of playing is too complex to be resolved here. French writers of the time used various terms for 'fast' or 'slow' withollt distinguishing systematically the degree of speed. Other terms, such as 'boldly'. 'with fire', etc, are no more precise than the tempo indications. )The mordent and trill are grouped together here under the term plncenlent, following the precedent of Jean Denis in his Traite de lhccord de Iesptnette (1650). where they are called pincements or given by tremblements. The trill in ex. l IS identical to the realizat~ons composers of the time (although they usually included eight notes in their examples). The mordent I have illustrated as beginning on the lower auxiliary rather than on the main note. This may seem unusual, but is not contrary to the instructions of the manuscript, nor to the examples given by several composers of the time. Nivers (Premier ltvre d'orgue), Boyvin (Premter llvre dbrgue, 1689), Jullien (Premier llvre dorgue, 1690). and Saint-Lambert (Les pnncipes du clavecrn, 1702) all give illustrations of the mordent beginning on the lower auxiliary. Conette (Messedu Be ton pourlorgue, 1703) implies as much in saying that if the mordent is approached by a skip, it should begin on the ornamented note. This could mean that if approached stepwise, the ornament begins with the lower auxiliary. SaintLambert, who took his realizations from Niver's organ book, Lebe~,ue's Pieces de clavessln (1677) and d'.knglebert's Pieces de clavecln (1689),polnts out that Nivers' mordent is the same as that of d'Anglebert, preceded by a lower auxiliary (chute et pince). Similarly. other tables of ornaments include mordents beginning on the maln note but preceded by lower auxiliaries. The manuscript is not alone in Instructing the performer to linger on ti-e ornamental note. Boyvin (Premier llvre dorgue) says the mordent may be accented by holding back on the lower note. and that the lower note is to take up half the note's time value. A less marked lingering on the lower note IS given by F r a n ~ o i s Couperin (L:4nde toucherle clavecin. 17 16) in his example ofpofls de voix (that is, a moxdent preceded by the lower auxiliary). As for the pincemenr on the first note or notes of each piece. a mordent is probably meant; an examination of contemporary organ works indicates a prevalence of mordents on the first notes of pieces. 4These are uncharacteristic of the organ. as other organists (Lebegue, Boyvin) point out; arpeggios are called for very rarely in the organ music of the period. 'Reading 'secousse' for 'ecousse' bThe value of the dot could probably vary, however. In connection with ornaments for the rents, the author says semiquavers are not played as fast as normal. The dottlng for the solo voice could Duos are to be 'extremely therefore result in triple figures ( !,>). dotted', but this probably means that all groups of quavers should be dotted, rather than that the value of the dot should be prolonged 'That is, a trill plus a repeated upper neighbour @on de voix). 'The second cadencesimple consists of a trill with a turn. The writer is unique in describing the turn as being on the note a 3rd above rather than on the lower neighbour of the ornamented note. 9These instructions for the double cadence are the most difficult to interpret, especially since we cannot be sure how many elements are to be included in the variations described. The flrst type of double cadence (ex.6a)begins with a run, then a trill on the lower neighbour of the ornamented note, a trill on the note itself, and finally a turn. Alternatively, the double cadence may consist of a trill on the lower neighbour, an appoggiatura, and a single termination on the note itself (ex.6b).For comparison, Nivers' trill andportde voix IS shown as ex.6~. ''That is. a trill on the upper neighbour. a trill on the ornamented note (with a break between the nvo trills), and an appoggiatura for its termination. "Cf Brassard, Dtctionnalre (1703).under 'tirade' "This syncopated 3rd is not mentioned by other writers of the time, as far as I know. ')For the coule on the 6th. the writer may Imply a 2 chord, played like d'Anglebert's chutesur une note (ex.12).The syncopated 6th and the ordinary 6th could be performed in exactly the same way as the 3rds.

E A R L Y M U S I C MAY 1 9 8 6