Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

21 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Linear Regression Review
- File Handling Assignments
- How to Create and Define Geometry Within Star CCM
- A Short Course on PROBABILITY and SAMPLING
- File Handling Notes
- Calculus
- Partial Derivatives
- Using XPath in C#
- Permutation and Combinations
- general knowledge
- Intergal Calculus
- Boolean Algebra
- Probability
- Partial Derivatives
- Calculus..
- Boolean Algebra
- Excel_2010
- Boolean Algebra
- Common Abbreviations
- Sp 2013 Hybrid Topologies

You are on page 1of 7

Sanjay K. Khattri

FOURIER SERIES AND LAPLACE TRANSFORM

THROUGH TABULAR INTEGRATION

Abstract. This article is intended for rst year undergraduate students. In

this work, we explore the technique of tabular integration, and apply it for evaluating

Fourier series and Laplace transform.

ZDM Subject Classication: 00A35; AMS Subject Classication: I55.

Key words and phrases: Fourier series, Laplace transform, tabular integration.

Introduction

Integration by parts and tabular integration are used to integrate product of

two functions. The technique of tabular integration is very well known [1, 2]. But

still it has not nd its way into textbooks [3]. Traditionally we teach integration of

product of two functions by technique of integration by parts. It is our experience

that students take more time to learn and successfully apply this technique. Espe-

cially when we need to repeatedly apply the technique of integration by parts. We

nd that students make mistakes. On the other hand, we nd that students easily

apply the tabular integration technique even in complex situations. Classically the

technique of integration by parts is given as follows:

(1)

_

udv = uv

_

v du.

In the above equation, it is preferred to choose as u a function which is easy to

dierentiate, and whose derivative may vanish. Such as polynomial functions. In

many situations, we may need to repeatedly employ the integration by parts until

the dierentiation of u vanishes. Let us implement the technique of integration by

parts for evaluating the integral

(2) I =

_

x

2

sinxdx.

Since the third derivative of x

2

is null, it is appropriate to pick x

2

as u. Thus,

u = x

2

and dv = sinxdx,

du = 2xdx and

_

dv =

_

sinxdx,

du = 2xdx and v = cos x.

98 S. K. Khattri

Substituting u, v, dv and du in the equation (1), we obtain

(3)

_

x

2

sinxdx = x

2

cos x + 2

_

xcos xdx.

Now for evaluating

_

x cos xdx, we again need to use the integration by parts. Let

us now choose:

u = x and dv = cos xdx,

du = dx and

_

dv =

_

cos xdx,

du = dx and v = sinx.

Substituting u, v, dv and du in the equation (1), we obtain

_

xcos xdx = xsinx

_

sinxdx = xsinx + cos x.

(We omit the integration constant.) Now substitution the above integral in the

equation (3) gives the desrired integral:

_

x

2

sinxdx = x

2

cos x + 2(xsinx + cos x)

= x

2

cos x + 2xsinx + 2 cos x.

Let us now evaluate the same integral by using tabular integration. In this

technique, we form a table consisting of two columns. The rst column contains

successive derivatives of the function which is easy to derivate or whose higher order

derivatives may vanish. After that, all entries of the rst column are alternately

appended with plus or minus signs. While, the second column contains successive

integrals (antiderivatives). The rst column is designated by D and the second

one by I. Now the last step is to nd the successive terms of the integral. They

are given by multiplying each entry in the rst column by the entry in the second

one which lies just below it. Finally the integral is equal to the sum of the terms

obtained. For evaluating the integral (2), we can form Table 1. Thus by the tabular

integration:

_

x

2

sinxdx = x

2

cos x + 2xsinx 2 cos x + 0

= x

2

cos x + 2xsinx + 2 cos x.

The number of terms is nite only if the higher order derivatives of the function

u vanish. For example, the third order derivative of the function x

2

is null (see

Table 1). Otherwise at any level the process of integration can be terminated by

forming a remainder term dened as the integral od the product of the entry in the

rst column and the entry in the second column that lies directly across it.

Fourier series and Laplace transform 99

Table 1. Table for integrating

_

x

2

sinxdx Table 2. Table for integrating

_

f(x)g(x) dx

Let us now understand the tabular integration through the integration

_

f(x)g(x) dx.

Table 2 is the integration table for this integral. In this table, f

i

(x) denotes the i

th

derivative of the function f(x). While, g

[i]

denotes the i

th

integration (antideriva-

tive) of g(x). From Table 2, the integration is:

_

f(x)g(x) dx = f(x)g

[1]

(x) + f

2

(x)g

[3]

(x)

+ (1)

n

f

n

(x)g

[n+1]

(x) + (1)

n+1

_

f

n+1

(x)g

[n+1]

(x) dx

=

n

i=0

(1)

i

f

i

(x)g

[i]

(x) + (1)

n+1

_

f

n+1

(x)g

[n+1]

(x) dx.

