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Operators Dictionary

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Operators Dictionary
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................................................ 2
1 A............................................................................................................................................................................ 18
1.1 ABSOLUTE PRESSURE.................................................................................................................................... 18
1.2 ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE............................................................................................................................. 18
1.3 ABSORPTION PROCESS.................................................................................................................................. 18
1.4 ACCELERATOR................................................................................................................................................. 18
1.5 ACCUMULATOR................................................................................................................................................ 18
1.6 ACETYLENE C2H2............................................................................................................................................ 18
1.7 ACID................................................................................................................................................................... 18
1.8 ADDITIVE........................................................................................................................................................... 18
1.9 ADIP................................................................................................................................................................... 18
1.10 ADIP TREATING............................................................................................................................................. 18
1.11 ADSORPTION PROCESS................................................................................................................................ 18
1.12 AEROBIC.......................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.13 AEROMETER................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.14 AGGREGATE................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.15 AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT.................................................................................................................................... 19
1.16 AIR HEAT EXCHANGER.................................................................................................................................. 19
1.17 AIR SWEETENING........................................................................................................................................... 19
1.18 ALCOHOLS...................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.19 ALGAE.............................................................................................................................................................. 19
1.20 ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS........................................................................................................................ 19
1.21 ALKALI............................................................................................................................................................. 19
1.22 ALKALI TEST.................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.23 ALKALINE......................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.24 ALKALINITY...................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.25 ALKYLATION.................................................................................................................................................... 19
1.26 ALLOY.............................................................................................................................................................. 20
1.27 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE ........................................................................................................... 20
1.28 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS .......................................................................................20
1.29 AMINE............................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.30 AMMONIA NH3................................................................................................................................................. 20
1.31 ANAEROBIC..................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.32 ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................................................ 20
1.33 ANHYDROUS................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.34 ANILINE POINT................................................................................................................................................ 20
1.35 ANNEALING..................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.36 ANTIFOAM AGENT.......................................................................................................................................... 20
1.37 ANTI-KNOCK.................................................................................................................................................... 20
1.38 ANTI-KNOCK AGENT...................................................................................................................................... 20
1.39 ANTIOXIDANT.................................................................................................................................................. 20
1.40 ANTI-STATIC ADDITIVE.................................................................................................................................. 21
1.41 API GRAVITY................................................................................................................................................... 21
1.42 AROMATIC BLEND.......................................................................................................................................... 21
1.43 AROMATICS..................................................................................................................................................... 21
1.44 ASH.................................................................................................................................................................. 21
1.45 ASH CONTENT................................................................................................................................................ 21
1.46 ASPHALT.......................................................................................................................................................... 21
1.47 ASPHALTENES................................................................................................................................................ 21
1.48 ASPHALTIC BASE CRUDE OILS..................................................................................................................... 21
1.49 ASPHALTIC BITUMEN..................................................................................................................................... 21
1.50 ASPIRATOR..................................................................................................................................................... 21
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Operators Dictionary
1.51 ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS......................................................................................................................... 22
1.52 ASTM DISTILLATION....................................................................................................................................... 22
1.53 ASTM GUM TEST............................................................................................................................................ 22
1.54 ASTM MELTING POINT................................................................................................................................... 22
1.55 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE........................................................................................................................... 22
1.56 ATOM................................................................................................................................................................ 22
1.57 ATOMISE\......................................................................................................................................................... 22
1.58 ATTEMPERATOR\........................................................................................................................................... 22
1.59 ATTRITION\...................................................................................................................................................... 22
1.60 AUTO IGNITION POINT................................................................................................................................... 22
1.61 AVERAGE BOILING POINT............................................................................................................................. 22
1.62 AVGAS.............................................................................................................................................................. 22
1.63 AVIATION GASOLINE...................................................................................................................................... 22
1.64 AVTAG.............................................................................................................................................................. 23
1.65 AVTUR.............................................................................................................................................................. 23
1.66 AZEOTROPE.................................................................................................................................................... 23
1.67 AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION.......................................................................................................................... 23
2 B............................................................................................................................................................................ 24
2.1 BACK PRESSURE............................................................................................................................................. 24
2.2 BAFFLE.............................................................................................................................................................. 24
2.3 BALANCED DRAUGHT...................................................................................................................................... 24
2.4 BAR OVER......................................................................................................................................................... 24
2.5 BAROMETER..................................................................................................................................................... 24
2.6 BAROMETRIC CONDENSER............................................................................................................................ 24
2.7 BAROMETRIC LEG............................................................................................................................................ 24
2.8 BARREL.............................................................................................................................................................. 24
2.9 BASIC SEDIMENT AND WATER....................................................................................................................... 24
2.10 BATCH.............................................................................................................................................................. 24
2.11 BATCH PROCESS........................................................................................................................................... 24
2.12 BATTERY......................................................................................................................................................... 24
2.13 BATTERY LIMITS............................................................................................................................................. 24
2.14 BEARING.......................................................................................................................................................... 24
2.15 BENZENE C6H6............................................................................................................................................... 25
2.16 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)..................................................................................................... 25
2.17 BIODEGRADATION......................................................................................................................................... 25
2.18 BIOTREATER................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.19 BITUMEN.......................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.20 BLACK PRODUCTS......................................................................................................................................... 25
2.21 BLANK - See Spade......................................................................................................................................... 25
2.22 BLEEDING........................................................................................................................................................ 25
2.23 BLEND.............................................................................................................................................................. 25
2.24 BLENDED FUEL OIL........................................................................................................................................ 25
2.25 BLENDING........................................................................................................................................................ 25
2.26 BLENDING STOCK.......................................................................................................................................... 25
2.27 BLENDING VALUE (ANTI-KNOCK)................................................................................................................. 25
2.28 BLOCK VALVE................................................................................................................................................. 25
2.29 BLOCKED OPERATION................................................................................................................................... 25
2.30 BLOWBACK...................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.31 BLOW-BY......................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.32 BLOWDOWN ................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.33 BLOWER.......................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.34 BLOWN BITUMEN............................................................................................................................................ 26
2.35 BLUE SMOKE................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.36 BOILING POINT (AT A GIVEN PRESSURE)................................................................................................... 26
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..................... 27 2.................................45 BRAKE HORSEPOWER.........................................18 CATALYST POISON............................... 27 2..........................................................................................56 BUNKER FUEL...................................................................................C3......... 27 2.......................................28 CERAMIC BALLS.......................................................................................................................................................................22 CAUSTIC SODA.............................................. 30 3..............................C2........... 29 3........................... 27 2............ 31 3.......................................................................................................................................................................... 28 2..................................................6 CANDLEPOWER.... 29 3........... 30 3.......................................55 BUND WALL......... CENTISTOKES................................... 27 2........... 27 2..........................48 BRINE............................................................................................................................................. 27 2.................................... 26 2...........C4.................................................................................................47 BREATHING........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 2..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 BUTANE DE-ASPHALTING....................................................................................9 CARBON (FIXED CARBON)..................................................46 BREAKER POINT.................54 BULK DENSITY.......................................................................................................25 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR................................................................................................................................ 29 3..26 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP......................................................................................... 29 3................................................24 CENTIPOISE................2 CALIBRATION.............................. 30 3........ 30 3..................19 CATALYTIC PROCESS..12 CARBON MONOXIDE......................................................................................27 CENTRIFUGE................................................................... 26 2..............................................................57 BURNING OIL..........................................................................................................................................................................................................13 CARBURETTOR.....................................................................................................................................................................5 CALORIFIC VALUE.................................................... 28 3 C.............. 29 3................................................................................................................. 30 3...........60 BYPRODUCT......................21 CATHODIC PROTECTION.............41 BOTTLED GAS............................... 30 3............................................ 29 3.........................................23 CENTRIGRADE (CELSIUS) SCALE................................. 29 3.................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 2............................................ 31 3.......................................................... 26 2.......................................58 BUTANE C4H10.....................................................................................................20 CATALYTIC REFORMING.........................................8 CARBON....7 CAPILLARITY.................................................................................................... 27 2................................................3 CALMING SECTION TRAYS.............................................................................................................. 30 3.................. 29 3...................................................................... 28 2.................53 BULK CRUSHING STRENGTH........................................................................................... 31 3.........................................................52 BUG COUNT.............................................Operators Dictionary 2.............40 BOOSTER STATION...................................................................16 CATALYSIS...................38 BOMB.............44 BOX-UP.............................................. 31 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 4 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .................................................................................................................................................49 BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU)............................ 29 3..........................................................................................1 C1..............................51 BUFFER...........................................................39 BOND..............................................................................................................................................................C5............................................. 27 2.............................................................................43 BOX-IN............................................................................................................... 27 2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 CATALYST..............................................................................................15 CASCADE TRAY............................................................................... 30 3..........................................................................................................................4 CALORIE...................................................................................42 BOTTOMS...................................................................................................................14 CARRYOVER..................... 29 3.............................................................................................................................................................. 26 2....................................................................................................................... 30 3.....................................................29 CETANE NUMBER....................................................37 BOILING RANGE............................................................................ 26 2..........................................10 CARBON DEPOSIT......................................................................................................... 27 2...............................................50 BRITOLITE.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 3............................................... 30 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 27 2........................................................... 29 3....................................................................................................................................................... 30 3............................. 26 2.............. 27 2..................................11 CARBON DIOXIDE..... 29 3...................... 29 3.... 31 3...................................

....................................................46 COFFERDAMS......................................................... 33 3.......................................................................................... 31 3............................................................................................................................ 34 3....................................................................81 CREDITORS...................................................................................................... 34 3................................................................................. 32 3......................37 CHROMOMETER ..............................................................55 COMPOUND......73 CONVERSION PROCESSES........................................................................................................................................................... 31 3............................. 33 3.............. 34 3........................................................................................................................ 34 3...................................................... 32 3............................................................... 34 3........................................................................................................71 CONVECTION SECTION.................59 COMPRESSOR...........67 CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION...............................................................................................................................................41 CLOUD POINT............66 CONTINUOUS CATALYST REGENERATOR.................................................................................................................................................................82 CREEP..................................................................................................................................83 CRITERIA REFERENCED INSTRUCTION................................................................................................. 34 3........................................................ 34 3.........................................................................70 CONVECTION........................................................................(CTL).............................................................................................. 34 3............................................................... 32 3.................................................................... 32 3........................................................... 32 3................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 3...................................................................................................................79 COUNTERCURRENT FLOW........................................................................................................................61 CONDENSATION (PHYSICAL)..................... 31 3..................................................................................... 34 3..................... 33 3..................47 COKE........................................................................................................................................................................63 CONDENSER BOX..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................52 COMBUSTION.......................................................... 33 3.................................................................. 34 3..........62 CONDENSER..........................................................................................................................................................................................72 CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTS..........48 COKE DRUM....................... 32 3.................57 COMPRESSION IGNITION.................................45 COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION.........................................................35 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD).......................................................74 COOLER........... 31 3............................................................................................... 31 3.................................................................................................................................................... 33 3................................................................................................................ 32 3......... 32 3.....................................31 CHANNELING....................................................................................................................................... 33 3......................................................33 CHAR VALUE.....................44 COASTAL TANKER Ltd....................................................... 33 3...53 COMBUSTION CHAMBER.......................... 32 3............................................................77 CORRECTED ENERGY & LOSS (CEL)................50 COLORIMETER..................................................................39 CLAUS PROCESS...................................................................................................................................................64 CONDUCTIVITY...........54 COMPATABILITY.............................60 CONDENSATE............36 CHLORINATION..............................69 CONTROLLER.......... 31 3............... 33 3.............................................................................................51 COMBINED FEED RATIO (CFR).......................................................... 33 3.............................................................................................................. 33 3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................32 CHARACTERISATION.................................................................................... 33 3........................................................................................... 34 3........43 COALESCER........................................... 32 3.. 33 3.....................................................................................58 COMPRESSION RATIO...................38 CLADDING................................... 34 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 5 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ...................75 COOLING TOWER...........................78 CORROSION....... 32 3. 31 3..................................................................................................................... 32 3.......................................................30 CFR ENGINE............................................................. 34 3..................... 33 3...................................................................................40 CLEAR GASOLINE.............................................................................................................42 COAGULATION............ 32 3...........................................................................................................................................65 CONGEAL......................56 COMPRESSION............................68 CONTROL LOOP....................................................................................49 COLD FILTER PLUGGING POINT...................................................See Colorimeter...................................... 31 3.........................................................................................................................80 CRACKING........................................Operators Dictionary 3.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 3..................................................... 32 3..........................................................34 CHECK VALVE (NON RETURN VALVE).................................. 31 3............................................................................................................................................................ 32 3...76 COPPER STRIP CORROSION.......................... 33 3......................... 31 3.................................................................. 32 3.........................84 CRITICAL PRESSURE..

.....................................90 CRYSTALISATION..................26 DEWAXING..... 36 4............................92 CURRENT RATE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................93 CUT....................................................................................................................31 DILUENT.85 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE.....96 CYCLONE SEPARATOR..... 35 4 D........................................34 DISTILLATION (fractional)...................................................................................................................................................................................................5 DEBTORS......................................................................................................................................... 35 3.....................22 DETERGENCY.......... 37 4.....................89 CRUDE WAX................................................ 38 4............................25 DEW POINT (at a given pressure)..... 35 3.................................................... 35 3................................................................................................. 36 4............. 37 4..................... 36 4.....................................................................................................21 DESUPERHEATER....................................................91 CUSTODY TRANSFER TANKS.........................................................4 DEARATOR........... 37 4.................16 DENITRIFICATION........................................................................10 DEHYDROGENATION.....................................30 DIFLUOROETHANE............................................... 38 4..................... 36 4................87 CRUDE NAPHTHA.............................................. 37 4.................... 38 4................................................ 36 4.......11 DEIONIZED WATER................................................................33 DISTILLATE............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 36 4..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 DAMPER.............24 DETONATION....................................................................14 DEMULSIFIER......................................................................................................................... 35 3.. 36 4.............................................................See Hydrodesulphurisation...........................15 DEMURRAGE.............. 38 4...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................86 CRITICAL VELOCITY..............................................................39 DIVIDEND COVER.............................................................................................. 38 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 6 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .....................................2 DEACTIVATION...................................... 37 4..................................................38 DISULPHIDE................................................................................. 36 4..................8 DEHYDRATION............................................................................................................................................... 36 4........................................................................ 35 3............................................................................................................................................................... 37 4...... 37 4.............................9 DEHYDROCYCLISATION................................ 34 3.....................................................................................28 DIESEL FUEL..................................................................................................................................41 DOCTOR SOLUTION................................... 38 4......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 4............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 4....................6 DECOMPOSITION....................................... 36 4...........................................7 DEFERRED TAXATION............32 DIPPING............ 38 4....................................................... 38 4...................................................37 DISTRIBUTOR (LIQUID/GAS)........................ 37 4................... 38 4......................................Operators Dictionary 3.................................... 36 4........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 35 3....... 36 4..............................................................40 DIVIDEND YIELD................................. 37 4....................................................................................................... 35 3...................... 35 3.............. 37 4.................................................................................................................................................27 DIESEL ENGINE...... 38 4...... 36 4............................................... 35 3..............................................................3 DEADWEIGHT..................12 DEISOLATION.............................................................................37 4............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 36 4..................13 DEMISTER.........................................................................................94 CUT POINT....................... 37 4.........................................20 DESULPHURISATION .......88 CRUDE OIL TYPES.........................................................29 DIESEL INDEX..17 DENSE BED LOADING...............................................................................................................................................................................36 DISTILLATION LOSS.................................................................23 DETERGENT OIL...................................................................................................... 37 4............................................................... 35 3.............................................95 CYCLISATION............................................................................................................................................... 37 4..........................35 DISTILLATION CURVE.. 36 4.......................................................................................................18 DEOXYGENATION..............................................................................................................................................................................................19 DESALTING........................................................................................ 36 4....................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................... 40 5...........................17 EVACUATION..................................................................................................................................... 40 5............................... 42 6.........................................................................................................4 FEEDSTOCK...................................................................................... 42 6.................................................................................................. 42 6.......................................... 39 4................................12 ENGLER DISTILLATION...................................... 41 5................ 40 5........................... 42 6.......................... 38 4............................................................................................................................................................................................2 FATIGUE............ 41 5.................................................. 40 5...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16 ETHENE............................. 42 6.............................. 40 5.5 FILTER.................................... 41 6 F....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 6......).... 42 6....................................................................................................3 EJECTOR............................................................................................... 39 4....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION CERTIFICATE....................................................................1 FAECAL COLIFORM (F................................................ 43 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 7 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .... 41 5.................................................................................................................12 FLASH.........................42 DOCTOR TREATMENT.....................Operators Dictionary 4........................... 40 5.............................................................................................. 41 5.............................................................................................................................................................................. 42 6..................................10 ENDOTHERMIC.... 41 5....... 40 5..................................................7 EMULSIFIER......7 FIN FAN...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 5...................................................................................... 42 6...................................................... 39 4.......................................................................................27 EXTRAORDINARY ITEMS......... 40 5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 EX SITU REGEN......................................................................................47 DRY GAS...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 FIXED-BED OPERATION......................................................................................14 EROSION......................8 FIRE WALL......................................46 DRAW OFF.................................................................................... 41 5......... 41 5....................................................................................................................................26 EXTRACTOR........................................24 EXTRACTION.............................................................................23 EXTRACT.................................................................18 EVAPORATION........ 42 6............................................................................................................................15 ETHANE C2H6.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 FLOATING ROOF.............................................9 END POINT................................................... 41 5................................................................................................................ 40 5................................................................... 42 6............ 41 5........ 40 5......1 EARNINGS PER SHARE (CENTS).................... 43 6...........21 EXOTHERMIC............................................................... 43 6......................................................................11 FLAMMABLE.........................................................................................................43 DOLPHIN... 41 5...........45 DOWNSTREAM...... 40 5.........................................10 FLAME ARRESTOR.... 40 5......................................................................................................................................................................... 42 6................................................................................................. COLI................................................................22 EXPANSION JOINT...........................................................................................................................16 FLOATING HEAD............................................................44 DOWNCOMER.......................... 40 5............................................................................6 ELECTROLYSIS......................... 39 4................................................................................................4 ELASTOMER......................................................................................................................................................2 ECONOMISER.............................................19 EVAPORATOR................................................................................................................. 42 6...................................25 EXTRACTION DEPTH...............................................3 FEED PREPARATION UNIT..... 39 5 E............................................................................. 42 6....................................................................15 FLEXIBLE VOLATILITY INDEX........................................... 42 6......................................................................................... 40 5.......................................... 41 5............................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 5......................................... 40 5..................6 FILTRATE.....................................................................................................................8 EMULSION..............................................13 FLASH DISTILLATION...11 ENGINE OIL..........................................................................................13 ENTRAINMENT.......................................................................................................................48 DUAL PURPOSE KEROSENE...............................................................................................................28 EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANTS....................................................................................................................14 FLASH POINT....................................................................... 39 4.......................................

.............................................................................................41 FUEL OIL................ 47 8..................................................................................................11 HOT OIL............... 44 6...9 HORSEPOWER........................................................................................................ 46 7...................................................................................................................36 FRESH GAS..... 47 8................43 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SYSTEM.... 44 6.........................................................................................................................................8 GEAR OIL.......................25 FOAMING............. 46 7..............................................................6 HEATER.............................................................................................. 46 7....................................................29 FRACTIONATING COLUMN..... 44 6............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 47 8............................................................................................................................................................................................ 44 6........... 46 7................................10 GOVERNOR..........1 HAMER LINE BLIND.....................................................34 FREEZE POINT........................... 46 7........................................................................ 45 7 G......................19 FLOCCULATION............................................................................................ 43 6......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24 FOAM..............................................................................................................21 FLUE GAS................................................................. 47 8. 43 6.......................................30 FRACTIONATING TRAYS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 44 6......................................................42 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SCHEME.....33 FREE WATER............................... 45 6.............35 FREEZING POINT.....................................................................................32 FREE ON BOARD (FOB)............ 47 8...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 FLOODING............................................................................................ 44 6..................................................18 FLOC..............31 FRACTIONATION............................................................................................................................................ 44 6......................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 8 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ...................................................................................................................................................3 HEAT CAPACITY........................................................................... 45 6..................... 46 7..............................38 FUEL AIR RATIO................................................................................................................................2 GAS HOLDER.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 GLAND.............................................................. 47 8....................................................................................................................................................... 47 8..............4 GAS/OIL RATIO.....................................................................................................................................................5 GASOLINE......................................................................22 FLUID.......................................................................2 HEADER..........................................................................................................................................................11 GRAVITOMETER......................45 FURNACE PASS................................... 43 6............................ 44 6.............................................................................3 GAS OIL............................................................................................................................................................................ 43 6........................................................ 43 6.................................... 47 8............................................10 HORTON SPHERE.......... 43 6.....................................................................8 HIGH VACUUM UNIT..................................................................................................... 45 6...................... 46 7................................................................................................................ 43 6............. 46 7......40 FUEL GAS....................................................37 FRICTION........... 46 7...........................................................Operators Dictionary 6........ 46 7........................................................................................................................................................................................27 FRACTION............................................................13 GUM.................................................................................... 45 6.................................................................................. 46 7............................................................. 47 8...............................................................................6 GAS TURBINE......................................................................... 44 6..............................................................................................................................28 FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION............................................................ 44 6...................................................................................................................... 43 6............................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 6..............................26 FORCED DRAUGHT.............................................................................................................................................1 GAP.................................................................................7 HI-FI TRAYS................................................................................................39 FUEL CELL..................................................................... 43 6....................................................... 44 6...................... 46 7............................. 47 8......... 47 8........................... 44 6...........................................................................7 GATHERING STATION.........................................................................................................5 HEAT OF COMBUSTION.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 FLUID BED OPERATION............................................................................................4 HEAT EXCHANGER..44 FURNACE............................................... 46 8 H....... 43 6........................... 46 7.................12 GRID TRAYS.......................................................

............................................21 HYDRODESULPHURIZATION........................................................................................................................ 51 9..................................................................................................................................................................2 IGNITION QUALITY.............................................................................24 ISO-OCTANE C8H18 (2............................................................... 50 9.................... 52 10...................... 51 9..................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 IMMISCIBLE............................. 48 8.......................................................................................... 50 9..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 9....................................................................................................... 50 9........................................................................................................................... 50 9........................................ 47 8........... 51 9....................................................................................7 INERT ENTRY............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 50 9....................................13 HUMIDITY....22 HYDROGEN..............1 KELVIN........................... 50 9....17 HYDROCARBON.........................................................................................................................3 KETTLE REBOILER................................................................................ 50 9...............................14 IN-LINE BLENDING....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 11.................................. 51 9................................................................. 51 9....................................24 HYDROGEN SULPHIDE....................... 52 10................................... 50 9........ 53 11.....................................................12 INITIAL BOILING POINT. 51 9............................................... 47 8.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 HOT SPOT......................................................................................... 51 9.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 8........................10 INFLAMMABLE.......................................26 HYDROLYSIS.18 HYDROCHLORIC ACID...........3 JET FUEL................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 HYDROMETER...................... 49 8............................................ 53 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 9 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .......... 48 8..........................................................................................................................................................................2 KEROSENE..........4 INCOMPATIBLE.......... 48 8......................................................................................19 HYDROCRACKING...................................................................5 INDIGENOUS FEEDSTOCK...................6 INDUCED DRAUGHT................. 51 10 J..............................................22 ISOMER.......................................................... 48 8...........................................................2 JET ENGINE (see also Gas Turbine).......................................................................................................... 48 8...........................................................................................................................29 HYDROSTATIC TEST...........................................................21 ISOLATE..........................28 HYDROSTATIC HEAD...................................... 50 9.......................................................................................................................................30 HYDROTREATING........................... 49 9 I........................... 48 8.................2.........................................15 INORGANIC.. 51 9..........................................................20 ION EXCHANGE RESINS......................... 50 9...................................8 INERT GAS...................................................................................................................................................................................................23 HYDROGEN BLISTERING................................................................................................... 52 10................................... 52 10...............................................................................51 9...................20 HYDRODEALKYLATION.........11 INHIBITOR.................... 48 8................13 INJECTOR..................................................................... 49 8...... 48 8...............................................................................25 HYDROGENATION ..................................................... 52 11 K.................................................................. 51 9................................................................................................................................................................................................. 48 8.....................................................................................................15 HYDRATION..........................................................14 HYDRATE................................ 48 8....................................................................................................................................................................................23 ISOMERISATION................................................ 50 9..................... 50 9..........................................................................................4 JETTY HOSE.....................................................................................19 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE................................... 48 8.................................................................... 48 8.....1 JET A1........................................................................................................ 50 9....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE).16 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS....................................................Operators Dictionary 8.........................................................................................................................9 INERT FILLER.................................................18 INTERCEPTOR................................... 50 9....................................................................................................................................25 ISOTOPE...................................................................................................................................................................................17 INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM............................ 53 11............................................16 INSITU REGEN.........................................................................1 IGNITION POINT................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 8...............

