WINTER 2005

Colloquy
A L U M N I Q U A R T E R LY
The graduate school of arts and sciences • harvard university Alice Mattison on the Evolution of Her Latest Novel New Writing by Harvard Faculty: Theodore Bestor, Niall Ferguson, Stephen Greenblatt GSAS Signs Historic Fellowship Agreement with Mexico Alumni Books

Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, and Friends:
Probing the Grimm Brothers’ Fairy Tales

The graduate school of arts and sciences • harvard university

Colloquy
A L U M N I Q U A R T E R LY

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Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, and Friends: Probing the Grimm Brothers’ Fairy Tales Professor Maria Tatar discusses the genesis of the famous tales and what they mean for readers today. Margot N. Gill
administrative dean

Paula Szocik
director of publications and alumni relations

Susan Lumenello
editor

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Dangerous Enough: Meeting Novelist Alice Mattison Alumna Mattison, PhD ’68, English and American literature and language, talks about her new novel, The Wedding of the Two-headed Woman, and how her life informs her fiction.

Susan Gilbert
editorial assistant

James Clyde Sellman, PhD ’93, history
copy editor

Sametz Blackstone Associates
design

Graduate School Alumni Association (GSAA) Council

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New Writing by Harvard Faculty Anthropologist Theodore Bestor on the world’s biggest fish market, Niall Ferguson on the nature of the new American empire, and Stephen Greenblatt on the youthful excursions of William Shakespeare.

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A History of Widener Harvard librarian Matthew Battles recounts the tortuous and at times tragic pathway to the creation of the world’s greatest academic library.

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Alumni Books We’ve recently received alumni-penned (or –edited) books on wisdom from Christian ancients, the abortion rights controversy,Winslow Homer’s Gulf Stream, and murder at a posh girls’ school, among a variety of other topics.

On the cover: Little Red Riding Hood, from The Fairy Book, illustrated by Warwick Goble, 1923. Houghton Library, Harvard University.

Naomi André, PhD ’96, music, ex officio Reinier Beeuwkes, COL ’62, PhD ’70, division of medical sciences Lisette Cooper, PhD ’87, geological sciences Thomas Davenport, PhD ’80, sociology Stacy Dick, AB ’78, PhD ’83, economics A. Barr Dolan, AM ’74, applied sciences Richard Ekman, AB ’66, PhD ’72, history of American civilization John C.C. Fan, SM ’67, PhD ’72, applied sciences Donald Farrar, AB ’54, PhD ’61, economics, ex officio Charles Field, PhD ’71, urban planning Neil Fishman, SM ’92, applied sciences Kenneth Froewiss, AB ’67, PhD ’77, economics Homer Hagedorn, PhD ’55, history R. Stanton Hales, PhD ’70, mathematics David Harnett, PhD ’70, history, ex officio George Heilborn, PhD ’55, history Karen J. Hladik, PhD ’84, business economics Mary Lee Ingbar, SB ’46, PhD ’53, economics, MPH ’56 Ishier Jacobson, SM ’47, applied sciences, LLB ’51, ex officio Andrew Jameson, PhD ’58, history Daniel R. Johnson, AM ’82, East Asian history, AM ’84, business economics Gopal Kadagathur, PhD ’69, applied sciences Alan Kantrow, AB ’69, PhD ’79, history of American civilization Gyuri Karady, PhD ’80, applied sciences Robert E. Knight, PhD ’68, economics Felipe Larraín, PhD ’85, economics Jill Levenson, PhD ’67, English and American literature and language See-Yan Lin, MPA ’70, PhD ’77, economics, chair Barbara Luna, PhD ’75, applied sciences Suzanne Folds McCullagh, PhD ’81, fine arts John J. Moon, AB ‘89, PhD ’94, business economics Sandra O. Moose, PhD ’68, economics F. Robert Naka, SD ’51, applied sciences Maury Peiperl, MBA ‘86, PhD ‘94, organizational behavior M. Lee Pelton, PhD ’84, English and American literature and language Nancy Ramage, PhD ’69, classical archaeology John E. Rielly, PhD ’61, government Allen Sangines-Krause, PhD ’87, economics Charles Schilke, AM ’82, history Sidney Spielvogel, AM ’46, economics, MBA ’49 David Staines, PhD ’73, English and American literature and language Marianne Steiner, MEN ’78, SM ’78, applied mathematics John Stuckey, PhD ’81, business economics Dennis Vaccaro, PhD ’78, division of medical sciences Donald van Deventer, PhD ’77, economics Gustavus Zimmerman, PhD ‘80, physics

economics president of Harvard University William C.from the dean Peter T. We believe this new dissertation compensation package will help our admissions yield rate jump as much as 20 percent. MA 02138-3654. Letters to the Editor Colloquy welcomes your letters. 1 GSAS . By removing the uncertainty of support and the problem of juggling teaching and writing demands. Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. many of which have offered similar packages for years. This outstanding improvement to the financial aid package is a long-sought goal that has finally been achieved by harnessing all our available internal resources. who can rely upon outside foundation and government funding. guaranteed for PhD students in humanities and social sciences disciplines.gsas. MA 02138-3654. PhD ’83. MA. Governed by its Council. Ellison. To date.Woburn. Byerly Hall 300. 124 Mt. MA 02138-3654 phone: 617-495-5591 • fax: 617-495-2928 gsaa@fas. Gill administrative dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Michael Shinagel PhD ’64. The new compensation program should help students complete their degrees faster. graduate departments. or to expend precious time working at a job.harvard. International centers. a task that requires all of a student’s energies. Inc. That restriction mattered less to our natural science students.Write to: Colloquy. 8 Garden Street. Kirby PhD ’81.edu Colloquy on the Web The current issue of Colloquy and recent back issues are available on the Web at www. Colloquy is printed by Pride Printers. Students will have less reason to take time off.edu • www. Graduate School Alumni Association Byerly Hall 300 8 Garden Street Cambridge. The Graduate School previously provided funding for the first four years of the PhD program. anthropology dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Margot N. Cambridge. AB ’60 executive director of the Harvard Alumni Association Supporting Our Humanists and Social Scientists Students in pursuit of a PhD in the humanities or the social sciences will shortly be relieved of much of the burden of worrying about their finances. the GSAA represents and advances the interests of alumni of the Graduate School by sponsoring alumni events and by publishing Colloquy four times each year. With the 2005–06 entering class.edu. Cambridge. Summers PhD ’82. history dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences Peter T. the Faculty of Arts and Sciences will implement a new financial aid program featuring final-year dissertation fellowships. or e-mail gsaa@fas. Fourth Floor. and far more to our humanities and social sciences students. Printed on recycled paper. Ellison PhD ’83. Now. Being able to provide these fellowships will finally allow the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences to compete on a level playing field with our peer institutions. the new compensation program should help students complete their degrees faster.Auburn Street. who depend almost entirely on university resources for grants.harvard.edu/colloquy.gsas. Sizable resources—newly allocated from the office of President Summers—have made it possible for us to begin awarding more of these fellowships immediately to our continuing students. English and American literature and language dean of Continuing Education and University Extension Donella Rapier MBA ’92 vice president for Alumni Affairs and Development John P. The GSAA is the alumni association of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Harvard Alumni Association Appointed Directors Lisette Cooper • Donald van Deventer GSAA Council Ex Officio Lawrence H. by stabilizing funding over five years. Moving? Please send your Colloquy mailing label and your new address to Alumni Records. we are beginning to put our humanities and social science scholars on the same financial level as our natural science scholars. This commitment is also a result of more effectively marshalling currently available resources.harvard. This new package is a tremendous advance for the Graduate School and for the young scholars in many fields who are creating new knowledge for the future. Our ability to include dissertation fellowships in the offers to new students depends both on the stewardship of existing resources and a continuation of our strenuous efforts at new fundraising. Reardon Jr. anthropology dean.. and the Graduate School itself have all made significant contributions to this fellowship program.harvard. the most complete financial aid package—the Presidential Fellowships—has been offered to top candidates only—and to great effect. But perhaps what is most important about this new fellowship program is that it allows us to support students during the year Harvard University they can least afford to have financial concerns: when they are writing their dissertations.