Let us now apply the tabular integration technique for nding the Fourier

series of the following even function:

f(x) = x

2k

, x .

The Fourier series is given as:

(4) f(x) = a

0

+

n=0

[a

n

sinnx + b

n

cos nx].

Here,

a

0

=

1

2

_

f(x) dx, a

n

=

1

n

=

1

f(x) sinnxdx.

Let us rst evaluate a

0

.

a

0

=

1

2

_

i

x

2k

dx =

2

2

_

0

x

2k

dx [since x

2k

is even] (5)

=

1

_

x

2k+1

2k + 1

_

0

=

2k

2k + 1

.

100 S. K. Khattri

Table 3. Table for integrating

_

f(x) cos nxdx. Function f(x) is dierentiated 2k + 1 times,

while cos nx is integrated 2k1 times.

b

n

= 0 since x

2k

sinnx is odd. Let us evaluate a

n

.

a

n

=

1

2

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx [f(x) cos nx is even].

Table 3 is our integration table for the above integral. Integrating by parts 2k + 1

times gives:

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx =

_

f(x)

sinnx

n

+ f

1

(x)

cos nx

n

2

f

2

(x)

sinnx

n

3

f

3

(x)

cos nx

n

4

+ + (1)

k1

f

2k1

(x)

cos nx

n

2k

+ (1)

k

f

2k

(x)

sinnx

n

2k+1

_

0

+ (1)

k+1

_

0

f

2k+1

(x)

sinnx

n

2k+1

dx.

Fourier series and Laplace transform 101

Since sinn = sin0 = 0, the previous integral is equal to

=

_

f

1

(x)

cos nx

n

2

f

3

(x)

cos nx

n

4

+ + (1)

k1

f

2k1

(x)

cos nx

n

2k

_

0

+ (1)

k+1

_

0

f

2k+1

(x)

sinnx

n

2k+1

dx

=

_

k

i=1

(1)

i1

f

2i1

(x) cos nx

n

2i

_

0

+ (1)

k+1

_

0

f

2k+1

(x)

sinnx

n

2k+1

dx.

Now for the function f(x) = x

2k

,

f

2i1

(x) = 2k (2k 1) (2k 2) . . . (2k 2i + 2)x

2k2i+1

=

(2k)!

(2k 2i + 1)!

x

2k2i+1

and f

2k+1

= 0, and thus

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx =

_

k

i=1

(1)

i1

(2k)!

(2k 2i + 1)!

x

2k2i+1

cos nx

n

2i

_

0

.

Since cos n = (1)

n

, we have

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx =

k

i=1

(1)

i1

(2k)!

(2k 2i + 1)!

2k2i+1

(1)

n

n

2i

.

Substituting the above integral in the equation gives a

n

:

a

n

=

2

i=1

(1)

i1

(2k)!

(2k 2i + 1)!

2k2i+1

(1)

n

n

2i

.

Substituting a

0

, a

n

and b

n

in the equation (4) we nally obtain

(6) x

2k

=

2k

2k + 1

=

n=1

_

2

i=1

(1)

i1

(2k)!

2k=2i+1

(2k 2i + 1)!

(1)

n

n

2i

_

cos nx,

for x . Substituting x = 0 and k = 1 in the equation (6) gives:

n=1

(1)

n+1

n

2

=

2

12

.

Similarly, substituting x = and k = 1, resp. x = 0 and k = 2, gives:

n=1

1

n

2

=

2

6

, resp.

n=1

(1)

n+1

n

4

=

7

4

720

.

102 S. K. Khattri

Table 4. Table for evaluating Laplace transform L{sint}.

Let us now apply the technique of tabular integration for nding Laplace trans-

forms. Laplace transform of a function f(t) is dened as

(7) F(s) = L{f(t)} =

_

0

f(t)e

st

dt = lim

T

_

T

0

f(t)e

st

dt.

Let us nd out the Laplace transform of sint. For evaluating it, we can form

Table 4.

L{sint} =

_

0

e

st

sint dt

=

_

e

st

sint

s

e

st

cos t

s

2

_

2

s

2

_

0

e

st

sint dt

. .

L{sin t}

and thus

L{sint}

_

1 +

2

s

2

_

= lim

T

_

sinT

se

sT

cos T

s

2

e

sT

_

. .

0

_

0

s

2

_

,

L{sint} =

s

2

+

2

.

Let us now nd the Laplace transform of t

n

e

at

. Table 5 presents tabular

integration technique for evaluating this transform. Using the table, we obtain

L{t

n

e

at

} =

_

0

t

n

e

(as)t

dt

=

_

t

n

e

(as)t

a s

nt

(n1)

e

(as)t

(a s)

2

+

n(n 1)t

n2

e

(as)t

(a s)

3

+ (1)

n

n! e

(as)t

(a s)

n+1

_

0

=

(1)

n+1

n!