.................................................. 54 12.......................................................................... 55 12... 58 13...........................................................................................................................12 LIGHT TOPS...........1 LAGGING................................20 MIXER..............................................................................................................................21 LOADING RACK...................................................................... 57 13......................................................................................... 55 12...................................................................................................................24 LOST TIME ACCIDENT (LTI)..........................................................................................................................................18 MISCIBLE... 58 13................................................................................................................................4 LEAD......................................................................................................................30 LUBRICATION............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 54 12......................................................................................... 55 12...... 54 12...............................................................................................................................10 LIGHT DISTILLATE...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25 LOW VISCOSITY INDEX.....................................11 LIGHT ENDS.................................................................................................................................4 KNOCK.....10 METHANOL................................5 KNOCKOUT (DRUM OR VESSEL)............................................................................................... 54 12..........Operators Dictionary 11...................... 58 13........................................................................................... 57 13.................. 55 12.......................................9 METHANE SERIES..............................................................................................................................................................17 LIQUID SEAL..............................19 LIVE STEAM....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 METHANATOR.... 53 11...............14 MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES.............................................................................. 54 12....16 MINERAL OIL.....................................................................................................................................................................................................5 MELTING POINT................................................................................20 LOAD-ON-TOP SYSTEM...................................... 57 13.. 54 12.....................................................22 LOGIC..................................................................... 57 13...............................................................................27 LUBOIL.............................................................. 57 13.............. 54 12....................... 57 13...............12 METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)....................................................................... 57 13.................................................................................... 57 13............................................. 55 12................................................................. 55 12.......................................................................8 METHANE CH4..... 58 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 10 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ......................................................................................................... 54 12........................................................................................ 55 12...................................................................7 LEADED GASOLINE......... 55 12..................................... 58 13.................................15 MIDDLE DISTILLATE...................................3 LATENT HEAT............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57 13...........................................................................2 LASER ALIGNMENT..........................................................................................................29 LUBRICATING OIL....................19 MIXED BASE CRUDE......................................................9 LICHEN.......................................................28 LUBRICANT.......................................................15 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)...........13 LINEAR PROGRAMME (LP)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 13........................................................................................... 55 12...........................................11 METHYL CHLOROFORM...... 54 12....................................................................................................... 57 13.......... 57 13.............5 LEAD ACETATE TEST....................... 55 12....................18 LITRE............3 MANOMETER....................... 54 12..................................... 54 12............................................................................................... 57 13........................................ 54 12..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 LONG RESIDUE..........................................................................4 MASS SPECTROMETER................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 12....................................................................................................................26 LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT...........................17 MINIMUM STOP............................................... 55 12....................................8 LEAN ADIP.......................................................... 54 12. 54 12........................ 56 13 M....................................................................................................................................................... 55 12..............................................................................2 MANIFOLD.............................................................................. 55 12................... 57 13...........................................................................................................................6 LEAD SUSCEPTIBILITY................. 54 12....................................................................................................................................................................13 METRIC SYSTEM.................................................. 55 12................................................6 MERCAPTANS...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 LIQUID PHASE...................................................................................... 58 13............ 58 13.....................................................................................14 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG).............................. 53 12 L.............................................1 M CAP DECK...........................................................

............. 61 14...............................................................3 OIL SHALE........... 62 15......................................................................27 MOTOR OCTANE NUMBER (MON)................................................................................. 58 13................................................9 NET PROFIT AFTER TAX.................................................................................................................................................................... 59 13........................................................................................................... 60 14.....................................................Operators Dictionary 13................................................ 60 14............................................................. 58 13................................................ 60 14........................................................................................................................................................................................... 64 16...........................................................................................13 NITROGEN....................................................................................................................17 NORMALISE............................................25 MOLECULE..................................................................16 NON CUSTODY TRANSFER TANKS....................1 PACKED TOWER............................................................................................................. 62 15............ 62 15................................................................. 60 14..............12 NEUTRON........................................................................................................................................... 62 15.......................................................................................... 64 16....................................................................... 58 13...................... 60 14............................ 62 15...............................................................................................................................................................13 OVERLAP................................6 NATURAL GAS..................................................................24 MOLECULAR WEIGHT............................................11 OUTPUT........................................................................................................... 64 16............................................................................................................. 62 15................................................................................................................................................... 60 14....6 PARAFFIN WAX.............................. 62 15............................................................................ 60 14........29 MULTIGRADE OIL...2 OIL RING...............................................................................................................7 ORGANIC.................................................................................................................. 59 14 N................................ 60 14................................................... 63 15.................................................. 62 15...........................8 ORIFICE METER............................................................... 61 15 O....................................... 60 14....9 ORIFICE PLATE............................................................ 64 16............................................15 NON-ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 NEUTRAL.................................. 64 16.................................10 NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX.................................................................22 MIXTURE............ 61 14..................................................................... 58 13...............................................................28 MOTORISED VALVE.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 NITROGEN BASE.........................................21 MIXING VALVE................................................................................................................................................................ 64 16............ 64 16............... 61 14............................... 62 15.................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 PARTIAL CONDENSER...........................................................................................4 NAPHTHENIC CRUDE............................................................ 60 14.................................7 NATURAL GASOLINE.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 15............9 PENETRATION............ 63 15..............................................................5 NATURAL DRAUGHT.................................................................8 PARTIAL PRESSURE.............................. 60 14....... 64 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 11 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .............................................5 ONCE-THROUGH.....................................................5 PARAFFINS.......... 64 16.........................................1 OCTANE.......................................................................................................................................... 62 15..................................................................................................................................................................... 59 13....................23 MOLE PERCENT..................................................................6 ON STREAM....................................................26 MOTOR GASOLINE..........................3 NAPHTHENIC ACID...........................14 OXIDATION........................... 64 16.........................................................2 NAPHTHENE............................ 59 13......................................................................................................................................................................................15 OXIDIZING FLAME... 62 15.......................................................................................2 PACKING...........1 NAPHTHA..................................................4 PARAFFIN-BASE CRUDE...................................................... 58 13............................3 PALL RINGS..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 OLEFINS................ 60 14.............................................. 62 15........................................................30 MULTISTAGE PUMP......................................................... 61 14.. 60 14.........................................................................................................10 OSMOSIS.............................................. 63 16 P................................................................... 58 13.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 NET ASSET BACKING/SHARE......12 OVERHEADS............................................................................................

...........................................................8 REACTION TIME..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 PRESSURE...32 PREDILUTON (RATIO)............................................................................................2 RADIANT SECTION........................................................................................................................................................................ 65 16....................................... 65 16................................................................................................. 66 16.......................................................................................................................................................... 67 16....................................................................................................................... 65 16..20 PIG .......................................................................................34 PREHEATER...................................... 66 16.............................................................................................................................................................1 QUENCH...........................11 PETROIL MIXTURE (2 STROKE MIX)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 66 16... 66 16.... 64 16........................................15 PETROLEUM SPIRITS.....................................................................................................................................3 QUENCHING OILS............................................................................................................................................................................41 PRIME MOVER.................................................................................................33 PREHEAT............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67 16..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 PETROLEUM..................................................................................40 PRIMARY PROCESS... 69 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 12 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ..................... 66 16........................... 66 16........... 65 16.............. 65 16........ 69 18............................................................................................................................................................. 66 16..................... 69 18............................................ 66 16........................................... 69 18......................................................................................29 POLYMER...................... 65 16............................... 66 16.............. 66 16...........................................................................................................................................................................................36 PRESSURE DROP...42 PROCESS INTEGRATION. 69 18.......................................................39 PRIMARY AIR.................................. 65 16.................................................................................. 69 18................ 69 18.......................................................... 68 17.........................................................................25 PITTING................................ 67 16......................... 64 16.26 PLASTICIZERS..................................................................................................................................7 REACTION.........................................................................................................................................................................23 PISTON......................................................................................28 POLYELECTROLYTE... 67 16..24 PISTON RING............................................................................................ 64 16........................................................................................................................................22 PIPELINE........................................................43 PROMOTER.......21 PILOT PLANT.....................................................................................30 POUR POINT.............................................................................................................. 69 18..................................................... 68 17...........................17 PHENOL.............................................................................................................5 RAFFINATE..... 65 16.......2 QUENCH GAS...12 PETROL..16 PETROLEUM WAX.................... 66 16.......................................................................................................................44 PROPANE C3H8...................................................................... 65 16..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 PRESULPHIDE.................................................................. 67 16....................................................... 66 16....... 65 16....................................................................................................... 66 16.....................................Operators Dictionary 16..3 RADIATION.............................................................14 PETROLEUM NAPHTHA...............................................................................................................................................................31 POWER RECOVERY TURBINE...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 RADICAL.......................................................... 65 16.........................45 PROPYLENE C3H6.................................................47 PUKING........................................................................................................................................... 68 17...................48 PURGING...................................................................................19 pH VALUE......9 REACTOR.................................................................49 PYROPHORIC....................... 65 16............ 67 16..................................................................................................................................................................................................................38 PRIMARY.... 69 18....................................................................................6 RASCHIG RING. 67 16....... 69 18.........................................................................................................................................................................46 PROSS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18 PHOSPHATE.............................................................................................................1 RADIANT ENERGY......................................... 67 17 Q... 68 18 R............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 16.............................................................................................................................. 65 16........27 PLATFORMING................................................10 PERMIT TO WORK .................................................................................. 67 16.............. 66 16............

........21 REFINERS MARGIN ............11 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR...............................1 SAE CLASSIFICATION........................................... 69 18.............28 REFLUX RATIO.........................40 RESIDUE.............................16 RECYCLE OIL.............41 RESIN............................................ 70 18........... 73 19...................................................................................................................................................................35 RELIEF VALVE.................... 69 18................... 72 19 S.............................................................................................................................25 REFINING......................44 RICH ADIP.......................................................31 REFRACTORY BRICK................................................................................................38 RESIDENCE TIME.......................... 73 19........................................................................................................... 72 18.............................. 73 19.............................................................4 SAMPLE.............................................. 73 19.............................................................26 REFLUX....................................... 73 19............................... 73 19....................................................................................................5 SATURATED HYDROCARBON......................................23 REFINERY.. 71 18............................................................... 70 18.................................................................................................................. 70 18..........................................................................................................................................................................34 REID VAPOUR PRESSURE (RVP)...............................................................................Operators Dictionary 18........................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 19...........................................................................................................................................45 RING COMPOUNDS................................................14 RECONTACTING.................................................................................19 REDUCED CRUDE................................................................................................ 71 18..................................................................................................... 73 19. 70 18.. 72 18..... 70 18....................................................................................................... 72 18........................................................................ 71 18.............................................................................................27 REFLUX CONDENSER..... 71 18............................................ 72 18....................................................................................................................12 SECONDARY PROCESS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 RISER............................................32 REGENERATION............................................................................ 69 18....NET...........................................................30 REFRACTORY.................................................................................................................................... 72 18............................... 72 18..................................................................................................................................36 RERUNNING.................................................................................................24 REFINERY FUEL AND LOSS..................................................................................... 71 18...................................................17 RECYCLE RATIO......................15 RECYCLE GAS..............................................9 SCHOEPENTOETER..........................................................................................................................................................49 ROTARY PUMP.................................................... 70 18........................................................................8 SCHEDULING...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 18................47 ROCKET FUEL.......................48 ROTAMETER...18 RECYCLING........................................................................................... 71 18................... 72 18.. 72 18..................................................................................................................... 71 18..................33 REGENERATOR......................12 RECIPROCATING PUMP......................................39 RESIDUAL FUEL OIL...........................................................................................................................................................50 RUNDOWN TANK..................................22 REFINERS MARGIN ...................... 71 18............................................................ 70 18.. 73 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 13 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ................................................................................................................ 70 18....42 RETAINED EARNINGS.................................................................................................................. 70 18................................................................................................................................. 69 18...................... 71 18......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 18............................................................................... 73 19.......................................... 70 18................................................................................... 73 19...................................................................................................................................................... 73 19.............................................................................10 SEAL............................................................43 RETURN BEND ....................................37 RESEARCH OCTANE NUMBER (RON)...............................29 REFORMING........6 SATURATION TEMPERATURE............................................................................................................................................................ 70 18..........GROSS...........................................................................................................................................................................................................2 SAFEGUARDING ..................................................................................................7 SCAVENGERS................... 69 18........................................... 71 18.................................................................... 72 18...............11 SECONDARY AIR........................................................................................ 70 18........................................20 REDUCTION....................................................... 70 18........................................3 SALT.......................................................................................................................................................... 73 19................................................................................................................... 71 18................................................................................................................................10 REBOILER..............................................................13 RECLAIMER.............................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................. 76 19............................. 74 19.56 STABILISATION.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 STABILISED GASOLINE......................................................................................................................................................................55 SPOT........................................................................................................................... 74 19.......................................................................41 SOUR CRUDE... 77 19......................................................................................................................................................37 SOLVENT............................................................................... 75 19.......................................................................................................................................... 74 19........................ 74 19...............................................................26 SIEVE TRAYS......46 SPADE....................................................................................................................................................................... 75 19.................19 SETTLING POINT.................. 76 19......... 76 19...................... 75 19.......................................................................................................................................................................27 SIGHT GLASS.. 75 19.................... 77 19........................... 75 19.....................................................................................31 SLOPS........... 75 19...............................................................................................................................................................................66 STEAM/AIR DECOKING............................................................................................................. 76 19................................................................................................................................21 SHAREHOLDERS INVESTMENT............................................... 76 19...................................................................................................................... 74 19................................................................................................................................ 75 19............................................50 SPECIFIC GRAVITY........................................................................20 SETTLING TANK ......................................................................................................54 SPLITTER............................................................................................................ 77 19...................................................................................................... 77 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 14 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ..................... 75 19................................................ 75 19.................................................67 STEAM DISTILLATION.......................................................... 76 19...............................32 SLUDGE........33 SMOKE POINT..... 77 19....................................................................................................................43 SOUR GASOLINE....................62 STANDARD REFINERY FUEL (SRF)......................................... 76 19............................................................................63 STAND-BY........18 SETTLER..................................................25 SIDESTREAM...........................................................22 SHIFT REACTION.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 19........................................................................................................................................................Operators Dictionary 19................................................................................................................................................ 74 19.. 76 19....... 77 19...................................................................................... 77 19.................29 SLACK WAX.......................................................................................... 74 19.................................................38 SOLVENT EXTRACTION............................................................................................................................................................................65 STATIC ELECTRICITY.................................................47 SPALLING................................................................................................. 77 19..................................... 77 19.........................................61 STANDARD PRESSURE........................................................................34 SOLAR ENERGY...................................................................................................................... 75 19....................28 SILVER STRIP.......36 SOLUTION........................................................................................ 75 19.............................................................................. 77 19..................................................14 SENSIBLE HEAT.........................................................................................................15 SEPARATOR...............................................................................................................................................58 STABILITY........................................................................................................ 75 19..................... 74 19........... 74 19...................40 SOOTBLOWER...................................24 SIDE STRIPPER...............................................................................................................35 SOLUBLE OIL.................................44 SOUR WATER.... 76 19............ 76 19............................................................................................................................................................................ 74 19.......................................................................................................................................60 STADIS..................................16 SEPARATION INDEX........................................................ 74 19........................................52 SPECTACLE...............................42 SOUR GAS............................................................... 77 19.............................................................. 74 19....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 SPECIFIC HEAT...........................................................................................................53 SPHERE ................................................................. 76 19................................................................ 75 19.................................................49 SPARK ADVANCE...............................................SEE HORTON SPHERE.................................................................................................................................................................................. 76 19........................................................................... 74 19... 76 19................................45 SPACE VELOCITY.....23 SHORT RESIDUE........................................................................................................................................................................17 SEPARATION PROCESSES.................................................................................................................. 74 19.......................................................64 STAND PIPE.........48 SPARGE...........................................................59 STABILISER..............39 SOLVENT/FEED RATIO..............................13 SEIZE................... 75 19.................................................................................................................................................... 77 19................30 SLIDE VALVE................................................... 76 19.............................

.............................................................................................................................................................. 78 19................... 79 19............. 78 19....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 19............. 78 19....................................................................... 77 19.............................................22 TOWER.............................................................................................20 TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC)........ 79 19................................................................................................................... 79 19..................................................................................................................................................................... 78 19.................. 80 20......................................................................................................................6 TEMPERATURE..................................................................................... 78 19.......................93 SWEET GAS............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 80 20.......................... 80 20............................................................. 80 20........................88 SURFACRANTS........................................86 SURFACE AREA............... 81 20................... 81 20.............................................................................................80 SULPHIDE........................................................................................................................................ 80 20................................................................................ 79 19.....................................................23 TRANSFER LINE..........96 SYNTHESIS...........................................................................................1 TANK CAR.............................................................................75 STRIPPING............................................................................................89 SURGE...............................................4 TANKAGE.......................................8 TEROMAN...... 81 20..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 STREAM DAY.......................................... 80 20................Operators Dictionary 19........................................................................................... 80 20...................................................................................... 80 20........16 TONNAGE (MARINE)................ 80 20........................... 79 19............................................................................................................ 81 20........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77 19..................................... 78 19...........73 STRAPPING.........................................................................................................................................................76 STUFFING BOX......................................... 79 19..................................82 SULPHUR CEMENT................................................71 STRAIGHT-RUN.......................................................................................................... 79 20 T............ 80 20.....................77 SULFINOL PROCESS......................... 79 19......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 TORQUE............................... 78 19.................................................................................................... 78 19....................................................................................................................................................13 THERMOCOUPLE................................. 79 19................................................................................................................... 80 20.............................................................................................................................68 STEAM REFORMING........................................................ 78 19.................................................................................................................24 TRANSFORMER OIL..................... 80 20........ 81 20.......................72 STRAINER...............................................................................................................85 SUPERHEATER..................................................................................... 78 19.........................12 THERMAL CRACKING..........................................91 SURGE PARAMETER. 81 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 15 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ................94 SWEETENING.............................87 SURFACE TENSION...............................................................15 TOLUENE C6H5CH3......................................................................................................................................................... 81 20........................... 80 20........................................................................................................5 TANKER................................... 81 20................ 79 19............................................................................. 78 19....................................................... 81 20...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 20..........78 SULFOLANE.......................................................................................10 TETRAMETHYL LEAD (TML).................95 SYNFUEL .............................................................2 TANK FARM................................................................11 THERM........................................83 SULPHUR DIOXIDE...................79 SULPHATE......... 81 20.........................................18 TOPS....................................21 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS).................81 SULPHUR............. 79 19.............................................92 SUSPENSION............................................................................................................9 TETRAETHYLLEAD (TEL).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 STEEL........................................................................................................................84 SULPHURIC ACID..............................3 TANK VOLUME....................................................................................................................................................................................70 STONEWALL...................................................... 80 20...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 19.................................................................. 78 19...................90 SURGE DRUM.................................................................................................................................7 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT........................................ 78 19............... 79 19.........14 THERMOSTAT..................................................................................................................17 TOPANOL......................................................................................................................

.............. 85 22......................................................................................................................................................13 VAPORISATION................................................................. 85 23 W............................................. 86 23..................................... 85 22............................11 WET GAS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86 23...................... 84 22.................................................................................................... 86 23.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 VAPOUR LINE...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 WHITE SPIRITS....... 87 23............................................................. 84 22.......................................................... 86 23................................... 82 20............................. 83 21................................................30 TURBINE.......................................................................................................... 86 23....................................................................................... 81 20.................................... 83 21.......................................................... 86 23...........................12 WHESSOE............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................86 23.. 86 23.........................................................................................................................................33 TURNAROUND...................................................................................................................6 VALVE TRAYS............ 81 20..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34 TURN DOWN..............................................................................................26 TRAYS..............25 TRAP.......................6 WAXY DISTILLATE.17 VISCOSITY......................................................................................................................................................................... 85 22..................................................... 83 21............... 82 20............................................10 WEIR...18 VISCOSITY INDEX.............................................................13 WHITE OIL... 84 22.........................7 WEAR..............................................................................2 VACUUM................................................................................................................................................. 82 20..................................3 WASTE HEAT BOILER.......................................................................................... 84 22.......................................... 82 20.................................................................................................................. 84 22................ 84 22................................... 84 22........... 88 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 16 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ...........................................................................84 22......9 WEIGHTED AVERAGE BED TEMPERATURE (WABT)............... 86 23..16 WIDE RANGE DISTILLATE....................................... 86 23..............................................14 VENTURI METER..........................................................................................................5 VALVE............................................................................................................................................. 86 23..................................................................................................1 V50......................................................... 85 22.........................................................................................................10 VAPOUR LOCK.................. 81 20............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 TRIP SYSTEM.......................................................................................3 UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT..................... 84 22..............................................................................................................8 VAPOUR DENSITY....................... 86 23....................................... 86 23..12 VAPOUR PRESSURE (AT GIVEN TEMPERATURE).......... 84 22............ 84 22.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 VENTURI TUBE...................................31 TURBINE OIL..................................14 WHITE PRODUCTS..............................................2 WASH WATER..................Operators Dictionary 20......................16 VISCOSIMETER................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 84 22................................................................................................. 83 22 V.................. 82 20......................................................................... 85 22................................................................................................29 TRYCOCKS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 84 22............8 WEATHERING................5 WATER SOFTENING...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 VOLATILE.................................................................... 86 23........................32 TURBOJET ENGINE..............................................................................27 TREATING PROCESSES..4 VALENCE........................................2 UNSATURATED.4 WATER BOTTOM...................... 83 21................................................................................. 86 23................................................17 WORK SAFE AUDIT......................................................................................................... 82 20........................................................7 VAPOUR.........................................................................................3 VACUUM DISTILLATION......................................................................................................4 UPSTREAM............... 82 21 U.................................................................................... 87 24 X...................11 VAPOUR PHASE.................................................................................................................................................................. 86 23...................................1 ULLAGE....................................................... 84 22.......................................................................................................................................................1 WASH OILS....

................................................................................................................................................... 89 25......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 24................1 XRAY............................................................. 89 26 REGULARLY USED ABBREVIATIONS..........................................2 YIELD..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 YARD PIPE (YP).......................................................................... 97 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 17 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 ........................................................................................... 95 28 REFINERY STATISTICS... 89 25......................................2 XYLENE C6H4 (CH) 2......................................................................................Operators Dictionary 24...................... 88 25 Y........................ 90 27 REFINERY THROUGHPUT 1989 AND 1998.........................................................................................