is also the author of Secrets Beyond the Door: The Story of Bluebeard and His Wives (2004). Paintings and drawings give us compelling visual evidence that fairy tales started out as old wives’ tales.” for instance. In her new book. Loeb Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures and Dean for the Humanities in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. and other works on fairy tales and folk culture. Little Red Riding Hood. fairy tales were told around the fireside. the John L. versions in which Little Red Riding Hood does not rely on a hunter for her rescue. and presents them anew for contemporary readers.” the tapestries woven by frog princesses. often by women engaged in household chores: spinning yarn. they are dealing with primal issues. the same rivalries. and mothers who told the tales to children favored stories about little girls. Just because they’re domesticated doesn’t mean they’re trivialized. on the other hand. and the girls in the stories are usually punished for curiosity. or the disguises and costumes sewn for Catskin and Cinderella. Is the strong presence of all these young heroines perhaps why so many of the tales warn against “curiosity”? mt: There is a real connection there.” “Rumpelstiltskin. look at the consequences—being swallowed up alive along with her grandmother. 2 GSAS . what is she actually doing wrong? Stopping to pick flowers? I mean. Though they’re not dealing with the origins of the world. Those activities were often embedded in the tales themselves—think of the spinning wheels in “Rumpelstiltskin” or “Sleeping Beauty. She spoke recently about her work on the Grimms’ tales. nurses.” Why do you think that was? mt: Once upon a time. you note that Joseph Campbell said that fairy tales could only be considered entertainment and were not myths. The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales (2002). The Grimms disputed that. carding wool.” and others under the scholarly microscope. The Annotated Brothers Grimm (2004). Tatar. or mending clothing. analyzes the tales—which the Grimms published in the early 19th century—in their historical context.a colloquy Snow White. Joseph Campbell had an elevated notion of myth and had a need to distinguish it from children’s literature. The boys. Fairy tales are just inflected differently than myths. even the hint of curiosity. Many fairy tales became cautionary tales when they moved into the nursery. still. but outwits the wolf herself.Where do you stand on the matter? maria tatar: I’m actually with the Grimms on that one. but I would argue that fairy tales are of great importance to our daily lives. They’re like miniaturized versions but have the same family conflicts. are often rewarded for curiosity. the tales migrated from the fireside into the nursery. with women as the dominant figures in scenes of storytelling. But in “Little Red Riding Hood. And that’s why we have to look at other versions of the tale. Off with Their Heads! Fairy Tales and the Culture of Childhood (1992). But. she’s staying on the path just as she was told. saying that fairy tales were indeed myths. He read fairy tales as trivial versions of myths. An excerpt from her book appears on the facing page. Maria Tatar puts “Snow White. and it’s not surprising that the nannies. Harvard’s Maria Tatar. Harvard University You write that the Grimms’ tales were “heavily weighted toward female protagonists. Over time. In the book’s introduction. and Friends: P R O B I N G T H E G R I M M B R OT H E R S ’ FA I RY TA L E S | BY SUSAN LUMENELLO How did the Grimm Brothers acquire their famous tales? Why did they work so hard to collect them in the first place? And why are there so many versions of “Cinderella”? Answering these and many other questions is one of the foremost authorities on fairy tales.

thieves. In a related version. in an effort to preserve the sanctity of motherhood. hung from the rafters of a room. fiercer.” … From The Annotated Brothers Grimm. Published by W. but it has an easily identifiable. She drops her glove and orders Snow White to retrieve it. the evil queen is the girl’s biological mother. and they invite her into their carriage. from Maria Tatar’s The Annotated Brothers Grimm …The many versions of “Snow White” heard by the Grimms suggest the richness of folkloric variation and remind us how we have allowed stories that once circulated freely to ossify into definitive versions. The dwarfs are sometimes miners but sometimes compassionate robbers. silver. but older. Who were the Brothers Grimm and why did they make such an effort to collect and disseminate these tales? mt: The Grimms—and they were two brothers. ignorant.They also wanted to sell books. The couple discovers on the road a girl exactly like the one the count longs for. Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) has so overshadowed other versions of the story that it is easy to forget that the tale is widely disseminated across a variety of cultures. both of which she plans to eat after boiling them in salt water. bears. however. who orders the huntsman to return with the girl’s lungs and liver. (The Grimms. Jacob and Wilhelm—wanted to consolidate national identity by creating a body of German folklore. Finally. proposed renaming the story “Snow White and Her Wicked Stepmother. or ogres.The heroine may ingest a poisoned apple in her cinematic incarnation. or lead or is jewel encrusted. seems restrained by comparison with the Grimms’ evil queen. In Spain the queen is even more bloodthirsty. They also wanted to sell books.“the one fair.Martha Stewart Professor Maria Tatar: The Grimms were trying to collect the poetry of the people before it disappeared from hearths and workrooms.The count immediately has tender feelings for the girl..) The struggle between Snow White and the wicked queen so dominates the psychological landscape of this fairy tale that Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar. he wishes for a girl with cheeks as red as the blood. and then orders the coachman to drive off as speedily as possible. the one sweet. After passing three ditches filled with red blood. the other a mother. three ravens fly overhead and he wishes for a girl with hair as black as the ravens. pale. or a suffocating braid. the other just as fair. the countess tells Snow White to gather roses and then deserts the girl.” In The Madwoman in the Attic. it can also be set adrift on a river. Norton & Company. the Grimms could assign evil intentions to women and still preserve the sanctity of motherhood. placed under a tree. wild men.The countess.W. the other both artful and active. in a landmark book of feminist literary criticism. they describe how the Grimms’ story stages a contest between the “angel-woman” and the “monster-woman” of Western culture. Disney’s queen. but in Italy she is just as likely to fall victim to a toxic comb. who demands Snow White’s heart from the huntsman who takes her into the woods. By replacing mothers with stepmothers. young. passive. asking for a bottle of blood stoppered with the girl’s toe. In Italy she instructs the huntsman to return with the girl’s intestines and her blood-soaked shirt. In many versions of the tale. only biological mothers. Copyright © 2004 by Maria Tatar. but in other versions of the tale that coffin is made of gold. the other an undeniable witch. “Snow White” may vary tremendously from culture to culture in its details. a contaminated cake. Disney’s film has made much of Snow White’s coffin being made of glass.” But they were also scholars—they launched the first dictionary of the German language and were involved in politically continued on page 8 Snow White. the one a sort of angel. And they felt a powerful need to collect what they called the “poetry of the people” before it disappeared from hearths and workrooms. New York. Edited with a preface and notes by Maria Tatar. For them the motor of the “Snow White” plot is in the relationship between the two women. Although it is often displayed on a mountaintop. Why are stepmothers in these tales always evil? mt: In many of the original tales there were no stepmothers at all. cannot abide the girl and schemes to get rid of her. the one a daughter. which they did by turning their collection into a “manual of manners. or locked in a room and surrounded with candles. stable core in the conflict between mother and daughter. Inc. leaving her to fend for herself in the woods. The Grimms describe one version of “Snow White” in which a count and countess drive by three mounds of snow and the count wishes for a girl as white as the snow. not a stepmother. were forever turning biological mothers into stepmothers. Harvard University 3 GSAS .

Why is poisonous fugu (blowfish or pufferfish) a great delicacy? Because the numbness it induces exquisitely tickles one’s senses when (or if) they return. american empire. the smallest imperfection. Hokkaido roe command a premium at Tsukiji. That is. everyone gets uncomfortable. which cannot be given as wedding gifts. Tsukiji traders prefer domestically harvested or produced food items (known and labeled as kokusan— literally. I don’t sort that carefully for anybody. and the inability of foreign producers to live up to Japanese standards. since imperfection outside may signal imperfection within. Although homespun “explanations” such as these provide sushi chefs with material for endless hours of chatter with inquisitive foreigners. for their congratulatory (omedetai) red-and-white coloring. Bestor Theodore C. and odd bits and pieces of food lore adhere like barnacles to its consumption and preparation: Why are sea bream (tai) so highly prized? Because they are served at weddings and other auspicious events. although sea urchin roe from – Hokkaido and from Maine are almost – indistinguishable. the outward appearance must be perfect.” the American producer told me disdainfully. People dining together may indeed all order lobster. complaining that the individual lobsters in each lot were too varied in size. and that in any case Japanese workers are much more highly skilled in packing the roe in neat. the features of culinary classification that fundamentally move the market are far more subtle and far more complex. The ideal of perfect external form adds an extra dimension to assessing foodstuffs. Preferences for domestically produced foodstuffs may in part stem from fundamental Japanese parochialism. Instead. Thus. Across the Pacific. * * * On entirely different grounds. the indistinguishability and the premium give rise to grumbling by American producers that some Japanese importers process and – repackage Maine roe in Hokkaido before sending it to the marketplace. Seafood is a pillar of Japanese cuisine. Why are whole lobsters not served at weddings? Because their claws resemble scissors. If a guest sees that his lobster tail is smaller than that of the person sitting next to him.2 Even where concern over the integrity of the inner product is not directly at issue. a historian of America’s role in the world. and if they do. “I gave up.1 Or so goes Tsukiji’s [pronounced “ts-kee-jee”] folklore. but they are unlikely to compare their individual lobsters closely. uniform. Bestor is a professor of anthropology. An American lobster producer from California once told me that he had given up trying to ship lobsters to Japan. The slightest blemish. apparently his Japanese broker rejected sample shipment after sample shipment. the youth Colloquy regularly presents excerpts from new books written by Harvard faculty in the arts and sciences. Niall Ferguson. of course. he concentrates on the American restaurant market. Why do few women sell fish in the market and why are there no female sushi chefs? Because—some men say—women’s hands are warmer than men’s and hence adversely affect the flavor of raw seafood. where the normal lobster dinner is served individually and often priced according to the weight of the lobster. Copyright © 2004 by the Regents of the University of California. a Shakespeare scholar. “national product”) over imports. Bestor. —The editor The Raw and the Cooked By Theodore C. the differences in price by size will usually account for any obvious disparities. or the most trivial deviation from a foodstuff’s idealized form can make a product—or entire shipment— languish unsold. the question of kata bedevils the international fish trade. From Tsukiji:The Fish Market at the Center of the World. Everybody’s plate has to look exactly like the one next to it. other things being equal. And. Published by the University of California Press: California.” 1 Although minute differences in the average body tempera- tures of males and females indeed are found in some human populations…there is no evidence that differences in skin Harvard University 4 GSAS . just as the etiquette of wrapping symbolically ensures both ritual and hygienic purity. foreign foods are often regarded as simply inferior. a Tsukiji lobster trader tells another side to the story: “Hotel banquet halls buy almost all the lobsters at Tsukiji. The auspicious red-and-white color of a lobster tail makes it very popular at wedding banquets. Japanese importers counter that the quality of the product is better if it is shipped in the shell to Japan and processed there. an anthropologist who studies contemporary Japanese culture. but they also reflect issues of kata. In this issue. attractive ways. or idealized form.new writing by Har vard faculty japanese foodways. you’ll find recent work by Theodore C. and shakespeare. and Stephen Greenblatt.

