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# 2.14/2.

## 140 Problem Set 6

Assigned: Thurs. March 22, 2007 Due: Thurs. April 5, 2007, in class Reading: Nise sections 10.310.10; Notes Chapters 4,5,6 Reading for 2.140 students: Ziegler and Nichols paper, and section of Franklin and Powell on Ziegler-Nichols tuning. Both available on course web page.

The following problems are assigned to both 2.14 and 2.140 students. Nise Problem 1a Nise Problem 10 a,b Nise Problem 11 a,b Nise Problem 25 Nise Problem 34 Nise Problem 36 Nise Problem 38 Problem 8 Note: The following problem was used as a Doctoral qualifying exam problem in 2005. It is somewhat challenging because the answers are all in terms of the system parameters, as no numeric values are given. Be sure to think about your approach; hand-sketching of the Bode plots is essential. This problem considers the piezoelectric-actuated system shown in Figure 1. Here a massless link pivots without friction as driven by the piezoelectric actuator at a distance l1 from the pivot. A mass M and spring k1 are attached at the right-hand end of the link. The spring k1 is pre-stretched with sucient tension to guarantee that the hemisphere at the end of the piezo remains in contact with the link at all times. The motions x1 , x2 are about the equilibrium established by this preload. All motions are small. Ignore gravity. We further assume that the piezo can be modeled as shown in Figure 2. Here, motion can only occur in the x1 direction. The force source Fp depends upon the applied piezo voltage Ep as Fp = GEp where G has units of N/V . The spring kp represents the nite piezo stiness. a) Calculate the transfer function X2 (s)/Ep (s). Write an expression for the natural fre quency n . Sketch a Bode plot for this transfer function. Note that your expression and plot will include the variables G, kp , M, k1 , l1 , l2 . Note that there is no damping in the problem. b) Use power considerations to derive an expression for the piezo current ip in terms of x1 . (Since the system is driven with a voltage source, this current does not aect the dynamics, but it would need to be considered in choosing the amplier to drive the piezo.)

## Figure 1: System conguration

Figure 2: Model for piezo actuator c) Design a controller of your choice to control position x2 in order to track a reference x2R . This controller must have a closed-loop bandwidth on the order of 10 n , where n is the natural frequency calculated in a), and must have a reasonable damping ratio. Explain your design thinking and document your results carefully. The control input is Ep . Your controller parameters will need to be expressed in terms of the system parameters. d) Now assume that the second-order mode of X2 (s)/Ep (s) has a damping ratio = 0.1. Further assume that we apply a controller of the form Ki /s (not likely the form that you picked in c) above). What is the maximum allowable value of Ki for stability? Sketch a Nyquist plot which allows you to demonstrate this result. Show how this information can be seen on the Bode plot of the return ratio L(s).

The following problems are assigned to only 2.140 students. Students in 2.14 are welcome to work these, but no extra credit will be given.

Problem G1 This problem was used as the ME quals systems oral exam in 2003. In the inverted pendulum system shown below, note that gravity acts in the downward direction as shown. A rigid massless link constrains the mass M to rotate about the pivot shown. The distance from the pivot point to the center of gravity of the mass is L m. The mass has negligible moment of inertia. The horizontal position of the mass in meters is x(t). The system is driven by a position input w(t) m. The input is connected to the mass via the spring k with units of N/m, and via the damper b shown with units of Ns/m. In the problem, we only consider models which describe motions in which x is very small; do not attempt to write models for large motions.
Position input w(t) k Mass position x(t)

pivot

a) For this system, derive a mathematical model which describes the system for small motions. The resulting linear model should have an input w(t) and output x(t). Be sure to take into ac count the eect of gravity. Explain your reasoning. What is the transfer function X (s)/W (s)? b) For what range of k and b is the system stable? c) Now consider the controlled pendulum system shown below.

## Force output F(t) Controller M g

pivot

The controller has inputs of the mass position x(t) and reference command w(t). The con troller outputs a force F (t) which is applied to the mass as shown. Develop a controller which provides an indentical small-motion transfer function X (s)/W (s) to that derived in part a) above. You can feel free to use any linear operation within the controller block. Explain your reasoning for the controller you develop. d) Now assume that a time delay of T sec is introduced into the position measurement before it is received by the controller. How does this aect the stability of the controlled system? Why? Show your analytical reasoning.

Problem G2 Read the paper by Ziegler and Nichols, available on the course web page. Also read the section from Franklin, Powell, and Emami-Naeini which gives a good summary of the tuning rules. You can use Franklin and Powells tuning relations for this problem. Ziegler and Nichols give two forms of the tuning rules for PID controllers. The rst is the ultimate sensitivity method, and the second is based upon the process reaction rate. Use both of these rules to design a PID controller for the following two plants: a) G1 (s) = b) G2 (s) = e2s (10s + 1)(s + 1)(0.1s + 1) 1 (10s + 1)(s + 1)(0.1s + 1)

Recall that esT is the Laplace transform of a time delay T . Assume a PID controller of the idealized form in Franklin and Powell 1 Gc (s) = Kp 1 + + TD s TI s (not realizable due to the unmatched zero, but dont let that bother you). For both of these systems, show us your calculation steps in using the ultimate sensitivity and process reaction rate methods of Ziegler and Nichols. For each of your tunings, use Matlab to plot the closed-loop poles and zeros, the closed-loop step and frequency responses, and the closed-loop Bode plot. Also plot the Bode plot of the return ratio (negative of the loop transmission) for all four tunings. What are the loop phase margin and crossover frequency? (The Matlab margin command will give you these results on a Bode plot.) Comment on the eectiveness of the tuning rules of both of these systems.