Operators Dictionary 1 A 1.10 ADIP TREATING A process for removal of hydrogen sulphide from hydrocarbon gases and LPG by a specific regenerable solvent. 1.g.2 ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE A temperature at which zero is a condition absolutely free of heat and equivalent to -459oF or –273oC.7 ACID A member of an important and fundamental category of chemical substances characterised by having an available reactive hydrogen and requiring an alkali to neutralise them.5 ACCUMULATOR A vessel for the temporary storage of a gas or liquid. 1.9 ADIP Shell trade name for aqueous DIPA solution. by which certain components of a gas are condensed in an absorption liquid (lean oil) with which the gas is brought into contact. to a certain extent. 1. 1. For example. The absorption liquid with the absorbed components is called fat oil.4 ACCELERATOR 1. Carbon dioxide and. (Atmospheric pressure being 1 bar absolute). To convert temperature on Fahrenheit or centigrade scales to degrees absolute. usually by acting as a catalyst. Any of several automobile attachments for increasing the speed at will. 1. PSA units. 1. Several important intermediates have been synthesised from acetylene but a cheaper route via ethylene has now been developed for many of them. 1. 1. like vinegar. A substance that hastens a reaction. The fat oil leaves the bottom of the absorber and is separated from the absorbed components in a following fractionator (Regenerator) whence the fresh lean oil is returned to the absorber. as in the vulcanization of 2. rubber. e.1 ABSOLUTE PRESSURE Pressure measured with respect to zero pressure.8 ADDITIVE A substance added to a product in order to improve its properties. Acid solutions usually have a sour. The solvent employed is an aqueous DIPA solution. a weak chemical reaction. Adip and Sulfinol Processes for H2S + CO2 removal. carbonyl sulphide can be removed at the same time. 1.3 ABSORPTION PROCESS A separation process. 2 Bar gauge (i. atmospheric) is equivalent to 3 Bar absolute. 1.11 ADSORPTION PROCESS A fractionation process based on the fact that certain highly porous materials preferentially adsorb certain types of molecules on their surface.e. especially a footoperated throttle. as distinct from pressure measured with respect to some standard pressure such as atmospheric pressure.6 ACETYLENE C2H2 A highly unsaturated hydrocarbon gas usually made by the action of water on calcium carbide and by pyrolysis of natural gas. It is largely used in industry for cutting and welding metals. usually used for collecting sufficient material for a continuous charge to some refining process. Thus. biting and tart taste. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 18 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . add 459 or 273 respectively.

opposite to acidic.16 AIR HEAT EXCHANGER A heat exchanger in which air is used as the cooling medium.22 ALKALI TEST A test to determine the presence or absence of free alkali in finished oils after chemical purification.12 AEROBIC Existing in the presence of oxygen. 1. 1.24 ALKALINITY The amount of free alkali in any substance.17 AIR SWEETENING In this process sour gasoline fractions are sweetened by dissolving air in the hydrocarbon phase followed by contacting with a strong NaOH aqueous solution. calcium. They can react with acids to form esters. 1. and strontium. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 19 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 1. 1. The term includes paraffins and olefins and provides a distinction from aromatics and naphthenes which have at least some of their carbon atoms arranged in closed rings.Operators Dictionary 1.15 AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT Asphalt produced by blowing air through residual oils or similar mineral oil products at moderately elevated temperatures. is united with either an aromatic molecule or a branched-chain hydrocarbon. they have the power of neutralising acids and forming salts with them and of turning red litmus blue.14 AGGREGATE As applied to non-bituminous materials. the term is applied only to hydroxides of ammonium. They are soluble in water. Usually catalysed by Hydrofluoric or Sulphuric acid. the term is also applied to the hydroxides of the so-called alkaline earth metals barium.23 ALKALINE Having the properties of an alkali. potassium. and sodium. which is called an alkyl group or radical. any substance having marked basic properties. etc. of which ethyl alcohol (the alcohol of potable spirits and wines) is the best known. such as pond scum’s. which may be branched. 1. with which cementing material is mixed to form a mortar or concrete. 1.13 AEROMETER An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air or other gases.20 ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are arranged in open chains. 1. In its restricted and common sense. such as sand. 1. lithium. They are largely used as solvents. In a more general sense. Used for detergent or petroleum manufacture. gravel.19 ALGAE Plants of the group comprising practically all seaweed’s and allied freshwater or nonaquatic forms. the inert material. 1. 1. The reaction products formed are disulphides which dissolve in the sweetened gasoline and water remaining in the aqueous phase. stoneworts. 1.21 ALKALI In chemistry. or broken stone.25 ALKYLATION A reaction in which a straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbons group. 1.18 ALCOHOLS A class of organic compounds containing oxygen (as a hydroxyl).

NH3 is of extremely pungent smell and taste and is very soluble in water.34 ANILINE POINT The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of the chemical aniline and a petroleum product. usually by being fused together and dissolved in each other when molten. but is used at NZRC for pH control in various processes. 1.29 AMINE Hydrocarbon with attached Ammonia group having absorbent properties.35 ANNEALING Heating and slowly cooling to increase the ductility or remove internal stresses. Anti-knock value is measured in terms of octane number of gasoline engines and of cetane number for diesel fuels.30 AMMONIA NH3 Ammonia is manufactured by the direct combination of hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure over a catalyst.33 ANHYDROUS Free of water. intimately united. when added in small amounts to the fuel charge of an internal-combustion engine.37 ANTI-KNOCK An adjective signifying resistance to detonation (pinking) in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. or of a metal and a nonmetal. making it useful in treatment processes (ADIP. In conjunction with API gravity the aniline point may be used to calculate the net heat of combustion of aviation fuels or the diesel index of diesel fuels. etc.38 ANTI-KNOCK AGENT A chemical compound such as tetramethyl-lead which. as of metal or glass. 1. having as its object the study of the arts and sciences connected with the petroleum industry in all its branches and the fostering of foreign and domestic trade in American petroleum products. 1. 1. 1. Antifoam agents are used in some lubricating oils.26 ALLOY A substance composed of two or more metals. SULFINOL). 1. 1. The lower temperature at which an oil product is completely miscible with aniline in a 1:1 volumetric ratio. 1. 1.27 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE An association incorporated in the United States. At NZRC.31 ANAEROBIC Existing in an oxygen free condition. 1. to inhibit oxidation. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 20 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .32 ANALYSIS The process of determining the composition of a substance by chemical or physical methods.28 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS An association incorporated in the United States for promoting knowledge of the properties of engineering materials and for standardising specifications and methods of testing. Anhydrous ammonia is mainly used for the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilisers.36 ANTIFOAM AGENT An additive used for controlling foam. 1. lubricating oil.Operators Dictionary 1. 1. A colourless. used as additives in ADIP. Sulphinol and BDU Units. gaseous compound. 1.39 ANTIOXIDANT A chemical added to gasoline. tends to lessen knocking.

notably in Kerosene. These hydrocarbons are called aromatics because many of their derivatives have an aromatic odour. toluene. or some other fluid or gas past an orifice opening out of the chamber in which the vacuum is to be produced. but soluble in carbon disulphide. each of the latter having one valency outside the ring. They are of relatively high specific gravity and possess good solvent properties. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 21 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . At NZRC .49 ASPHALTIC BITUMEN The full name for bitumen adopted by the Permanent International Association of Road Congresses.41 API GRAVITY In the USA an arbitrary scale known as the API degree is used for reporting the gravity of a petroleum product. Gr.5 Sp.40 ANTI-STATIC ADDITIVE An additive for reducing static properties.48 ASPHALTIC BASE CRUDE OILS Crude oils which contain little or no paraffin wax but usually contain asphaltic matter. 1. 3.46 ASPHALT This term may have several meanings: 1. 1.42 AROMATIC BLEND A mixture made by the addition of a component or stock essentially aromatic in nature to impart to the mixture some property of the aromatic. as prepared for the construction of roads or for other purposes.very heavy fuel oil produced as bottom product from BDU (short residue with DAO removed). phenol (all mono-aromatics) and naphthalene (a di-aromatic). steam. The degree API is related to the specific gravity scale (15°C/15°C) by the formula: Degree API = 141. These occur in the solid or semisolid form in nature: are obtainable by refining petroleum. In the United States it refers to the product which is known as bitumen elsewhere. If these valencies are occupied by hydrogen atoms.131. Now often referred to as naphthene base crude oils. Certain aromatics have valuable anti-knock characteristics.47 ASPHALTENES Polyaromatic constituents of asphaltic bitumen characterised by being insoluble in aromatic-free low-boiling petroleum spirit.50 ASPIRATOR An apparatus which serves to create a partial vacuum through pumping a jet of water. xylene. Aromatics can cause smoke and freeze point problems in Kerosene. 1. or are combinations with one another or with petroleum or derivatives thereof. hydrocarbon radicals.43 AROMATICS A group of hydrocarbons characterised by their having at least one ring structure of six carbon atoms. 1.44 ASH The solid residue left when combustible material is thoroughly burned. 1. Typical aromatics are: benzene. It refers to a mixture of bitumen and mineral aggregate.45 ASH CONTENT The percent by weight of residue left after combustion of a sample of a fuel oil or other petroleum oil. 1. 1. 2.5 1.Operators Dictionary 1. or inorganic groups one speaks of condensed aromatics. 1. 1. Black to dark-brown solid or semisolid cementitious material which gradually liquefies when heated and in which the predominating constituents are bitumens. 15°C/15°C .

especially. (equivalent to approx. inclusive. 1. a distillation test made on such products as gasoline and kerosene to determine the initial and final boiling points and the boiling range.51 ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS Natural gas associated with oil accumulations by being dissolved in the oil under the reservoir temperatures and pressures (solution gas) and often also be forming a gas cap of free gas above the oil (gas cap gas). More specifically.57 ATOMISE\ To divide a liquid into extremely minute droplets. or 30in. Any gum test carried out in accordance with an ASTM gum test procedure. According to present theory. 1.63 AVIATION GASOLINE Any of the special grades of gasoline suitable for use in certain aeroplane engines. yet retain all physical and chemical properties of the element.60 AUTO IGNITION POINT The temperature at which the vapour given off by a sample will ignite in air without any ignition source. the pressure at which the mercury barometer stands at 760mm. 1. 14.54 ASTM MELTING POINT The temperature at which wax first shows a minimum rate of temperature change. the pressure of the air at sea level. the sum of the ASTM distillation temperatures in steps of 10°C from the 10-percent point to the 90-percent point.Operators Dictionary 1.61 AVERAGE BOILING POINT Unless otherwise indicated. Granular catalysts or absorbents may suffer such attrition as a result of movement. Not made by NZRC.53 ASTM GUM TEST 1. 2. and. the atom consists of a nucleus of neutrons and positively charged protons. 1. 1. divided by 9. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 22 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .62 AVGAS High octane aviation gasoline for piston type engine. Sometimes half the initial and half the maximum distillation temperatures are also added. An analytical method for determining the amount of existing gum in a gasoline by evaporating a sample from a glass dish on an elevated temperature bath with the aid of circulating air. or by passing through some mechanical device. and the sum then divided by 10. 1. 1. As a standard. 2. or the state of being so worn or ground.58 ATTEMPERATOR\ See Desuperheater. 1. 1. 1. Not made by NZRC. either by impact with a jet of steam or compressed air. 1.59 ATTRITION\ The act of wearing out by rubbing or grinding. also known as the English melting point.52 ASTM DISTILLATION Any distillation made in accordance with an ASTM distillation procedure.56 ATOM The smallest complete particle of an element which can be obtained. 3.7 psi).55 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 1. 1. The pressure of air. surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons.

Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 23 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .67 AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION A distillation process characterised by the fact that the relative position of the components boiling points is influenced by the addition of a compound which selectively forms an azeotrope with one or a group of the components. 1. used in the extraction of aromatics.66 AZEOTROPE Two (or more) components are said to form an azeotrope if there is a mixture of those components which has no boiling range but whose boiling point and dew point are the same.Operators Dictionary 1. forms an azeotrope with water. The added compound is called the azeotrope former. Not made by NZRC.65 AVTUR Kerosene type aviation turbine fuel. 1. 1. gasoline type. about identical to the JP 4 type fuel.64 AVTAG Wide range aviation turbine fuel. (Jet A1). E. furfural.g.

It is measured in all incoming feedstocks. Such processes involve intermittent. 2. and foreign matter.Operators Dictionary 2 B 2. The pressure on the outlet or downstream side of a flowing system. causing loss of power. 42 US gallons or 159 litres.12 BATTERY A series of individual items of refinery equipment operated as a unit. and defines the limits beyond which this shall be done by the refinery. bottom settlings. It produces a partial vacuum in refinery equipment such as a vacuum distillation unit. BAFFLE A partial restriction.3 BALANCED DRAUGHT A method of furnace air control using both forced and induced draught fans. 2. 2.7 BAROMETRIC LEG Water filled tube for sealing vacuum systems.14 BEARING A support for holding a shaft in its correct position.10 BATCH Any quantity of material handled or considered as a unit in processing. 2.8 BARREL A standard measure of crude oil quantities.4 BAR OVER To manually or mechanically rotate a compressor or turbine to ensure free movement or enable even heating/cooling. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 24 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 2.13 BATTERY LIMITS A term used when a unit or a battery is to be built in a refinery by an outside contractor or construction company. located so as to change direction. guide the flow. In an engine. thrust bearings to control axial movement. 2.1 BACK PRESSURE 2. equivalent to 35 imperial gallons. Examples: journal bearings to confine radial motion. Also defines plant interface limits. as contrasted to continuous operation. 2. or promote mixing within the equipment in which it is installed. the pressure which acts adversely against the piston.11 BATCH PROCESS Any process in which a quantity of material is handled or considered as a unit. usually composed of oil. 2. Also called bottoms. generally a plate. 2. 2. and "rolling element" bearings which are used in both services.9 BASIC SEDIMENT AND WATER The heavy material which collects in the bottom of storage tanks. It specifies the area within which the contractor shall supply all services. etc. water. 2.5 BAROMETER An instrument employed to determine atmospheric pressure.6 BAROMETRIC CONDENSER A device for condensing steam by direct contact with water. 2.2 1. (See also Liquid Seal). 2.

20 BLACK PRODUCTS Fuel oils. 2. 2. it gradually softens when heated. styrene. 2. usually by opening a valve slightly. or as extracts from.19 BITUMEN A non-crystalline solid or semi-solid cementitious material derived from petroleum.18 BIOTREATER Process for biological degradation of effluent water. e.28 BLOCK VALVE A valve used for isolation of equipment. cracked gasoline. This property is known as the blending value.24 BLENDED FUEL OIL A mixture of residual and distillate fuel oils. and synfuel among others. 2.22 BLEEDING Divert or release a small portion of the material contained in a line or vessel.27 BLENDING VALUE (ANTI-KNOCK) Some anti-knock blending agents possess the property of apparently increasing the rated octane number of certain gasoline base stocks to a higher octane number than their own value in terms of octane numbers.See Spade 2. It is used in the manufacture of a large number of chemicals including phenol. These include: straight-run gasoline.g. 2.29 BLOCKED OPERATION The use of a single process unit alternately in more than one operation. 2. bitumen’s and residues. 2. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 25 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Operators Dictionary 2. Bitumen’s are black or brown in colour. 2.25 BLENDING Mixing of the various components in the preparation of a product of required properties. selected petroleum oils. They may occur naturally or may be made as end products from the distillation of.26 BLENDING STOCK Any of the stocks used to make commercial gasoline. 2. consisting essential of compounds composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon with some oxygen and sulphur.17 BIODEGRADATION Degradation of solid materials by bacterial consumption. 2.16 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) Important water test that shows the amount of bio-degradable matter in the water.21 BLANK . the products of a refinery are blended to suit market requirements. 2. detergent alkylate and insecticides and is a major component of platformate.23 BLEND Any mixture prepared for a special purpose. Amount of oxygen required by aerobic organisms for breakdown of organic matter in water over a 5 day period.15 BENZENE C6H6 The parent compound of the aromatic hydrocarbon series. 2. 2.

2.34 BLOWN BITUMEN A type of bitumen prepared by the oxidation of short residues.43 BOX-IN To isolate a piece of equipment. also called cold smoke. indicating that only a part of the fuel is being burned.38 BOMB A small pressure vessel.e. thus eliminating vaporisation. Further heating of the liquid at its boiling point results in evaporation of part or all of the liquid. corrosion or plugging. Electrically.37 BOILING RANGE Petroleum products (which are mixtures of many compounds. butane or propane. 2. In graphic chemical formulas. 2.30 BLOWBACK A system in which a liquid or a gas is continuously bled through the lead lines of an instrument meter into the main line.40 BOOSTER STATION An auxiliary station consisting of suitable storage tanks. 2. This prevents the main line fluid from coming in contact with the meter body. 2. or butane-propane mixtures. it is often represented by a short line or dash. 2. contained in a closed vessel under a given pressure. the escape of combustion gases or unburned fuel from the combustion chamber past the pistons and rings into the crankcase during the power stroke or the compression stroke. continuos blowdown indicating blowdown from the Steam Drum or Scum level. normally by blowing air at an elevated temperature. 2. liquefied and bottled under pressure for domestic use. 2. 2. each having a different boiling point) do not have a simple boiling point but have a boiling range instead.36 BOILING POINT (AT A GIVEN PRESSURE) The temperature at which a liquid. 2.32 BLOWDOWN The act of flushing or clearing a piece of pressurised equipment by blowing to a drain (or similar).Operators Dictionary 2. the temperature range from boiling point to dew point. a common grounding system e.39 BOND 1. Chemically. motive power and pumps for pumping oil through pipelines.33 BLOWER Usually an enclosed fan used in a forced/induced/balanced draught furnace to provide the combustion air.41 BOTTLED GAS Ordinarily.42 BOTTOMS The bottom product from a distillation of petroleum. and Intermittent Blowdown from the bottom header of a boiler. will form a first bubble of vapour on the addition of heat. 2.g. 2. such as used for taking samples of HP gases and LPG. Term is often used by Boilermen. usually by block valves. 2.35 BLUE SMOKE A blue exhaust smoke from a diesel engine. i. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 26 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Bonding wires used between fuel tanker and petrol station ground tanks or airport delivery systems and aircraft. a unit link between atoms. 2.31 BLOW-BY In internal-combustion engines. also the liquid layer left in a tank or similar container after draining to the level of the pump suction.

2. 2.57 BURNING OIL An illuminating oil. belts. This double action is referred to as "breathing" of the tank. 2. some of the liquid contents evaporate. maintenance.48 BRINE Water which is nearly saturated with salts.44 BOX-UP The act of closing up a piece of refinery equipment following construction. The excess vapour thus formed is blown out to the atmosphere. etc. such as kerosene. 2. A chemical used to maintain another within set limits of (e. 2.Operators Dictionary 2. 2. the less volatile components of the vapour contents condense and a slight vacuum is created.) pH. causing air from outside to be sucked into the tank. etc.54 BULK DENSITY The weight of solid particles which can be held by a container of known dimensions compared to the weight of water which can be held by the same container.55 BUND WALL See Fire Wall. mineral seal oil. 2. 2.49 BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1lb of water through 1°F.45 BRAKE HORSEPOWER That horsepower delivered by an engine to a brake or dynamometer.56 BUNKER FUEL Any fuel oil or diesel fuel taken into the bunkers of ships. 1.000 Btu = 252 kcal. 2.47 BREATHING When a storage tank containing volatile products is heated by solar radiation.52 BUG COUNT Microscopic estimation of active bacteria in a sample. inspection etc. 3 A device to polish the floor. A vessel for temporary storage of liquid (buffer drum). suitable for burning in a wick lamp. gear teeth. On cooling. Manufactured from hydrocracked Naphtha and Tops. 2. 2.46 BREAKER POINT The point of contact actuated by a cam to break the primary circuit in the ignition system and thereby cause a current surge in the secondary circuit which produces the spark. It is less than the indicated horsepower by the amount lost in transmission bearings. 4 An old Navel name for a person in-charge of the deck of a Ship. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 27 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 2.51 BUFFER 1. 2. 2.53 BULK CRUSHING STRENGTH Test to determine the mechanical strength of a catalyst.50 BRITOLITE A drying solvent used by BP.g. The movement of gas (oil vapours or air) in and out of the vent lines of storage tanks as a result of alternate heating and cooling.

Used at NZRC in the reformer and BDU. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 28 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Sulphur). Butane can be stored under pressure as a liquid at atmospheric temperatures ("bottled gas") and it is widely used for cooking and domestic heating.O.A. When blended into gasoline in small quantities it improves volatility and octane number.58 BUTANE C4H10 Commercial butane is a mixture of two gaseous paraffins. 2.59 BUTANE DE-ASPHALTING A solvent extraction process whereby a short residue is split into components having low (D. normal butane and isobutane.) and high (Asphalt) asphaltic content by contact with liquid butane.Operators Dictionary 2. 2.g.60 BYPRODUCT A secondary or additional product not of primary importance. (e.

combined as carbon dioxide. 1.10 CARBON DEPOSIT Engine deposits containing soot from over-rich fuel mixtures and the carbon residue and tars from decomposed lubricating oil.5 to 15.C3.000 calories is often used. One international candle or one American candle equals 1. 3.8 CARBON A nonmetallic element existing in diamonds.000 kilocalories = 3. respectively. sieve or valve variety (hence the names: c. where it is in contact with a nonhorizontal solid surface (as in vertical capillary tube). 4 or 5 carbon atoms. Road dust. Carbon is unique in forming an almost infinite number of compounds (it is present in all organic compounds). Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 29 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Also the process of measuring or calculating the volumetric contents or capacity of a receptable. the solid residue other than ash contained by destructive distillation. without reference to hydrocarbon type. is elevated above or depressed below the level of the liquid.1 C1. It is exhaled by lung-possessing animals as a waste gas.11 Hefner candles. 3. 3.s. Calming sections are actually downcomers. In calculations the k calorie.3 CALMING SECTION TRAYS Fractionating trays characterised by the presence of calming sections on a tray of the grid.s. 3. 3. gum and tarry substances also form a part of such deposits.Operators Dictionary 3 C 3. 3.7 CAPILLARITY That physical action by which the surface of a liquid.C5 A common way of representing fractions containing a preponderance of hydrocarbons of 1. The systems may be converted by the relationship: 1 calorie per gram = 1. The units in which the calorific value is usually given are (a) calories per gram and (b) British Thermal Units per pound. metal particles. 3. c. carefully designed and distributed over the tray area so as to ensure the best distribution of liquid. Dissolved in water.968 Btu. it forms carbonic acid.2 CALIBRATION The determination of fixed reference points on the scale of any instrument by comparison with a known standard and the subsequent subdivision or graduation of the scale to enable measurements in definite units to be made with it. colourless gas. coke. It is very poisonous. but is inhaled by certain plants which absorb its carbon and release its oxygen as a waste gas. 3. 2. sieve tray and c. 3. graphite. and numerous amorphous forms. odourless gas. Its magnitude is determined by the interfacial tensions involved.C2.s. gridtray.9 CARBON (FIXED CARBON) In the case of coal. carbonates.4 CALORIE The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1C (from 14. 3. CO2. CO.12 CARBON MONOXIDE A colourless. and in all living things.11 CARBON DIOXIDE A heavy.5C).5 CALORIFIC VALUE The calorific value of a combustible material is the quantity of heat produced by complete combustion of unit weight of the material. equal to 1. a product resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbon. valve tray). 3. 3. which will not support combustion.8 Btu per lb. and bituminous materials.C4.6 CANDLEPOWER The illuminating power of a standard candle employed as a unit for determining the illuminating quality of kerosene and other illuminants.

but can destroy entire catalyst inventory. Liquid passing through the baffle enters the next lower of the troughs.15 CASCADE TRAY A fractionating device consisting of a series of parallel troughs arranged in stair-step fashion. CENTISTOKES A Centipoise (cP) is 1/100th of a poise (P) which is the fundamental unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre-gram-second system of units. The viscosity of water at 20C is approximately 1 cP. so that 0C corresponds to 32F and 100C to 212F.Operators Dictionary 3. Used extensively in secondary processes.16 CATALYSIS The alteration of the rate of a chemical reaction by the presence of a "foreign" substance (catalyst) that remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. 3. a vapour. ships. coverage of the catalyst surface with nonreactants. The centistokes (cS) is 1/100th of a stoke (S) which is the fundamental unit of Kinematic viscosity in that system.23 CENTRIGRADE (CELSIUS) SCALE A thermometer scale on which the interval between the freezing point and boiling point of water is divided into 100 parts or degrees centigrade. 3. It may be carried as liquid droplets or finely divided solids suspended in a gas. a corrosion process can be arrested. If a large fraction of the catalyst surface is covered selectively by any one strongly adsorbed chemical. Also called Celsius after Anders Celsius who first described it.18 CATALYST POISON Generally.19 CATALYTIC PROCESS Any process which employs catalysis. or reaction vessel. the catalytic reaction will be drastically reduced in rate. By reversing the electric current which flows away from a corroding metal. 3. Platforming and hydrotreating. 3. 3. 3.24 CENTIPOISE. Used extensively in water treatment or pH control in process units. It is strongly alkaline. Liquid thrown from this trough by vapour rising from the tray below impinges against a plate and a perforated baffle.14 CARRYOVER Relatively nonvolatile contaminating material which is carried over by the overhead effluent from a fractionating column. By this process the anti-knock performance of the gasoline is improved. 3. or a discrete liquid. pipelines and jetties against corrosion. i. 3. while emerging virtually unaltered from the process.13 CARBURETTOR A device for metering the correct mixture of air and gasoline to an internal-combustion engine. The two c viscosity’s are related by the density.20 CATALYTIC REFORMING Process of changing the molecular structure of the components of straight-run gasoline or of a gasoline fraction by subjecting the gasoline to thermal treatment in the presence of a catalyst (for example platinum). 3.17 CATALYST In technology this word means a substance added to a system of reactants which will accelerate the desired reactions.21 CATHODIC PROTECTION Method of protecting tanks. Examples : Hydrocracking. Liquid from the tray above enters the uppermost trough. number of centistokes = number of Centipoise divided by liquid density (in g/cm3). Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 30 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .22 CAUSTIC SODA The name used in industry for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on account of its property of corroding the skin. May be reversible. 3. The catalyst allows the reaction to take place at a temperature at which the uncatalyzed reaction would proceed too slowly for practical purposes. This circumstance is called poisoning. absorber. and self-poisoning can result when one reactant or product is much more strongly adsorbed than another reactant. 3.e.