Norton & Company: New York. To George Washington the United States was a “nascent empire. reports that he has published Arthur Miller’s America: Theater and Culture in a Time of Change (University of Michigan Press).” The initial “confederacy” of 13 would be “the nest from which all America. It is commonplace to assume that having been forged in a war of independence against imperial rule. [Shakespeare] had grown up in a world where the fields began just at the end of the street. temperature—whether between males and females.C. its republican constitution has withstood the ambitions of any would-be Caesars—so far. were tenements. small vegetable gardens.) That the United States would expand was decided almost from its very inception. the United States could never become an empire in its own right. Bloom. writing in 1942: “With the exception of the brief period of imperialist activity at the time of the SpanishAmerican war. Fan. Manchester University Press. the idea was thrown out at the committee stage.” Bloom is a financial markets innovator and leader at Capmark. Brater is professor of English and theater continued on page 9 Harvard University 5 GSAS . Now all around him.” conducted in 2000 on the occasion of the playwright’s 85th birthday. a company that supplies major electronics manufacturers and government agencies with the latest semiconductor products.” Thomas Jefferson told James Madison he was “persuaded no constitution was ever before as well calculated as ours for extending extensive empire and selfgovernment. Copyright © 2004 Niall Ferguson. it had. But it did have much in common with the great land empires of the past. the founder of Rydex Investments. or among handlers of seafood of the same sex—have any effect on seafood or other food products.“Humidity. Jefferson used his inaugural address in 1801 to observe that the short history of the United States had already furnished “a new proof for the falsehood of Montesquieu’s doctrine.” said a statement. PhD ’68.. it was an inclusive empire. … Setting out from the center of the city. Moose. and was later presented at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. a longtime member of Harvard’s Graduate School Alumni Association Council. Moose.The annual award—named for the late Skip Viragh. Published by Penguin Press. warehouses.” later an “infant empire.” The irony is that there were no more selfconfident imperialists than the Founding Fathers themselves. extending for miles beyond London’s crumbling city walls. was named this past November as one of eight Outstanding Directors for 2004 by the Institute of Outstanding Directors. Also featured in the book is Brater’s discussion with Pulitzer Prize–winning composer William Bolcom. and co-founder of Kopin. that a republic can be preserved only in a small territory. reports that in October 2004 he became the first recipient of the Skip Viragh Award. along with stinking ditches and refuse heaps. chief executive officer. its disenfranchised slaves. Brian Moeran. an energetic walker could still fairly quickly reach hedged pastures where cows peacefully grazed or ground where laundresses pegged their washing and continued on page 10 English and American Literature and Language Enoch Brater. Life in the Suburbs By Stephen Greenblatt Stephen Greenblatt is the Cogan University Professor in the Department of English and American Literature and Language. When. 2 From Joy Hendry. PhD ’72. But unlike Rome. Published by W. The United States is 228 years old. the Roman Republic was 460 years old. The collection of original essays includes his “Conversation with Arthur Miller. From Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare by Stephen Greenblatt.” … Economics Steven M. which introduced the first leveraged mutual fund— honors a company or individual that “positively affects the financial advisor community and its clients.The award. From Colossus: The Price of America’s Empire. ed. Shakespeare made his acquaintance for the first time with the suburbs. PhD ’86. He also served as a senior consultant for National Economic Research Associates and as chief economist and senior vice president of equity research for the American Stock Exchange. or Ritual Care: Some Thoughts on Wrapping as a Social Phenomenon. received a 2004 New England Business and Technology Association (NEBATA) Award as “one of ten leaders making significant contributions to the development and deployment of technology in New England’s business community. the American people have shown a deep repugnance to both the conquest of distant lands and the assumption of rule over alien peoples. very different in character from the empire from which they had seceded. relatively (though not wholly) promiscuous in the way that it conferred citizenship. Like Rome. North and South [would] be peopled. Intimations of Empire By Niall Ferguson Niall Ferguson is a professor of history.” Indeed. Many Americans today would accept the verdict of the historian Rupert Emerson. Hygiene. 1990. recognizes corporate board members who have been key players during important periods of growth or transition at the companies on whose boards they serve. brick kilns. By Eyal Ben-Ari. John Dickinson proposed setting western boundaries of the states. gun foundries. Copyright © 2004 by Stephen Greenblatt. The empire they envisaged was. Moose also serves on the boards of Verizon Communications and the AES Corporation. to be sure. at least for a time. When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC. More than 100 nominations were submitted. and windmills. Sandra O.W. Like Rome. and James Valentine. or at most within a few minutes’ walk. Fan is president. a financial consulting firm he founded in 1998. winners were announced in October 2004. (It is of course early days. He discovered what it was to pine for open country. now in its seventh year. workshops. It was not intended to resemble the maritime empires of Western Europe. She was honored for “her leadership role in completely revamping the board evaluation program at the specialty chemicals company Rohm and Haas Co. it began with a relatively small core—the founding states’ combined area today is just eight percent of the total extent of the United States—which expanded to dominate half a continent.” In Unwrapping Japan. PhD ’71.” according to a press release. The reverse is the truth. Chicago. Like Rome. Fan is also a member of Harvard’s Graduate School Alumni Association Council.alumni notes Applied Sciences John C. in the draft Articles of Confederation of July 1776. whose opera version of A View from the Bridge premiered at the Lyric Opera. is senior advisor at the Boston Consulting Group.

I was single for decades. and there were many men like that. a woman with silvergray hair walks onstage. “And she likes men. a reasonably healthy pastime. Alice Mattison refuses to let Daisy be pigeonholed. Mattison—who received her PhD from Harvard in English and American literature and language in 1968—uses that ambiguity to help drive the story. sex has worked out pretty well. She glances around at the audience and smiles—shyly it seems—at a few recognized faces. She’s in a marriage that provides comfort and satisfaction. she seems incapable of being consistently truthful. then I go further. Sex has mostly. the reading room at Blacksmith House in Cambridge is full. I liked the idea of a woman character who can be sexually active and not suffer—not want more. she offers a moment of rare insight and self-awareness about these ambiguous feelings: “I was discovering something marriage does: it defines you. at one point she begins an affair.” The reader soon realizes that not only is Daisy the lover and friend not quite trustworthy. in ways that often seem foolish and self-destructive.” There’s a common assumption in our culture that a woman with Daisy’s casual attitude toward sex is either being exploited by men or suffering from some pathology. narrated by Daisy Andalusia. In her narrative. but strictly on impulse. Daisy is a woman who needs. I feel a yen to place my hand on his bare thigh. but that she seems incapable of realizing and acknowledging the emotional impact of those events. while channel surfing. connection in her life. Harvard University This ambivalence manifests most clearly in her marriage. He thinks nobody hears. but there’s a restlessness that causes her to put the relationship at risk in ways that often seem foolish and unnecessary. Daisy really likes sex. which she usually plays very close to the vest. a form of arts and crafts that uses people instead of glass or thread…” So begins Alice Mattison’s latest novel The Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman. Daisy as narrator also has to be taken with a grain of salt. Afterward. not out of great need or attraction. and she clearly has strong feelings for him. It’s like the impulse that sends some women into stores that sell colored floss and kits for making stained-glass pendants—and of course I know that sometimes those women can’t refrain. in part. one might get the impression that she’s the kind of person who’d turn red if. A friendly. and little more than her head and shoulders are visible above the top of the podium. For a moment shared understanding exhilarates us both. but at the same time is terrified of being trapped by those connections. But once again. and the buzz of conversation quiets as the event host steps to the podium to welcome the audience. been less threatening than that. to put that marriage at risk. twisting together on their dirty strings. to see what he’s like with no clothes on. beneath the calm surface of Daisy’s glib narrative lie tremendous conflict. but I laugh. Not the moment of being “ Nothing distracts me for long from sex. Her husband Pekko is safe and comforting. “What interests me about sex is nothing dangerous. she stumbled across caribou mating on the Discovery Channel. falling and breaking into the 6 GSAS . It’s not that one doubts that her description of events is accurate. Actually. even when pendants hang in every window. as the sort of person who’d marry whoever your spouse was. after a brief early marriage. But on the whole. almost for his private benefit.lives in the humanities dangerous enough: A Meeting with Novelist Alice Mattison… and Daisy Andalusia By Charles Coe O n a night in early November. intelligent man makes a funny remark. From her unassuming air and somewhat grandmotherly appearance. But then she begins to read: shards they once were. but she’s compelled. for me. nothing life-changing. In her friendships and her professional life.” Another unconventional side of Daisy’s personality manifests in a fascination with the subject of murder: “I asked myself what about murder interested me.” she says. maybe killing the cat. turmoil. “Although the affair she takes up ultimately winds up being a poor choice. and sadness. sex has given her more pleasure than pain. Is she simply unwilling to examine those consequences. For most of her life. I shouldn’t say she’s never suffered. or simply so disconnected that she’s unaware of them? With sure-handed craft. and seeks. and admits openly in her narrative that she can “be good only about half the time.