(a s)

n+1

=

n!

(s a)

n+1

.

Fourier series and Laplace transform 103

Table 5. Table for evaluating Laplace transform L{t

n

e

t

}.

For the purpose of exposition, we may see that for s > a:

lim

T

T

n

e

(as)T

a s

= lim

T

T

n

(a s)e

(sa)T

= 0

(applying LHospital rule n times).

REFERENCES

1. D. Horowitz, Tabular integration by parts, The College Mathematics Journal, 21, 1990.

2. L. Gillman, More on tabular integration by parts, The College Mathematics Journal, 22, 1991.

3. G. Thomas, M. Weir, J. Hass, F. Giordano, Thomas Calculus, 11th ed., Pearson Addison

Wesley, 2007.

Stord Haugesund Engineering College, Norway

E-mail : sanjay.khattri@hsh.no

- Linear Regression ReviewUploaded bySam5
- File Handling AssignmentsUploaded bychandni1972
- How to Create and Define Geometry Within Star CCMUploaded byhitokiri_01
- A Short Course on PROBABILITY and SAMPLINGUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- File Handling NotesUploaded bychandni1972
- CalculusUploaded byYashPatel
- Partial DerivativesUploaded byAnik
- Using XPath in C#Uploaded bypjotor
- Permutation and CombinationsUploaded byOmer Ali
- general knowledgeUploaded byNarendra Kumar Dewangan
- Intergal CalculusUploaded byVishay Raina
- Boolean AlgebraUploaded byTejas Bhandari
- ProbabilityUploaded byAnwar Hossain
- Partial DerivativesUploaded bySojharo Mangi
- Calculus..Uploaded byRizwan Iqbal
- Boolean AlgebraUploaded byNGOUNE
- Excel_2010Uploaded bylaltamater
- Boolean AlgebraUploaded byHyann Yanik
- Common AbbreviationsUploaded byJean Lee
- Sp 2013 Hybrid TopologiesUploaded byrfyu9361
- Techniques of Integration Thomas FinneyUploaded byVineet Tanna
- General KnowledgeUploaded byajju2mafia
- Work, Power EnergyUploaded byGrace Adrianne Bacay
- 16-Bit RISC PROCESSORUploaded byCroitoru Adrian
- List of 200 Famous AbbreviationsUploaded bySourabhChauhan
- Read and Write Code for C#Uploaded byFatima Syed
- Thomas Calculus 11th [Textbook + Solutions]Uploaded bySendhilkumar Alalasundaram
- CalculasUploaded byDevashishSingh
- Common AbbreviationsUploaded bymcnover22
- Mathematics DefinationUploaded byNahid

- RT safe work area calculationUploaded byMuhammed Hisham H
- 353-04Uploaded byrhtnimkar
- Pressure Safety Valve Sizing CalculationUploaded byDonni Azhar
- how to draw force diagramsUploaded byapi-262120176
- TalkUploaded byAngel Ruiz Camuñas
- Chemistry EXAM 1 ReviewUploaded byrichardthatcher2011
- Clarus 500 MS Tutorial 09936692aUploaded byLucio Alan Rodriguez Navarro
- americancinematographer13-1933-08Uploaded byCarlos de Menezes Castro
- mine_engineering_rock_mechanics_wp.pptUploaded byJOsé Lüis Hîlârión
- Topsoe High Flux Steam ReformUploaded byAnissa Nurul Badriyah
- Second LR Chemical Tech. II (2015-16) (1)Uploaded bySandipSing
- The International Journal of Engineering and Science (The IJES)Uploaded bytheijes
- cfd1-pt8Uploaded bySeyfullahYıldız
- 6PH01_01_que_20130520Uploaded bySareb Murtada
- Lecture Notes on Statistical MechanicsUploaded byMayukh Kansari
- Pump PerformanceUploaded byfarukh jamil
- IEEE PES - Application of Power Circuit BreakersUploaded bysulemankhalid
- Safety Checklist - MuseumUploaded byGuaspari
- The Art of Black MagickUploaded byhergom
- AntonioUploaded bycindydmjkt
- DissB_7295Uploaded byUrsprasad27
- Go-kart Designing ReportUploaded byPraveen Sah
- LS800-EUploaded byVü Phäm
- Correlation and CovarianceUploaded bySrikirupa V Muraly
- PVB Laminated Glass & Tempered GlassUploaded bySamantha Lim Ai Pei
- Chap1 MicrowaveUploaded byVamsi Krishna Dokku
- MA 579 HM 5Uploaded byXin Zhao
- Power Factor Testing of Stator Winding InsulationUploaded byMichael Parohinog Gregas
- Arthur Young LightAndChoice RefUnivUploaded byAnimos
- 3320902_29122014_025421AM.pdfUploaded byRajnish Kumar