3.30 CFR ENGINE A standard single-cylinder variable compression engine developed by the Co-operative Fuel Research Council. 3.38 CLADDING A homogeneous bonded or resistance-welded metallic liner applied to a base metal such as carbon steel.33 CHAR VALUE In the 24 hours kerosene burning test the amount of char formed on the wick under prescribed conditions is measured and reported as mg/kg. comprising oxidation of part of the H 2S to SO2 in a thermal reaction stage.36 CHLORINATION A chemical reaction in which chlorine reacts with hydrocarbon and one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by atoms of chlorine. 3. 3.39 CLAUS PROCESS Process for the manufacture of sulphur from H 2S. 3. used as filler and support in reactors etc.) a reactor bed.Operators Dictionary 3.g.35 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) Total amount of oxygen needed for oxidation of all organic matter in water to CO2 and H2O. Used in lines.29 CETANE NUMBER The cetane number of a diesel fuel is a number equal to the percentage by volume of cetane in a mixture with alph-methyl-naphthalene having the same ignition quality as the fuel under test. 3.34 CHECK VALVE (NON RETURN VALVE) An automatic valve which permits fluids to pass in one direction but closes when the fluids attempt to pass in the opposite direction.25 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR A machine in which pressure is built up by means of rotating fans or blades. density etc. and heat exchanger equipment to reduce corrosion and increase service life.37 CHROMOMETER . followed by catalytic reaction of the remaining H2S with the SO2 formed to give sulphur. 3. Also called clad lining.26 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A pump that derives its pressure increase from the centrifugal force generated when the impeller throws the liquid outwards at high speed. to determine the anti-knock value of motor gasoline’s or the ignition quality of diesel fuels. distillation.31 CHANNELING Non uniform flow of process fluid through (e.g.32 CHARACTERISATION Identifying a feed or product by its properties e. 3. 3. carbon: hydrogen ration. vessels. or chlorine reacts with an unsaturated hydrocarbon and two chlorine atoms (one molecule) are added to the double bond.28 CERAMIC BALLS Balls of chemically inert ceramic. 3. 3. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 31 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 3.See Colorimeter 3. 3.27 CENTRIFUGE A whirling instrument for separating liquids and solids or liquids of different specific gravity by use of centrifugal force.

3. area.52 COMBUSTION The process of burning. which traverse the whole breadth of the vessel and isolate the cargo tanks from the rest of the ship (fire protection). Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 32 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 3. 3.48 COKE DRUM A vessel in which coke is formed or collected and which can be cut off from the process for cleaning. 3.41 CLOUD POINT The temperature at which a fuel. and possessing physical and chemical properties entirely different from those of the ingredients. 3. table salt. 3.46 COFFERDAMS The empty spaces fore and aft in a tanker. e. polypropylene wool or felt used to remove fine droplets of treating liquids or water from a petroleum product. begins to congeal and present a cloudy appearance owing to the formation of minute crystals of wax.49 COLD FILTER PLUGGING POINT The highest temperature at which a fuel ceases to flow through a test filter.43 COALESCER A vessel packed with steelwool. 3. the clear. 3.47 COKE Hard carbon deposit.53 COMBUSTION CHAMBER The space in which the process of burning takes place e. rapid oxidation caused by the union of the oxygen of the air with a material. In making comparative engine tests between leaded and unleaded fuels.40 CLEAR GASOLINE A gasoline which is free from anti-knock additives such as tetraethyl-lead.54 COMPATABILITY Ability of additives or products to mix together without separation or reaction. 3. area. 3.g. in a jet engine. glasswool.44 COASTAL TANKER Ltd. or volume of the body.50 COLORIMETER An instrument for determining the colour of oil product by measuring the percentage transmission of monochromatic light through the liquid. usually formed by the unintentional thermal cracking of heavy residues.(CTL) A Company responsible for coastal tanker movements in NZ 3. when cooled.51 COMBINED FEED RATIO (CFR) The ratio of the 2nd to 1st stage feed on the Hydrocracker. paint.Operators Dictionary 3. unleaded gasoline is sometimes referred to as straight gasoline base. 3. or volume of a body for a given rise in temperature (usually 1F) to the original length. 3.g.55 COMPOUND A substance formed by the combination of two or more ingredients in definite proportions by weight. 3. or as gasoline "neat".45 COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION The ratio of the increase of length. 3. base fuel.42 COAGULATION The precipitation from solution or suspension of fine particles which tend to unite in clots or curds.

3. 3.Operators Dictionary 3. The heating of the air is due to its rapid compression by the piston.59 COMPRESSOR A device which draws in air or other gases. 3. heating. 3. 3.70 CONVECTION The flow of heat through liquid or gas by actual mixing of the fluids (physical turbulence). Important in water treatment (as an indication of impurities) and some hydrocarbons (static risk).62 CONDENSER A special type of heat exchanger for the removal of heat from e. which may consist of coils or tubes. In general: the liquid that is formed when a vapour cools. the act of increasing the pressure on gas or vapour. 3.61 CONDENSATION (PHYSICAL) The transfer of a material from the vapour phase into the liquid phase. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 33 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .65 CONGEAL To change from a liquid to a semi-solid or solid state. 3.64 CONDUCTIVITY A materials ability to conduct an electrical charge. is submerged in a heat-absorbing medium.57 COMPRESSION IGNITION The combustion which takes place when fuels are injected in a fine spray into the hot compressed air (500C) in the cylinder of a diesel (compression ignition) engine. 3. It is usually attended by a reduction in volume. The unit employed is known as a continuous still. 3. compresses it and discharges it at a high pressure. 3. the word is often used in reference to the control valve that acts on the process. 3. vapourisation.58 COMPRESSION RATIO The ratio of the cylinder volume when the piston of an engine is at the crank end of the cylinder. for example by the withdrawal of heat. 3. fractionation. and collection of products are performed continuously rather than in a batchwise manner. However.63 CONDENSER BOX A large box-shaped structure in which the condenser.68 CONTROL LOOP Combination of control signal.56 COMPRESSION In general. feedback signal and instrumental response that characterises an automatic control system.60 CONDENSATE Liquid hydrocarbons which are sometimes produced together with natural gas.67 CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION An operation in which the steps of charging.69 CONTROLLER The actual control instrument is the controller.66 CONTINUOUS CATALYST REGENERATOR see Fluid bed operation. 3. usually water. the top of a fractionating column. 3. to the volume when the piston is at the head end.g.

83 CRITERIA REFERENCED INSTRUCTION Method of instruction based on meeting specific criteria. 3. 3. in a heat exchanger. When this is brought about by heat alone.72 CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTS Petroleum products which are manufactured from crude oil by physical separation processes. 3. One of the kerosene quality tests. 3. (See primary processes). The continuous stretching which occurs when metal is under stress or pressure.78 CORROSION The gradual eating away of metallic surfaces as the result of chemical action such as oxidation. 3.Operators Dictionary 3. 3.77 CORRECTED ENERGY & LOSS (CEL) Yardstick used for monitoring refinery efficiencies.79 COUNTERCURRENT FLOW A system in which one fluid flows in one direction and another fluid flows in the opposite direction e. the process is known as thermal cracking. 3. 3.75 COOLING TOWER A unit or structure.76 COPPER STRIP CORROSION A qualitative method of determining the corrosivity of a product by its effect on a small strip of polished copper suspended or placed in the product.81 CREDITORS Accounts payable.other processes include visbreaking and hycon. 3. in which the direction of flow of the cold oil is opposite to that of the hot oil.82 CREEP Change in the micro structure of a metal. It is caused by corrosive agents such as acids.71 CONVECTION SECTION That portion of the furnace in which tubes receive heat by convection from the flue gases (contrast with radiant section).74 COOLER A heat exchanger whose primary purpose is to reduce the temperature of one of the passing fluids. 3. If a catalyst is also used the process is referred to as catalytic cracking (in speech generally abbreviated to cat. 3. above this temperature the gas cannot be liquefied.84 CRITICAL PRESSURE The pressure necessary to condense a gas at the critical temperature. especially apparent when at high temperatures. 3. 3.80 CRACKING Process whereby the large molecules of the heavier oils are converted into smaller molecules of the gasoline type. cracking) or Hydrocracking if the process is conducted over special catalysts in a hydrogen atmosphere .g. 3.73 CONVERSION PROCESSES Manufacturing processes which involve a change in the structure of the hydrocarbons (See secondary processes).85 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE The maximum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied by pressure (critical pressure). for the purpose of cooling by evaporation. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 34 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . no matter what pressure is applied.

platinum-catalysed. It is obtained by filtration (as such.91 CUSTODY TRANSFER TANKS Tanks which receive products from external sources or deliver products to external sources 3.g. hexane to benzene.95 CYCLISATION A reaction.94 CUT POINT (Between two process streams). The process of changing an open-chain hydrocarbon structure to a closed ring. 3. 3. Powdered solids or coagulated liquids are separated by centrifugal force and pass downward along the incline (conical) to a centrally located outlet. for example. a pipe. 3. 3. known as a dip leg. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 35 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Mixed-base crude oils 3.87 CRUDE NAPHTHA Light distillate made in the fractionation of crude oil.89 CRUDE WAX Crude wax. also called petroleum wax or slack wax. normally designed with a centrally located overhead gas withdrawal line. for example.96 CYCLONE SEPARATOR A conical vessel provided with a tangential inlet for a gas stream containing finely divided solids or liquid droplets.88 CRUDE OIL TYPES See appropriate sub-heading for description. The boiling point at atmospheric pressure of the component distributed in equal percentage in both process streams.90 CRYSTALISATION A fractionation process based on the difference in freezing point of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated.Operators Dictionary 3. e. In catalytic cracking.Paraffin-base crude oils .86 CRITICAL VELOCITY The rate of flow in a pipe at which streamline flow changes into turbulent flow. 3.93 CUT Refinery term for a fraction obtained direct from a fractionation unit. used in the separation of paraffins from lube oil (de-waxing).92 CURRENT RATE Current Assets Current Liabilities 3. Several cuts can be blended for the manufacture of a certain product. 3. is connected to this bottom outlet and serves to convey the solids back to the catalyst bed.e. or after addition of a solvent) from high boiling distillates or residual oils. mainly of the normal straight-chain type. by which a straight-chain paraffin hydrocarbon is converted into a naphthene and then into an aromatic: i. Slack wax is primarily obtained as by-product in the manufacture of lubricating oils. still containing a fairly high percentage of oil. The process is. Accompanied by production of Hydrogen. .Asphaltic-base crude oils . 3. The crude wax made from distillate oils is refined to make a range of microcrystalline waxes. is an unrefined mixture of high-melting hydrocarbons.

12 DEISOLATION The opposite of isolation i. also called demineralised water. 4.applicable in crude/water emulsions in desalter. 4. but deferred in the current year because of timing differences between the Company's accounts and the accounts required by the Inland Revenue Department. or from gas from gas -condensate wells. 4.6 DECOMPOSITION The breaking up of compounds into smaller chemical forms through the application of heat. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 36 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 4. 4. The difference between deadweight and displacement is the actual weight of the vessel.g.9 DEHYDROCYCLISATION Any process involving both dehydrogenation and cyclisation reactions. stores and fuel which a vessel carries when loaded to the appropriate draught allowed by law. 4.5 DEBTORS Accounts receivable. 4.2 DEACTIVATION Reduction in catalyst activity by poisoning or coating of catalyst particles by contaminants. 4. 4.7 DEFERRED TAXATION Provision for tax payable in the future. a demister section in a vacuum column is to stop the asphaltenes from the residue getting into the waxy distillate. To energise a piece of equipment.Operators Dictionary 4 D 4. 4.15 DEMURRAGE Amount payable to ship owner for failure to load or discharge ship within time allowed.1 DAMPER Usually a flap or shutter to control air flow in a furnace (may be in the supply and/or the flue ducting).3 DEADWEIGHT The amount of cargo. or by a change in the physical structure of the catalyst particles. or introduction of other chemical bodies.14 DEMULSIFIER An additive used to prevent the formation of an emulsion . change in other physical conditions.4 DEARATOR Device for the steam stripping of 02 and other gases from boiler feed water.11 DEIONIZED WATER Water that has had all the free ions removed by ion-exchange. from gas produced in association with oil. 4. 4.10 DEHYDROGENATION A reaction process in which hydrogen atoms are eliminated from a molecule. 4.8 DEHYDRATION The removal of water from crude oil.13 DEMISTER Any device used to stop passage of liquid droplets e.e. 4.

4.21 DESUPERHEATER Equipment used to reduce the temperature of superheated steam. and remove carbon.23 DETERGENT OIL A lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties for use in internal-combustion engines. the index is calculated from a formula involving the gravity of the fuel and its aniline point (API gravity times the aniline point (determining by ASTM D611-47T) divided by 100). Detergent oils hold sludge particles in suspension and thus promote engine cleanliness. Further cooling of the vapour at its dew point results in condensation of part or all of the vapour as liquid. Soap and synthetic detergents help to wet. These properties are usually conferred on the oil by the incorporation of special additives. from interior surfaces of internal-combustion engines. which is automatically sprayed into the cylinder under high pressure. contained in a closed vessel under the given pressure.Operators Dictionary 4. 4. It occurs when conditions in a cylinder are such that self-ignition of an unburnt mixture of fuel and air takes place. 4.29 DIESEL INDEX A measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel.27 DIESEL ENGINE As internal-combustion engine in which air drawn in by the suction stroke is so highly compressed that the heat generated ignites the fuel. 4. Oil-soluble detergents are used in motor oils to disperse.24 DETONATION Detonation or knocking is the sharp metallic sound emitting from the cylinders of spark-ignition engines under certain conditions.20 DESULPHURISATION .16 DENITRIFICATION Removal of nitrogen compounds on feedstock by hydrogenation.26 DEWAXING The process of removing paraffin wax from lubricating oils. will form a first drop of liquid on the subtraction of heat. It reduces power output. 4. 4.17 DENSE BED LOADING Catalyst loading system of "raining" the catalyst onto the bed which achieves a higher loaded density than "sock" loading. 4. Detergents may be either oil-soluble or water-soluble. disperse.19 DESALTING A process to remove inorganic salts and other impurities from crude oil by mixing with water followed by settling in an electrostatic field. The dew point of a pure compound is the same as its boiling point.28 DIESEL FUEL A general term covering oils used as fuel in diesel and other compression ignition engines. and de-flocculate solid particles.25 DEW POINT (at a given pressure) The temperature at which a vapour.See Hydrodesulphurisation The removal of sulphur or sulphur compounds from a charge stock. 4. 4. 02 + 2H2 = 2H20. The dew point of a normal gasoline is approximately the same as the temperature at which 70% by volume distils over in the ASTM-distillation test. loosen.22 DETERGENCY The ability of a substance to clean and to wash away undesirable substance. 4. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 37 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . etc. 4. 4.18 DEOXYGENATION Removal of oxygen on feedstock by hydrogenation. N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3. dirt. 4.

30 DIFLUOROETHANE A catalyst promoter used on the Hydrocracker. When applied to the separation of gasoline.38 DISULPHIDE A compound containing a -S-S. and in its broadest sense: any fraction other than the bottom product of the fractionator. Also the top product taken off a fractionating column. between the volume of liquid originally introduced into the distilling flask and the sum of the residue and the condensate recovered. The lower members.32 DIPPING A process for measuring the height of a liquid in a storage tank.Operators Dictionary 4. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 38 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Not used at NZRC.40 DIVIDEND YIELD Market Price of Shares (cents) Dividend Paid (cents) 4.by conversion of the mercaptans .. when pure. 4. Such compounds are colourless liquids completely miscible with hydrocarbons and insoluble in water. in the case of the higher boiling distillates. The "doctor test" is used for the detection of sulphur compounds in light petroleum distillates which react with sodium plumbite. 4. 4. etc. to leave a residual fuel oil or asphaltic bitumen. It is carried out by evaporation and condensation in contact with reflux. in a laboratory distillation.linkage.e.35 DISTILLATION CURVE Curve made by plotting the percentage of gasoline (or other petroleum product) distilled versus the temperature. the process is frequently called topping. This is usually done by lowering a weighted graduated steel tape through the tank roof and noting the level at which the oil surface cuts the tape when the weight gently touches the tank bottom (see Ullage). 4.36 DISTILLATION LOSS The difference. i. Although disulphides are normal constituents of the lighter distillates. together with sulphur. 4.33 DISTILLATE The liquid obtained by condensing the vapour given off by a boiling liquid. possess a nauseating sweet odour which is particularly clinging and penetrating. from a crude oil. they are also formed as a result of the oxidation of mercaptans. kerosene.34 DISTILLATION (fractional) A fractionation process based on the difference in boiling point of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated.41 DOCTOR SOLUTION A solution (sodium plumbite) made from lead oxide and sodium hydroxide. Distillation is normally carried out in such a way as to avoid decomposition (cracking). 4.37 DISTRIBUTOR (LIQUID/GAS) A device for distributing a 2 phase flow correctly within a vessel.by means of a solution of lead oxide in caustic soda. this is accomplished by carrying out the distillation under vacuum (which requires a lower temperature). encouraging separation. 4. 4.39 DIVIDEND COVER Net profit after tax and before extraordinary items Dividend for year 4. used to treat gasoline or other light petroleum distillates to remove mercaptan sulphur. 4. 4. such as long residue.42 DOCTOR TREATMENT A process of sweetening sour gasoline’s . Sour distillates become sweetened in this way.31 DILUENT A liquid used to dilute or thin out another liquid.

Marketing of finished products.47 DRY GAS Natural gas which does not contain liquid hydrocarbons at storage pressure. 4. 4. propene (sometimes also: hydrogen sulphide).Operators Dictionary 4. In the business sense . 4. etc) and the light hydrocarbons methane. ethene.48 DUAL PURPOSE KEROSENE An export grade Kero that meets both premium and Avtur specifications.g. filling stations etc. propane.g. hydrogen.45 DOWNSTREAM Towards the later end of the process e. 4.44 DOWNCOMER A means of conveying liquid from one tray to the next below in a trayed column.46 DRAW OFF A connection which allows liquid to flow from the bottom of a vessel or to remove the contents from a draw off tray. ethane. 4. product tankage.used for mooring. Also often used for a petroleum gas consisting of no other compounds than inert gases (e. final blending.43 DOLPHIN Separate pile in jetty system . Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 39 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . nitrogen.

5.12 ENGLER DISTILLATION A standard test for determining the volatility characteristics of a gasoline by measuring the percent distilled at various specified temperatures.5 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION CERTIFICATE Permit required to isolate or de-isolate any electrical equipment.1 EARNINGS PER SHARE (CENTS) Net profit after tax and before extraordinary items Number of shares.B. and shafting.2 ECONOMISER Equipment for preheating boiler feed water by use of low grade flue gas. or the disappearance or excess of one of the reactants which is coloured. polyurethane rubber and silicone rubber. nitrile rubber. 5. is sometimes necessary to keep the droplets dispersed as a stable emulsion. 5. A third substance.14 EROSION To gradually wear away e.P). 5.g.7 EMULSIFIER A substance used to promote or aid the emulsification of two liquids and to enhance the stability of the emulsion.13 ENTRAINMENT See CARRYOVER 5. so that the temperature of the reacting bodies is lowered (i. 5.11 ENGINE OIL A term applied to oils used for the bearing lubrication of all types of engines.6 ELECTROLYSIS Chemical decomposition by the action of an electric current.Operators Dictionary 5 E 5. this change is frequently a change in colour of an indicator which has been added to the solution. such as gasoline. 5. Usually driven by steam and associated with condensing plant.3 EJECTOR A device that uses the venturi effect to pull a partial vacuum.9 END POINT The point indicating the end of some operation or at which a certain definite change is observed. 5.4 ELASTOMER A synthetic polymer with rubber-like characteristics. chloroprene rubber. butyl rubber. and for cylinder lubrication in other than steam engines. In titration.8 EMULSION A dispersion of fine droplets of a liquid (the disperse phase) in the bulk of another liquid (the continuous phase) with which it is immiscible. the emusifier. 5. 5. 5.10 ENDOTHERMIC Relating to or designating a reaction which occurs with the absorption of heat. Examples of commercial products are styrene-butadiene rubbers. the end point is the maximum temperature which occurs during the test (F.e. Catalyst circulation causes erosion. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 40 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 5. heating is required). In the distillation of liquids. 5. machines.

e. BDU) is carried out. of the various constituents of the mixture to be fractionated. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 41 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 5.18 EVAPORATION The conversion of a liquid into vapour. 5. 5. 5. The process is. and by a reduction in pressure.23 EXTRACT The portion of an unrefined petroleum product (often a kerosene or a lubricating oil) resulting from a solvent extraction process and consisting mainly of those components which are best soluble in the solvent. Generally the extract. 5. 5. after removal of the solvent consists largely of aromatic hydrocarbons. usually by means of heat.g.25 EXTRACTION DEPTH Depth to which DAO may be extracted from short residue on BDU unit . 5. 5.26 EXTRACTOR Column in which an extraction process (e. 5. odourless gas of the methane series. In some cases this is accomplished by the substances reacting with the metal to form a protective film. A hydrocarbon gas and first member of the olefin series. 5. although too deep an extraction may affect DAO specification. the higher the DAO yield. 5.27 EXTRAORDINARY ITEMS Items of expenses or income that are not related to the main activities/operations of the company. in a given solvent. for example.Operators Dictionary 5.28 EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANTS A term applied to lubricating oils or greases which contain a substance or substances specifically introduced to prevent metal-to-metal contact in the operation of highly loaded gears and bearings.20 EX SITU REGEN Where catalyst is removed from a reactor and regenerated elsewhere (usually at a catalyst specialists own plant). Along with methane one of the main constituents of natural gas.16 ETHENE The normalised name for ethylene.15 ETHANE C2H6 A colourless.the greater the extraction depth. used in the separation of de-asphalted oil from short residue (see butane de-asphalting).thus evacuating the air/gas present. cooling is required).21 EXOTHERMIC Relating to or designating a reaction which occurs with the evolution of heat.17 EVACUATION Act of pulling a vacuum on a vessel at atmospheric pressure . so that the temperature of the reacting bodies is raised (i. flashes off overhead the light products and allows the heavy residue to collect in the bottom.22 EXPANSION JOINT A joint or coupling designed so as to permit an endwise movement of its parts to compensate for expansion or contraction.19 EVAPORATOR A vessel which receives the hot discharge from a heating coil.24 EXTRACTION A fractionation process based upon the difference in solubility. 5. 5.