but all the while I worked on it. I loved inhabiting her and speaking her voice. It took a lot of drafts. On the other hand. it was also a way of writing about. where she lives. But while Mattison has had a long-time career. Hilda and Pearl (1995). I realized that feelings that strong had to be in the book. Daisy’s been single most of her life. I’d know someone just when everything came apart for him. the only actual connection between the novel and my real life is that shortly after I started writing it.” The Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman isn’t Daisy Andalusia’s first appearance. first my father. She’s just very afraid to feel very connected. and Daisy.” “I don’t think I’d want to write a book about a character with a strong resemblance to me. and put them both on the market. In the same way her relationship with her husband is very casual. murdered but the moment of murdering. and then the apartment. But also keep her dangerous enough so she’d be a character I’d be interested in writing about. Daisy’s description of the affair is much more complicated. Her husband Pekko. another character in The Wedding of the TwoHeaded Woman. Women Yelling.” One characteristic Mattison does happen to share with Daisy is they’ve both put in time as college professors. Daisy has a much more casual relationship with her dog than I have with mine. who is a college teacher. who was born and raised in New Haven. the idea was at the back of my mind that I wanted to write a novel about Daisy. I thought if I could fasten on that second—the second of pulling the trigger.” she says.” “She has a dog. I’ve been Harvard University married to my junior high school sweetheart for 37 years. when he did something terrible. “Some years ago there was an article in the The New Yorker about teenaged drug dealers in New Haven.” she says. I don’t usually want to explore myself too much in my writing. I had to clean up and empty their house. so I couldn’t really pursue that. When I wrote that story. Daisy’s profession represented to Alice Mattison not only an interesting narrative thread. as well as the critically acclaimed novels The Book Borrower (1999). and helping to deal with. “In fact. he was my mouthpiece. I’ve had dogs all of my adult life and most of my childhood. I wrote a novel called The Book Borrower. People who know me well can see the jokes sprinkled through the story. secret. on the subject of urban violence.” says Mattison. and very different from what she tells Charlotte in “The Hitchhiker. my mother. They’re trading secrets. confesses that she has slept with one of her students.” As is often the case with novelists. I sensed that Daisy wasn’t telling the whole truth. “But shortly after the move. continued on page 16 7 GSAS .GSAS alumna Alice Mattison received her PhD in English and American literature and language in 1968.” Daisy eventually explores this fascination by helping to organize a conference in New Haven. she’s a character who has appeared in Alice Mattison’s work before. It was hard to have her be likable enough so that the reader wanted to keep reading. Alice Mattison has been asked if there are similarities between herself and her creation. “I wrote about Daisy before in a collection of short stories called Men Giving Money. and amazing. “It gave the impression that every kid in the inner city was a dealer. and to make some positive points about New Haven. So I gave them to Pekko. But I think she’s seriously troubled. “Part of the pleasure of writing this story was creating someone who was completely different from me. while I have macular degeneration. I think I’ll be too inhibited. he thinks she’s simply feeding into stereotypes about the city as violent and dangerous. but fascinating aspect of Daisy’s character. pushing in the knife—then I’d know someone. and the short story collection Men Giving Money. I was so upset by that article that eight years later when the man who wrote it came to speak at the program I teach in at Bennington (in the College’s Writing Seminars). and what she does next. and so do I. and part of what I find so interesting is looking at the many differences between us. is angered by her involvement in the conference.” “I had so much fun writing about her that I realized there was a lot more about her I wanted to explore. my parents finally moved out of their house and into an assisted-living apartment.” she says. Mattison developed this part of the story line for two reasons: to illustrate a troubling. I need strong connections in my own life. Daisy has perfect vision. “There’s a story called ‘The Hitchhiker’ that features Daisy and Charlotte. two blocks from my house. I was still so angry that I couldn’t be in the same room with him. One of the book’s many ironies is that a woman whose inner life seems so chaotic and out of control would make a career of organizing and controlling other people’s lives.” in which Daisy describes her affair with the student (who also makes a brief appearance in The Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman. had to go to a nursing home. Daisy walked away from teaching and started a business where she cleaned up other people’s clutter. I found the article very disturbing.” Mattison decided to write a story from Daisy’s point of view for that same collection called “Selfishness. Her books include the new Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman. I’ve never lived the life Daisy lived. and soon after. I think very hard about my dogs—about caring for them and training them. It also talked about the high school my kids went to.Women Yelling (1997). After the short story collection. I wasn’t so interested in how she got to be who she is. But it was written from Charlotte’s point of view. I’m more interested in how she lives through it. some issues in her own life. and made it seem like the school was nothing but drugs and guns.) This time.

So many of the popular new reality shows engage with that story in one way or another. beauty is presented as its own reward. Did you rewrite any of the tales yourself? mt: Only some of them. because tales such as “The Juniper Tree” were written in a Low German dialect. “Cinderella” captures some of our deepest fantasies about romance and marriage. They were also cosmopolitan thinkers who acknowledged the international sources for their collection. and that’s precisely the point. In this story there are really no admirable characters. not even the alleged heroine of the piece. Byatt writes of some “345 variants of ‘Cinderella.a colloquy Houghton Library. and spirituality is less important. which parody our “sacred” cultural stories and show children that there are other ways to get home and live happily ever after. by the way. So often in the tales. Can you talk about some of the contemporary books and movies with Grimms’ tales as their basis? mt: Hollywood is obsessed with the Cinderella story. It’s reassuring to know that we have books like The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales.S. often on multiple occasions. Mortality rates were high. it could also take a burlesque turn. without any real evidence. it always was. Their version of “Cinderella” was a far more violent one than the better-known version by Charles Perrault. Maid in Manhattan. and wealth. In “Snow White. and I was reluctant to try my hand at [translating] a regional dialect. Parents will find in these stories interesting points of departure for discussing values and meaning. he would have called Western Union. this one in particular. Shrek draws on the Grimms and also on French fairy tales with great success.” we find the battle of the beauties. Hemingway once said that if he had been interested in sending messages. but told in the right way. To be sure. and corpses were not unfamiliar sights. with doves pecking out the eyes of the stepsisters. They were also living in times when children attended public executions for moral education. The Grimms were deeply invested in the notion that vice should be punished. and Ella Enchanted for starters.What is the message here? mt: What is the message? It’s a little hard to say frankly. The Princess Diaries. The stories frame justice in naïve ways. “Rumpelstiltskin” seems perhaps one of the oddest of the tales: no one is very nice. Recycling is always a great way to conserve cultural energy and there’s a lot more out there than Disney when it comes to fairy tales. and invariably some compromises came about. the description of the stepsisters cutting off their toes and heels to fit into the glass slipper has a certain grotesque quality. as the most “purely German. the Brothers Grimm.’” Is “Cinderella” the most potent of the tales? mt: I think so. Is that a message of value? mt: The tales really are centered on beauty. And.” the Grimms anointed one of the stories. Working Girl. It is the rags to riches story that taps into our desire to see the underdog emerge as top dog. What do you think readers will learn as they return to these tales of childhood? mt: I think they will be surprised by the violence in these stories but also astonished by the familiarity of the tales. and Rumpelstiltskin is so angry in the end that he tears himself in two.Why? mt: After collecting many versions of “Cinderella. And the same holds true for the Disney version of the tales. These are stories that many of us have heard at one time or another. We should talk about those stories as well and about the messages they are sending to children. Surfaces matter. the evil queen’s version of events. material terms. Think of Pretty Woman. Above. But that’s why we also have to talk about the values embedded in these stories and use them to think about what matters to us today. and have not cast off but rather have internalized. in which Cinderella forgives her stepsisters. I was trying for accuracy but also readability. The final scene.” They were hoping to be faithful to their popular sources and Harvard University didn’t really worry about violence. continued from page 3 progressive movements. and for that very reason they provoke debate. I’m a big fan too of Gregory Maguire’s Mirror Mirror and of his book Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister. Then there are the many retellings from an alternative point of view. the daughter makes a foolish bargain. a portrait by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann. by Arthur Rackham. power.” you note that the Grimms’ version is much more violent than the French version.” which include several stories with 8 GSAS . In her introduction to your book. You also include a section called “Tales for Adults. Everything is worked out in concrete. stands in sharp contrast with the French version. or the wolf’s side of the story. the king is greedy. That’s why the stories are so accessible to children. In writing about “Cinderella. The miller trades his daughter for the prospect of wealth. those 345 variants are just the British ones. and they worked hard to record cultural variants of folktales. Harvard University Cinderella. and in their stories. the novelist A. There is a lot to talk about here.

and historian. She is a freelance writer specializing in investment-related topics. puts them into a stew. Transaction published updated editions of Viereck’s 1949 book Conservatism Revisited and his 1956 book The Unadjusted Man (now entitled Unadjusted Man in the Age of Overadjustment:Where History and Literature Intersect). PhD ’84. France. very blatant anti-Semitic messages. I am still teaching full-time in the history department at the University of California at San Diego and have a small psychoanalytic practice. when I was in graduate school in the early 1970s in the German department at Princeton. History Judith M. she published articles in Financial Planning magazine and in the Boston Globe’s BostonWorks and Travel sections. and to one degree or another. they burst out laughing. PhD ’70. the story still appears in collections. PhD ’42. which recently received the inaugural prize for Excellence in Editing by the Association for Theatre in Higher Education.” Xu is currently working on a book-length manuscript tentatively titled Sports and China’s Internationalization. 1895–2001. The Holocaust has.Transaction will publish Strict Wilderness: Discoveries in Poetry and History. that happened in many parts of the world. In 2003. but it is translated as “The Miser in the Thornbush. History and East Asian Languages Susan Weiner. has a forthcoming book. Their collection includes a virulently anti-Semitic tale called “The Jew in the Thornbush. in 2004.” It’s so gruesome! You have a child whose stepmother decapitates him by slamming a trunk on his head. they were also products of their time. Finally. including the United States. In the United States. 2005). From Obstacle to Ally:The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Practice. but it is shocking to find it in a collection produced by scholars and educators. publication of Door. It’s a relief to hear about the terrible things you think can happen in the form of a story. Guoqi Xu. because it shows the power of sibling solidarity. As for fairy tales. writes: “BrunnerRoutledge has just published my sixth book. and as scholarly as they were in their efforts. He is also the founding editor of the University of Michigan Press series Theater: Theory/Text/ Performance. SB ’37. reports on his prolific recent publishing life. I hesitated for a long time to tell that one to my children. When I finally did (and they were four and six).” and no critical commentary is appended to that tale. and they were less enlightened than we would expect. reports that he is currently a post-doctoral fellow in Harvard’s Harvard University 9 GSAS continued on page 11 . these stories have become a part of our cultural heritage. using largely unknown archival materials from China. and children are aware of what they are talking about and yet are still not in the know. Castillo-Davis. Organismic and Evoluntionary Biology Cristian I. I think children at that age are anxious about their bodies but also afraid to talk about those fears. I became fascinated by “Bluebeard. a poetry collection. and that’s why it is so important to understand their effects. Adults talk about injuries and death in hushed tones. Writes Xu: “This book is the first full-length study of China’s involvement in the conflict from perspectives of international history. Germany. It explains why China wanted to join the war and what its contributions were to the war effort and the emerging postwar world order. and feeds them to her husband. become a major research and teaching field in German departments. Then. Later this year. For better or for worse. not only in Germany but also in other parts of the world. PhD ’99. And in fact it wasn’t until I had children and was reading fairy tales to them that I realized the cultural importance of the Grimms and their collection. More recently. in just a decade.” but right now I’m under the spell of “The Juniper Tree. I wanted to show the entire range of what the Grimms were collecting. China and the Great War: China’s Pursuit of a New National Identity and Internationalization (Cambridge University Press.Viereck is a Pulitzer Prizewinning poet.alumni notes continued from page 5 at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Hughes. of course. the UK. He held the Kenan Chair in history at Mount Holyoke College. Both of those areas moved. And.” often accompanied by illustrations showing a figure with stereotyped Jewish features. Did you come to this work through your graduate work in German studies? mt: Actually. Do you have a favorite tale? mt: “Hansel and Gretel” was my favorite childhood story. as well. and the USA. Anti-Semitic elements could be found in many European tales circulating at the time. mt: That’s right. Transaction Publishers (Rutgers University) issued an expanded edition of his 1941 book Metapolitics: From Wagner and the German Romantics to Hitler. critic. they were not viewed as worthy of study. a collection of Viereck’s essays. writes that during 2004. one that shows the possibility of recovery. as much as the brothers were on the progressive side of political movements in Germany. The British complained for decades that the Grimms’ stories had displaced their native lore. is expected this summer from Higganum Hill Books. there were two taboo subjects: the Holocaust and folklore.” Peter Viereck. PhD ’03. then chops up his body parts. When they finally have a chance to encounter those things in the form of make-believe—and I can’t emphasize the importance of fantasy enough—there is a real sense of release that often takes the form of laughter. Xu is the first holder of the Wen Chao Chen chair of history and East Asian affairs at Kalamazoo College. from the periphery to the center.

director general of CONACYT. In Finsbury Field. for example. October 2004.8283). we need a critical mass of world-class researchers and engineers involved in cutting-edge innovation and entrepreneurial endeavors. (In 1557 a pregnant woman out for a walk with her husband was struck in the neck by a stray arrow and killed. We will be recruiting the most accomplished Mexican students to our research programs. (on far right) GSAS Dean Peter Ellison.” CONACYT is Mexico’s National Council of Science and Technology. administrative dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. even things that at this distance seem quite negligible. then. places for music and dancing. but administrators expect that approximately 20–25 new students will be supported each year. Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences currently has a total of 23 Mexican students enrolled in a large range of PhD programs. whorehouses. An agreement signed between the University and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) on October 14 created the premiere fellowship program at Harvard for outstanding PhD students from Mexico. he used them again and again as images. facilitated by the 15-year precedent of Fundación México en Harvard.5 million for Mexican students at Harvard. but the moves against them by city authorities always fell short. on the south bank of the Thames—offered food and drink and private rooms in a world that had almost no privacy. the place where Shakespeare spent much of his professional life. a play set in a Vienna that looks and sounds like London. cockfighting pits. by the game of bowls.2. bowling alleys. Many taverns and inns.” In addition to tuition and stipend support. So too with archery. archers could stroll about shooting at painted stakes and trying to avoid passersby.” Jaime Parada Avila. the ruler. Composed of 27 public centers of research and technological development. of course. was located in Southwark. while helping CONACYT ensure the highest-quality training for future leaders of Mexico. including biomedical sciences. and opens the door to the most promising young Mexican scholars and scientists. Summers (seated. He was forcefully struck. and an impressive array of “houses of resort. The image came to him repeatedly as a way of figuring the surprising twists of his cunningly devised plots. said. The order is not carried out. said. It is also Mexico’s foremost agency supporting graduate education and research. comparative literature. director general of CONACYT. the new funding program will provide research bonuses to the top students in the natural sciences and guaranteed dissertation completion fellowships for students in the humanities and social sciences. economics. wrestling rings. to the north of the city. physics.gsas news New Writings continued from page 5 dyers stretched cloth tautly on what were known as tenter frames or tenterhooks (from whence our phrase “to be on tenterhooks”). Susan Gilbert GSAS Announces New Fellowship Program with Mexico The Graduate School’s Single Largest Fellowship Effort A version of this article was originally published in the Harvard Gazette. was effectively surrounded by an all-purpose entertainment zone. at the signing of the CONACYT-Harvard Graduate Fellowship Program. and the whole range of Elizabethan sports and contests: when he did not actually depict them (like in the wrestling scene in As You Like It). For this reason. government. The partnership with Harvard University should be instrumental in developing this much-needed base of human capital. Also present are (from left) GSAS Administrative Dean Margot Gill. And though in Shakespeare’s time the open spaces to which Londoners had once had easy access had already begun to disappear. and demanded that they be closed. embarking on a campaign of moral reform. so that you hit your target only by seeming to aim elsewhere.” that is. Summers said. which has supported nearly 500 scholarships worth more than $3. Moralists denounced the latter with particular fierceness. There is no limit to the number of students who will be eligible for the CONACYT-Harvard Graduate Fellowships. The first class of CONACYT-Harvard Fellows will begin their programs in September 2005. “Today’s agreement is a centerpiece around which other graduate fellowship programs may grow in the future. Margot Gill.) Other places of amusement included firing ranges (for practicing pistol shooting). platforms upon which criminals were mutilated or hanged. tilting at posts called quintains. the philanthropic organization of Harvard alumni in Mexico. and FAS Dean William Kirby. His imagination took it all in. gives an order to pull down the “houses of resort in the suburbs” (1. “This historic agreement supports the mutual goal of increasing intellectual and economic cooperation between Mexico and the United States. The congested city. Harvard President Lawrence H. The program will amount to $2 million annually for the support of Mexican students. biostatistics. and music. directors and associates of the Fundación México en Harvard. wrestling. Harvard University 10 GSAS . particularly by the way the ball with the off-center weight swerved. In Measure for Measure. Above: Harvard President Lawrence H. right) and Jaime Parada Avila.“Our country is fully aware of the challenges and opportunities posed by globalization and the knowledge economy. where Chaucer’s pilgrims started their journey to Canterbury. other attractions drew people through the gates or across the river to the suburbs. some of them quite venerable—the famous Tabard Inn. molecular and cellular biology. It has a mission of strengthening Mexico’s scientific development and guiding its technological modernization.