6. 6.9 FIXED-BED OPERATION A type of operation in which the catalyst remains stationary in the reactor. 6.7 FIN FAN See air heat exchanger.4 FEEDSTOCK Stock from which material is taken to be fed (charged) into a process unit. A sudden burst of light.1 FAECAL COLIFORM (F. A sudden release in pressure resulting in partial or complete vapourisation.2 FATIGUE The tendency of a metal to become brittle and fracture under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing at stress levels below its tensile strength.14 FLASH POINT The lowest temperature under closely specified conditions at which a combustible material will give off sufficient vapour to form an inflammable mixture with air in a standardised vessel. 2.5 FILTER A porous material on which solid particles are largely caught and retained when a mixture of liquids and solids is passed through it.11 FLAMMABLE Capable of being easily set on fire.8 FIRE WALL An earth bank or cement wall built around an oil storage tank compound to prevent the spread of the oil in case of fire or bursting of the tank. The catalyst may be regenerated insitu or exsitu periodically. The vapour may then be taken off and condensed. a momentary blaze. 6.6 FILTRATE The liquid which has passed through a filter. 6. the product from a filtration process. 6. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 42 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . and on bitumen or sour water gas lines prior to burning the gas in a furnace. 6. the latter fraction is used as Hydrocracker feed. 6. Indicative of sewage contamination. 6.Operators Dictionary 6 F 6. Height normally calculated to contain contents of largest tank within compound.3 FEED PREPARATION UNIT High vacuum unit to split a long residue into a short residue and waxy distillate fraction with a low metal content.13 FLASH DISTILLATION The process of heating a liquid to a temperature within the boiling range of the liquid which causes the evaporation of part of the liquid. 6.) Bacteria found in intestines of humans and animals. To be contrasted with fluid-bed operation. Flash point tests are used to assess the volatilities of petroleum products. 3. combustible. 6.10 FLAME ARRESTOR An assembly of perforated plates or screens enclosed in a case and attached to the breather vent on petroleum storage tanks. COLI.12 FLASH 1. 6. 6.

The foam may entirely fill the steam space of the boiler or may be of minor depth. 6. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 43 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Its constituents are principally CO2.22 FLUID Non rigid substance consisting of particles that move freely amongst themselves (includes particulate. e. in either case.21 FLUE GAS Gas from the combustion of fuel.25 FOAMING 1. 6. 02. 6. produces a mass of foam many times the volume of the original liquids. It is often characterised by a particular boiling range.17 FLOATING ROOF A special tank roof which floats upon the oil. discarded to the flue or stack. Applied to do away with the vapour space in storage tanks and thus reduce losses by breathing and hazards of explosions.g. on mixing with water.20 FLOODING In a fractionating column. Caused in Adip systems by presence of liquid hydrocarbons or fines affecting surface tension of solution.7 x E70 ) E70 = Evaporation at 70 0C 6. The formation of bubbles on the surface of boiled water. tufted. 6. 2. The formation of froth or foam on lubricating oils or other oils as a result of aeration or release of gas dissolved in the oil.19 FLOCCULATION Process of forming and removing floc and associated impurities. CO. 6. 6. as in the continuously regenerated platformer or cat cracker processes.23 FLUID BED OPERATION Where catalyst is continually moved from the reactor to a regenerator and back again. constructed to allow for the expansion and contraction of the exchanger tubes.Operators Dictionary 6.24 FOAM A preparation designed to smother oil fires. it causes appreciable entrainment of boiler water with steam. Used in water treatment for removal of impurities.27 FRACTION A portion of petroleum separated from other portions in the fractionation of petroleum products. the heating effect of which has been substantially spent and which is. liquids and gases). 3. 6. It consists of a solution which.18 FLOC Any small.15 FLEXIBLE VOLATILITY INDEX A measure of the volatility of gasoline’s calculated by the formula RVP +( 0. 6. 6. as produced by precipitation. the filling up with a liquid. 6. or flake-like mass of matter floating in a solution. N2 and H20. therefore.16 FLOATING HEAD An end of a heat exchanger into which tubes are fitted. 6.26 FORCED DRAUGHT Air forced into a furnace by means of a fan or blower to improve combustion (compare induced draught).

35 FREEZING POINT The temperature at which crystals first appear when a liquid is cooled under specified conditions.e. furnace or boiler at any time. Like a battery. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 44 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Analogously there may be different provisions for the vapour passage.28 FRACTIONAL CONDENSATION A separation of the components of vapourised oil coming off during distillation by condensing the vapours in stages (partial condensation). or into groups of these constituents. heat is often supplied at the bottom of the column in a reboiler. azeotropic distillation. 6.39 FUEL CELL An electrochemical device to convert chemical energy directly into electricity. containing equipment for the proper contacting of flashed liquid and vapour.38 FUEL AIR RATIO The ratio of the weights of fuel to air supplied to an engine.36 FRESH GAS In the HYDROCRACKER. 6.33 FREE WATER Water which is not dissolved (ie not chemically bound in solution) in a fuel or feedstock. The oil to be fractionated is fed into the column at one or more predetermined locations throughout the height of the column. It consists of a vertical cylindrical metal vessel.34 FREEZE POINT An important characteristic of aviation fuels. Fresh H2 from the reformer to replace H2 used up in the process. the temperature at which the solid MELTS is called freeze point. 6. For further information see bubble cap trays. The contacting equipment is formed by fractionating trays in the oil and chemical industry in general. Heat can also be supplied or withdrawn at intermediate heights of the column. 6. 6. vapour and liquid may use the same aperature).Operators Dictionary 6. Various arrangements of downcomers lead to various systems of trays. 6.30 FRACTIONATING TRAYS Equipment aimed at promoting contact between vapour and liquid for fractionation. 6. A fuel gas is fed into one or two hollow porous electrodes in a liquid electrolyte whilst oxygen or air is supplied to the other electrode. although for some applications various packing materials are used.e. It is similar in some respects to a storage battery or a dry cell. vapour and liquid are arranged to use separate aperatures) or of the dual type (i. The test for Jet A1 is to cool until solid then reheat. Unlike a storage battery. called fractions. decanting. The oil of highest boiling point will condense first and may be removed in the liquid stage. the fuel cell continues to produce electricity as long as fuel is added.32 FREE ON BOARD (FOB) The unit price at the loading port. 6. distillation. grid trays.31 FRACTIONATION The general name for a physical process of separating a mixture into its constituents. The former type is promoted by the provision of downcomers for the liquid.29 FRACTIONATING COLUMN An apparatus in which fractionation is carried out. The flow can be of a single type (i. if beneficial to the process (inter-heaters or inter-coolers). the fuel cell produces electricity by a chemical reaction. 6. 6. whereas heat is withdrawn at the top in a condenser. Otherwise any imported gas as distinct from recycle gas. 6. Examples are: absorption. extractive distillation and flotation. allowing the portion still in the vapour state to pass on to the next stage condenser. however. calming section trays. crystallisation. again leading to various possibilities of trays. In a fuel cell chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy by a process that is the reverse of electrolysis.37 FRICTION Resistance to the motion of one surface against another. sieve trays and valve trays. extraction.

Operators Dictionary 6. 6.43 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SYSTEM System of plant protection whereby loss of a signal indicates a failure or trip of part of the unit. 6. This trip will then shutdown all or part of the unit.41 FUEL OIL Any liquid or liquefiable petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace or firebox.42 FUNCTIONAL LOGIC SCHEME Diagrams used to show the interaction of plant trips. or for the generation of power in an engine. exclusive of oils with a flash point below 100oF. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 45 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 6. 6. 6. both cause and effect.40 FUEL GAS Any gas used for heating by combustion. the product to be heated is usually split into 4 or more individual pipes (passes) and then recombined at the furnace exit.44 FURNACE That section of the refinery process in which the combustion of fuel and air takes place.45 FURNACE PASS For more even heat transfer.

Operators Dictionary
7

G

7.1

GAP

7.2

1.

In adjacent fractions, the temperature difference between the initial boiling point of the higher boiling fraction
and the end point of the lower boiling fraction. Specifically, the term 'gap' is only used when this difference
is positive (c.f. overlap).

2.

The mid-position where a pair of gap-acting split range controllers are both closed.

GAS HOLDER
A tank for the storage of gas. It usually floats on a liquid seal, buoyed up by the pressure of the stored gas.

7.3

GAS OIL
Another common name for diesel fuel (A.G.O.)

7.4

GAS/OIL RATIO
The volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit volume of oil produced (from oil wells).

7.5

GASOLINE
Light petroleum fraction, with a boiling range between the approximate limits of 30 and 200oC.

7.6

GAS TURBINE
An engine in which gas (as distinct from steam) is directed, under pressure, against a series of
turbine blades. The energy contained in the rapidly expanding gas is converted into rotary
motion.

7.7

GATHERING STATION
Oilfield installation which receives the production from several wells in its vicinity. It provides facilities to separate
the gas and the water, to gauge the production of oil, gas and water, and to transport the oil to the main storage tanks.

7.8

GEAR OIL
A lubricating oil for use in standard transmissions, most types of differential gears, and gears contained in gear cases.

7.9

GLAND
The outer portion of a stuffing box, consisting of a tubular projection which embraces the rod and extends into the
bore of the box, thus bearing against the packing.

7.10 GOVERNOR
A device used to control the speed of a turbine, the best known example being the Woodward Governor.

7.11 GRAVITOMETER
Instrument used for measuring changes in the specific gravity of oil flowing in a pipeline.

7.12 GRID TRAYS
Fractionating trays consisting of parallel bars of flat or round section. The flow is essentially of the dual type, but
this character may be reduced by the provision of downcomers (see Fractionating trays).

7.13 GUM
Oxidation of gasoline's may produce a sticky substance known as "gum". When unstable gasoline’s are stored for
long periods, the gum content may increase. Gum forming is retarded or prevented by using certain inhibitors, e.g.
Topanol.

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Operators Dictionary

8

H

8.1

HAMER LINE BLIND
A spectacle blind-type blanking device which has only 3 retaining bolts, these are a type of wing not.

8.2

HEADER
A common manifold in which a number of pipelines are united. Also used in reference to the U-bend connection
between two consecutive tubes in a coil.

8.3

HEAT CAPACITY
Amount of heat per kg per oC change in temperature.

8.4

HEAT EXCHANGER
An apparatus for transferring heat from one fluid to another. Specifically, a piece of equipment having a tubular
piping arrangements which affects the transfer of heat from a hot to a relatively cool material by conduction through
the tube walls.

8.5

HEAT OF COMBUSTION
The heat created when a substance is burned in oxygen. The calorific, thermal, or heating value of a fuel is the total
amount of heat developed by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel; it is reported as calories per gram or
Btu per pound.

8.6

HEATER
The furnace-and-tube arrangement which normally furnishes the principal heating element in a processing unit.

8.7

HI-FI TRAYS
Similar to calming section trays, except there is a greater downcomer area.

8.8

HIGH VACUUM UNIT
A unit for the production of vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate from long residue, by means of distillation at very
low pressures, i.e. high vacuum.

8.9

HORSEPOWER
A unit of rate of operation; one mechanical horsepower equals 33,000 ft-lb per minute, or 550 ft-lb per second. This
is just one form of Horse Power there are more.

8.10 HORTON SPHERE
A spherical tank used to store volatile liquids under high pressure, e.g. butane.

8.11 HOT OIL
Any oil used for the transfer of heat, as in the 700 Unit.

8.12 HOT SPOT
1.

A finite area in the combustion zone of an engine which remains at a temperature higher than that of the
immediate surrounding, thus aggravating detonation or pre ignition.

2.

An area on the wall of a vessel or line which is appreciably above normal operating temperature. Often as a
result of the deterioration of an internal insulating liner which exposes the line or vessel shell to the
temperature of its contents.

8.13 HUMIDITY
A measure of the moisture contained in the atmosphere.

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Operators Dictionary
8.14 HYDRATE
A compound formed by the chemical union of water with a molecule of some other substance such as gypsum, from
which water may be separated by a simple readjustment of the molecular structure. Gas hydrates, formed from water
and, for example methane, may cause plugging of the tubing and flow lines of gas wells.

8.15 HYDRATION
The addition of water to a double bond, no breakdown of the molecular structure being involved.

8.16 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
Fluids used in the hydraulic systems of aircraft and industrial equipment etc.

8.17 HYDROCARBON
A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbons are gases at ordinary temperatures;
but with increasing molecular weight, they change to the liquid form and, finally, to the solid state. They form the
principal constituents of petroleum.

8.18 HYDROCHLORIC ACID
A strong mineral acid, HCL. It is also called muriatic acid.

8.19 HYDROCRACKING
A process in which hydrocarbons are converted under hydrogen pressure into products of lower molecular weight, in
the presence of an acidic catalyst.

8.20 HYDRODEALKYLATION
A process to remove side-chains on aromatic molecules, either thermally or catalytically, under hydrogen pressure.

8.21 HYDRODESULPHURIZATION
The elimination of sulphur containing molecules in crude’s or distillates by the action of hydrogen under pressure
over a catalyst.

8.22 HYDROGEN
The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water, also in acids, bases, alcohol’s,
petroleum and other hydrocarbons.

8.23 HYDROGEN BLISTERING
A form of corrosion. Blistering of steel is caused by trapped molecular hydrogen formed as atomic hydrogen during
attack of steel by hydrogen sulphide.

8.24 HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
A compound of hydrogen and sulphur, specifically the monosulphide; a colourless, flammable, poisonous gas, H 2S,
having a disagreeable odour; also called sulphureted hydrogen.

8.25 HYDROGENATION
The filling of the "free" places in unsaturated structures by hydrogen atoms. The chemical addition of hydrogen to a
material. In non-destructive hydrogenation, hydrogen is added to a molecule only if, and where, unsaturation with
respect to hydrogen exists. In destructive hydrogenation, the operation is carried out under conditions which result in
rupture of some of the hydrocarbon chains (cracking); hydrogen is added where the chain breaks have occurred.
This process is known as hydrocracking.

8.26 HYDROLYSIS
The decomposition of a molecular structure by the action of water. A chemical decomposition in which a compound
is broken up and resolved into other compounds by reaction with water. In many cases, it is induced by the presence
of a small amount of dilute acid.

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Operators Dictionary 8. The process involves passage over a fixed bed of catalyst (usually prepared by depositing the metals COBALT and MOLYBDENUM on an alumina base) in a hydrogen atmosphere.27 HYDROMETER A graduated instrument for determining the gravity of liquids. the lower the instrument sinks because the buoyancy force is less.30 HYDROTREATING A vapour phase process used to treat petroleum fractions boiling up to approximately 250C. 8. Saturation of unsaturated component compounds such as olefins. 8. Some hydrometers are marked to read percentage of constituent. 2. On immersion. equalling the height of the column times the fluid density times the acceleration of gravity.28 HYDROSTATIC HEAD The pressure exerted by a column of fluid. The process achieves: 1. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 49 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . the lighter the liquid. The instruments used in measuring petroleum products usually read degress API or specific gravity directly. 8. or some other property related to gravity. in terms of weight of a superimposed column of fluid. usually made of hollow glass and weighted at one end so as to float upright.29 HYDROSTATIC TEST A pressure test using water to check the reliability of equipment prior to being bought into service. An expression of the pressure existing at a certain point. Hydrogenation of the sulphurous contaminants in the feedstock to hydrogen sulphide.

e. 9. Examples of uses include the delaying of gum formation in stored gasoline’s and of colour change in lubricating oils. the rates of flow being controlled. in hydrocracker catalyst change operation. NZ) crude’s or condensates e. by use of B. tending to form two layers. oil and water. or in the condition of the equipment in which the product is used.14 IN-LINE BLENDING A system in which all components are pumped simultaneously into a common discharge pipe (header) at rates of flow corresponding to the required proportions. 9.g. Used for air (oxygen) exclusion to reduce fire/explosion risk. rust prevention by inhibitors in turbine oils and fuels. 9. also the prevention of corrosion.6 INDUCED DRAUGHT Air drawn into a furnace by means of a fan to improve combustion (compare forced draught). 9. 9. or physiological reasons. 9. stainless steel etc. or for feeding water into steam boilers.2 IGNITION QUALITY A measure of the ignition delay of a fuel in a diesel engine. ceramics. and special safety precautions. scrubbed flue gas on the tankers.5 INDIGENOUS FEEDSTOCK Local (i. 9. Blending takes place in the lines between the header and the storage tank into which the blend is discharged. e.g. the essential function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation. Kapuni etc. physical.13 INJECTOR A mechanism which may be used in different forms for spraying fuel oil into the combustion chamber. e. 9.g.Operators Dictionary 9 I 9.8 INERT GAS Nitrogen on the refinery. 9. e.11 INHIBITOR A substance.12 INITIAL BOILING POINT According to ASTM Method D 86 the recorded temperature when the first drop of liquid falls from the end of the condenser.4 INCOMPATIBLE Applied to a substance which.g.3 IMMISCIBLE Not capable of mixing. 9.A. 9. Maui.not to be confused with non-flammable. the presence of which in small amounts in a product prevents or retards undesirable changes in the quality of the product.9 INERT FILLER Non reactive packing/support material. In general.7 INERT ENTRY Specialised entry into a vessel under N2 atmosphere.10 INFLAMMABLE Very flammable . Used e. for chemical. 9. cannot be mixed with another without changing its nature or affect. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 50 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 9.1 IGNITION POINT The point or temperature at which a substance takes fire.g.

which are not carbon compounds. 9.21 ISOLATE Any means of positive separation from a risk source:1. Less effective. 9. parallel and tilted plate types are used. 9.19 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE An engine which operates by means of combustion of a fuel within its cylinder. For example.4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE) A colourless liquid used with n-heptane to prepare standard mixtures to determine anti-knock properties of gasoline.20 ION EXCHANGE RESINS Preparation used in water softening .18 INTERCEPTOR Equipment to remove oil from water either for process separation or pollution control. Weir. 9.22 ISOMER Two substances composed of equal amounts of the same elements but differing in properties owing to variation in structure are called isomers. nonliving. 9.2.e. straight-chain hydrocarbons are converted catalytically to branched-chain hydrocarbons of substantially higher octane number by isomerisation.23 ISOMERISATION The conversion of a compound into its isomer. In the petroleum industry. To electrically disconnect. with the possible exception of the oxides and sulphides of carbon. i. but cheaper and usually quicker than ex-situ.17 INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM The organisation in Great Britain primarily responsible for the advancement of the study of petroleum and its allied products in all their aspects. A reaction which alters the fundamental arrangement of the atoms in the molecule without adding or removing anything from the original compound.Operators Dictionary 9. Used in some Refinery instruments and for radiography. It is the recognised British standardisation authority for methods of testing petroleum products. Carbon is burned off under controlled conditions of heat/air. 9. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 51 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 9.24 ISO-OCTANE C8H18 (2.15 INORGANIC Pertaining to substances not organic. 9.Anion and Cation resins are used. butane may be converted into isobutane. 9.25 ISOTOPE Any one of a number of atomic species differing in atomic weight but having the same atomic number. To valve/spade isolate a piece of linework/equipment. 9.16 INSITU REGEN Catalyst regeneration carried out within the reactor. 2.

10. 10.Operators Dictionary 10 J 10.2 JET ENGINE (see also Gas Turbine) An engine which converts fuel and air into a fast-moving stream of hot gases which effect propulsion of the device of which the engine is a part. 10. It is subject to intense testing and quality control as laid down in DERD and AFQRJOS documents internationally. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 52 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .3 JET FUEL Fuel meeting the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft turbine engines.4 JETTY HOSE Large bore counterbalanced heavy rubber hose used for loading/unloading ships.1 JET A1 See Avtur.

constructed with baffles. 11. 11. As the mixture comes in contact with the baffles. 273K is 0 oC.4 KNOCK Related to internal combustion engines the noise associated with detonation of a portion of the fuel -air mixture in a cylinder ahead of the advancing flame front.e.2 KEROSENE Any petroleum product with a boiling range between the approximate limits of 140 oC and 270oC which satisfies certain quality requirements (for lamp oil or jet fuel).Operators Dictionary 11 K 11. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 53 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .5 KNOCKOUT (DRUM OR VESSEL) A vessel. i. The Kelvin degree has the same dimensions as the Celsius degree. 11. The o symbol is not used on the Kelvin scale. 11.1 KELVIN The unit used as the Absolute temperature scale. through which a mixture of gas and liquid is passed to disengage one from the other. the impact frees the gases and allows them to pass overhead. the heavier substance falls to the bottom of the drum. zero Kelvin is absolute zero.3 KETTLE REBOILER A reboiler with facilities for separation of liquid and vapour.

12 LIGHT TOPS The lower-boiling components of Naphtha. 12.14 LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) Natural Gas can be liquefied. Not used in NZ.Operators Dictionary 12 L 12.13 LINEAR PROGRAMME (LP) A mathematical representation of an operation which can be optimised according to a set of economic criteria. 12.1 LAGGING A covering to retain heat. 12. 12. or the amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of liquid into vapour without change of temperature. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 54 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .8 LEAN ADIP Adip that has been regenerated and had H2S removed.3 LATENT HEAT Heat required for a change of state without a change of temperature. 12. Not used in NZ. 12.5 LEAD ACETATE TEST A method of detecting the presence of hydrogen sulphide in a sample using lead acetate paper. The latent heat of vapourisation.2 LASER ALIGNMENT Method of aligning rotating equipment shafts using a laser beam. 12. or for other organometallic lead anti-knock compounds. 2. stack emission) pollution. 12.9 LICHEN Simple plant that is sensitive to SO2 and can thus be used as an indication of SO2 (i.10 LIGHT DISTILLATE A term applied to distillates the final boiling point of which does not exceed 300oC.g.11 LIGHT ENDS The lower-boiling components of a mixture of hydrocarbons.4 LEAD Industry parlance for the motor fuel anti-knock additive compounds tetraethyl-lead. 12.6 LEAD SUSCEPTIBILITY Ability of gasoline’s to respond to the addition of tetramethyl-lead. which will change from white to brown upon detection. or the amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of solid into a liquid without change of temperature. e. 12. 4. The latent heat of condensation. as reflected in the increase of anti-knock quality (octane number) with increase in lead content. 1. 12. such as mineral wool wrapped on steam pipes.160C (-256oF). at atmospheric pressure by cooling to about . 12. tetramethyl-lead. Effectively the opposite of 2 (above). or other organometallic lead anti-knock compounds. The latent heat of fusion.7 LEADED GASOLINE Refers to gasoline containing tetramethyl-lead or other organometallic lead anti-knock compounds.e. 12.