2004. its divisions were empirical. The book offers insights into how changes at Widener reflect Harvard’s transformation from a regional college to a university of international import.” writes Battles. but [also] with the problem of popularizing science in general. 2004). In 1956. Widener takes readers back to a time in Harvard’s history before there even was a Widener. Above: The stacks at Widener in 1915—before the books and dust arrived on the pristine shelves. among other publications. In 1954. and the University of Chile. He was offered the position of Deputy Chief of Denazification. These were considered the most innovative feature of the young library but the demand from students and faculty for even more study space grew all too quickly. Ontario. His work has been published in Science and Genetics. wrote in a letter about the situation:“The demand considerably exceeds the supply. he became head of the Department of Spanish. Cambridge. but returned instead to academe and an appointment as Lecturer in the Nottingham University Department of Languages. at the age of 91. GSA ’00. the catalog was fully converted to a digital entity in the mid-1990s.edu. or periodical might be said to belong.” Stagg was commended by the British Foreign Office and. Battles is the coordinating editor of the Harvard Library Bulletin and also the author of Library: An Unquiet History (2003). describing and reflecting the languages and cultural origins of books and highlighting their relations to one another in language. courtesy of the Harvard University Archives. from the tragic circumstances of young Harry Elkins Widener. North Africa.. including Tsinghua University (Beijing). Harvard. in 1945. In a sense. by contrast. Archibald Cary Coolidge.harvard. on November 10. In 1917. Alumni Notes are subject to editing for length and clarity. AM ’35. Gibraltar. Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. HUV 49 (6-5). LC. 8 Garden Street. He was Modern Languages Master at Taunton School and King Edward School in England. In 2002.” To Share Your News Please submit Alumni Notes to: Colloquy. too. Stanford. Inc. was Platonic. the first director of the library. the library’s namesake. striving to keep their works together. Byerly Hall 300. he served in the British Intelligence Corps in England. place.” HUV 49 (14-4a). courtesy of the Harvard University Archives. and Italy.” Much of the book is based on work Herwig conducted as a visiting research fellow in 1999 and 2000. to the renovations of recent years. died in Toronto. Boston Photo News Co. Writes Herwig: “The book deals not only with Mann’s important work.“The Widener system respected authors. In Memoriam Geoffrey Leonard Stagg. and time. Memories of “Archimedes Bathtub” GSAS alumni who have spent many hours of their lives in Widener Library—called “Archimedes Bathtub” by historian and Harvard alumna Barbara Tuchman—are likely to find a few more hours of enjoyment reading Matthew Battles’s new book Widener: Biography of a Library (Harvard University Press). Please include your telephone number or e-mail address. Special Students/Visiting Fellows Program Malte Herwig. he was posted to Vienna. or e-mail your news to gsaa@fas.Winston Churchill described his contribution to the war effort as “splendid.the libraries alumni notes continued from page 9 Department of Statistics and has focused on the computational analysis of genome evolution and gene regulation. He has also served as a journal referee (article reviewer) for many of these publications. Harvard University 11 GSAS . essential discipline in which each book. back to the pre-1915 days of charming but cramped Gore Hall. looking past the surface of language and nation to reflect the idealized. Spanish. Battles notes that “the architecture of HOLLIS [Harvard Online Library Information System] in its way was every bit as monumental as that of Widener (although Widener took less time to build). MA 02138-3654.” A limited version of the catalog system went online in 1985. Davis has spoken on his research at academic institutions. won the Thomas Mann Prize from the Thomas Mann Society in Germany for his book Bildungsbürger auf Abwegen: Naturwissenschaft im Werk Thomas Manns (Natural Sciences in the Work of Thomas Mann) (Klostermann. pamphlet. he conceived and developed the functional genomic analysis software GeneMerge and founded GeneMerge. After the war. the Widener system was Aristotelian. and Lecturer in French and Spanish at Birmingham University. Cornell. During World War II. where LC would divide books by one author into several classes by subject matter. Romance languages and literatures. The Widener classification system differed from the standard Library of Congress (LC) system by emphasizing “language and country over discipline and topic. was decorated as a Member of the Order of the British Empire. Battles recounts Harvard’s sometimes pained transition from seeing that college library give way to a new concept of a university library system. he came to Canada and became professor and chair of the Department of Italian. where he helped track down suspected war criminals. … I have tried in some cases hinting to people that if they did not need their quarters there were others who could make good use of them. and Portuguese at the University of Toronto. —Susan Lumenello Top image: Widener’s card catalog in the 1950s.These hints have usually met with conspicuously little success.

professor of medicine.” according to the magazine. is a scientist at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. Among the illustrious group was 31-year-old David Liu. at first sight. and Ronald DePinho. The IOM is both an honorific and an advisory organization that conducts studies on current issues in science for use by the federal government. Similar projects are being launched with Stanford. EPA/California Institute of Technology John Chase / Harvard News Office Science Faculty Elected to Institute of Medicine The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies of Science announced 65 new members in October 2004. go to http://hul. though access could expand to include the five million books currently stored off-campus at the Harvard Depository. For now. it could be used to search for new medicines. David Politzer. Harvard will explore a long-term program with Google through which the vast majority of the University’s library books would be digitized and included in Google’s searchable database. professor of psychiatry.” or “color force. For more information on the project. The strong force is the dominant one in the atomic nucleus. noted the Nobel committee.” When the quarks are really close to each other. including Dyann Wirth. Google will fund the pilot project. Former Medical School faculty member Linda Buck shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard Axel “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.html. the process lets chemists produce known molecules with greater control. David Politzer GSAS Alumnus Wins 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics GSAS alumnus H.” University Library Partners with Google The Harvard University Library will collaborate with Internet search giant Google to digitize a substantial number of the University’s 15 million volumes for online access. and the New York Public Library.” Buck. relying on the natural tendency of DNA strands to pair together like a zipper. The more the band is stretched.harvard. professor of immunology and infectious diseases. the stronger the force. shared the award with David Gross of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics. the University of Michigan.on and off campus NEWS AND NOTES H. the force is so weak that they behave almost as free particles. Thanks to their discovery. University of California at Santa Barbara. if the pilot is deemed successful.” as it is also called. and Frank Wilczek of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.The converse is true when the quarks move apart: the force becomes stronger as the distance increases. he attached each to a strand of DNA. Politzer. Down the line.This pilot project will allow for a full-text search of works in the public domain. According to Popular Science:“Liu has developed a brand-new way to create manmade chemical molecules. seemed completely contradictory: the closer the quarks are to each other. physics. it was announced in December 2004. Also elected from Harvard were Francine M.According to a statement. Politzer and colleagues have brought physics one step closer to fulfilling a grand dream: to formulate a unified theory comprising gravity.They made an important theoretical discovery concerning the “strong force.” a list of “ten young scientists to watch. the John L. the weaker is the “color charge.This year’s laureates discovered something that. was one of a three-man team that won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. Benes. Oxford. who was on faculty from 1991 to 2002. acting between the quarks inside the proton and the neutron. Liu is able to program the outcome of chemical reactions—before combining his raw materials. Professor Dyann Wirth Professor David Liu Popular Science Announces Third Annual “Brilliant 10” In September 2004. Popular Science named its annual “Brilliant 10. Harvard University 12 GSAS . attaching the ingredients he wants to react to complementary bits of DNA. PhD ’74. a professor at the California Institute of Technology. Capitalizing on this.edu/publications/041213news. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences.This property may be compared to a rubber band. wrote the Nobel committee.

distance—not speed—is the relevant distinction. among them. “Before the bow and arrow. the Young Scholars Program has awarded annual grants of up to $1 million each to five junior faculty investigators at leading research universities and institutions. Steven Pinker. was said to confront the “contradictory and confounding elements of modern working life. Lieberman told New Scientist magazine that this knack for long-distance running might have allowed early humans to reach food by outdistancing other competitors. 18. was one of five scientists named Distinguished Young Scholar in Medical Research. Keck Foundation announced in October 2004.NEWS AND NOTES Marathon Man Harvard anthropologist Daniel Lieberman (AB ’86. Just Work (Harvard University Press) by Russell Muirhead (AB ’88. Running. they found. PhD ’93) and a colleague from the University of Utah have shown that humans’ ability for long-distance running was an evolutionary adaptation even more important to our development than walking upright. MacBeath studies the biochemical signals that cells use to communicate with each other. the Johnstone Professor of Psychology. founder of the Superior Oil Company—focuses on scientific and engineering research.” Greenblatt is the Cogan University Professor in the Department of English and American Literature and Language. Professor Daniel Lieberman Young Scientist Recognized for Work on Proteins Gavin MacBeath. Although humans run much more slowly than other animals. Professor Gavin MacBeath Faculty Books Honored Publishers Weekly. included two books by Harvard faculty members in its December 2004 list of the best nonfiction books of the year. larger buttocks used for stability. and largely hairless skin to facilitate cooling. Pinker Honored in London In September 2004. The Keck Foundation—established in 1954 by William Myron Keck. 2004). overlooking the evolutionary importance of human running. the W. say Lieberman and Bramble. PhD ’96. won the 2004 Henry Dale Prize from the Royal Institution of London and the Kohn Foundation in recognition “of his outstanding multidisciplinary approach to his research. associate professor of government. Since 1999. Pinker. led to the development of several uniquely human physical features—extra leg tendons. He plans to map out the interactions involving one family of proteins and study how interruptions of individual proteins affect the chemical signaling.M. Writing in Nature (Nov. —compiled by Susan Lumenello Professor Steven Pinker Harvard University 13 GSAS Martha Stewart . who received his PhD in psychology and social relations from Harvard in 1979. you’d have a hard time making a living without running. Lieberman and Dennis Bramble argue that anthropologists have focused on the phenomenon of bipedalism. delivered a lecture for the occasion entitled “The Ingredients of Language.” Lieberman said. government).” His most recent books are The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002) and Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language (1999). the leading journal of the publishing industry. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare (Norton) by Stephen Greenblatt was called “the most vivid and complete portrait of the Bard to date. assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology.” said The Times of London.” An excerpt from Greenblatt’s new book is featured in this issue.