12. transport and handling. 12. Commercial liquefied gas consists essentially of propane. Light hydrocarbon material. A greater air: hydrocarbon ratio will not ignite.27 LUBOIL Lubricating oil 12. 12.18 LITRE The primary standard of capacity in the metric system. or a solid such as graphite. propane and the butanes can be liquefied under relatively low pressure and at ambient temperature and are then known as liquefied petroleum gas. 12.21 LOADING RACK A structure built alongside railroad tracks or at road depots for the purpose of loading tank cars or road tankers with products. 12. 12. which may be interposed between moving parts of machinery. allowing the water to separate from the oil.16 LIQUID PHASE The term describing a product or substance when in the form of a liquid. gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure.23 LONG RESIDUE The residue resulting from the atmospheric distillation of crude oil. The next crude oil cargo is loaded on top of the residues. 12.15 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) of the gaseous hydrocarbons.19 LIVE STEAM As contrasted to exhaust steam.20 LOAD-ON-TOP SYSTEM System of cleaning the tanks of a crude oil tanker by collecting washings from each tank in one tank. especially oil. at approximately 4C.25 LOW VISCOSITY INDEX See Viscosity index.26 LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT Leanest mixture that will explode.Operators Dictionary 12. equal to the volume of one kilogram of pure water at maximum density. or mixtures thereof.28 LUBRICANT A substance. leaving the oil residues in the tank. steam coming directly from a boiler before being utilised for power or heat.22 LOGIC See functional logic. The lubricant has an important function in removing heat and dirt from the region of the bearing surfaces. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 55 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . grease. 12.24 LOST TIME ACCIDENT (LTI) Any work injury that results in the worker being unable to recommence work on the day after the injury. 12. thus reducing friction by preventing contact between the bearing surfaces. 12. held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage. then discharging the water overboard. To be completely effective the hydrostatic head exerted by the liquid must be greater than the pressure of the gas and the gas must be insoluble in the liquid.17 LIQUID SEAL A quantity of liquid used to prevent the emission of a gas through an orifice. 12. 12. and under normal atmospheric pressure. butane.

30 LUBRICATION The state of being lubricated. or the act of applying lubricating substances which are capable of reducing friction between and removing heat from moving mechanical parts. Petroleum lubricating oils may be produced either from distillates or residues.Operators Dictionary 12. known as additives. amounts of other substances. 12. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 56 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . may be added to impart or improve certain required properties.29 LUBRICATING OIL A fluid lubricant used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces.

generally called the paraffins.6 MERCAPTANS Mercaptans or alkyl-hydrosulphides are organic compounds of carbon. 13. It is used in the production of synthetic gasoline .Operators Dictionary 13 M 13. 13. It is a liquid boiling at 66C.g. The mass spectrum shows the distribution in mass or the mass-to-charge ratio of ionised atoms.7 METHANATOR Part of the reformer process that converts unwanted carbon oxides to methane which is more acceptable to the hydrocracker. 13.5 MELTING POINT Temperature at which a solid substance melts or fuses. It is also often produced by a partial decay of plants in swamps (marsh gas). For asphalt. It is so designed that the beam constituents of a given-mass-to-charge ratio are focused on an electrode and detected or measured electrically. 13. It is the chief constituent of natural gas. The grease melting point is determined by placing a small amount of the grease on the bulb of a thermometer and heating in hot air until the grease begins to run off.3 MANOMETER An instrument for measuring the expansion or the expansive power of gases or vapours. They have a bad odour and frequently occur in unrefined gasoline.10 METHANOL Methylalcohol.1 M CAP DECK A de-entrainment draw off tray used on HVUII. by sweetening).4 MASS SPECTROMETER A device for analysing a substance in terms of the mass-to-charge ratios of its constituents. 13. 13.2 MANIFOLD A piping arrangement which allows one stream of liquid or gas to be divided into two or more streams. a pressure gauge or vacuum gauge. 13. molecules. The first member of the class of organic compounds known as alcohols. or molecular fragments. odourless inflammable gas. 13.see synfuel. 13.11 METHYL CHLOROFORM Used as a catalyst promotor in the platformer. Methanol is inflammable and poisonous.12 METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) An oxygenated compound which can be used as a blending compound in gasoline to boost octane. the melting point is defined as the temperature at which the asphalt is soft enough to permit a steel ball to drop through a disk of asphalt supported in a ring suspended in water (ring-and-ball method). so that its occurrence is commonly misinterpreted by the layman as an indication of the presence of petroleum.9 METHANE SERIES A homologous series of open-chain saturated hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH2n+2 of which methane (CH4) is the first member of the type. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 57 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .8 METHANE CH4 A light. 13. 13. CH3OH. hydrogen and sulphur. or which allows several streams to be collected into one. Mercaptans must be removed from gasoline or converted to the unobjectionable disulphides by suitable refining (e.

a propeller or jet mixture may be used.19 MIXED BASE CRUDE A crude oil which is a mixture of paraffin . wherein the litre is the unit. 13.22 MIXTURE The intermingling of two or more substances.16 MINERAL OIL Generally speaking. Mechanical.13 METRIC SYSTEM A system of weights and measures derived from the metre. wherein the metre is the unit. 13. The relative numbers of moles are computed by dividing the numbers of units of weight of the individual constituents by their respective molecular weights.17 MINIMUM STOP A setting used to restrict the closure of a control valve. wherein the gram is the unit.26 MOTOR GASOLINE A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons.14 MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES Waxes having a very fine crystal structure.25 MOLECULE The smallest portion of an element or a compound which retains chemical identify with the same particular substance en masse. 13. 13. and consisting mainly of iso.and cycloparaffins with some aromatics.Operators Dictionary 13. 13. each retaining its original properties. There are two ways of achieving this:1.g. with or without small quantities of additives.24 MOLECULAR WEIGHT The sum of the atomic weights of the atoms composing a molecule. Pneumatically. 13. 13. measures of capacity.and naphthene-base crude. unit of water. 2. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 58 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 13. diaphragm. wherein the square metre is the unit.23 MOLE PERCENT An expression of the percent composition of a mixture in terms of moles. 13.21 MIXING VALVE A valve which creates turbulence within a pipe to effect mixing of the materials flowing through the pipe. e. this term refers to a wide range of products derived from mineral substances. 13.15 MIDDLE DISTILLATE One of the distillates obtained between kerosine and lubricating oil fractions in the refining processes.18 MISCIBLE Capable of being mixed (stability and uniformity throughout the mixture are usually inferred). They are produced mainly from heavy lubricating oil residues and have melting points from 60-90C. by use of a collar or nut on the spindle. These include light fuel oils and diesel fuel. 13. measures of surface. The system includes: measures of length. 13. and weights. which have been blended to form a fuel suitable for use in automotive internal-combustion engines. by restricting the minimum air signal from the control instrument.20 MIXER Device used for mixing partially im-miscible liquids in process plant or to prevent layering in tanks . 13.

Multi-grade oils are usually made to meet the requirements of API Services MS. giving a rough measure of the high-speed knock properties of the gasoline.27 MOTOR OCTANE NUMBER (MON) The Octane number of a Motor Gasoline determined in a special laboratory test engine under high "engine-severity" conditions.29 MULTIGRADE OIL One of the multi-viscosity number oils in which one oil combines three SAE viscosity number grades. They have been made possible by improved refining processes and the use of improved additives. 13. For example. and DM. multigrade SAE 10W-30 grade may be used where SAE 10W. electrically. 13. It is actuated either hydraulically.28 MOTORISED VALVE A valve incorporated in automatic control systems to regulate the rate of flow of material through a section of pipe. or SAE 30 grades specified.Operators Dictionary 13. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 59 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . DG. SAE 20-20W.30 MULTISTAGE PUMP Pump with more than one impeller. Generally used in high pressure/medium flow applications. from a control instrument. 13.

6 NATURAL GAS Naturally occurring mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapours.8 NET ASSET BACKING/SHARE Shareholders' Investment Number of shares 14.g. 14.Operators Dictionary 14 N 14. After stabilisation . 14. Generally. An oil obtained from a Naphthenic crude is said to be a naphthene base oil. and hexane. pentane. Polycyclic members are found in the higher boiling fractions of crude oil.1 NAPHTHA Naphtha’s are straight-run gasoline fractions boiling below kerosene. neutrons make up the nucleus of atoms.10 NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX Income from all sources less operating costs and depreciation. depreciation and tax. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 60 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . One of a group of cyclic hydrocarbons. lower carbon content and pour point. and lower rating viscosity index. Lubricating oils made from such crude’s are normally distinguished from similar oils made from paraffinic crude’s (both oils equally well refined) by lower gravity. 14. Being generally unsuitable as a blending component for premium gasoline’s. Other important outlets for naphtha’s are their use as chemical feedstock (e.2 NAPHTHENE A class of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH2N. Natural gas is usually classified as wet or dry. 14. 14. Most gas reaches the surface through the tubing. 14. 14. depending on whether the proportions of gasoline constituents which it contains are large or small.9 NET PROFIT AFTER TAX Income from all sources less operating costs.4 NAPHTHENIC CRUDE Crude oil containing a relatively large percentage of naphthene. 14. also termed cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes.11 NEUTRAL Neither acid nor alkaline. propane. the more important of which are methane.the removal of the lighter components .12 NEUTRON An uncharged particle having the mass of the proton. together with the protons. consisting of butane. butane. ethane. they are used as a feedstock for Platforming. but also in reservoirs which contain only a few heavier constituents.3 NAPHTHENIC ACID Naturally occurring acidic compounds commonly found in Naphthenic crude’s. but in some pumping wells it is taken off at the top of the casing (casinghead gas).7 NATURAL GASOLINE Gasoline extracted from wet natural gas. 14. It consists mainly of the lighter paraffin hydrocarbons. ethylene manufacture) and as feedstock for town gas manufacture. The gas which occurs naturally with crude oils. 14. pentane and heavier hydrocarbons.5 NATURAL DRAUGHT A flow of air into the combustion chamber of a heater which is neither induced nor forced but derives solely from the fact that the pressure inside the heater is lower than that of the ambient atmosphere (due to effect of stack).the gasoline is suitable for blending into motor gasoline.

a compound containing trivalent nitrogen.13 NITROGEN Element of atomic number 7. 14.17 NORMALISE Correction made to a calculated figure (e. capable. 14.14 NITROGEN BASE A compound. Derived from liquid air by fractional distillation.Operators Dictionary 14. in group V of the periodic system. colourless. which may be considered a substitution product of ammonia. soluble in water. like ammonia. tasteless diatomic gas constituting approximately four-fifths of the air.16 NON CUSTODY TRANSFER TANKS Tanks which receive products from internal sources or deliver products to internal sources. of combining with acids in the formation of salts containing pentavalent nitrogen. 14. Used extensively in refineries for inerting process plants (air exclusion).g. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 61 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . odourless. such as amine. chemically rather inert. WABT) to allow for the effect of other variables. 14.15 NON-ASSOCIATED NATURAL GAS Gas accumulations which exist independently of any oil accumulation.

aliphatic hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH2n (mono-olefins).11 OUTPUT The pneumatic or electronic control signal sent from the control instrument to the valve. 15.8 ORIFICE METER An instrument which measures the flow through a pipe by use of the difference in pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of an orifice plate. 15.10 OSMOSIS Migration of ions or species from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration. It is a measure of anti-knock value of a gasoline and. Not very abundant in crude oils. Ethene is the parent member of the group. 15. that portion of the charge which is vapourised and removed as the total stream from the top of the column. A condition or operation in which no portion of the product is recycled.12 OVERHEADS In a distilling operation.4 OLEFINS A class of unsaturated. Also the ring on an internal-combustion engine piston which controls the lubrication of the piston and cylinder walls. 15. 15.5 ONCE-THROUGH An adjective describing: 1. 15.Operators Dictionary 15 O 15. from which it carries the lubricant to the top of the shaft for distribution to a bearing.7 ORGANIC Designation for a branch of chemistry. the higher the octane number the higher the anti-knock quality of the gasoline.2 OIL RING A loose ring. the inner surface of which rides a shaft or journal causing the ring to rotate. non-cyclic.9 ORIFICE PLATE A device for restricting the flow through a pipe. 15. in the case of the special test engine. The ring dips into a reservoir of lubricant.3 OIL SHALE A compacted sedimentary rock consisting mainly of consolidated muds and clays and containing organic matter which yields oil when destructively distilled but not appreciably when extracted with the ordinary solvents for petroleum. of the compounds produced in plants and animals. 15. contrasted with inorganic. or of carbon-hydrogen compounds of synthetic origin. The products from such an operation. 15. treating. in general. 2. as contrasted to the compression rings.1 OCTANE The octane number of a fuel is a number equal to the percentage by volume of iso-octane in a mixture of iso-octane and normal heptane having the same resistance to detonation as the fuel under consideration in a special test engine. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 62 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .6 ON STREAM The length of time a unit is in actual production. 15. 15.

contrast with reduction. 15. the temperature difference between the initial boiling point of the higher boiling fraction and the end point of the lower boiling fraction. 15.15 OXIDIZING FLAME Term applied to a flame in which there is an excess of air or oxygen. Specifically the term 'overlap' is only used when this difference is negative (cf. or it may be complete. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 63 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Oxidation may be partial. GAP). forming carbon dioxide and water (combustion) .13 OVERLAP In adjacent fractions.Operators Dictionary 15. resulting in the incorporation of oxygen into the molecule or in the elimination of hydrogen from it.14 OXIDATION The reaction of oxygen with a molecule that may or may not already contain oxygen.

16.d. 16. unless otherwise stated.12 PETROL Term commonly used for motor spirit or gasoline. For example.5 PARAFFINS Straight(N) or branched (ISO) open chain saturated hydrocarbons. 16.8 PARTIAL PRESSURE Partial pressure of a component of a mixture in vapour-liquid equilibrium is that part of the pressure which is contributed by that component. the temperature. shale oil etc. A measure of the hardness and consistency of asphaltic bitumen by which a weighted special cone or needle will penetrate the sample in five seconds.1 PACKED TOWER A fractionating or absorber tower which is filled with small objects (packing) to effect an intimate contact between rising vapour and falling liquid. being 25C (77F). Refined paraffin wax has a very low oil content. time and temperature. it is white with some degree of translucency. and increased vapour/liquid contact thus greater efficiency. 16. in which the lubricant is mixed in suitable proportions with a gasoline to make a petrol oil mixture. as a layer of material put between the surfaces of a flange or used in a stuffing box to prevent leakage. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 64 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . During its passage through the engine some of the heavier and unevaporated petrol oil fractions are deposited on bearing surfaces and so provide lubrication. 2. May be DUMPED or STRUCTURED . partial condensers are used to condense the reflux liquid stream and liquid top product from the overhead vapours of a fractionation column. almost tasteless and odourless and slightly greasy to the touch.Operators Dictionary 16 P 16. Any material used to pack.10 PERMIT TO WORK A permit raised for any job that is carried out in the “restricted area” 16.The latter being assembled rather than tipped in which results in lower p. 16. extracted from certain distillates of petroleum. but with internal vanes (to increase surface area). Typically PALL or RASCHIG rings of stainless steel or ceramic as used in a packed tower.2 PACKING 1. 16. 16. 16.11 PETROIL MIXTURE (2 STROKE MIX) A lubricating system for small two-stroke gasoline engines.4 PARAFFIN-BASE CRUDE Crude oils which contain paraffin wax but little or no asphaltic matter. similar to Rashing rings. which condenses part of a vapour stream. 16. 16.9 PENETRATION Consistency.7 PARTIAL CONDENSER A heat exchanger.3 PALL RINGS Usually of stainless steel. expressed as the distance that a standard needle or cone penetrates vertically into a sample of the material under known conditions of loading.6 PARAFFIN WAX Wax of solid consistency having a relatively pronounced crystalline structure.

23 PISTON In engines and pumps. and/or solid state. 16. Petroleum may contain. 2. depending on the nature of these compounds and the existing conditions of temperature and pressure. liquid. or delivers pressure to.19 pH VALUE The logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration.22 PIPELINE A line of pipe with pumping machinery and apparatus for conveying a liquid or gas.21 PILOT PLANT A small version of the full-scale plant in which a laboratory pursues development work. or be composed of. swabs.17 PHENOL Hydroxyl derivative of aromatic hydrocarbons. a pH greater than 7. Types include Polypigs.Operators Dictionary 16. such compounds in the gaseous. 16. and not less than 95 percent of which distill below 464F (249C) when subjected to distillation in accordance with ASTM method D86. etc.14 PETROLEUM NAPHTHA A generic term applied to refined. 16. Acid solutions have a pH less than 7. 16. a reciprocating device in a cylinder or tube which receives pressure from. nitrogen. flash point. improved stability and increased flexibility. 16. oxygen. when added to another material change certain physical and chemical properties of that material. Na3Po4 16.25 PITTING Irregular corrosion in metalwork.13 PETROLEUM A material occurring naturally in the earth. partly refined. and other properties making them suitable as thinners and solvents in paints. 16. pure water and neutral solutions having a pH of 7.24 PISTON RING A ring used to maintain a gas tight seal between the piston and the cylinder and to control cylinder wall lubrication. This indicates the acid or alkaline condition of a substance. 16. predominantly composed of mixtures of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen with or without other nonmetallic elements such as sulphur.20 PIG Device sent down pipelines for various purposes.18 PHOSPHATE 1. not less than 10 percent of which distill below 347F (175C).16 PETROLEUM WAX See crude wax.occurs from contact with certain crude’s. alkaline solutions. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 65 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . mainly imparting greater toughness.generally used to refer to TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE. varnishes. an alkaline water treatment chemical. after bench-scale investigation of a new process has shown promise. A salt of phosphoric acid.15 PETROLEUM SPIRITS Refined petroleum distillates with volatility. 16. Found in effluent water .26 PLASTICIZERS Non-volatile liquids or low-melting solids which. go-devils and linelogs. 16. At NZRC . 16. a fluid. 16. and similar products. 16. or unrefined petroleum products and liquid products of natural gas. brush pigs.

16. or as a body of gas or oil to be used as fuel. measured under specified conditions.39 PRIMARY AIR The air required for combustion in a furnace which is mixed with the fuel (gas. a primary compound is one in which one hydrogen atom in the carbinol or amino groups is replaced by a univalent hydrocarbon radical.Operators Dictionary 16.35 PRESSURE The force or thrust exerted on a surface. 16.U. gravity separation. 16.) in and through the burner (c. 16. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 66 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 16.27 PLATFORMING A reforming process which makes use of a catalyst containing platinum and excess of hydrogen.38 PRIMARY A term used to describe the structure of certain classes of organic compounds. such as alcohol’s and amines. i. Secondary Air). the combination of a number of identical molecules to form a larger one. The application of heat is usually accomplished by means of hot streams which have to be cooled and whose heat would otherwise be wasted. For example.40 PRIMARY PROCESS A process based on physical separation.33 PREHEAT To heat. 16. 16. as an oil to be subsequently distilled.g. oil.37 PRESULPHIDE To add sulphur (as DMDS or CS2) in order to initially activate a catalyst by changing the oxide sites to sulphides. Fractionation. or other piece of equipment. 16. normally expressed as force per unit area. pulverised coal.36 PRESSURE DROP The decrease in pressure due to friction. The hydrogen produced in this process is used for hydrodesulphurisation and hydrocracking. 16. air pressure in a tyre. 16.28 POLYELECTROLYTE Substance used to encourage flocculation in water treatment units. 16.D. Catalytic reforming of straight-run heavy gasoline (Naphtha) produces a product which is richer in aromatics and branched-chain paraffins and poorer in naphthenes and straight chain paraffins.e. which occurs when a liquid or gas passes through a pipe. previous to some treatment.34 PREHEATER Any form of apparatus in which heat is applied to a material prior to its introduction into the main heating apparatus.32 PREDILUTON (RATIO) Butane added to short residue to aid dispersal before entering the extractor in the B. vessel. Common examples. or water pressure at some depth in the ocean.29 POLYMER A substance produced from another by polymerisation. etc. 16. Ratio of predilution butane to short residue.31 POWER RECOVERY TURBINE Equipment designed to utilise the energy given up where a process drops from a high to a lower pressure.30 POUR POINT The lowest temperature at which an oil will flow in a laboratory test.f. Pressure is exerted in all directions in a system. e. (See also HEAT EXCHANGER). 16.

welding and metal cutting. Certain forms of iron sulphide exhibit this tendency.Operators Dictionary 16. 16.45 PROPYLENE C3H6 A hydrocarbon of the olefin series.49 PYROPHORIC Takes fire spontaneously upon contact with air. 16.on hydrocracking catalysts.41 PRIME MOVER Any machine capable of producing power to do work..46 PROSS Shell computer system for process control and optimisation. Important base material for the chemical industry. 16. e. (Pyrophoric iron). This has passed into history in 1999 16.g. At ambient temperature it can be stored under pressure as a liquid. Propylene is used to make iso-propanol. 16.43 PROMOTER A substance which may considerably increase the activity of a catalyst. (See also SURGE).on Platformer and F. plasticisers and glycol’s.42 PROCESS INTEGRATION A term denoting the selection and arrangement of refinery processes and the optimum use of the heat contents of the various plant streams.47 PUKING The foaming and rising of oil to the extent that part of the liquid is driven out of the vessel through the vapour line. polypropylenes. 16.48 PURGING The removal of one fluid from a vessel or plant by introduction and subsequent evacuation of a second fluid.44 PROPANE C3H8 A hydrocarbon of the paraffin series used for heating. 16. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 67 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . C1 . For example the catalytic action of iron is greatly increased when the catalyst contains a small amount of oxides of aluminium or silicon etc. 16. A common usage of this operation is in the removal of hydrocarbon vapours or air from a plant by flushing with nitrogen.

into a vacuum column.g. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 68 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . its purpose is to check the cracking reaction quickly to avoid coking. 17.Operators Dictionary 17 Q 17. by injecting cool oil into the base.1 QUENCH To suddenly cool hot material discharging e.2 QUENCH GAS Cool gas injected between the hydrocracker reactor beds used to control reaction temperature. 17.3 QUENCHING OILS Specially refined high-flash mineral oils used for hardening alloy steels.

particularly rays of light or heat.8 REACTION TIME The interval during which the material being processed experiences chemical change. 18.11 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR A displacement compressor relying on forward and backward piston movement. 18.7 REACTION Any chemical change.Operators Dictionary 18 R 18.12 RECIPROCATING PUMP A positive displacement pump consisting of a plunger or a piston moving back and forth within a cylinder(s). a group of atoms whose affinity for one another is so strong that. With each stroke of the plunger or piston. a definite volume of liquid is drawn in through the suction valve(s) and subsequently pushed out through the discharge valves(s). 18. 18. the transformation of one or more molecules into other molecules.10 REBOILER A special type of heat exchanger for the supply of heat to the bottom of fractionating columns. in chemical reactions. may be made of metal.6 RASCHIG RING Tower packing consisting of a small. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 69 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .1 RADIANT ENERGY Energy sent out or emitted by rays or waves.9 REACTOR Term applied to the part of a plant where a chemical reaction takes place.e. 18. and is replaced or introduced into a new compound without rearrangement of the atoms bound together in the radical.3 RADIATION The act of emitting energy. the group acts as a single atom. Mainly used for maximising C5 (Pentane) retention as a Mogas blending component. 18.4 RADICAL In chemistry. ceramic.13 RECLAIMER Part of the reformer process used to reclaim valuable Sulfinol solution that would otherwise be lost as condensate. 18. 18.5 RAFFINATE The product resulting from a solvent extraction process and consisting mainly of those components that are least soluble in the solvent. plastic or other material. 18.2 RADIANT SECTION Section of a furnace exposed to the actual combustion of the fuel. It can never exist alone as a separate compound. Also removes impurities (notably DIPA Oxazolidone) from reclaimed Sulfinol. makes the gas lighter and the liquid denser). 18. hollow cylinder with length equal to its diameter. 18. 18. This improves the quality of both streams (i.14 RECONTACTING Process of splitting a stream into separate gas/liquid stream and then recontacting them under pressure. 18.