court decisions. government Princeton University Press. inheriting wisdom Readings for Today from Ancient Christian Writers By Everett Ferguson. STB ’56. the editors have collected speeches. PhD ’70. and he reminds readers that these early scholars prized religious liberty in their teachings. Gornick. Davis. but it reaches back over a century. 2003. Gornick and Meyers present a public policy vision to allow working parents to be just that. the abortion rights controversy in america A Legal Reader Edited by N. and Fraud in the Writing of American History. JD ’96. Peter Charles Hoffer is distinguished research professor of history at the University of Georgia. The author is the Distinguished Scholar in Residence at Abilene Christian University. In his introduction. PhD ’94. Harvard University 14 GSAS . 319 pp.” focusing mainly on the liberalization of agricultural markets in Japan and Europe to American producers. study of religion Hendrickson Publishers. Davis is an assistant professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton University.” Gornick is an associate professor of political science at the Graduate Center and Baruch College of the City University of New York. is essential to begin to fix the problems. Davis analyzes the politics of negotiations over the past 30 years to open “sensitive markets. For working parents. even paying taxes. PhD ’01. 352 pp.recently received alumni books food fights over free trade How International Institutions Promote Agricultural Trade Liberalization By Christina L. they contend. Included are writings leading up to and including Roe v. The abortion rights controversy may seem to be a modern political phenomenon. 392 pp. PhD ’60. In this absorbing new volume. and Peter Charles Hoffer.The authors acknowledge that their vision of more government support for working parents is perhaps idealistic. ethics. This presentation of advice from the ancients is offered to help contemporary people navigate the constant tensions and questions surrounding relationships. MPA ’87. 2004. Meyers. international institutions. Williamjames Hoffer. He is the editor of several other books on important legal decisions. 401 pp. including Marbury v. Madison and the Bakke case. 2003. particularly the World Trade Organization. His books include Christianity and Society: The Social World of Early Christianity (1999) and Backgrounds of Early Christianity (1987).H. Fictions. history University of North Carolina Press. She looks at the roles played by governments. as well as the new book Past Imperfect: Facts. and essays back to the mid-19th century (Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “Address to the Seneca Falls Convention”) to present a history of the legal battle for reproductive rights. and Marcia K. AB ’79.Their proposals include a call to stop viewing childcare as a “wholly private concern. work. MPA ‘87 Russell Sage Foundation.E. a false choice exists between caring for children and being successful employees in today’s workplace. Hull. political economy and government. Wade. write the authors. and grassroots groups of farmers and others. families that work Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment By Janet C. Ferguson writes that he hopes the book will induce readers to further study Christianity. Debates over international agricultural trade are highly sensitive because food is so often an emblem of national pride. 2004. AB ’93. Such idealism.

Harvard alumni may find the prospect of reading about this particular city rather chilling. bases his theory that anyone can “learn intelligence” to succeed in today’s world on writings by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Indeed. and he sets out to right that wrong. writes the author. for example. As its punning title suggests. he taught colonial American history at the University of Cambridge. in times of rampant job insecurity. “Mind magic” is the enhanced ability to learn and think. His other books include Combination and Conspiracy: A Legal History of Trade Unionism. but author Sletcher smoothes the waters with this historically rich tale of what may be the ultimate town-and-gown city. Orth is the William Rand Kenan Jr. Professor of Law at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PhD ’77. the Bible). is the author of the Matty Trescott series of young adult novels and of the nonfiction book. Miller. Along the way. is achieved through developing a more adaptable. among others. With this tempting title. McGraw-Hill. this murder mystery is set in a private girls school. PhD ’57. GSA ’74. study of religion. 116 pp. 2004. a professor of education at Central Connecticut State University. He is the author of eight books. 2004. has been unjustly overlooked in American colonial and Puritan histories. a former financial controller at Digital Equipment Corporation. postmodernism. Orth describes the origins of due process in English common law. Schrag is the George Ade Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Purdue University. continued on page 16 Harvard University 15 GSAS . Initially self-published. 2003. Although the term “due process” is a familiar one.Toronto. self-employment is the route to job satisfaction and even riches. Schrag. Humor and wit blend with the genre’s more sanguinary conventions. convergence amidst difference Philosophical Conversations Across National Boundaries By Calvin O. STM ’54. an independent consultant and adjunct professor in applied psychology at New York University. Shmurak. psychology and social relations.wealth without a job The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Freedom and Security Beyond the 9 to 5 Lifestyle By Phil Laut. 184 pp.000 copies and was later republished by Ballantine. new haven From Puritanism to the Age of Terrorism By Michael Sletcher. New Haven. A former visiting fellow at Harvard. 278 pp. In this useful little volume. Voices of Hope: Adolescent Girls at Single Sex and Coeducational Schools (1998). deadmistress A Novel Carole B. medical sciences SterlingHouse Publisher. MBA ’70. Sletcher is editor of the Benjamin Franklin Papers at Yale University. and hermeneutics (the study of the methodological principles of interpretation of. due process of law A Brief History By John V. 95 pp. They contend that. JD ’72. This ability. even among judges and lawyers due process of law is a Constitutional goal whose definition can be elusive. 2004. the authors present a book that is both inspirational and instructive. special students/ visiting fellows program Arcadia. rather than applying one’s intelligence to a single area (“power intelligence”). and then takes readers on its journey through the American legal system and the various decisions that relied upon—or spurned—this important concept. Philosopher Schrag takes the “grand tour” of Europe by way of various countries’ philosophic and intellectual histories and current modes of thinking. history University Press of Kansas. 2005. including God as Otherwise than Being: Towards a Semantics of the Gift (2002) and Portrait of the Self after Postmodernity (1997). 282 pp. its true meaning may be vague at best to many outside the legal field.“Financial success. PhD ’81. “means earning the income you want doing work you love. 1721–1906 (1991) and The Judicial Power of the United States: The Eleventh Amendment in American History (1987).” Laut. Miller previously served as a visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and as a professor of psychology at York University. the book sold more than 300. Orth. he argues. 2004. Shmurak. special students program. is the author of Money is My Friend (1979). schematic approach to using our minds. State University of New York Press. AM ’66. 160 pp. and Andy Fuehl John Wiley & Sons.” they write. mind magic How To Develop the 3 Components of Intelligence That Matter Most in Today’s World By John Laurence Miller. GSA ’99. he brings new insights to conceptual frames such as epistemology.

Samuels. The first summer was the first time I wrote publishable fiction. I carry my superstition about this to ridiculous lengths. 1890–1990 (2001) and England in the Eighteen-Eighties: Old Guard and Avant-Garde (with Mark L. I want them to engage with Daisy’s moral conflicts and moral quandaries and ask if they perhaps recognize in her some part of themselves. and lithographs. 2004.” Daisy Andalusia is one of the more complex and interesting fictional creations of recent years. Her other books include British Women’s Comic Fiction. and the next.lives in the humanities continued from page 7 continued from page 15 “My parents were the most amazing pack rats. 1989). and (most) everything in between as presented in the turn-of-the-century London theatrical world. But you might eventually discover that friendship with Daisy is a chancy business.” Alice Mattison says. I wrote when they were in school. 2004. AB ’64. “I’m pretty ferocious about maintaining my space to write. 8 Garden Street. The Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman raises many interesting questions. Later. or ignored. Many details of this often-analyzed painting of a lone black man in a small wooden boat on a choppy sea filled with sharks have been overlooked. Byerly Hall 300. as she commits a series of petty and dishonest acts that culminates in one single. Harvard University 16 GSAS . PhD ’72. I might have found out a lot more from him had I mentioned I was working on a novel about the war. she agreed. But something else interesting happened: after a few years of this. Now she’s in the beginning stages of a new novel. she seems at one moment generous and loyal. I sort of lost poetry. So I’d get home. I decided to write fiction during the warm months and poetry during the cold months. Reproductions of playbills. a historian and authority on Homer’s work. But she set that project aside temporarily when her editor asked if she’d do another novel next. femininity. Massachusetts. which she absolutely refuses to discuss. and often horror. 128 pp. and eventually you have five hundred of them. trustworthy friend. when I was working on a book that had something to do with the Spanish Civil War. “I think readers have to be on their own with it. and when they were still young.” she says. but it did. English and American literature and language Rivendale Press. unforgivable act of betrayal. His books include Strange New Land: Africans in Colonial America (1995) and Winslow Homer’s Images of Blacks:The Civil War and Reconstruction Years (1989).edu. Wood is a professor of history at Duke University. Questions? E-mail gsaa@fas. once in a while I’d go up there to work if our children were around. To really concentrate on my writing. Cambridge. the kind of person who might make a good. but offers no easy answers. I haven’t written poetry for some time. Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. and going through their possessions made me extremely impatient with objects that didn’t need to be there. and for some years alternated between fiction and poetry. Stetz. “It’s hard to say exactly what I want people to take away from this novel. If you met her at a dinner party.” she says ”and I realized I needed to change my approach. look around and ask myself. “But the fiction I wrote at that point really wasn’t very good. and the reader follows with fascination. You never know when you’ll need an empty yogurt container for storing leftovers. Since she already had the idea for The Wedding of the Two-Headed Woman in mind. When my kids were babies they went to day care part of the day. you might find her charming and witty. Wood revisits this famous image and finds in it new revelations. The poems just didn’t come any more. I don’t know why that happened. 1880-1920 By Margaret D. And their house and apartment were full of objects that didn’t need to be there. “Even the people closest to me never have any idea what I’m working on until the second or third draft. She focused on poetry through high school and college. and then studied literature in graduate school. weathering the storm Inside Winslow Homer’s Gulf Stream By Peter H. as well as numerous photographs of performers on and off stage. she has a very specific set of circumstances she needs to create the right work atmosphere. exhausted from working at my parents’ house. We have a little house with a third floor. claims Wood. MA 02138-3654. posters. Authors: GSAS alumni who have published a general-interest book within the past year and would like it to be considered for inclusion in Alumni Books should send a copy of the book to: Colloquy. I met a man at a dinner party—an American who’d fought in it as a volunteer—and asked him all kinds of questions.harvard. She started writing fiction in her thirties. —compiled by Susan Lumenello Charles Coe is a freelance writer living in Cambridge.Wood. One time. not just on Homer the artist but also on an evolving national conscience. Stetz is the Mae and Robert Carter Professor of Women’s Studies at the University of Delaware. Alternately endearing and frustrating. But I didn’t do that very much. 141 pp. I even had a changeover day: May 1. PhD ’82.” As is often the case with writers. fill the pages. ‘What can I get rid of?’ I think that experience led to Daisy being in the business of removing clutter.” Mattison has just finished another collection of short stories—one she’d started originally after completing The Book Borrower. dishonest and totally self-absorbed. This delightful book examines masculinity. I needed to know I wasn’t going to be interrupted.” gender and the london theatre. but I just couldn’t do it.” Mattison knew she wanted to be a writer from the time she was a teenager. so you keep every one you buy. I usually work when there’s no one else in the house. history University of Georgia Press.

He remained in New Mexico to study for a master’s degree in anthropology. Green won a four-year tuition scholarship to the University of New Mexico. he continued his focus on the Southwest United States and Mesoamerica. He recently won the Marsden Medal from the New Zealand Association of Scientists.” The assistance allowed Green. “That model is near-unique in my academic experience. Oliver. Harvard pays Green and his wife a guaranteed income in quarterly installments for life. “I established three annuities because it was the best win-win option.edu. Professor Douglas L.” he adds. please contact Katherine Christy at 1-800-VERITAS or at katherine_christy @harvard. Concerned. Green had always intended to return to the East Coast for study. and I’ve been grateful ever since.” Within two months.”—Roger Green Giving Young Scholars Their Head Start By Ann Hall Halfway through his doctoral studies. an immediate federal income tax charitable deduction.” he explains.” Green says. but Professor Oliver convinced him to take a look at Polynesia. he turned for advice to his mentor. Born in New Jersey and raised in New England. To learn more about supporting the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Green began focusing his work more closely on the cultures of the Pacific Islands. after receiving an acceptance from Harvard. After a Fulbright Fellowship took him to Auckland University in New Zealand. He has never looked back and is now a renowned scholar of Pacific archaeology and cultural history. Green’s unusual gift of unrestricted support of GSAS students represents the best way for him to support the institution that gave him his start.” Green says. “After two and a half years at Harvard and a Thaw Fellowship in my second year. when he established a series of charitable gift annuities through Harvard’s Office of Gift Planning. which recognizes his contributions to archaeology in his adopted country and to the advancement of knowledge about the cultural history of the peoples of the Pacific Islands. “That was a huge relief to me. Ann Hall is a senior writer in Harvard’s Office of Alumni Affairs and Development Communications. to embark on a career in anthropology. Green has supported Harvard’s Department of Anthropology with annual gifts since earning his PhD. especially in the pre-European era. “He asked me to work out to the penny what I needed to complete this part of my degree. New York. and capital gains tax savings. and I submitted a detailed budget to the department. A gift annuity—a simple contract between the donor and Harvard—allowed Green to contribute any from among his cash. he did just that. Harvard University 17 GSAS . This way. and. where he pursued double degrees in anthropology (with a focus on archaeology) and geology. he was awarded the exact funds he requested and given a teaching fellowship in addition. with selection based solely on merit. Green’s attitude toward giving played a major role in larger gifts he made more recently. unspecified funds are useful for heads of departments to have for the ‘crisis events’ that from time to time plague students. “It made all the difference in letting me concentrate on promptly completing those requirements. “I know that these kinds of discretionary. Initially. I am able to direct the asset base to something I highly value—namely a truly excellent education for the best students in any field from all over the world. “Through the annuity. the Greens receive a stable income. anthropology. continuing to concentrate on archaeology and history. I realized I needed help to pay for the remainder of time needed to complete my remaining PhD requirements before writing the dissertation.on development “ I am able to direct the asset base to something I highly value—namely a truly excellent education for the best students in the field from all over the world. and conducting further fieldwork in the Largo-Gallina region of northcentral New Mexico. and minors in biology and air science.” Green says. ran out of money. Roger Green. now professor of prehistory emeritus in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. with selection based solely on merit. securities. and New Mexico. In turn.” Green remembers. PhD ’64. or other property to the University. and we need at least one place in the world that practices it in the hope that someday it will appear elsewhere.

among other books. the best-selling history of World War I. Mexico Harvard Alumni Association Global Series: Harvard Comes To Mexico A GSAS-sponsored symposium will be part of this two-day event. April 16. April 4. Friday. MA Permit No. Harvard professor of economics). Thomas W. and Recognition. with Edward Glaeser. Monday. will speak at the first GSAS chapter event in Canada. Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World (2003). and Colossus: The Price of America’s Empire (2004). May 17. Keynote speaker: Amartya Sen. New York Alberto Alesina. Psychology. professor of history. 2005 | Toronto. and renewing old acquaintances. Tuesday. Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Political Economy and chair of the Department of Economics. Massachusetts GSAS Alumni Weekend •Friday. Psychology. March 2.edu. who will speak on “Identity and Violence. 1636 . and Sociology Graduate Alumni Reunion GSAS will sponsor the first-ever reunion for graduate alumni of the Departments of Anthropology. will speak on “The Welfare State in Europe and the US: Why Are They So Different?” His most recent book is Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference (2004. Pulitzer Prize-winning economist and Alumni Day 2005 keynote speaker Monday. 2005 Los Angeles. 2005 Mexico City.” He is the author of Renaissance Art in France: The Invention of Classicism (2003) and Romanticism and Realism: The Mythology of 19th-century Art (1985). and Sociology on the day before Alumni Day (see following item).harvard. The Pity of War (1999). Professor of the history of art and architecture. April 15–Saturday. the Bowditch Professor of Central American and Mexican Archaeology and Ethnology and Howells Director of the Peabody Museum.” gsas alumni quarterly Amartya Sen. will speak on “Portrait. Canada Niall Ferguson. Likeness. food and drink. The graduate school of arts and sciences harvard university ALUMNI ASSOCIATION Byerly Hall 300 • 8 Garden Street Cambridge. April 15: Anthropology.Colloquy Faculty Talks and Alumni Events For more information on the events noted below. which is excerpted in this issue of Colloquy. will speak on Mesoamerican civilizations. April 16: GSAS Alumni Day Alumni Day brings together GSAS alumni from all years and departments for a day of faculty symposia. 2005 Cambridge. please call 617-495-5591 or e-mail gsaa@fas. March 1–Wednesday.William Fash. His books include the prize-winning House of Rothschild: The World’s Banker. March 14. Tuesday. Massachusetts 02138-3654 USA Nonprofit Organization US Postage PAID Boston. 2005 | New York. 1849-1999 (1999). Lamont University Professor and winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in economics. Why not make it a Harvard weekend? •Saturday. California Henri Zerner.