24 REFINERY FUEL AND LOSS The difference in intake and output due to the amount used as fuel and lost through tank breathing etc. For design purposes. by distillation or other means. for manufacturing finished or semi-finished products from crude oil. 18. The units of quantity in this relationship vary with the plant concerned.21 REFINERS MARGIN . 2. The quantity of reflux per unit quantity of distillate removed from the process as a product (forward flow). Effectively the opposite of oxidation.27 REFLUX CONDENSER A condenser which constantly condenses vapours and returns liquid to the original distilling unit or to lower levels of a fractionating tower. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 70 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .17 RECYCLE RATIO The quantity of recycle stock relative to the quantity of fresh feed. of an appreciable quantity of the more volatile components of crude oil. the ratio of liquid reflux to vapour at any given point in a fractionating column.18 RECYCLING a) The maintenance of reservoir pressure through re-injection into the reservoir of the produced gas. and solvent extraction.22 REFINERS MARGIN .Operators Dictionary 18. if properly applied this liquid acts as an absorbing agent for the relatively heavy components which are thus rejected from the top product.28 REFLUX RATIO 1. Important processes in refining are distillation.23 REFINERY A plant.15 RECYCLE GAS Gas fed back from a later stage of process (usually from the separators) to the early stage. 18.or addition of Hydrogen to a compound. Usually impure and heavy. See also combined feed ratio. Values may range from zero to unity. HCU second stage feed is recycled from the HCU fractionator and consists of insufficiently cracked material (i. 18.19 REDUCED CRUDE A residual product remaining after the removal. 18.20 REDUCTION The removal of oxygen . chemical treating. 18.e.GROSS The difference in value between the product value ex refinery and landed value of feedstock and blendstock. with all its included equipment. The purpose is to create an extra downward flow of liquid. 18. 18. 18. heavier than gas oil).25 REFINING The separation of crude oil into its component parts. b) Continuously feeding back part of a substance obtained or used in a process for further processing or use. 18.NET The gross refiners margin less fixed and variable cost of refining.26 REFLUX A part (if the top product is in the liquid state) or all (if the top product is the vapour phase) of the condensed top vapour of a fractionating column. 18. cracking. 18.16 RECYCLE OIL Oil recycled from a later stage of the process to an earlier one. 18. and the manufacture therefrom of products needed for the market. 18. after extraction of the condensate in a gas plant. which is returned to the top of the column.

short or cracked residue (in contrast to distillate fuel oil). Necessary when a finished batch has been put off grade for any reason. 2. which is called short residue.31 REFRACTORY BRICK A brick which is used as a lining for the interior of fireboxes in furnaces and boilers. 2. The process of restoring a material to its original strength or properties. such as firebrick. If such residue if further distilled under vacuum a still heavier residual liquid results.33 REGENERATOR Term applied to the part of a catalytic cracking unit or continuously regenerable platformer (CCR) where the spent catalyst is regenerated by burning off the coke. 18. in cracking gas oil to produce gasoline. See catalytic reforming. RVP gives some indication of the volatility of a liquid. but it is not a very good insulator. 18. Lower in summer & higher in winter. 18.40 RESIDUE The heavy residual liquid from the atmospheric distillation of crude oil is called long residue.30 REFRACTORY 1.32 REGENERATION 1. 18. Process for the manufacture of hydrogen from steam and light hydrocarbons. thus relieving internal pressure when the latter exceeds the maximum permissible level. 18.39 RESIDUAL FUEL OIL Fuel oil consisting mainly of long. e. for example. or within a particular part of the process. Platforming. 18.38 RESIDENCE TIME The average length of time a quantity of reactant spends in contact with catalyst. usually done by burning off the coke deposits under carefully controlled conditions of temperature and oxygen content of the regeneration gas stream. gasoline. In a catalytic process. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 71 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 18. May be done in situ or ex situ.35 RELIEF VALVE A spring loaded valve fitted on any piece of equipment or plant where normal operating pressures are above atmospheric. 18. Any material not easily affected by heat. under mild engine severity conditions. Difficult to decompose. 18. although normally reported simply as "RVP in kPa". 18. Refractory brick is constructed so that it can withstand very high temperatures.34 REID VAPOUR PRESSURE (RVP) The pressure caused by the vapourised part of a liquid and the enclosed air and water vapour. as measured under standardised conditions in standardised apparatus: the result is given in Kilo pascals at 37.37 RESEARCH OCTANE NUMBER (RON) The octane number of a motor gasoline determined in a special laboratory test engine.8 oC. 2.29 REFORMING 1. the reactivation of the catalyst. There is no simple relation between the RVP and the true vapour pressure of the liquid. 18. This type of valve automatically opens.36 RERUNNING The distillation of an oil which has already been distilled.Operators Dictionary 18. giving a rough measure of the low speed knock properties of the gasoline.g.

oxidiser and fuel.44 RICH ADIP Adip containing dissolved H2S. Rocket fuels may be liquids or solids. which means the pounds of thrust produced per pound of fuel burned per second. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 72 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . agitators. 1. 18.49 ROTARY PUMP A positive displacement pump used mainly to pump liquids which are either too viscous or too difficult to obtain suction with a centrifugal pump. The greater the flow. 2.45 RING COMPOUNDS Organic compounds in which the atoms of a molecule are arranged so as to form at least one closed ring.43 RETURN BEND A U shaped pipe fitting. adhesives and coatings. Also called cyclic compounds. the two components must be intimately premixed. the more it raises the ball up the tube. 2. or other refinery equipment. There are many types of rotary pump designs. 18. In some instances the liquid system may be a single liquid.Operators Dictionary 18. One of the most common is the gear type. Rocket fuels are compared on the basis of specific impulse. 18. possible puking of a still could unnecessarily contaminate a large quantity of distillate.50 RUNDOWN TANK One of the tanks in which are received the condensates from the stills.41 RESIN Organic compounds produced by polymerisation. Fixed vertical line used to get fire water to high levels. The meshing gear teeth prevent the liquid from returning to the suction side. 18.47 ROCKET FUEL Propellant consisting of two components. 18. for example. Water treatment resins are used for water softening. With a very large surface area. 18. which react to give gaeous products and release energy. and from which the distillates are pumped to larger tanks known as work tanks or storage tanks.48 ROTAMETER Simple flow gauge utilising a ball or float in a tapered graduated tube. Epoxy and polyester resins of various types are used as fillers. 18. liken to a sponge. in which two gears mesh and rotate toward each other within a very close-fitting casing. in which case it is called a mono-propellant. In the latter case. naphthenes and aromatics. 18. used to connect parallel pipes so that fluid flowing into one will return in the opposite direction through the other. The liquid is trapped between the gear teeth and the casing and is carried around to the discharge side of the pump. If the condensates were received directly into the large storage tanks.42 RETAINED EARNINGS Accumulated profits not distributed to shareholders. 18. That portion of the bubble plate assembly which channels the vapour and causes it to flow upward to escape through the liquid.46 RISER 1. Rundown tanks are also known as "pans" or receiving tanks.

19.g. It is based on the viscosity at 0 or 100oC.12 SECONDARY PROCESS A process based on a chemical change. oil. Platforming. in which sodium replaces the hydrogen of hydrochloric acid). usually catalysed.g. at which steam exists in conjunction with water e. Motor oils are on the scale 5W . 19. functional logic and 19.g. e. e. hydrazine is an oxygen scavenger used in water treatment.50 and transmission oils are 80-250. 100 oC at atmospheric pressure. 19. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 73 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . or. sodium chloride. 19. 19.9 SCHOEPENTOETER Dutch for vane trumpet .5 SATURATED HYDROCARBON A hydrocarbon of such molecular structure that all adjacent carbon atoms are connected by not more than one valence or bond.4 SAMPLE Sample of a process flow. 19. emergency procedures. By double decomposition.8 SCHEDULING The day to day planning of refinery operations to meet long term programmes. Hydrocracking. tank etc. diagrammatically as follows: C-C. By neutralisation of the acid with an appropriate alkali. Each valence not taken up by adjacent carbon atoms connects with a hydrogen atom. 2.an internal distribution device.3 SALT A compound in which a metal or other positive ion exists in place of the hydrogen of an acid (e. Occasionally more explosive and complex then the pump itself.1 SAE CLASSIFICATION The SAE devised a system for the classification of motor oils and transmission oils. etc. powdered coal. taken for laboratory analysis.6 SATURATION TEMPERATURE Of steam .g.the temperature at a given pressure.Operators Dictionary 19 S 19.10 SEAL A device used to seal the contents of a pump/compressor from the atmosphere. Includes relief systems.2 SAFEGUARDING Total procedure for safety proofing plant.11 SECONDARY AIR The air which provides the oxygen necessary for the complete combustion of fuel (gas. 19. 19. 19. 19. or 3. formed:1.7 SCAVENGERS Chemical additives which remove or inactivate impurities or undesired materials in a mixture or process. By direct replacement of the acid hydrogen with a metal.) and which was not provided by the burner in the form of primary air. may be sideways or downwards pointing.

26 SIEVE TRAYS Fractionating trays consisting of sieve-like materials. 19. 19. 19. liquid from gas. 19.13 SEIZE To stick or fail to function. See 19. or tank in which the partial separation of a mixture is made due to difference in density.25 SIDESTREAM A liquid stream taken from any one of the intermediate trays of a trayed distillation column. (Removal of vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate). vat.f. Fractionation.17 SEPARATION PROCESSES Manufacturing processes based on differences in the physical properties of the components of a mixture. but this character may be reduced by the provision of downcomers. solid to liquid) is involved.21 SHAREHOLDERS INVESTMENT Retained Earnings plus Capital Reserves plus Original Equity = total investment made in the Company by Shareholders. An apparatus in which heavy liquid impurities are separated from oil. The flow is essentially of the dual type. 19. as in engine bearings.14 SENSIBLE HEAT The heat added to. c. following general reaction CO + H 2O --> CO2 + H2. or taken from. pan. 19.19 SETTLING POINT Laboratory test determining the temperature at which solidification of a molten wax begins. friction. Various fractions may be drawn off from one main column. caused by heat. and be stripped in as many side strippers.Operators Dictionary 19. and these layers can be drawn off from different levels in the tank. because of expansion.20 SETTLING TANK A tank employed for separating two liquids which are not miscible.15 SEPARATOR 1. a body when its temperature is changed. 19.22 SHIFT REACTION Conversion of CO to CO2 by addition of water.18 SETTLER A separator. Note that no change in stage of the body (e. Both Hi and low temperature shift reactions are used. The operation may be continuous or batch. 2. The part of a distilling apparatus in which a partial separation of the vapours is effected by means of contact with cooling surfaces. 19. 19. If the liquids do not form an emulsion they separate into layers according to their specific gravities.16 SEPARATION INDEX A measure of the degree of separation between components in a distillation column 19. or scoring. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 74 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . latent Heat. Primary Process. 19. 19. a tub.g. The separation may be solids from liquid or gas.24 SIDE STRIPPER A fractionating column for stripping undesired volatile components from a side stream which is drawn off as a liquid from a main fractionating column. generally perforated plate. Also called "freeze".23 SHORT RESIDUE The residue resulting from vacuum distillation of long residue.

35 SOLUBLE OIL Oil which readily forms stable emulsions or colloidal suspensions in water.36 SOLUTION A homogenous mixture of two or more chemically un-reacted fluids. 2. All products which are off-specification and must be reprocessed before marketing. etc. However.. 19. 19. 19. gas or solid to form a homogenous mixture.40 SOOTBLOWER A device for removal of soot from furnace tubes . boiler.32 SLUDGE a) Acid sludge or acid tar: material formed during refining of oils with sulphuric acid. 19. 19.generally using a steam blast nozzle.28 SILVER STRIP A very strict corrosion test for AVTUR. b) Engine sludge: insoluble product formed from fuel combustion products and from lubricating oils in internal combustion engines and deposited on parts outside the combustion space. 19. 19. Crude oil containing excessive water contamination which must be removed by settling before pumping to the crude distiller. Used as a cutting fluid in machine work. 19. 19. 19.33 SMOKE POINT The maximum height of flame measured in millimetres at which a kerosene will burn without smoking when tested in a standard lamp for this purpose. Such products are for example produced during the start-up period.to increase heat transfer .34 SOLAR ENERGY Energy produced by radiation from the sun. capable of dissolving another liquid. the rate of the total amount of butane (predilution and normal) to short residue. 19.37 SOLVENT A substance. usually liquid. 19.39 SOLVENT/FEED RATIO On the BDU.30 SLIDE VALVE A type of valve for controlling or shutting off the flow of catalyst in a continuous regeneration unit.27 SIGHT GLASS Device used to directly show the level in a vessel.38 SOLVENT EXTRACTION See Extraction.29 SLACK WAX See Crude wax. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 75 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .31 SLOPS A term loosely used to denote: 1. by means of a glass tube. 19. c) Tank sludge: material collected at the bottom of oil storage tanks. a shot drop system (as on the HCU) does the same job and is sometimes referred to as a sootblower.Operators Dictionary 19.

52 SPECTACLE Or Spec blind.55 SPOT Refers to prices of single cargoes traded on an open market basis.g.51 SPECIFIC HEAT The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body by one degree to that required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of water by one degree. 19. phenols etc. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 76 They can vary considerably with the Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Operators Dictionary 19. ammonia.usually with water (originally a brewers term). A figure of 8 shaped plate that can be either put to the open or closed position. 19. This is a relative term. 19. 19.48 SPARGE Spray . 19.42 SOUR GAS Gas which contains objectionable amounts of contaminants. the standard is hydrogen or air. 19. that the spark plug fires before the piston reaches the point of its traverse closest to the cylinder head. Also called blank. hydrogen sulphide and other corrosive sulphur compounds.47 SPALLING Flaking of the surfaces of metals or refractories. hydrogen sulphide.45 SPACE VELOCITY A convenient unit for expressing the relationship between feed rate and reactor volume in a flow process. 19. e. 19.53 SPHERE . 19.g. In the case of liquids and solids.44 SOUR WATER Water which contains objectionable amounts of dissolved contaminants. the amount measured in degrees of crankshaft rotation. banjo.43 SOUR GASOLINE Gasoline fractions which contain a certain amount of mercaptans and therefore must be sweetened.50 SPECIFIC GRAVITY The ratio of the weight of a volume of a body to the weight of an equal volume of some standard substance.46 SPADE A solid plate inserted in a flanged joint to positively isolate one side of the flange from the other. in the case of gases. leaving new surfaces exposed. It is defined as the volume or weight of feed (measured at standard conditions) per unit time per unit volume of reactor or per unit weight of catalyst.SEE HORTON SPHERE 19.41 SOUR CRUDE Crude oils containing an abnormally large amount of sulphur and sulphur compounds which break down upon refining to liberate troublesome quantities of corrosive sulphur compounds. supply/demand situation. 19.49 SPARK ADVANCE In an ignition-type internal-combustion engine. 19. 19.54 SPLITTER A fractionating tower with overhead and bottoms product streams only. e. the standard is water. but always stays in the line. 19.

57 STABILISED GASOLINE Gasoline after subjection to fractionation by which the vapour pressure has been reduced to a specified maximum. thus leaving the liquid stable in the sense that it can be handled or stored with less liability to change in composition. 19. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 77 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . or 30in. This high pressure drop is caused by carbon built up on the inside of the tubes. We can burn this carbon off by steam/air decoking. i.g.follows general formula CH4 + H20 --> 3H2 + CO.g.e resists the action of oxidation which forms gums. Fireman’s stand pipe for tapping into an underground main or a vessels internal stand pipe to avoid ingress of dirt. 19.65 STATIC ELECTRICITY The electricity generated by the relative movement of unlike materials such as oil/pipeline. Gum stability means the resistance of a gasoline to gum forming while in storage.59 STABILISER A fractionating column designed to make a sharp separation between very volatile components and gasoline ex crude oil. from the base of the vessel. 19. or by the operation of equipment such as driving belts.67 STEAM DISTILLATION A distillation in which vaporisation of the volatile constituents is effected at a reduced temperature by introduction of steam directly into the charge. (Equivalent to approximately 14. ductile Pearlitic .61 STANDARD PRESSURE Pressure under which the mercury barometer stands at 760mm. 19.strong.66 STEAM/AIR DECOKING In heavy oil furnaces over the period of a process run. Austenitic . sludges etc. 19.64 STAND PIPE Any pipe that stands proud from a base. Steam used in this manner is termed open steam. plastic granules/vessel. eventually occurs in furnace tubes when subjected to flame impingement Martensitic . oil/water.63 STAND-BY A term used to designate emergency auxiliary equipment which is not used during normal operation.used in valve faces etc. Oxidation stability means that the product is stable to oxidation. 19.69 STEEL A solid state mixture of iron and 1-4% carbon.Operators Dictionary 19. 19.58 STABILITY Resistance of petroleum products to chemical change. thus controlling the gasoline’s Reid vapour pressure. the differential pressure across the furnace tubes may increase until it is uneconomical to continue the run. 19.60 STADIS An anti static additive. 19. 19. 19.7 psia).Very hard . e.56 STABILISATION The process of separating light gases from petroleum or gasoline. 19. Allows all refinery fuel components to be converted to an SRF equivalent based on calorific values. Can have different structures e.62 STANDARD REFINERY FUEL (SRF) A hypothetical refinery fuel with a gross calorific value of 10336 Kcal/kg.low mechanical strength.68 STEAM REFORMING As used in the reformer for manufacture of H2 . scale etc. 19. casing head gasoline or pressure distillate.

e. 19. 19. SO2.72 STRAINER Alternative term for filter. shaft. 19. 19. or some similar moving piece while maintaining a fluid-tight seal about the moving part. or organic radicals. A fractionating process.Operators Dictionary 19. by the reduction of pressure. The desired fraction is thus purified from lower boiling components. 19.75 STRIPPING Removal of the lightest fractions from a mixture.A component of sulfinol solution. 19. 19. 19.83 SULPHUR DIOXIDE A colourless gas.e. In the laboratory nitrogen is often used as a stripping agent. Sulfinol is a three component solvent combining the chemical properties of the ADIP solvent with physical properties of sulfolane and water.g. 19.77 SULFINOL PROCESS A process for removing contaminants such as carbon dioxide from gases by contacting with a regenerable solvent.73 STRAPPING The measurement of the external diameter of a cylindrical tank by stretching a steel tape around each course of the tank's plates and recording the measurement.74 STREAM DAY Denoting 24 hours of actual operation of a refinery unit. The process is usually carried out by passing the hot liquid from a flash drum or tower into a stripping vessel or stripping section of a column. Sold in liquid form to fertilizer works.76 STUFFING BOX A device affording the passage and the length wise and rotary motion of a piston rod. or ethylsulphate (C2H5)2SO4. by the vapour generated in a reboiler or a combination of these. Used for removal of fine material.81 SULPHUR At NZRC.82 SULPHUR CEMENT Hard.71 STRAIGHT-RUN A term applied to a product of petroleum made by distillation without conversion. i. the final product from H2S removal. 19. a by product of combustion of sulphurous fuels. high melting point solid formed by the mixing of refractory brickwork and liquid sulphur. Stripping is generally effected by the introduction of steam. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 78 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .79 SULPHATE A salt of sulphuric acid. through which open steam or inert gas is passed to remove the more volatile components of the cut.80 SULPHIDE Any of the compounds resulting from the combination of sulphur ions (S==) with metallic or other positive ions. sometimes known as brimstone. 19.70 STONEWALL The condition where a centrifugal compressor is delivering its maximum flow. 19.Dioxide .78 SULFOLANE Tetrahydro . closely related to distillation by which undesired volatile components are separated from a liquid mixture by fractional evaporation. sodium sulphate. 19. in contrast to a calendar day. Na2SO4. A non-metallic element of lemon-yellow colour. takes into account the units availability factor.Thiophene .

due to molecular attractive forces and existing in the surface film of all liquids.92 SUSPENSION A heterogeneous mixture of one or more materials . strongly oily liquid.95 SYNFUEL A fuel made by the catalytic deoxidisation of methanol using the MOBIL ZSM-S catalyst. made up of the walls of capillaries.87 SURFACE TENSION The force exerted by the particles of a liquid at its surface which maintains a continuous surface. hence the need for surge protection (anti-surge line). as the unit throughput and the feed rate may vary.88 SURFACRANTS (Surface active agents) ie trace chemical species which can adversely affect the water shedding properties of fuel. An upheaval of fluid in a system frequently causing a carryover of liquid through the vapour lines (see also PUKING). e. A very dangerous condition for the compressor.86 SURFACE AREA The sum of the outer and inner surfaces. as used for adding heat to steam above the saturation temperature.one made up of the external. the geometric. 19.89 SURGE 1. 19. 2. 19. A combination of sulphur trioxide with water (SO 3+H20=H2SO4).96 SYNTHESIS The act or process of making or building up a compound by the union of simpler compounds or of its elements.91 SURGE PARAMETER Indication of nearness to surge condition based on process instrumentation.84 SULPHURIC ACID Traditionally known as Oil of Vitrol. crevices. and cracks in the particle. The surface tension is determined by measuring the energy required to increase the surface by the unit of area. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 79 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Operators Dictionary 19. An undesirable condition of unstable flow occurring within centrifugal compressors when the surge parameter drops below a critical value. the other. 19. A porous solid may be said to have two different types of area . The sum of these is the total surface area. The ratio of total to outer area is sometimes known as the roughness factor. See also buffer.distinct from a solution.94 SWEETENING The process by which petroleum products are improved in odour and colour by oxiding or removing the sulphur-containing and unsaturated compounds.85 SUPERHEATER Apparatus which imparts heats to a liquid above that required for vapourisation.93 SWEET GAS Hydrocarbon gas free from sulphur compounds. called the inner.90 SURGE DRUM Vessel used to even out the flow into a unit. 19. 19. 19. or the outer surface of the particle. which tends to bring the volume contained in the liquid surface film into a form having the least surface area. 19. It is blended by NZRC into gasoline or sold as unleaded 92 RON gasoline overseas. The state of a solid or liquid when its particles are mixed with and buoyed in another liquid but are not dissolved by it.g. That property. an important water treating agent. 19. 19. it is a eavy. A suspension of a liquid in a liquid is called an emulsion. 19. The conversion of the mercaptans present in sour gasoline into non-smelling disulphides. 19.

or of a series of tanks. An instrument for measuring temperature by means of the electrical potential produced at a heated junction of two dissimilar metals. in the same field. as a result of its higher volatility. Heat is a form of energy.4 TANKAGE The capacity of a tank. 20. 20.000 Btu. It is more effective than TEL in improving the Road Octane Number of a gasoline at a certain RON level.total amount of pumpable material plus tank bottoms. In this way heavy oils can be converted into lighter and more valuable products. Not used at NZRC. 20.11 THERM Unit of heat equal to 100. The junction of two wires of dissimilar metals. NET .Operators Dictionary 20 T 20.9 TETRAETHYLLEAD (TEL) It is added to gasoline to prevent knocking (increase octane number) in internal combustion engines.6 TEMPERATURE An arbitrary measurement of the degree of heat possessed by a body. 20. which develops an electrical potential that is a function of the temperature.13 THERMOCOUPLE. 20.2 TANK FARM Area in which a number of storage tanks are located.7 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT The difference in temperature between two locations. 20. between the top and bottom of a distillation column.12 THERMAL CRACKING Process of breaking down the larger molecules of heavy oils into smaller ones by the action of heat.5 TANKER A ship especially constructed for the transportation of oil. 20. 20. It should be distinguished from heat itself. Often expressed as temperature difference per unit length. temperature is a measurement of its intensity.1 TANK CAR A cylindrical metal tank mounted on an underframe and trucks so that it can be run along a railroad.8 TEROMAN A computerised maintenance management system. 20. 20. 20. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 80 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . (Now not used in NZRC) 20. e.3 TANK VOLUME GROSS .10 TETRAMETHYL LEAD (TML) Is added to motor gasoline to prevent knocking in internal combustion engines.14 THERMOSTAT An automatic device for regulating temperature. Not used at NZRC 20.total amount of pumpable material only.g.

20.26 TRAYS See fractionating trays.18 TOPS The lightest gasoline fractions obtained when distilling crude oils. It is a measure of the ability to produce rotation. Gum forms as a result of the polymerisation of unsaturated hydrocarbons under the influence of peroxides. 20.17 TOPANOL An inhibitor to prevent the formation of gum during storage of petroleum products. Towers of the first class are used when accurate work is necessary. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 81 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .24 TRANSFORMER OIL Oil used in transformers to remove the heat generated in the core and coils and to provide insulation between live parts.w. such as deck houses.22 TOWER An apparatus for increasing the degree of separation obtained during the distillation of oil in a still. fault. 20.g. expressed in long tons (2.16 TONNAGE (MARINE) A marine measurement term.83 cubic metres. used in the manufacture of the explosive TNT (trinitrotoluene) and in the production of dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals.19 TORQUE An engineering term defined as the product of force times the length of the lever arm. 20.15 TOLUENE C6H5CH3 An aromatic hydrocarbon. 20. undissolved solid matter greater than 1. 20. Transformer oil as a rule is a highly refined spindle type oil. determined by oxidation to CO2.23 TRANSFER LINE A pipe through which material being processed flows from one piece of equipment to another. as liquid from a gas or condensate from steam.t.25 TRAP 1. also generally: the top product of any 20. fractionating column. Deadweight tonnage (d. Topanol is added to prevent peroxide formation. 20. and those which take advantage of partial condensation only. being expressed in tons of 100 cubic feet or approximately 2. salt dome. A high degree of refining is required to give the oil good dielectrical properties. Any geological formation that will trap hydrocarbons e.5 microns.20 TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) Amount of organic carbon in sample. nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds) are removed or converted into less harmful compounds so as to meet the product specifications for further processing or for marketing. Condensation towers are used to divide roughly the vapours from a still into several liquid portions. 20. etc.240lb or 1016 kg). stores.Operators Dictionary 20. A device or piece of equipment for separating one phase from another.27 TREATING PROCESSES Supplementary refining processes in which undesirable constituents (mainly olefinic and oxygen. Gross tonnage is the total internal volume of the hull and all superstructures. bunkers and water which the ship can lift. as in the production of naphthas and gasoline.) is the weight of the cargo. 20. Towers may be divided into two general classes: those which secure separation by fractionation.21 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS) A water specification. discontinuity 20. 2. 20.

(The plants are designed to run at /or close to maximum). released through a gas turbine which drives the compressor. 20. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 82 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .28 TRIP SYSTEM A system of fail safe partial and total shutdown mechanisms to protect the plants safety under extreme operating conditions. is heated by fuel combustion at compressor pressure.33 TURNAROUND Time necessary to clean and make repairs on refining equipment after a normal run. Typically 50% is the minimum. inhibited lubricating oil used to lubricate steam turbines. usually on a series of curved vanes attached to a central shaft. of a current of water.30 TURBINE A rotating prime mover actuated by either the reaction or the impulse. 20. 20.29 TRYCOCKS A series of valves for double checking the supposed level in a sight glass. 20. or both. (Steam turbines only used at NZRC). and finally ejected at high velocity through the rearward exhaust nozzle.Operators Dictionary 20. 20.32 TURBOJET ENGINE An engine in which air is compressed by a rotating compressor. 20. steam or gas. It is the elapsed time between drawing the fires ( shutting the unit down) and putting the unit onstream again.34 TURN DOWN Amount or percentage by which a unit or plant may be turned down from its maximum.31 TURBINE OIL A specially refined.

capable of combining with other elements or compounds. pre-treatment etc. exploration and crude production from wells.g. 21. In the business sense. crude storage. 21. a method of gauging the contents of a tank by measuring the height of the liquid surface from the top of the tank. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 83 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Operators Dictionary 21 U 21. 21.4 UPSTREAM Towards the start of the process e. A term applied to organic compounds in which some carbon atoms are held together by double or triple bonds.2 UNSATURATED. so that these compounds are under favourable conditions. A lesser air/hydrocarbon ratio will not ignite. feed pumps. Hence ullaging. See dipping.1 ULLAGE The volume of space in a container unoccupied by contents.3 UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT The richest mixture that will explode.

liquids or fluidised solids.7 VAPOUR Gaseous substance which can be at least partly condensed by cooling or compression.8 VAPOUR DENSITY The weight per unit volume of gas e. can remain in the liquid state without evaporation. 22. grams per litre or pounds per cubmic foot. exhausted to some degree by a steam ejector set or other artificial means.4 VALENCE The combining power of an element. aimed at keeping the temperature level so low as to prevent appreciable cracking. and downcomers are generally provided. 22. (Any vacuum less than absolute is a partial vacuum). at a given temperature. such as the changing of water into steam.Operators Dictionary 22 V 22.2 VACUUM A space entirely devoid of matter (called specifically absolute vacuum).9 VAPOUR LINE The pipe through which vapours are led from a column to a condenser. 22. 22. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 84 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . contained in a closed vessel at the given temperature.11 VAPOUR PHASE The term describing a substance in the gaseous state. 22.10 VAPOUR LOCK A condition which arises when a gas or vapour is present in the fuel line or fuel pump in sufficient volume to interfere with or prevent the flow of fuel to the carburettor of an engine.3 VACUUM DISTILLATION Distillation of a liquid under reduced pressure. a space. For example used to distill vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate feedstock from long residue.5 VALVE Apparatus used to control the flow or supply of gases. when enclosed in a vapour-tight container.g. Certain atoms are capable of combining with others in different proportions. The flow is meant to be of the single type.6 VALVE TRAYS Fractionating trays consisting of a plate with holes for vapour passage. Lowering the vessel pressure below the vapour pressure results in evaporation of part or all of the liquid. also used for manufacture of bitumen.1 V50 A viscosity index (at 50oC) which enables linear viscosity blending calculations. 22. leaving the short residue as remainder. 22. 22. such as the interior of a closed vessel. thus it is volatile. The lower pressure at which a liquid. 22.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE (AT GIVEN TEMPERATURE) The pressure exerted by the vapours released from any material. characterised by the presence of valves over these holes. as exhibited by the number of atomic weights of hydrogen with which one atomic weight of the element will combine. 22.13 VAPORISATION The conversion of a liquid to its vapour. they are said to have a number of valences or are multi valent. A compound or fraction with a high vapour pressure requires a high pressure to be kept as a liquid. under conditions in which it is capable of being liquefied either by pressure or cooling or a combination of both. 22. 22. These valves are aimed at preventing liquid passage (if liquid pressure should become too high) while allowing flexibility in vapour passage (depending on pressure of the vapour).

medium and low viscosity index oils (HVI. the angles of which are such that streamline or almost streamline flow through the tube is achieved. It is defined as the force per unit surface required to shear a layer of unit thickness at unit velocity. to produce suction. The rate of flow is measured by the pressure drop across the throat. by jointing a branch tube at the throat. The kinetic viscosity is equal to the dynamic viscosity divided by the density of the liquid.17 VISCOSITY The dynamic viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its resistance to flow. 22. Oils are generally classed as high. 22.18 VISCOSITY INDEX A method of indicating the viscosity/temperature of an oil. inserted in a line. in the USA the Saybolt Universal and Saybolt Furol and on the European continent the Engler viscosimeter.15 VENTURI TUBE A tube. It implies a high degree of volatility. whose internal surface consists of two truncated cones connected at the small ends by a short cylinder (the throat). a) Absolute viscosity is determined by a capillary type instrument.Operators Dictionary 22. As the velocity of flow of the fluid increases in the throat. the pressure decreases. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 85 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . 22.14 VENTURI METER A specially designed tube for measuring the rates of flow of gases or liquids. 22.16 VISCOSIMETER Instrument for measuring viscosities. the Redwood 1 and Redwood 11. Various types are used. LVI). Results with the Redwood and Saybolt viscosimeters are expressed in seconds. 22. MVI. The time required for a sample to flow through a known length of glass capillary is registered. b) In the petroleum industry the viscosity is generally determined in standardised instruments consisting of a container with a hole or jet in the bottom.19 VOLATILE Term applied to materials which have a sufficiently high vapour pressure at normal temperature to evaporate readily at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. If no distinction is made the dynamic viscosity is usually meant. The tube is used to measure the quantity of fluid flowing or. Results are often given in centistokes or Centipoise. those with the Engler in Engler degrees. having a constriction or throat with convergent upstream and divergent downstream walls. viz in the UK.

23. In cases where the tank bottom is very uneven. 23.Operators Dictionary 23 W 23. from excess heat in stack gases. A gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons which are recoverable as liquids.10 WEIR A wall or partition for maintaining a level of liquid. Not an NZRC product. Hydrocracker Feedstock.15 WHITE SPIRITS Fractions intermediate between gasoline and kerosene with a boiling range of approximately 150-200C.8 WEATHERING The often undesired process of slow evaporation of volatile fractions from a petroleum fraction during storage.9 WEIGHTED AVERAGE BED TEMPERATURE (WABT) The sum of the individual bed temperature weighted for the amount of catalyst in each bed. 23.4 WATER BOTTOM Water accumulated at (or sometimes added to) the base of the oil in a storage tank. 23. 23.3 WASTE HEAT BOILER Equipment used for generation of steam etc. 23.5 WATER SOFTENING Process of removing free ions from water . It is promoted by breathing.2 WASH WATER Water injected into a process either for scrubbing a recycle gas or for corrosion protection in critical parts of the unit. They are used in paints and dry cleaning.see deionised water.14 WHITE PRODUCTS Light petroleum products such as gasoline.7 WEAR The attrition or rubbing away of the surface of a material as a result of mechanical action. 23. 23.12 WHESSOE Tank gauging systems used in oil movements. 23. 23.1 WASH OILS petroleum fractions employed for the absorption of the relatively heavy and easily liquefiable components of a mixture of gases (to reduce gas stream density). 23. the water level assists in the accurate measurement of the oil content of the tank. 23. divided by the total catalyst weight. used in fractionator trays and kettle reboilers. 23. to allow direct comparison on the same base.13 WHITE OIL Generic name applied to highly refined. colourless hydrocarbon oils. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 86 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . white spirit and kerosene.11 WET GAS petroleum gas containing such quantities of the lower members of the paraffin hydrocarbon series (propane. 23. butane etc. to take account of changes in feed type or reaction severity. The WABT is often 'normalised'.) that the recovery of liquid products from that gas may be economical.6 WAXY DISTILLATE A fractional cut about equal to the middle section of long residue.

23.Operators Dictionary 23. As a combination of gasoline and kerosene fractions it is used for aircraft powered by gas turbines.16 WIDE RANGE DISTILLATE A distillate with a wide boiling range.17 WORK SAFE AUDIT A method of assessing any job for unnecessary risk. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 87 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Can be done by another or by oneself.

24. tube walls in furnace. One of the highly penetrating radiations similar to Gamma rays. but from the surrounding electrons.g.2 XYLENE C6H4 (CH) 2 An aromatic hydrocarbon of which there are three isomers (ortho. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 88 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . non-destructive testing. Applications. They are produced by electron bombardment. meta and para). e. analysis (fluorescent x-ray spectroscopy).1 XRAY Otherwise known as Rontgen rays.Operators Dictionary 24 X 24. they do not come from the nucleus of the atom. An important constituent of gasoline.

transfer. Saleable yield is the volume % of feedstock turned into saleable product. As distinct from the pipes within the unit battery limits. shipping etc. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 89 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .2 YIELD The amount of a desired product or products obtained in a given process. expressed as a percentage of the feedstock.Operators Dictionary 25 Y 25. each of which should be specifically defined when used. The yard pipes are numbered. There are many yields. 25.g. e.1 YARD PIPE (YP) Any of the pipes within the Tank Farm used for rundown.

American Petroleum Institute Asset Release Permit Signatory Asset South Anti-static Additive American Society for Testing Materials Average Total Capital Employed B BA Breathing Apparatus BBL Barrel BBL Block Battery Limit BBU Blown Bitumen Unit BCW Boiler Circulation Water BDU Butane Deasphalt Unit BFW Boiler Feed Water BHP Brake Horse Power BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand BS&W Basic Sediment & Water BTHU. BTU British Thermal Unit C o C CAD CAM CASS CASP CD CEL CFPP CFR CFR CO CO CO2 COC COD COW CP CPA CPR CPSL CR CRI CS CTL CW CWD Centigrade (or Celsius) Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Management Critical Activity Specification Sheet.Operators Dictionary 26 REGULARLY USED ABBREVIATIONS A ABS AFQRJOS AFRA AGST AGO AIP AN AO AOC APC API ARPS AS ASA ASTM ATCE Absolute (Pressure or Temperature) Asphalt Burning System Aviation Fuel Quality Requirements for Jointly Operated Systems Average Freight Rate Assessment Authorised Gas Safety Tester Automotive Gas Oil Australian Institute of Petroleum Asset North Asset Offplot Accidentally Oil Contaminated Sewer Advanced Process Control. Computer Aided Shutdown Planning Crude Distiller Corrected Energy and Loss Cold Filter Plugging Point Combined Feed Ratio Co-operative Fuel Research Council Cooling Oil Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Continuously Oil Contaminated Sewer Chemical Oxygen Demand Crude Oil Wash Centipoise Critical Path Analysis Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Competitive Price and Supply Level Compression Ratio Criteria Referenced Instruction centistokes Coastal Tankers Ltd Cooling Water Combined Waxy Distillate D DAO De-asphalted Oil Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 90 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .

Operators Dictionary dB(A) DCF DEP DERD DERV DFE DIPA DMDS DOL DRG DWT Scale for measuring all levels of Noise Discounted Cash Flow Design & Engineering Practice Min of Defence Directorate of Engines Diesel Engined Road Vehicle Di-Fluoro Ethylene DI Iso Propanol Amine Di Methyl Di Sulphide Department Of Labour Drawing Dead Weight Tons E ECC EMPRV ENCHEM EOR EPC ESO ETA(D) Employee Consultative Committee Maintenance planning & Scheduling system used at NZRC. Emergency Shut Off Estimated Time of Arrival (Departure) F o F FBP FC FIFO FMA FO FOB FOR FOS FVI Fahrenheit Final Boiling Point Foecal Coliform First In First Out Free Mineral Acidity Flushing Oil Free On Board Flushing Oil Return Flushing Oil Supply Flexible Volatility Index G GLC GCWR GCWS GM GRM GSC GSP Gas Liquid Chromatography Gland Cooling Water Return Gland Cooling Water Supply General Manager Gross Refiners Margin Gas Solid Chromatography Government Selling Price H HCC HCU HBFW/HHFW HDS HDT HITLOP HMU HR HSE HTS HVI HVU HWD H2S Hydrocarbon Collecting System Hydrocracker Unit HP Boiler Feed Water Hydrodesulphuriser Hydrotreater High Temperature Low Pressure Hydrogen Manufacturing Unit Human Resources Health. Energy & Chemical Plant (NZQA National Certificate levels 2 & 4) End of Run Enhanced Process Control. Safety & Environment High Temperature Shift High Viscosity Index High Vacuum Unit Heavy Waxy Distillate Hydrogen Sulphide I IBP ICA ID IGS IP ISP Initial Boiling Point Ignition Control Additive Internal Diameter Inert Gas System Institute of Petroleum Information Systems Planning J Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 91 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .

Operators Dictionary JFTOT Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test K K KHT KHDS KSLA kWh Kelvin (temperature scale) Kerohydrotreater Kerosene Hydrodesulphuriser Koninklijke Shell Laboratorium Amsterdam (Shell Research Centre) Kilowatt Hour L LEL LHSV LIFO LNG LOIT LP LPG LTI LTS LVI LWD Lower Explosive Limit Liquid Hourly Space Velocity Last In First Out Liquefied Natural Gas Local Oil Inland Trade Linear Programme Liquefied Petroleum Gas Lost Time Injury Low Temperature Shift Low Velocity Index Light Waxy Distillate M MCF MESC MDFI MLSS MMI MON MOV MPMP MSDS MVI Methyl Chloroform Material and Equipment Standards and Code Mid Distillate Flow Improper Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids Man Machine Interface Motor Octane Number Motor Operated Valve Multi Period Multi Product Material Safety data Sheets Medium Viscosity Index N NaOH NHDT NH3 NIAT NIBT NNF NPV NRV NSHP NZRC NZQA Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) Naptha Hydrotreater Ammonia Net Income After Tax Net Income Before Tax Normally No Flow Net Present Value Non Return Valve Net Suction Head Pressure The New Zealand Refining Company Ltd New Zealand Qualifications Authority O OEL OD OPCO OPEC OSH Occupational Exposure Limit Outside Diameter Operating Company Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Occupational Safety & Health P PAG PCA PCR PEFS PEUFS PFS pH PICW PID PITO PK PLS Project Approval Group Polycyclic Aromatic Plant Change Request Process Engineering Flow Scheme Process Engineering Utilities Flow Scheme Process Flow Scheme Power of Hydrogen Ion Person in Charge of Work Proportional. Integral. Derivative Petrochemical Industry Training Organisation Premium Kero Production Laboratory Standing Instructions Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 92 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .

Operators Dictionary PM PM PONA PROSS PRT PPE PPM(b) PPI PPR PSA PSFS PSIA(G) PSV PTW PV Pensky Martin Planned Maintenance Paraffins. Remote Terminal Unit Residue Upgrading Performance Index Actual Relief Valve Reid Vapour Pressure S SAC Strong Acid Cation SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETNET Computer Database system used by NZRC to store HSE information SBA Strong Base Anion SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SCBA Self Contained Breathing Apparatus SCR Software Change Request SD Shutdown SDWT Short Dead Weight Tons SG Specific Gravity SI Standing Instruction SIOP Shell International Oil Products SMOC Shell Multi Verbal Optimising Control SO Seal Oil SO2(O3) Sulphur Dioxide (trioxide) SOR Start of Run SP Set Point SPL Sound Pressure Level SRF Standard Refinery Fuel SRU Sulphur Recovery Unit STEL Short Term Exposure Limit SSV Settled Sludge Volume SU Start Up SVI Sludge Volume Index SWL Safe Working Load SWS Sour Water Stripper T TAB Total Aerobic Bacteria Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 93 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . Naphthenes. Aromatics Process Control and Supervisory System Power Recovery Turbine Personal Protective Equipment Parts per Million (billion) Parallel Plate Interceptor Plant Project Request Pressure Swing Adsorption Process Safeguarding Flow Scheme Per Square Inch Absolute (gauge) Pressure Safety valve Permit to Work Process variable O QMI Quality Measuring Instrument R RAP RBU RCU RFB RFL RFSU RIF RON ROV RPM RSI RTU RUPIA RV RVP Refinery Auckland Pipeline Refinery Business Unit Remote Control Unit Regenerable Free Base Refinery Fuel and Loss Ready For Start Up Report Input Form Research Octane Number Remote Operated Valve Revolutions Per Minute Refinery Steering Instructions. Olefins.

Operators Dictionary
TBP
TDC
TDS
TEL
TLF
TLV
TML
TOC
TOIT
TPI
T/SD
TSO
TSS
TWA

True Boiling Point
Total Distributed Control
Total Dissolved Solids
Tetraethyl Lead (Not used any more)
Truck Loading Facility
Threshold Limit Value
Tetramethyl Lead (Not used any more)
Total Organic Carbon
Total Oil Inland Trade
Tilted Plate Interceptor
Tonnes Per Stream Day
Tight Shut Off (Valve)
Total Suspended Solids
Time Weighted Average

U
UEL
US

Upper Explosive Limit
Un-Serviceable

V
VGO
VLCC
VMLSS

Vacuum Gas Oil
Very Large Crude Carrier
Volatile Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids

W
WABT
WHB
WHSV
WOSL

Weighted Average Bed Temperature
Waste Heat Boiler
Weight Hourly Space Velocity
Wiri Oil Services Ltd

Y
YP

Yard Pipe

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Operators Dictionary
27

REFINERY THROUGHPUT 1989 AND 1998

PRIMARY FEEDSTOCKS

SOURCE

Condensate

Indonesia
Taranaki
Taranaki
Taranaki
Australia
Malaysia
Australia
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States

Low Sulphur

High sulphur

Arun:
Kapuni
Maui
Fletcher Blend
Barrow Is
Miri Light
Thevenard
Arab Heavy
Arab Light
Arab X Light
Murban

OCCASIONAL FEEDSTOCK
Condensate:
Cooper Basin
North West Shelf
Low Sulphur:
Airlie
Belida
Champion
Challis
Cooper Basin
Cossack
G.O/F.O Slops
Gippsland
Labuan
Maui F Sands
Tapis
Varanus
Walio
High Sulphur:
Arab Medium
Dubai
Khafji
Lower Zakum
Oman
Upper Zakum

1989
,000 Tonnes
331
277
459
359
148
278
410
1129
595

Australia
Australia
Australia
Indonesia
Brunei
Australia
Australia
Australia

40

Australia
Malaysia
Taranaki
Malaysia
Australia
Indonesia
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States
Gulf States

1

1997
,000 Tonnes
152
414
169
228

327
594
259
166

24
61
111
165
86
94
107
8

69
29
232

61
203
78
90
26
58
355
102
37
44

ADDITIONAL INTAKES
Syngas

439

4

Imported Residue for CDU/ HVU2

87

352

Imported Mogas Component

16

282

Imported Light Cycle Oil

7

Imported Fuel Oil

2
Total

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4576

4989

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Operators Dictionary
FINISHED PRODUCTS
Mogas Premium
Mogas Regula
Premium Kero
Jet A1/ D.P.K.
G.O
Fuel Oils
Bitumen
Sulphur
Fuel and loss
Total

1424
229
4
761
1364
340
129
17
308
4576

388
1152
5
825
1614
512
139
23
331
4989

Other Feedstocks occasionally imported are
Chinese SHENGLI and Indonesian TAPIS.

N.B. Figures are rounded- hence slight imbalance.

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600 1.200 240? Waxy Dist/ DAO Cracked Products Cracked Tops HVU2 (High Vacuum Unit) Butane Deasphalt Unit Hydrogen Manufacturing Unit 5.900 170 Long Residue Short Residue Hydrogen Block B Block C1 Block C2 Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 97 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 .Operators Dictionary 28 REFINERY STATISTICS Unit Name Capacity t/day Product Block A CD1 Naphtha Hydrotreater Gas Oil desulphuriser Platformer HVU1 (Bitumen Unit) 8.500 1.200 1. 5.100 Crude Oil Naphtha Gas Oil Platformate Bitumen CD2 Kero hydrodesulphuriser Sulphur Recovery Units 1-3.300 1.500 4.600 900 3.600 55 max Crude Oil Kerosene Liquid Sulphur Hydrocracker HCU Fractionator Tops Treater 4.

* Carries Premium and Regular Mogas. * Largest ship that can be accommodated on the jetty is a craft of 150. Typical flows include: 5.000 t/hr.000 t/day which takes about 30 hours to unload a typical cargo. * Largest cargo that can be handled is 120.500 2.000 HP Steam Cooling Water Treated Effluent Oil Movements contains all the tankage and interconnecting pipework.200 2.manufacturing" functions such as steam and air generation. a typical average discharge rate is 84.000 tonne. however. * Typical journey time is 36 hours. Site Size * 160 Hectares. including the Refinery to Auckland Pipeline (RAP). effluent disposal etc. * Handles around 255 cubic metres/ hour which equals approximately 5018 t/ day depending on product density. water supply.000 tonnes capacity RAP statistics * 169 kilometres of 273 mm o/d pipe with seven emergency valve sites along it. * Maximum ships discharge rate is 6. 12 coastal tankers and 1 export ships per month. * Volume of pipeline is 9100 cubic metres (9 100 000 litres).Operators Dictionary Utilities contains all the "non. Some movements * Total of 93 tanks (including Spheres) Statistics * Largest tank is T13 at 85.000 DWT. Shipping Statistics * Average of 3 large crude carriers. Doc No: Error: Reference source not found Page 98 Issue Date: Error: Reference source not found Printed Date: 28 November 2001 . AGO and Jet-A1.